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Encyclopedia > Narcotic
19th century Heroin bottle

The term narcotic (ναρκωτικός) is believed to have been coined by Galen to refer to agents that benumb or deaden, causing loss of feeling or paralysis. The term is based on the Greek word ναρκωσις (narcosis), the term used by Hippocrates for the process of benumbing or the benumbed state. Galen listed mandrake root, altercus (eclata)[1] seeds, and poppy juice (i.e. opium) as the chief examples.[2][3] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (539x790, 120 KB) Summary Self-made photo of pre-war Heroin bottle, originally containing 5 grams of Heroin substance Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (539x790, 120 KB) Summary Self-made photo of pre-war Heroin bottle, originally containing 5 grams of Heroin substance Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Nitrogen narcosis or inert gas narcosis is a reversible alteration in consciousness producing a state similar to alcohol intoxication in scuba divers at depth. ... Galen. ... For other uses, see Hippocrates (disambiguation). ... “Mandragora” redirects here. ... This article is about the plant. ... This article is about the drug. ...


In U.S.legal context, narcotic refers to opium, opium derivatives, and their semi-synthetic or fully synthetic substitutes "as well as cocaine and coca leaves," which although classified as "narcotics" in the U.S. Controlled Substances Act (CSA), are chemically not narcotics. Contrary to popular belief, marijuana is not a narcotic. Neither are LSD and other psychedelic drugs.[4] Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... This article is about the drug. ... Cocaine is a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant. ... Binomial name Lam. ... The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) was enacted into law by the Congress of the United States as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970. ... A Cannabis sativa plant The drug cannabis, also called marijuana, is produced from parts of the cannabis plant, primarily the cured flowers and gathered trichomes of the female plant. ... Lysergic acid diethylamide, commonly called LSD, LSD-25, or acid. ... For psychedelics, see psychedelic drug. ...


Many law enforcement officials in the United States inaccurately use the word "narcotic" to refer to any illegal drug or any unlawfully possessed drug. An example is referring to cannabis as a narcotic. Because the term is often used broadly, inaccurately or pejoratively outside medical contexts, most medical professionals prefer the more precise term opioid, which refers to natural, semi-synthetic and synthetic substances that behave pharmacologically like morphine, the primary active constituent of natural opium poppy. Look up Cannabis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An opioid is any agent that binds to opioid receptors found principally in the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract. ... Morphine (INN) (IPA: ) is a highly potent opiate analgesic drug and is the principal active agent in opium and the prototypical opiate. ... Binomial name L. The opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, is the type of poppy from which opium and all refined opiates such as morphine, thebaine, codeine, papaverine, and noscapine are extracted. ...

Contents

Administration

Narcotics can be administered in a variety of ways. In a medical context, they are taken orally, transdermally (skin patches), injected, or administered as suppositories. As recreational drugs, they may be used orally, but are also commonly smoked, snorted, or self-administered by the more direct routes of subcutaneous ("skin popping") and


Effects

Drug effects depend heavily on the dose, route of administration, previous exposure to the drug, and the expectation of the user. Aside from their clinical use in the treatment of pain, cough suppression and acute diarrhea, narcotics produce a general sense of well-being, known as euphoria, and reduce tension, anxiety, and aggression. These effects are helpful in a therapeutic setting and contribute to their popularity as recreational drugs, as well as helping to produce dependency. Euphoria (Greek ) is a medically recognized emotional state related to happiness. ... Anxiety is a physiological state characterized by cognitive, somatic, emotional, and behavioral components (Seligman, Walker & Rosenhan, 2001). ... In psychology and other social and behavioral sciences, aggression refers to behavior that is intended to cause harm or pain. ...


Narcotic use is associated with a variety of side effects, including drowsiness, itching, sleeplessness, inability to concentrate, apathy, lessened physical activity, constriction of the pupils, dilation of the subcutaneous blood vessels causing flushing of the face and neck, constipation, nausea, vomiting and, most significantly, respiratory depression. As the dose is increased, the subjective, analgesic, and toxic effects become more pronounced. Except in cases of acute intoxication, there is no loss of motor coordination or slurred speech, as occurs with many depressants such as alcohol or barbiturates.[citation needed] Somnolence (or drowsiness, or hypersomnia) is a state of near-sleep, a strong desire for sleep, or sleeping unusually long periods. ... An itch (Latin: pruritus) is a sensation felt on an area of skin that makes a person or animal want to scratch it. ... For the novel by Stephen King, see Insomnia (novel); for the Norwegian movie and its American remake, see Insomnia (movie). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The human eye The pupil is the central transparent area (showing as black). ... The distribution of the bloodvessels in the skin of the sole of the foot. ... Constipation or irregularity, is a condition of the digestive system where a person (or animal) experiences hard feces that are difficult to egest; it may be extremely painful, and in severe cases (fecal impaction) lead to symptoms of bowel obstruction. ... For other uses, see Nausea (disambiguation). ... Vomiting (also throwing up or emesis) is the forceful expulsion of the contents of ones stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose. ... In medicine, hypoventilation exists when ventilation is inadequate to perform gas exchange. ... An analgesic (colloquially known as a painkiller) is any member of the diverse group of drugs used to relieve pain (achieve analgesia). ... Explain the dystonias connected with motor coordination. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Barbituric acid, the basic structure of all barbiturates Barbiturates are drugs that act as central nervous system depressants, and by virtue of this they produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to anesthesia. ...


Hazards

Among the hazards of careless or excessive drug use are the increasing risk of infection, disease and overdose. Medical complications common among recreational narcotic users arise primarily from the non-sterile practices of injecting. Skin, lung and brain abscesses, endocarditis, hepatitis and HIV/AIDS are commonly found among persons with narcotic dependencies who share syringes or inhale the drug. There has been much discussion about the dangers related to the adulterants/diluents found in street drugs, such as heroin, where rumours abound about what is used to "cut" street drugs, e.g., ground glass, talcum powder, rat poison, domestic cleaning powders, and other cutting agents. Recent evidence shows that this kind of "dangerous adulteration" is largely mythical and that far less cutting of drugs than is normally assumed actually takes place. However, since there is no simple way to determine the purity of a drug that is sold on the street, the effects of using street narcotics are unpredictable. It remains the case that the greatest risk presented by most illicit drugs relates to the drugs themselves and how they are used, e.g., in conjunction with other drugs (alcohol is a particularly risky drug to use whilst also using other street drugs), in excess (most recreational and non-excessive drug use does not result in harm), and how a drug is administered (such as the sharing of needles). HIV and hepatitis infection rates drop among opioid injectors who have access to clean syringes and take advantage of that provision. Endocarditis is an inflammation of the inner layer of the heart, the endocardium. ... Hepatitis (plural hepatitides) implies injury to liver characterised by presence of inflammatory cells in the liver tissue. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... Adulterants are chemical substances which should not be contained within other substances (eg. ... For other uses, see Heroin (disambiguation). ... A cutting agent is a chemical used to cut (adulterate) illicit drugs with something less expensive than the drug itself. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... Hepatitis (plural hepatitides) implies injury to liver characterised by presence of inflammatory cells in the liver tissue. ...


Tolerance and dependence

With repeated use of narcotics, tolerance and dependence develop. The development of tolerance is characterized by a shortened duration and a decreased intensity of analgesia, euphoria and sedation, which creates the need to administer progressively larger doses to attain the desired effect. Tolerance does not develop uniformly for all actions of these drugs, giving rise to a number of toxic effects. Although the lethal dose is increased significantly in tolerant users, there is always a dose at which death can occur from respiratory depression. It is clear, however, that tolerance and dependence, both part of the conventional idea of addiction, are insufficient to explain in totality what addiction is. Addiction is a broader behavioural phenomenon that also encapsulates nonsubstance based activity (such as excessive and compulsive gambling, excessive and compulsive eating, and a range of other excessive and compulsive behaviours) that has many of the same characteristics that substance based dependency displays. Moreover, it isn't always the case that those with a physical dependency to opiates find it too difficult to get over their "addiction," because so-called medical addicts (those that become physically dependent on opiates given for pain relief after treatment) only have to "give-up" the physical symptoms - they don't also have the all important psychological and life-style attachment to the drug which goes to make up the all-encompassing "addiction." For other uses of painkiller, see painkiller (disambiguation) An analgesic (colloquially known as painkiller) is any member of the diverse group of drugs used to relieve pain. ... Euphoria (Greek ) is a medically recognized emotional state related to happiness. ... Sedation is a medical procedure involving administration of sedative drugs, generally to facilitate a medical procedure, such as endoscopy, vasectomy, or minor surgery with local anaesthesia. ... A lethal dose (LD) is an indication of the lethality of a given substance or type of radiation. ... In medicine, hypoventilation exists when ventilation is inadequate to perform gas exchange. ... For other uses, see addicted. ... For other uses, see addicted. ... Compulsive gambling is an urge or addiction to gamble despite harmful negative consequences or a desire to stop. ... An eating disorder is a complex compulsion to eat in a way which disturbs physical, mental, and psychological health. ... For other things named OCD, see OCD (disambiguation). ...


Physical dependence refers to an alteration of normal body functions that necessitates the continued presence of a drug in order to prevent the withdrawal or abstinence syndrome. The intensity and character of the physical symptoms experienced during withdrawal are directly related to the particular drug in use, the total daily dose, the interval between doses, the duration of use and the health and personality of the user. In general, narcotics with shorter durations of action tend to produce shorter, more intense withdrawal symptoms, while drugs that produce longer narcotic effects have prolonged symptoms that tend to be less severe.


The withdrawal symptoms experienced from opioid addiction are usually first felt shortly before the time of the next scheduled dose. Early symptoms include watery eyes, runny nose, yawning and sweating. Restlessness, irritability, loss of appetite, tremors and severe sneezing appear as the syndrome progresses. Severe depression and vomiting are not uncommon. The heart rate and blood pressure are elevated. Chills alternating with flushing and excessive sweating are also characteristic symptoms. Pains in the bones and muscles of the back and extremities occur as do muscle spasms and kicking movements, which may be the source of the expression "kicking the habit." At any point during this process, a suitable dose of any opioid can be administered that will dramatically reverse the withdrawal symptoms. Without intervention, the syndrome will run its course and most of the overt physical symptoms will disappear within 5 to 15 days, depending on the opioid used. Vomiting (also throwing up or emesis) is the forceful expulsion of the contents of ones stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose. ... Heart rate is a term used to describe the frequency of the cardiac cycle. ... A sphygmomanometer, a device used for measuring arterial pressure. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


The psychological dependence that is associated with narcotic addiction is complex and protracted. Long after the physical need for the drug has passed, the addict may continue to think and talk about the use of drugs. There is a high probability that relapse will occur after narcotic withdrawal when neither the physical environment nor the behavioral motivators that contributed to the abuse have been altered.


There are two major patterns of narcotic dependence seen in the United States. One involves individuals whose drug use was initiated within the context of medical treatment who escalate their dose through "doctor shopping" or branch out to illicit drugs. A very small percentage of addicts are in this group. The concept of doctor shopping relates to a patients addiction or reliance on a certain prescription drug or other medical treatment. ...


The other more common pattern of non-medical use is initiated outside the therapeutic setting with experimental or recreational use of narcotics. The majority of individuals in this category may use narcotics sporadically for months or even years. These occasional users are called "chippers." Although they are neither tolerant of nor dependent on narcotics, the social, medical and legal consequences of their behavior can be very serious. Some experimental users will escalate their narcotic use and will eventually become dependent, both physically and psychologically. The earlier drug use begins, the more likely it is to progress to dependence. Heroin use among males in inner cities is generally initiated in adolescence, and dependence often develops in about 1 or 2 years. For other uses, see Heroin (disambiguation). ...


Signs and symptoms of narcotic/opioid overdose include the following: euphoria, arousable somnolence ("nodding"), nausea, pinpoint pupils (except with Pethidine/Meperidine [Demerol]), hypoxia, or in combination with other types of drugs, coma, and seizures. Euphoria (Greek ) is a medically recognized emotional state related to happiness. ... For other uses, see Nausea (disambiguation). ... Pethidine (INN) or meperidine (USAN) (also referred to as: isonipecaine; lidol; pethanol; piridosal; Algil®; Alodan®; Centralgin®; Demerol®; Dispadol®; Dolantin®; Dolargan® (in Poland);[1] Dolestine®; Dolosal®; Dolsin®; Mefedina®) is a fast-acting opioid analgesic drug. ... Hypoxia is a pathological condition in which the body as a whole (generalised hypoxia) or region of the body (tissue hypoxia) is deprived of adequate oxygen supply. ... In medicine, a coma (from the Greek koma, meaning deep sleep) is a profound state of unconsciousness. ... This article is about the medical condition. ...


See also

For other uses, see addicted. ... Hard and soft drugs are loose categories of psychoactive drugs. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the 12-step program of Narcotics Anonymous (NA). ... Narcoterrorism is a term coined by former President Fernando Belaúnde Terry of Peru in 1983 when describing terrorist-type attacks against his nations anti-narcotics police. ...

References

  1. ^ J. Richard Stracke. The Laud Herbal Glossary. Retrieved on 2007-06-10.)
  2. ^ Francis Edmund Anstie (1865). Stimulants and Narcotics: their mutual relations. Retrieved on 2007-06-10.
  3. ^ De Furore, cap VI (Latin).
  4. ^ Inciardi, James A. (1992). The War on Drugs II. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield Publishing Company, 22. ISBN 1559340169. 

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Mountain View is a city in Santa Clara County, in the U.S. state of California. ... CA or ca may stand for: C&A stores calcium (Ca): symbol for the chemical element California: State of, United States Canada (ISO country code) Catalan language (ISO 639 alpha-2) Cellular automata Central America Certificate authority Channel America: Defunct US television network Chartered accountant Chemical Abstract Citizens Alliance: Political...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Narcotic - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1192 words)
The term narcotic, derived from the Greek word narkotikos, meaning "benumbing or deadening," originally referred to a variety of substances that induced sleep (such state is narcosis).
Aside from their clinical use in the treatment of pain, cough suppression and acute diarrhea, narcotics produce a general sense of well-being known as euphoria by reducing tension, anxiety, and aggression.
Narcotic use is associated with a variety of effects including drowsiness, itching, sleeplessness, inability to concentrate, apathy, lessened physical activity, constriction of the pupils, dilation of the subcutaneous blood vessels causing flushing of the face and neck, constipation, nausea and vomiting and, most significantly, respiratory depression.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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