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Encyclopedia > Narcissism
Narcissus, also known as the "Mazarini Hermaphroditus" or the "Genie of eternal rest". The statue is composed of an antique funeral bust and of an antique lower part, assembled in modern times. Marble, 3rd century AD.
Narcissus, also known as the "Mazarini Hermaphroditus" or the "Genie of eternal rest". The statue is composed of an antique funeral bust and of an antique lower part, assembled in modern times. Marble, 3rd century AD.

Narcissism describes the character trait of self love, based on self-image or ego. Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... Narcissus, the Greek hero after whom narcissism is named, became obsessed with his own reflection. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1220x2700, 2024 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Narcissism Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1220x2700, 2024 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Narcissism Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create...


The word is derived from a Greek myth. Narcissus was a handsome Greek youth who rejected the desperate advances of the nymph Echo. As punishment, he was doomed to fall in love with his own reflection in a pool of water. Unable to consummate his love, Narcissus pined away and changed into the flower that bears his name, the narcissus. The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In Greek mythology, a nymph is any member of a large class of female nature entities, either bound to a particular location or landform or joining the retinue of a god or goddess. ... Echo and Narcissus, by John William Waterhouse. ... This article is about the flower. ...


In psychology and psychiatry, excessive narcissism is recognized as a severe personality dysfunction or personality disorder, most characteristically Narcissistic personality disorder, also referred to as NPD. Psychological science redirects here. ... An MRI scan of a human brain and head. ... Personality disorder, formerly referred to as a Characterological disorder is a class of mental disorders characterized by rigid and on-going patterns of thought and action. ... Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD), a term first used by Heinz Kohut in 1971[1], is a form of pathological narcissism acknowledged in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders in 1980, in the edition known as DSM III-TR. Narcissistic personality disorder is characterized by extreme focus on oneself...


Sigmund Freud believed that some narcissism is an essential part of all of us from birth and was the first to use the term in the reference to psychology.[1] Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ...


Andrew Morrison claims that, in adults, a reasonable amount of healthy narcissism allows the individual's perception of his needs to be balanced in relation to others[2].


The terms "narcissism", "narcissistic" and "narcissist" are often used as pejoratives, denoting vanity, conceit, egotism or simple selfishness. Applied to a social group, it is sometimes used to denote elitism or an indifference to the plight of others. Arguably, however, these terms are used to draw parallels between allegations of self-centeredness and Narcissistic personality disorder, rather than toward healthy self-love. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with pejoration. ... For other meanings of vanity, see vanity (disambiguation). ... Look up conceit in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Egotism is the the motivation to maintain and enhance favorable views of self to the point of being self-destructive. ... Selfishness is a primary or sole concern with ones own welfare. ... In sociology, a group is usually defined as a collection consisting of a number of people who share certain aspects, interact with one another, accept rights and obligations as members of the group and share a common identity. ... Elitism is the belief or attitude that the people who are considered to be the elite — a selected group of persons with outstanding personal abilities, wealth, specialised training or experience, or other distinctive attributes — are the people whose views on a matter are to be taken the most seriously, or... Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD), a term first used by Heinz Kohut in 1971[1], is a form of pathological narcissism acknowledged in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders in 1980, in the edition known as DSM III-TR. Narcissistic personality disorder is characterized by extreme focus on oneself...

Contents

Narcissistic culture

Historian and social critic Christopher Lasch (19321994) described this topic in his book, "The Culture of Narcissism",[3] published in 1979. The Culture of Narcissism: American Life in an Age of Diminished Expectations is a 1979 book by the cultural historian Christopher Lasch. ... Christopher Lasch (June 1, 1932, Omaha, Nebraska - February 14, 1994, Pittsford, New York) was a well-known American historian and social critic. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ...


He defines a narcissistic culture as one in which every activity and relationship is defined by the hedonistic need to acquire the symbols of spiritual wealth, this becoming the only expression of rigid, yet covert, social hierarchies. It is a culture where liberalism only exists insofar as it serves a consumer society, and even art, sex and religion lose their liberating power. For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any sources. ... A hierarchy (in Greek: , derived from — hieros, sacred, and — arkho, rule) is a system of ranking and organizing things or people, where each element of the system (except for the top element) is a subordinate to a single other element. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


In such a society of constant competition, there can be no allies, and little transparency. The threats to acquisitions of social symbols are so numerous, varied and frequently incomprehensible, that defensiveness, as well as competitiveness, becomes a way of life. Any real sense of community is undermined -- or even destroyed -- to be replaced by virtual equivalents that strive, unsuccessfully, to synthesize a sense of community.


Contrary to Lasch, Bernard Stiegler argues in his book, Aimer, s’aimer, nous aimer: Du 11 septembre au 21 avril, that consumer capitalism is in fact destructive of what he calls primordial narcissism, without which it is not possible to extend love to others.[4] Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Consumer capitalism describes a theoretical economic and cultural condition in which consumer demand is manipulated, in a deliberate and coordinated way, on a very large scale, through mass-marketing techniques, to the advantage of sellers. ...


Narcissism in evolutionary psychology

The concept of narcissism is used in evolutionary psychology in relation to the mechanisms of assortative mating, or the non-random choice of a partner for purposes of procreation. An article published in 2005 by Alvarez summarizes the work in this field. Evolutionary psychology (abbreviated EP) is a theoretical approach to psychology that attempts to explain mental and psychological traits—such as memory, perception, or language—as adaptations, i. ... Assortative mating (also called Assortative pairing) takes place when sexually reproducing organisms tend to mate with individuals that are like themselves in some respect (positive assortative mating) or dissimilar (negative assortative mating). ...


Evidence for assortative mating among humans is well established; humans mate assortatively regarding age, IQ, height, weight, nationality, educational and occupational level, physical and personality characters and family relatedness. In the “self seeking like” hypothesis, individuals unconsciously look for a mirror image of themselves in others, seeking criteria of beauty or reproductive fitness in the context of self-reference.


The study of Alvarez indicated that facial resemblance between couples was a strong driving force among the mechanisms of assortative mating: human couples resemble each other significantly more than would be expected from random pair formation. Since facial characteristics are known to be inherited, the "self seeking like" mechanism may enhance reproduction between genetically similar mates, favoring the stabilization of genes supporting social behavior, with no kin relationship among them.[5]


Heritability study with twins

Livesley et al. (1993) published a paper entitled Genetic and environmental contributions to dimensions of personality disorder, which concluded that narcissism, as measured by a standardized test, was a common inherited trait.


The study subjects were 175 volunteer twin pairs (90 identical, 85 fraternal) drawn from the general population. Each twin completed a questionnaire that assessed 18 dimensions of personality disorder. The authors estimated the heritability of each dimension of personality by standard methods, thus providing estimates of the relative contributions of genetic and environmental causation. In genetics, heritability is the proportion of phenotypic variation in a population that is attributable to genetic variation among individuals. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... This article is about the natural environment. ...


Of the 18 personality dimensions, narcissism was found to have the highest heritability (0.64), indicating that the concordance of this trait in the identical twins was significantly influenced by genetics. Of the other dimensions of personality, only four were found to have heritability coefficients of greater than 0.5: callousness, identity problems, oppositionality and social avoidance.


The study generally concluded that, in agreement with other studies, some personality factors have significantly high heritability coefficients, and there exists a continuum between normal and disordered personality.[6]


Medical narcissism

Medical narcissism is a term coined by John Banja in his book "Medical Errors and Medical Narcissism"[7][8].


Banja defines "Medical Narcissism" as the need of health professionals to preserve their self esteem leading to the compromise of error disclosure to patients.


In the book he explores the psychological, ethical and legal effects of medical errors and the extent to which a need to constantly assert their competence can cause otherwise capable, and even exceptional, professionals to fall into narcissistic traps.


He claims that: "...most health professionals (in fact, most professionals of any ilk) work on cultivating a self that exudes authority, control, knowledge, competence and respectability. It’s the narcissist in us all—we dread appearing stupid or incompetent."


Celebrating narcissism

Dandyism

Main article: Dandy

A dandy is a man who places particular importance upon physical appearance, refined language, and the cultivation of leisurely hobbies. Some dandies, especially in Britain in the late 18th and 19th century, strove to affect aristocratic values even though many came from common backgrounds. Thus, a dandy could be considered a kind of snob. This article is about the persons. ... Variation in the physical appearance of humans is believed by anthropologists to be an important factor in the development of personality and social relations in particular physical attractiveness. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Aristocracy is a form of government in which rulership is in the hands of an upper class known as aristocrats. ... For the 1960s British Rock band, see The Snobs. ...


The Dandiacal Body from Sartor Resartus by Thomas Carlyle: The most familiar view of Carlyle is as the bearded sage with a penetrating gaze Thomas Carlyle (December 4, 1795 – February 5, 1881) was a Scottish essayist, satirist, and historian, whose work was hugely influential during the Victorian era. ...

"A Dandy is a clothes-wearing Man, a Man whose trade, office and existence consists in the wearing of Clothes. Every faculty of his soul, spirit, purse, and person is heroically consecrated to this one object, the wearing of Clothes wisely and well: so that the others dress to live, he lives to dress...And now, for all this perennial Martyrdom, and Poesy, and even Prophecy, what is it that the Dandy asks in return? Solely, we may say, that you would recognise his existence; would admit him to be a living object; or even failing this, a visual object, or thing that will reflect rays of light..."

New Romantic

Main article: New Romantic

Decadence and Narcissism were recurring themes in the New Romantic movement that began in London Nightclubs in the 1980s. The movement was all about style, as former punks clothed themselves in surreal, anarchic glamour and romance, and postured. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


It was all about making "an effort to look flamboyant in an attractive, luxuriant, beautiful, narcissistic way"[9] with icons such as David Bowie, Adam & the Ants, Bryan Ferry, Gary Numan, Soft Cell and Duran Duran.[10] David Bowie (IPA: []) (born David Robert Jones on 1947 January 8) is an English singer, songwriter, actor, multi-instrumentalist, producer, arranger and audio engineer. ... Adam and the Ants were a new wave band during the late 1970s and early 1980s. ... Bryan Ferry (born 26 September 1945 in Washington) is an English singer, musician, songwriter and occasional actor famed for his suave visual and vocal style, who came to public prominence in the 1970s as lead vocalist and principal songwriter with Roxy Music. ... For the video game programmer Garry Newman, see Garrys Mod. ... Soft Cell is a Synth-Pop duo formed during the early 1980s. ... Duran Duran are an English pop group notable for a long series of popular singles and vivid music videos. ...


Metrosexual

Main article: Metrosexual

In 1994, in the British Newspaper The Independent journalist Mark Simpson first coined the term "Metrosexual". Metrosexual is a neologism generally applied to heterosexual men with a strong concern for their appearance, and who display many of the lifestyle tendencies of stereotypical gay men. ... Metrosexual is a neologism generally applied to heterosexual men with a strong concern for their appearance, and who display many of the lifestyle tendencies of stereotypical gay men. ...


In 2002 he went on to further define the term on Salon.com. Salon. ...

"Well, perhaps it takes one to know one, but to determine a metrosexual, all you have to do is look at them. In fact, if you're looking at them, they're almost certainly metrosexual. The typical metrosexual is a young man with money to spend, living in or within easy reach of a metropolis -- because that's where all the best shops, clubs, gyms and hairdressers are. He might be officially gay, straight or bisexual, but this is utterly immaterial because he has clearly taken himself as his own love object and pleasure as his sexual preference. Particular professions, such as modeling, waiting tables, media, pop music and, nowadays, sport, seem to attract them but, truth be told, like male vanity products and herpes, they're pretty much everywhere."[11]

Incurvatus in se

Main article: Incurvatus in se

It was perhaps Augustine of Hippo who first coined the phrase Incurvatus in se. This was later popularized and expounded upon by Martin Luther and Karl Barth who assert that because of Original Sin, human beings are focused on pleasing themselves and abusing the gifts of God for their own purposes and that to this end, people create all sorts of idols and means by which they may glorify themselves. They also claim that, even though people are justified by Jesus dying on the Cross, they still possess a propensity to sin against God because of this condition. Incurvatus in se (Latin: turned/curved inward on oneself) is a theological phrase describing a life lived inward for self rather than outward for God and others. ... Augustinus redirects here. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... Karl Barth Karl Barth (May 10, 1886 – December 10, 1968) (pronounced bart) a Swiss Reformed theologian, was one of the most influential Christian thinkers of the 20th century. ... “Original Sin” redirects here. ... The Harrowing of Hell as depicted by Fra Angelico In Christian theology, justification is Gods act of declaring or making a sinner righteous before God. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ...


Martin Luther characterised love not as a drive, but as an experience that comes to man. When asked if that also applied to love of self, he replied that it did, identifying such love as "incurvatus in se ipsum" or "love that is bent towards self" which Jan Lindhart compares with "the Narcissus of Greek mythology, who fell in love with his own reflection" and concludes that, "In this way, sentiment remains determined by its object"[12]. Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ...


See also

Narcissus, the Greek hero after whom narcissism is named, became obsessed with his own reflection. ... Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD), a term first used by Heinz Kohut in 1971[1], is a form of pathological narcissism acknowledged in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders in 1980, in the edition known as DSM III-TR. Narcissistic personality disorder is characterized by extreme focus on oneself... Otto Kernberg described malignant narcissism as a syndrome characterized by a narcissistic personality disorder (NPD), antisocial features, paranoid traits, and ego-syntonic aggression. ... The Narcissism of small differences is a term coined by Sigmund Freud in 1917, based on the earlier work of British anthropologist Ernest Crawley. ... This article is about the psychopathological condition. ... Hubris or hybris (Greek ), according to its modern usage, is exaggerated self pride or self-confidence (overbearing pride), often resulting in fatal retribution. ... Peter Pan syndrome is a pop-psychology term used to describe an adult who is socially immature. ... The Dorian-Gray-Syndrome (DGS) denotes a cultural and societal phenomenon, which can be characterized by an excessive preoccupation with the own appearance (dysmorphophobia) along with difficulties of the individual to cope with the aging-process and with the requirements of psychic maturation. ... Superiority Complex refers to a subconscious neurotic mechanism of compensation developed by the individual as a result of feelings of inferiority. ...

References

  1. ^ Freud, Sigmund, On Narcissism: An Introduction, 1914
  2. ^ Morrison, Andrew. Shame: The Underside of Narcissism, The Analytic Press, 1997. ISBN 0-88163-280-5
  3. ^ Lasch, C, The Culture of Narcissism. 1979
  4. ^ Bernard Stiegler, Aimer, s’aimer, nous aimer: Du 11 septembre au 21 avril (Paris: Galilée, 2003).
  5. ^ Alvarez, L. (2005). “Narcissism guides mate selection: Humans mate assortatively, as revealed by facial resemblance, following an algorithm of ‘self seeking like’”. Evolutionary Psychology 2, 177-194. See online. Accessed July 21, 2006.
  6. ^ Livesley, W.J., Jang, K.L., Jackson, D.N. and P.A. Vernon (1993). "Genetic and environmental contributions to dimensions of personality disorder". American Journal of Psychiatry 150, 1826-1831. Abstract online. Accessed June 18, 2006.
  7. ^ Banja, John, Medical Errors and Medical Narcissism, 2005
  8. ^ Banja, John, (as observed by Eric Rangus) John Banja: Interview with the clinical ethicist
  9. ^ 1980s Fashion History, New Romantics. Accessed June 19, 2006.
  10. ^ Scotland on Sunday, 14 March 2004, Who says romance is dead? Accessed June 19, 2006.
  11. ^ Simpson, Mark Meet the Metrosexual. Accessed June 19, 2006.
  12. ^ Lindhardt, Jan Martin Luther: Knowledge and Mediation in the Renaissance, 1986

Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Look up narcissism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

  Results from FactBites:
 
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