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Encyclopedia > Narodnik

Narodniks was the name for Russian revolutionaries of the 1860s and 1870s. Their movement was known as Narodnichestvo or Narodism. The term itself derives from the Russian expression Хождение в народ ("Going to the people"). 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... // The invention of the telephone (1876) by Alexander Graham Bell. ...

Contents

History

Narodism arose in Russia after the emancipation of the serfs in 1861 (under Emperor Alexander II), which signaled the coming end of the feudalist age in Russia. Arguing that freed serfs were being sold into wage slavery, in which the bourgeoisie had replaced landowners, Narodism aimed to become the political force to counter the phenomenon. Narodniks viewed certain aspects of the past with a dose of nostalgia: resenting the former land ownership system, they objected against the uprooting of peasants from the traditional obshchina (the Russian commune). To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar) // January 1 - Benito Juárez captures Mexico City January 2 - Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia dies and is succeeded by... At different times, a ruler in Kievan Rus/Muscovy/Imperial Russia bore the title of Kniaz (translated as Duke or Prince), Velikiy Kniaz (translated as Grand Duke, Grand Prince or Great Prince), Tsar, Emperor. ... Alexander (Aleksandr) II Nikolaevich (Russian: Александр II Николаевич) (born 17 April 1818 in Moscow; died 13 March 1881 in St. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ... Wage slavery is a term used to refer to a condition in which a person is legally (de jure) voluntarily employed but practically (de facto) a slave. ... Bourgeoisie (RP [], GA []) is a classification used in analyzing human societies to describe a class of people who are in the middle class nobility, whose status or power comes from employment, education, and wealth as opposed to aristocratic origin. ... Landowner or Landholder is a holder of the estate in land with considerable rights of ownership or, simply put, an owner of land. ... One may feel nostalgic for the familiar routine of school, conveniently forgetting the painful experiences such as bullying. ... In a detail of Brueghels Land of Cockaigne (1567) a soft-boiled egg has little feet to rush to the luxuriating peasant who catches drops of honey on his tongue, while roast pigs roam wild: in fact, hunger and harsh winters were realities for the average European in the... The Russian word mir (мир), besides its direct meanings of peace and world, had some other meanings related to social organization in Imperial Russia. ... A Commune is a kind of intentional community where most resources are shared and there is little or no personal property. ...


Narodniks rallied in response to the growing conflicts between the peasantry and the so-called kulaks (the more prosperous farmers). Groups created did not establish a concrete organization, but shared the common general aims of overthrowing the Russian monarchy and the kulaks, and distributing land among the peasantry. The Narodniks generally believed that capitalism was not a necessary result of industrial development, and that it was possible to skip capitalism altogether, and enter straight into a kind of socialism. Kulaks (from the Russian кулак (kulak, fist)) is a pejorative term extensively used in Soviet political language, originally referring to relatively wealthy peasants in the Russian Empire who owned larger farms and used hired labor, as a result of the Stolypin reform introduced since 1906. ... Anthem: God Save the Tsar! Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Saint Petersburg Language(s) Russian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721-1725 Peter the Great  - 1894-1917 Nicholas II History  - Established 22 October, 1721  - February Revolution 2 March, 1917 Area  - 1897 22,400,000 km2 8,648,688 sq mi Population  - 1897... Capitalism generally refers to an economic system in which the means of production are mostly privately[1] owned and operated for profit, and in which distribution, production and pricing of goods and services are determined in a largely free market. ... Industrialisation (or industrialization) or an industrial revolution (in general, with lowercase letters) is a process of social and economic change whereby a human society is transformed from a pre-industrial to an industrial state . ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to social control. ...


The Narodniks believed the peasantry was the revolutionary class that would overthrow the monarchy, regarding the village commune as the embryo of socialism. However, they believed that the peasantry would not achieve revolution on their own, but instead that history could only be made by heroes, outstanding personalities, who would lead an otherwise passive peasantry to revolution (see Great man theory). The term working class is used to denote a social class. ... The Great man theory is a theory held by some that aims to explain history by the impact of Great men, or heroes: highly influential individuals, either from personal charisma, genius intellects, or great political impact. ...


In the spring of 1874, the conflict between the richer and poorer peasants brought turbulence to Russia's urban centers, and the Narodnik intelligentsia left the cities for the villages, going "among the people", attempting to teach the peasantry their moral imperative to revolt. They found almost no support. Year 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The notion of an intellectual elite as a distinguished social stratum can be traced far back in history. ... A moral imperative is an ethical responsibility. ...


Given the Narodniks social background, generally middle and upper middle class, they had noted difficulties in addressing Russian peasants and their culture. They spent much time learning peasant custom, dress and dance. In some cases, they even had to learn Russian, as wealthy Russians from the West generally spoke French or German. On arriving into some villages dressed appropriately and singing and dancing what they had studied, Narodniks were viewed with suspicion by many of those Russian peasants who were completely removed from the more modernized culture of the urban sphere, and believed to be witches; many Narodniks were hounded by vigilante groups, and often maimed with farm utensils or put through frenzied trials and burned at the stake. The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ... Vacations to destinations such as Hawaii, shown above, may be seen as a hallmark of the Upper-middle class. ... The term Western World or the West (also on rare occasions called the Occident) can have multiple meanings depending on its context (i. ... Modernization is closely linked to classical liberalism. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Witchcraft. ... A vigilante is someone who takes enforcement of law or moral code into his own hands. ... Burning of two sodomites at the stake outside Zürich, 1482 (Spiezer Schilling) Execution by burning has a long history as a method of punishment for crimes such as treason and for other unpopular acts such as heresy and the putative practice of witchcraft (burning, however, was actually less common...


The Imperial secret police responded to the Narodniks' attempt with extreme repression: revolutionaries and their peasant sympathizers were beaten, imprisoned and exiled. In 1877, the Narodniks revolted with the support of thousands of revolutionaries and peasants. However, the movement was again swiftly and brutally crushed. The Okhrannoye otdeleniye (Russian: , meaning Security Section or Security Station), also the Okhrana or Tsarist Okhranka in Western sources, or diminutive Okhranka by those dissatisfied with the tsarist regime, was a secret police force of the Russian Empire and part of the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD) in late 1800s... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


In response to this repression of open, spontaneous organization, Russia's first organized revolutionary party formed: Narodnaya Volya ("People's Will"), with a new revolutionary program suited to the extremely repressive conditions, which favoured secret society-led terrorism. Narodnaya Volya (Народная воля in Russian, known as People’s Will in English) was a Russian revolutionary organization in the early 1880s. ... A secret society is an organization that conceals its activities from outsiders. ... Terrorist redirects here. ...


Although Narodnaya Volya did not last for long, the later Socialist-Revolutionaries, Popular Socialists, and Trudoviks all shared similar tactics, with ideas and practices originally set down by the Narodniks.[1] The Socialist-Revolutionary Party (SRs, or Esers; Партия социалистов-революционеров (ПСР), эсеры in Russian) were a... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ...


After the struggle to unite the peasantry to overthrow the Emperor, unsuccessful due to the peasantry's idolisation of the latter as someone "on their side", Narodism developed the practice of terrorism: the peasantry, they believed, must be shown that the Emperor was not supernatural, and that he could be killed. This theory, called "direct struggle", was meant to show an "uninterrupted demonstration of the possibility of struggling against the government, in this manner lifting the revolutionary spirit of the people and its faith in the success of the cause, and organising those capable of fighting".[2] This theory also led to short-term failure, as the peasantry as a whole was horrified with what had happened. The events did, however, help sow the roots of the coming Russian Revolution of 1905. At different times, a ruler in Kievan Rus/Muscovy/Imperial Russia bore the title of Kniaz (translated as Duke or Prince), Velikiy Kniaz (translated as Grand Duke, Grand Prince or Great Prince), Tsar, Emperor. ... Look up Supernatural in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Russian Revolution of 1905 was an empire-wide struggle of both anti-government and undirected violence. ...


Influence outside Russia

Narodism had a direct influence on politics and culture in Romania, through the comments of Constantin Dobrogeanu-Gherea and advocacy from the Bessarabian-born Constantin Stere (who was a member of Narodnaya Volya in his youth). The various groups the latter helped found included one formed around the literary magazine Viaţa Românească (led by Stere, Garabet Ibrăileanu, and Paul Bujor). Constantin Dobrogeanu-Gherea (born Solomon Katz; 1855, near Dnipropetrovsk, then in Imperial Russia—1920, Bucharest) was a Jewish Romanian Marxist theorist, politician, sociologist, literary critic, and journalist, the father of Alexandru Dobrogeanu-Gherea. ... 1927 map of Bessarabia from Charles Upson Clarks book Bessarabia or Bessarabiya (Basarabia in Romanian, Besarabya in Turkish, Бесарабія in Ukrainian) is a historical term for the geographic entity in Eastern Europe bounded by the Dniester River on the East and the Prut River on the West. ... Constantin G. Stere or Constantin Sterea (Russian: Константин Егорович Стере, Konstantin Yegorovich Stere or Константин Георгиевич Стере, Konstantin Georgiyevich Stere; Moldovan Cyrillic: Константин Стере; also known under his pen name Şărcăleanu; June 1, 1865 – June 26, 1936) was a Romanian jurist, writer, politician, ideologue of the Poporanist trend, and, in March 1906, co-founder of the Via... A literary magazine is a periodical devoted to literature in a broad sense. ... Garabet Ibrăileanu (May 23, 1871, Târgu Frumos, IaÅŸi County—March 11, 1936, Bucharest) was a Romanian (of Armenian origin) literary critic and theorist, writer, translator, sociologist, IaÅŸi University professor (1908-1934), and main editor of the ViaÅ£a Românească literary magazine between 1906 and 1930. ...


A self-defined Poporanist (from popor, Romanian for "people", mirroring the origins of the term Narodnik), Stere eventually rejected revolution altogether. Nevertheless, he shared the Narodnik view that capitalism was not a necessary stage in the development of an agrarian country (and the implicit rejection of Marxist tenets), a perspective which was to leave a mark on Ion Mihalache's Peasants' Party (and its successor, the National Peasants' Party), as well as on the philosophy of Virgil Madgearu. Marxism refers to the philosophy and social theory based on Karl Marxs work on one hand, and the political practice based on Marxist theory on the other hand (namely, parts of the First International during Marxs time, communist parties and later states). ... Ion Mihalache (3 March 1882, Topoloveni - probably 1953) was a Romanian politician and the founder and leader of the Peasants Party. ... The Peasants Party (Romanian: Partidul Ţărănesc, PÅ¢) was a political party in post-World War I Romania that espoused a left-wing ideology partly connected with Agrarianism and Populism, and aimed to represent the interests of the Romanian peasantry. ... The National Peasants Party (PNT, Partidul Naţional Ţărănesc) was a political party in Romania, formed in 1926 by the fusion of the National Romanian Party from Transylvania and the Peasants Party. ... Virgil Madgearu Virgil Traian N. Madgearu (December 14, 1887—November 27, 1940) was a Romanian economist, sociologist, and left-wing politician, prominent member and main theorist of the Peasants Party and of its successor, the National Peasants Party (PNÅ¢). He had an important activity as an essayist and journalist, being...


Narodism according to Lenin

Vladimir Lenin defined Narodism as: Lenin redirects here. ...

"By Narodism we mean a system of views, which comprises the following three features:

1) Belief that capitalism in Russia represents a deterioration, a retrogression. Hence the urge and desire to 'retard', 'halt', 'stop the break-up' of the age-old foundations by capitalism, and similar reactionary cries. Capitalism generally refers to an economic system in which the means of production are mostly privately[1] owned and operated for profit, and in which distribution, production and pricing of goods and services are determined in a largely free market. ... Reactionary (or reactionist) is a political epithet, generally used as a pejorative, originally applied in the context of the French Revolution to counter-revolutionaries who wished to restore the real or imagined conditions of the monarchical Ancien Régime. ...

2) Belief in the exceptional character of the Russian economic system in general, and of the peasantry, with its village commune, artel, etc. in particular. It is not considered necessary to apply to Russian economic relationships the concepts elaborated by modern science concerning the different social classes and their conflicts. The village-commune peasantry is regarded as something higher and better than capitalism; there is a disposition to idealize the 'foundations'. The existence among the peasantry of contradictions characteristic of every commodity and capitalist economy is denied or slurred over; it is denied that any connection exists between these contradictions and their more developed form in capitalist industry and capitalist agriculture. This box:  • • An economic system sucks(social institution) which deals with the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services in a particular society. ... Artel (Russian: ) is a general term for various cooperative associations in Russia, historical and modern. ... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. ... Class conflict is both the friction that accompanies social relationships between members or groups of different social classes and the underlying tensions or antagonisms which exist in society. ... Broadly speaking, a contradiction is an incompatibility between two or more statements, ideas, or actions. ... Commodity is a term with distinct meanings in both business and in Marxian political economy. ...

3) Disregard of the connection between the 'intelligentsia' and the country's legal and political institutions, on the one hand, and the material interests of definite social classes, on the other. Denial of this connection, lack of a materialist explanation of these social factors, induces the belief that they represent a force capable of 'dragging history along another line', of 'diversion from the path', and so on.[3] The notion of an intellectual elite as a distinguished social stratum can be traced far back in history. ... Materialism refers to how a person or group chooses to spend their resources, particularly money and time. ... It has been suggested that Marxist philosophy of nature be merged into this article or section. ...

See also

David Riazanov (David Borissovitch Goldenbach; Odessa March 10, 1870 - 1938) was a Russian Marxist and Marxologue. ... This article is about the Russian cultural and political movement. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Glossary of Terms and Organisations
  2. ^ Narodnaya Volya program of 1879
  3. ^ Lenin, The Heritage We Renounce

Narodnaya Volya (Народная воля in Russian, known as People’s Will in English) was a Russian revolutionary organization in the early 1880s. ...

External links

  • Glossary of Terms and Organisations at Marxists.org
  • Vladimir Lenin, The Heritage We Renounce, 1897 at Marxists.org

  Results from FactBites:
 
Glossary of Organisations: Na (991 words)
The Narodniks generally believed that capitalism was not a necessary result of industrial development, and that it was possible to skip capitalism all together, and enter straight into a kind of Socialism.
The Narodniks believed the peasantry was the revolutionary class that would overthrow the monarchy, regarding the village commune as the embyro of Socialism.
The Narodniks, however, did not believe that the peasantry would be able to achieve revolution on their own accord, but instead that history could only be made by heroes, outstanding personalities, who would lead an otherwise passive peasantry to revolution.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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