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Encyclopedia > Napoleonic wars
Napoleonic Wars


Top: Battle of Austerlitz
Bottom: Battle of Waterloo
Date c.1803–1815
Location Europe, Atlantic Ocean, Río de la Plata, Indian Ocean
Result Coalition victory, Congress of Vienna
Combatants
Flag of Austria Austria[a]

Flag of Portugal Portugal
Prussia[a]
Flag of Russia Russia[b]
Sicily[c]
Flag of Sardinia Sardinia
Flag of Spain Spain[d]
Flag of Sweden Sweden[e]
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom Image File history File links Bataille dAusterlitz, par Category:François Pascal Simon Gérard File links The following pages link to this file: Battle of Austerlitz ... The battle of Waterloo, by William Sadler This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Combatants French Empire Russian Empire Austrian Empire Commanders Napoleon I Alexander I Francis II Strength 65,000[1] 73,000[2] Casualties 1,305 dead, 6,940 wounded, 573 captured, 1 standard lost[3] 15,000 dead or wounded, 12,000 captured, 180 guns lost, 50 standards lost[3] The... Combatants French Empire Seventh Coalition: United Kingdom Prussia United Netherlands Hanover Nassau Brunswick Commanders Napoleon Bonaparte, Michel Ney Duke of Wellington, Gebhard von Blücher Strength 73,000 67,000 Anglo-Allies 60,000 Prussian (48,000 engaged by about 18:00) Casualties 25,000 killed or wounded 7,000... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This page is about the South American estuary. ... The Congress of Vienna was a conference between ambassadors from the major powers in Europe that was chaired by the Austrian statesman Klemens Wenzel von Metternich and held in Vienna, Austria, from late September, 1814, to June 9, 1815. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Habsburg_Monarchy. ... Image File history File links Flag_Portugal_(1707). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Image File history File links Flag of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies 1738-1848 Flag drawn by Jaume Ollé, from [Flags Of The World website] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Flag The Kingdom of Sicily as it existed at the death of its founder, Roger II of Sicily, in 1154. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Kingdom_of_Sardinia. ... Kingdom of Sardinia, in 1839: Mainland Piedmont with Savoy, Nice, and Sardinia in the inset. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ...

Flag of France French Empire

Flag of the Netherlands Holland[f]
Flag of Napoleonic Italy Italy
Flag of Napoleonic Italy Etruria[g]
Naples[h]
Flag of Poland Duchy of Warsaw[i]
Confederation of the Rhine[j] Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Map of the First French Empire in 1811, with the Empire in dark blue and satellite states in light blue Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1804 - 1814/1815 Napoleon I  - 1814/1815 Napoleon II Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif Historical era Napoleonic... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... The Kingdom of Holland 1806 - 1810 (Koninkrijk Holland in Dutch, Royaume dHollande in French) was set up by Napoleon Bonaparte as a puppet kingdom for his third brother, Louis Bonaparte, in order to better control the Netherlands. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Merchant flag of the Kingdom of Etruria. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Capital Naples Government Monarchy King  - 1285-1309 Charles II  - 1815-1816 Ferdinand I History  - Established 1285  - Union with Sicily 1816 The Kingdom of Naples was an informal name of the polity officially known as the Kingdom of Sicily which existed on the mainland of southern Italy after of the secession... Image File history File links State_Flag_of_Poland. ... Coat of arms Map of the Duchy of Warsaw after 1809. ... The Confederation of the Rhine in 1812 Capital Frankfurt Political structure Confederation Protector Napoleon I Primate  - 1806-1813 Karl von Dalberg  - 1813 Eugène de Beauharnais Historical era Napoleonic Wars  - Formation 12 July, 1806  - Collapse 19 October, 1813 The Confederation of the Rhine or Rhine Confederation (German: ; French: ) lasted from...

Flag of Denmark Denmark-Norway[k] Image File history File links Flag_of_Bavaria_(striped). ... Anthem Königsstrophe Kingdom of Bavaria within the German Empire. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Kingdom of Saxony, lasting between 1806 and 1918, was an independent member of a number of historical confederacies in Germany, finally being absorbed into the Weimar Republic in 1918. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Kingdom_of_Westphalia. ... The Kingdom of Westphalia is a historical state in present-day Germany that existed from 1807-1813. ... Image File history File links Flagge_Königreich_Württemberg. ... Coat of Arms of the (formerly royal) Württemberg family, on a gate of the familys current residence, Schloss Altshausen in Altshausen, Germany // Counts of Württemberg Conrad I 1089-1122 Conrad II 1100-1130 John d. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ... The Kingdom of Denmark-Norway, consisting of Denmark and Norway, including Norways possessions Iceland, Greenland and the Faroe Islands, is a term used for the two united kingdoms after their amalgamation as one state in 1536. ...

Commanders
Flag of Austria Archduke Charles

Flag of Austria Prince Schwarzenberg
Flag of Austria Karl Mack von Leiberich
Flag of Portugal João Francisco de Saldanha Oliveira e Daun
Gebhard von Blücher
Duke of Brunswick 
Prince of Hohenlohe
Flag of Russia Alexander I of Russia
Flag of Russia Mikhail Kutuzov
Flag of Russia Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly
Flag of Russia Count Bennigsen
Ferdinand IV of Sicily Flag of Sweden Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden
Flag of Sweden Prince Charles John
Flag of Spain Francisco Castaños
Flag of Spain Miguel de Álava
Flag of the United Kingdom The Duke of Wellington
Flag of the United Kingdom Horatio Nelson  Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Habsburg_Monarchy. ... Archduke Charles of Austria, Duke of Teschen (de: Erzherzog Karl von Österreich, Herzog von Teschen, also known as Karl von Österreich-Teschen) (September 5, 1771–April 30, 1847) was a son of Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor (1747–1792) and his wife Infanta Maria Luisa of Spain (1745–1792). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Habsburg_Monarchy. ... Schwarzenberg Monument at Schwarzenbergplatz, Vienna Karl Philipp Fürst zu Schwarzenberg (or Prince Charles Philip of Schwarzenberg (April 18, 1771 – October 15, 1820) was an Austrian Field marshal, one of the victors over Napoleon. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Habsburg_Monarchy. ... Karl Freiherr Mack von Leiberich (August 25, 1752 - December 22, 1828), Austrian soldier, was born at Nenslingen, in Bavaria. ... Image File history File links Flag_Portugal_(1707). ... João Carlos de Saldanha Oliveira e Daun, Duke and later Marquis of Saldanha (1790-1876), was a Portuguese army officer and statesman. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick (October 9, 1735 - November 10, German general, was born at Wolfenbüttel. ... Temporary grave of an American machine-gunner during the Battle of Normandy. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Frederick Louis, Prince of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen Friedrich Ludwig Fürst zu Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen (en: Frederick Louis, Prince of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen) (1746 - February 15, 1818), Prussian general, was the eldest son of Prince Johann Friedrich (d. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Aleksandr I Pavlovich (Russian: Александр I Павлович) (December 23, 1777 – December 1, 1825?), was Emperor of Russia from 23 March 1801-1 December 1825 and Ruler of Poland from 1815–1825, as well as the first Grand Duke of Finland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Mikhail Kutuzov Prince Mikhail Illarionovich Golenishchev-Kutuzov (Russian: ) (September 16, 1745 – April 28, 1813 (n. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Knyaz de Tolly Knyaz Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly, called by the Russians as Mikhail Bogdanovich Barklay de Tolly (Михаи́л Богда́нович Баркла́й-де-То́лли) (born December 21, 1761 in Riga, [then] Imperial Russia; died May 26, 1818 in Insterburg, [then] Prussia), was a Russian field marshal and Minister of War. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Levin August Gottlieb Theophil (Russian: Leonty Leontyevich), count von Bennigsen (February 10, 1745 - December 3, 1826) was a Russian general. ... Image File history File links Flag of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies 1738-1848 Flag drawn by Jaume Ollé, from [Flags Of The World website] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... King Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies (January 12, 1751 - January 4, 1825). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... For other people and places of the same name, see Gustaf Adolf (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... Charles XIV John (Swedish: Carl XIV Johan), born Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte (January 26, 1763 – March 8, 1844) was King of Sweden and Norway (where he was known as Karl III Johan) from 1818 until his death. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... General Castaños, Conde de Castaños y Aragones, primero Duque de Bailén. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Miguel Ricardo de Álava Don Miguel Ricardo de Álava y Esquivel, Marquess de Álava (July 7, 1770 - July 14, 1843) was a Spanish General and statesman. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Field Marshal Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, KG, GCB, GCH, PC, FRS (c. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Vice-Admiral Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, KB (29 September 1758 – 21 October 1805) was a British admiral famous for his participation in the Napoleonic Wars, most notably in the Battle of Trafalgar, a decisive British victory in the war, where he lost his life. ... Temporary grave of an American machine-gunner during the Battle of Normandy. ...

Flag of France Napoleon I of France

Flag of France Joseph Bonaparte
Flag of France Louis Nicolas Davout
Flag of France André Masséna
Flag of France Michel Ney
Flag of Napoleonic Italy Eugène de Beauharnais
Joachim Murat
Flag of Poland Józef Poniatowski 
Flag of Saxony Frederick Augustus I of Saxony
and other Marshals Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Joseph Bonaparte Coat of arms of Joseph Bonaparte as King of Spain (1808-1813). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Davout, Marshal of France Louis Nicolas dAvout (May 10, 1770 – June 1, 1823), better known as Davout, duc dAuerstädt, prince dEckmühl, and a marshal of France. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... André Masséna, duc de Rivoli, prince dEssling, maréchal dEmpire. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Michel Ney, Marshal of France. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Eugène Rose de Beauharnais (September 3, 1781 - February 21, 1824) was the first child and only son of Joséphine de Tascher de la Pagerie and Alexandre, Vicomte de Beauharnais. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Joachim Murat, King of Naples, Marshal of France. ... Image File history File links State_Flag_of_Poland. ... Noble Family Poniatowski Coat of Arms Ciołek Parents Andrzej Poniatowski Teresa Kinsky Sibling Maria Teresa Tyszkiewiczowa Consorts none Children with Zelia Sitańska: Józef Szczęsny Poniatowski; with Zofia Czosnowska: Karol Józef Poniatowski. ... Temporary grave of an American machine-gunner during the Battle of Normandy. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Frederick Augustus I of Saxony Frederick Augustus I (German: ; December 23, 1750 - May 5, 1827) was King of Saxony (1805-1827) from the House of Wettin. ... Baton of a modern Marshal of France The Marshal of France (French: Maréchal de France) is a military distinction in contemporary France, not a military rank. ...

Casualties
from 3,250,000 to 6,500,000, see Full list
  1. Both Austria and Prussia briefly became allies of France and contributed forces to the French invasion of Russia in 1812.
  2. Russia became an ally of France following the Treaty of Tilsit in 1807. The alliance broke down in 1810, which led to the French invasion in 1812. During that time Russia waged war against Sweden (1808-1809) and the Ottoman Empire (1806-1812), and nominally went to war against Britain (1807-1812).
  3. Sicily remained in personal union with Naples until the latter became a French client-republic following the Battle of Campo Tenese in 1806.
  4. Spain, an ally of France until a stealthy French invasion in 1808, defected and fought against France in the Peninsular War.
  5. Nominally, Sweden declared war against the United Kingdom after its defeat by Russia in the Finnish War (1808-1809).
  6. The French Empire annexed the Kingdom of Holland in 1810. Dutch troops fought against Napoleon during the Hundred Days in 1815.
  7. The French Empire annexed the Kingdom of Etruria in 1807.
  8. The Kingdom of Naples, briefly allied with Austria in 1814, allied with France again and fought against Austria during the Neapolitan War in 1815.
  9. Napoleon established the Duchy of Warsaw in 1807. Polish Legions had already served in the French army beforehand.
  10. Sixteen of France's allies among the German states (including Bavaria and Württemberg) established the Confederation of the Rhine in July 1806 following the Battle of Austerlitz (December 1805). Following the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt (October 1806), various other German states that had previously fought alongside the anti-French allies, including Saxony and Westphalia, also allied with France and joined the Confederation. Saxony changed sides once again in 1813 during the Battle of Leipzig, causing most other member-states to quickly follow suit and declare war on France.
  11. Denmark remained neutral until the Battle of Copenhagen (1807).

The Napoleonic Wars were a series of wars fought against Napoleon's First French Empire that took place mainly in Europe but also involved some other parts of the world. They continued to some extent the wars sparked by the French Revolution of 1789. These wars revolutionized European armies and artillery, as well as other military systems, and played out on an unprecedented scale, mainly due to the application of modern mass conscription. French power rose quickly, conquering most of Europe, but collapsed rapidly after France's disastrous invasion of Russia in 1812. Napoleon's empire ultimately suffered complete military defeat, resulting in the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy in France. Meanwhile the Spanish Empire began to unravel as French occupation of Spain weakened the Spanish hold over its colonies, providing an opening for nationalist revolutions in Latin America. The Napoleonic Wars (1799-1815) direct and indirect casualties breakdown as follows: NOTE: Deaths listed include being killed in action and/or of other causes such as dying of disease, wounds, starvation, exposure, drowning, friendly fire, atrocities etc. ... Combatants France Italy Naples Duchy of Warsaw Confederation of the Rhine Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Swiss Confederation Austria Prussia Russia Commanders Napoleon Eugène de Beauharnais Jérôme Bonaparte Jacques MacDonald Prince Schwarzenberg Józef Poniatowski Alexander I of Russia Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly Pyotr Bagration Mikhail Kutuzov Strength... The Treaties of Tilsit were two agreements signed by Napoleon I of France in the town of Tilsit in July, 1807. ... The Russo-Turkish War, 1806–1812 was one of many wars fought between Imperial Russia and Ottoman Empire. ... Combatants First French Empire Kingdom of Italy Kingdom of Etruria Polish Legions Switzerland Kingdoms of Naples and Sicily Commanders Jean Reynier Roger de Damas Strength 6,000 11,000 Casualties 500 killed or wounded 3,000 killed or wounded The Battle of Campo Tenese was a battle on 10 March... For the 1862 American Civil War campaign, see Peninsula Campaign. ... During the Napoleonic wars Sweden was allied with the United Kingdom, the only exception being the period 1810-1812. ... The Kingdom of Holland 1806 - 1810 (Koninkrijk Holland in Dutch, Royaume dHollande in French) was set up by Napoleon Bonaparte as a puppet kingdom for his third brother, Louis Bonaparte, in order to better control the Netherlands. ... The Hundred Days (French Cent-Jours) or the Waterloo Campaign commonly refers to the period between 20 March 1815, the date on which Napoleon Bonaparte arrived in Paris after his return from Elba, and 8 July 1815, the date of the restoration of King Louis XVIII. The phrase Cent jours... Merchant flag of the Kingdom of Etruria. ... Capital Naples Government Monarchy King  - 1285-1309 Charles II  - 1815-1816 Ferdinand I History  - Established 1285  - Union with Sicily 1816 The Kingdom of Naples was an informal name of the polity officially known as the Kingdom of Sicily which existed on the mainland of southern Italy after of the secession... Combatants Austria Sicily Naples Commanders Johann Frimont Frederick Bianchi Adam Albert von Neipperg Ferdinand IV Joachim Murat Michele Carascosa Strength 120,000 82,000 Casualties 10,000 10,000 This article is about the military conflict between Austria and Naples in 1815. ... Coat of arms Map of the Duchy of Warsaw after 1809. ... Jan Henryk DÄ…browski, the most famous commander of the Polish Legions, in front of his troops. ... The Confederation of the Rhine in 1812 Capital Frankfurt Political structure Confederation Protector Napoleon I Primate  - 1806-1813 Karl von Dalberg  - 1813 Eugène de Beauharnais Historical era Napoleonic Wars  - Formation 12 July, 1806  - Collapse 19 October, 1813 The Confederation of the Rhine or Rhine Confederation (German: ; French: ) lasted from... Combatants French Empire Russian Empire Austrian Empire Commanders Napoleon I Alexander I Francis II Strength 65,000[1] 73,000[2] Casualties 1,305 dead, 6,940 wounded, 573 captured, 1 standard lost[3] 15,000 dead or wounded, 12,000 captured, 180 guns lost, 50 standards lost[3] The... Combatants First French Empire Prussia Commanders Napoleon I Louis Nicolas Davout Duke of Brunswick Prince Hohenlohe Strength 90,000 (Jena); 27,000 (Auerstedt) 38,000 (Jena); 63,000 (Auerstedt) Casualties 5,000 dead and wounded (Jena); 7,000 killed, wounded, or missing (Auerstedt) 25,000 dead, wounded, or captured (Jena... Combatants French Empire Duchy of Warsaw Confederation of the Rhine[1] Austria Prussia Russia Sweden Commanders Napoleon I Jozef Antoni Poniatowski† Frederick Augustus of Saxony Barclay De Tolly Count Benningsen Prince of Schwarzenberg Gebhard von Blücher Prince Charles John of Sweden Strength 191,000 330,000 Casualties 38,000... Combatants United Kingdom Denmark Commanders James Gambier Ernst Peymann Casualties 42 killed, 145 wounded, 24 missing[1] 5,000 soldiers and militia[1] The Second Battle of Copenhagen, (16 August - 5 September 1807) was a British attack on the civilian population of Copenhagen in order to seize the Danish fleet. ... Combatants Austria Russia United Kingdom Naples and Sicily Portugal Sweden France Batavia Italy Etruria Spain Bavaria Württemberg Commanders Francis II Karl Mack von Leiberich Archduke Charles Alexander I Mikhail Illarionovich Kutuzov Horatio Nelson† Napoleon I André Masséna Pierre-Charles Villeneuve The War of the Third Coalition was a... Combatants Kingdom of Prussia Russian Empire United Kingdom Sweden Electorate of Saxony Kingdom of Sicily First French Empire: - Kingdom of Italy - Kingdom of Naples - Kingdom of Holland - Kingdom of Etruria - Confederation of the Rhine - Swiss Confederation - Polish insurgents Kingdom of Spain Commanders Duke of Brunswick Prince of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen Count... The Russo-Turkish War, 1806–1812 was one of many wars fought between Imperial Russia and Ottoman Empire. ... Battle between the frigate HMS Tartar and Norwegian gunboats near Bergen in 1808 The Gunboat War (1807-1814) was the naval conflict between Denmark-Norway against the British navy during the Napoleonic Wars. ... The Anglo-Russian War (1807-1812) was a war between the United Kingdom and Russia which took place in 1807-1812, during the Napoleonic Wars. ... Combatants Russia Sweden Commanders Fyodor Buxhoeveden Boris Knorring Barclay de Tolly Wilhelm Mauritz Klingspor Carl Johan Adlercreutz Georg Carl von Döbeln The Finnish War was fought between Sweden and Russia from February 1808 to September 1809. ... For the 1862 American Civil War campaign, see Peninsula Campaign. ... The Fifth Coalition was an alliance between Austria and Great Britain formed in 1809 to fight Napoleon Bonapartes French Empire. ... Combatants France Italy Naples Duchy of Warsaw Confederation of the Rhine Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Swiss Confederation Austria Prussia Russia Commanders Napoleon Eugène de Beauharnais Jérôme Bonaparte Jacques MacDonald Prince Schwarzenberg Józef Poniatowski Alexander I of Russia Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly Pyotr Bagration Mikhail Kutuzov Strength... Combatants Prussia Russia Austria United Kingdom Sweden Sicily Sardinia French Empire Italy Naples Warsaw Confederation of the Rhine[1] Swiss Confederation Commanders Gebhard von Blücher Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly Mikhail Kutuzov Prince Wittgenstein Prince Schwarzenberg Prince Charles John Napoleon I of France Michel Ney Jozef Antoni Poniatowski Europe... The Hundred Days (French Cent-Jours) or the Waterloo Campaign commonly refers to the period between 20 March 1815, the date on which Napoleon Bonaparte arrived in Paris after his return from Elba, and 8 July 1815, the date of the restoration of King Louis XVIII. The phrase Cent jours... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... Map of the First French Empire in 1811, with the Empire in dark blue and satellite states in light blue Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1804 - 1814/1815 Napoleon I  - 1814/1815 Napoleon II Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif Historical era Napoleonic... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ... Levée en masse (literally Mass uprising) is a French term for mass conscription. ... Combatants First French Empire Kingdom of Italy Kingdom of Naples Duchy of Warsaw Confederation of the Rhine Kingdom of Bavaria Kingdom of Saxony Kingdom of Westphalia Swiss Confederation Austrian Empire Kingdom of Prussia Russian Empire Commanders Napoleon Eugène de Beauharnais Jérôme Bonaparte Jaques MacDonald Prince Schwarzenberg Alexander... Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy King of France and Navarre  - 1814-1824 Louis XVIII  - 1824-1830 Charles X  - 1830 Louis XIX  - 1830 Henri V Legislature Parliament History  - Louis XVIII restored 6 April, 1814  - July Revolution 21 January, 1830 Currency French Franc Following the ousting of Napoleon I of... An anachronous map of the Spanish Empire (1492-1898). ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ...


No consensus exists as to when the French Revolutionary Wars ended and the Napoleonic Wars began. Possible dates include November 9, 1799, when Bonaparte seized power in France; May 18, 1803, when Britain and France ended the only period of peace in Europe between 1792 and 1814, and December 2, 1804, when Bonaparte crowned himself Emperor. Combatants Great Britain Austria Prussia Spain[1] Russia Sardinia Ottoman Empire Portugal Dutch Republic[2] France The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of major conflicts, from 1792 until 1802, fought between the French Revolutionary government and several European states. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Napoléon Bonaparte in the coup détat of 18 brumaire. ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1804 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


The Napoleonic Wars ended following Napoleon's final defeat at Waterloo (18 June 1815) and the Second Treaty of Paris. Some sources (chiefly in the United Kingdom) occasionally refer to the nearly continuous period of warfare from 1792 to 1815 as the Great French War, or as the final phase of the Anglo-French Second Hundred Years' War,[1][2][3] spanning the period 1689 to 1815. Combatants French Empire Seventh Coalition: United Kingdom Prussia United Netherlands Hanover Nassau Brunswick Commanders Napoleon Bonaparte, Michel Ney Duke of Wellington, Gebhard von Blücher Strength 73,000 67,000 Anglo-Allies 60,000 Prussian (48,000 engaged by about 18:00) Casualties 25,000 killed or wounded 7,000... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... The Treaty of Paris of 1815 was signed on November 20, 1815, following the defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo, 18 June. ... The Great French War is an anachronistic British term to describe the period of conflict beginning on April 20, 1792 and continuing until November 20, 1815. ... The Second Hundred Years War is a phrase used by some historians to describe the series of military conflicts between the Kingdom of Great Britain and France that occurred from about 1689 to 1815. ...

Contents

Background 1789–1802

The French Revolution had a significant impact throughout Europe, which only increased with the arrest of King Louis XVI of France in 1792 and his subsequent execution in January 1793. The first attempt to crush the French Republic came in 1792 when Austria, the Kingdom of Sardinia, the Kingdom of Naples, Prussia, Spain, and the Kingdom of Great Britain formed the First Coalition. French measures, including general conscription (levée en masse), military reform, and total war, contributed to the defeat of the First Coalition. The war ended when Bonaparte forced the Austrians to accept his terms in the Treaty of Campo Formio. Great Britain remained the only anti-French power still in the field by 1797. Combatants Great Britain Austria Prussia Spain[1] Russia Sardinia Ottoman Empire Portugal Dutch Republic[2] France The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of major conflicts, from 1792 until 1802, fought between the French Revolutionary government and several European states. ... The name First Coalition (1793–1797) designates the first major concerted effort of multiple European powers to contain Revolutionary France. ... The name Second Coalition (1798 - 1800) designates the second major concerted effort of multiple European powers to contain Revolutionary France. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Louis XVI, born Louis-Auguste de France (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then as King of the French from 1791 to 1792. ... Kingdom of Sardinia, in 1839: Mainland Piedmont with Savoy, Nice, and Sardinia in the inset. ... Capital Naples Government Monarchy King  - 1285-1309 Charles II  - 1815-1816 Ferdinand I History  - Established 1285  - Union with Sicily 1816 The Kingdom of Naples was an informal name of the polity officially known as the Kingdom of Sicily which existed on the mainland of southern Italy after of the secession... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... For an explanation of terms such as Scotland, Wales, England, (Great) Britain and United Kingdom, see British Isles (terminology). ... The name First Coalition (1793–1797) designates the first major concerted effort of multiple European powers to contain Revolutionary France. ... Levée en masse (literally Mass uprising) is a French term for mass conscription. ... Total war is a military conflict in which nations mobilize all available resources in order to destroy another nations ability to engage in war. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... The Treaty of Campo Formio was signed on October 17, 1797 (26 Vendémiaire, Year VI of the French Republic) by Napoleon Bonaparte and Count Ludwig von Cobenzl as representatives of France and Austria. ...


The Second Coalition, formed in 1798, consisted of the following nations or states: Austria, Great Britain, the Kingdom of Naples, the Ottoman Empire, Papal States, Portugal, and Russia. During the War of the Second Coalition, the French Republic suffered from corruption and division under the Directory. France also lacked funds to prosecute the war and no longer had the services of Lazare Carnot, the war-minister who had guided her to successive victories following extensive reforms during the early 1790s. Napoleon Bonaparte, the main architect of victory in the last years of the First Coalition, had gone to campaign in Egypt. Stripped of two of its most important military figures from the previous conflict, the Republic suffered successive defeats against revitalized enemies which British financial support brought back into the war. The name Second Coalition (1798 - 1800) designates the second major concerted effort of multiple European powers to contain Revolutionary France. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... Coat of arms Map of the Papal States; the reddish area was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy in 1860, the rest (grey) in 1870. ... Executive Directory (in French Directoire exécutif), commonly known as the Directory (or Directoire) held executive power in France from November 2, 1795 until November 10, 1799: following the Convention and preceding the Consulate. ... Lazare Carnot Comte Lazare Nicolas Marguerite Carnot (May 13, 1753—August 2, 1823) was a French politician, engineer, and mathematician. ...


Bonaparte returned from Egypt to France on August 23, 1799, and seized control of the French government on 9 November 1799 in the coup of 18 Brumaire, replacing the Directory with the Consulate. He reorganized the French military and created a reserve army positioned to support campaigns either on the Rhine or in Italy. On all fronts, French advances caught the Austrians off-guard. In Italy, Bonaparte won a victory against the Austrians at Marengo (1800). However, the decisive battle came on the Rhine at Hohenlinden in 1800. The defeated Austrians left the conflict after the Treaty of Lunéville (9 February 1801). Thus the Second Coalition ended in another French triumph. However, the United Kingdom remained an important influence on the continental powers in encouraging their resistance to France. London had brought the Second Coalition together through subsidies, and Bonaparte realised that without either defeating the British or signing a treaty with the UK he could not achieve a complete peace. is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Napoléon Bonaparte in the coup détat of 18 brumaire. ... Executive Directory (in French Directoire exécutif), commonly known as the Directory (or Directoire) held executive power in France from November 2, 1795 until November 10, 1799: following the Convention and preceding the Consulate. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... It has been suggested that River Rhine Pollution: November 1986 be merged into this article or section. ... Combatants French Consulate Austrian Empire Commanders Napoleon Bonaparte, Desaix† Michael von Melas Strength 28,000, 24 guns 31,000, 100 guns Casualties 1,100 killed, 3,600 wounded, 900 missing or captured 963 killed, 5,518 wounded, 2,921 captured In the Battle of Marengo (14 June 1800) Napoleons... Combatants First French Republic Austrian empire Commanders General Moreau Archduke John Strength 180,000 120,000 Casualties 6,000 dead and wounded 8,000 dead and wounded, 12,000 captured, 200 cannons lost The Battle of Hohenlinden near Munich was fought on December 3, 1800, during the French Revolutionary Wars. ... The Treaty of Lunéville was signed on February 9, 1801 between the French Republic and the Holy Roman Empire by Joseph Bonaparte and Louis, Count Cobentzel, respectively. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ...


War between Britain and France, 1803–1814

Unlike its many coalition partners, Britain remained at war throughout the entire period of the hostilities of the Napoleonic Wars. Protected by naval supremacy (in the words of Admiral Jervis to the House of Lords "I do not say, my Lords, that the French will not come. I say only they will not come by sea"), the United Kingdom could maintain low-intensity land warfare on a global scale for over a decade. The British Army gave long-term support to the Spanish rebellion in the Peninsular War of 1808-1814. Protected by topography, assisted by massive Spanish guerrilla activity, and sometimes falling back to massive earthworks, Anglo-Portuguese forces succeeded in harassing French troops for several years. By 1815, the British Army would play a central role in the final defeat of Napoleon at Waterloo. John Jervis, 1st Earl of St Vincent (9 January 1735-14 March 1823) was an admiral in the British Royal Navy. ... For the 1862 American Civil War campaign, see Peninsula Campaign. ... The Lines of Torres Vedras The Lines of Torres Vedras were a line of forts in Portugal built in secrecy between November 1809 and September 1810 during the Peninsular War. ...


The Treaty of Amiens (25 March 1802) resulted in peace between the UK and France, but it satisfied neither side. Both parties dishonoured parts of it: the French intervened in the Swiss civil strife (Stecklikrieg) and occupied several coastal cities in Italy, while the United Kingdom occupied Malta. Bonaparte attempted to exploit the brief peace at sea to restore the colonial rule in the rebellious Antilles. The expedition, though initially successful, would soon turn to a disaster, with the French commander and Bonaparte’s brother-in-law, Charles Leclerc, dying of yellow fever and almost his entire force destroyed by the disease combined with the fierce attacks by the rebels. The Treaty of Amiens was signed on March 25, 1802 (Germinal 4, year X in the French Revolutionary Calendar) by Joseph Bonaparte and the Marquis Cornwallis as a Definitive Treaty of Peace between France and the United Kingdom. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... --69. ... Combatants Haiti France Commanders Toussaint Louverture, Jean-Jacques Dessalines Charles Leclerc, vicomte de Rochambeau, Napoleon Bonaparte Strength Regular army: <55,000, Volunteers: <100,000 Regular army: 60,000, 86 warships and frigates Casualties Military deaths: unknown, Civilian deaths: <100,000 Military deaths: 57,000 (37,000 combat; 20,000 yellow... Charles Victor Emmanuel Leclerc Charles Victor Emmanuel Leclerc (Pontoise Val-dOise, France, March 17, 1772 - Saint Domingue, November 2, 1802) was a French general and a companion of Napoleon I of France. ...


Hostilities between Great Britain and France recommenced on May 18, 1803. The Coalition war-aims changed over the course of the conflict: a general desire to restore the French monarchy became closely linked to the struggle to stop Bonaparte. is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...

Crowning of Napoleon, memorialized by Jacques-Louis David
Crowning of Napoleon, memorialized by Jacques-Louis David

Bonaparte declared France an Empire on May 18, 1804 and crowned himself Emperor at Notre-Dame on December 2. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2024x1450, 324 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Napoleonic Wars Napoleon I of France ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2024x1450, 324 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Napoleonic Wars Napoleon I of France ... Jacques-Louis David (August 30, 1748 – December 29, 1825) was a highly influential French painter in the Neoclassical style, considered to be the prominent painter of the era. ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1804 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the Notre-Dame cathedral in Paris. ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The series of naval and colonial conflicts, including a large number of minor naval actions, resembled those of the French Revolutionary Wars and the preceding centuries of European warfare. Conflicts in the Caribbean, and in particular the seizure of colonial bases and islands throughout the wars, could potentially have some effect upon the European conflict. The Napoleonic conflict had reached the point at which subsequent historians could talk of a "world war". Only the Seven Years' War offered a precedent for widespread conflict on such a scale. A world war is a war affecting the majority of the worlds major nations. ... Combatants Kingdom of Prussia Kingdom of Great Britain and its American Colonies Electorate of Hanover Iroquois Confederacy Kingdom of Portugal Electorate of Brunswick Electorate of Hesse-Kassel Philippines Archduchy of Austria Kingdom of France Empire of Russia Kingdom of Sweden Kingdom of Spain Electorate of Saxony Kingdom of Naples and...


In 1806, Napoleon issued the series of Berlin Decrees, which brought into effect the Continental System. This policy aimed to eliminate the threat of the United Kingdom by closing French-controlled territory to its trade. The United Kingdom's army remained a minimal threat to France; the UK maintained a standing army of just 220,000 at the height of the Napoleonic Wars, whereas France's strength peaked at over 1,500,000 — in addition to the armies of numerous allies and several hundred thousand national guardsmen that Napoleon could draft into the military if necessary. The Royal Navy, however, effectively disrupted France's extra-continental trade — both by seizing and threatening French shipping and by seizing French colonial possessions — but could do nothing about France's trade with the major continental economies and posed little threat to French territory in Europe. In addition France's population and agricultural capacity far outstripped that of the United Kingdom. However, the United Kingdom possessed the greatest industrial capacity in Europe, and its mastery of the seas allowed it to build up considerable economic strength through trade. That sufficed to ensure that France could never consolidate its control over Europe in peace. However, many in the French government believed that cutting the United Kingdom off from the Continent would end its economic influence over Europe and isolate it. Though the French designed the Continental System to achieve this, it never succeeded in its objective. The Berlin Decree was issued by Napoleon on November 21, 1806. ... The Continental System was a foreign-policy cornerstone of Napoleon I of France in his struggle against the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland during the Napoleonic Wars. ... Founded in Paris after the fall of the Bastille in July 1789, the National Guard passed from the historical stage in the wake of the destruction of the Paris Commune in May 1871. ...


Third Coalition 1805

Main article: Third Coalition

Napoleon planned an invasion of the British Isles, and massed 180,000 troops at Boulogne. However, in order to mount his invasion, he needed to achieve naval superiority — or at least to pull the British fleet away from the English Channel. A complex plan to distract the British by threatening their possessions in the West Indies failed when a Franco-Spanish fleet under Admiral Villeneuve turned back after an indecisive action off Cape Finisterre on 22 July 1805. The Royal Navy blockaded Villeneuve in Cádiz until he left for Naples on October 19; the British squadron subsequently caught and defeated his fleet in the Battle of Trafalgar on October 21 (the British commander, Lord Nelson, died in the battle). Napoleon would never again have the opportunity to challenge the British at sea. By this time, however, Napoleon had already all but abandoned plans to invade the British Isles, and had turned his attention to enemies on the Continent once again. The French army left Boulogne and moved towards Austria. In the Napoleonic Wars, the Third Coalition against Napoléon emerged in 1805, and consisted of an alliance of the United Kingdom, Austria, Russia, Naples, and Sweden against France. ... This article describes the archipelago in north-western Europe. ... Boulogne-sur-Mer is a city and commune in northern France, in the Pas-de-Calais département of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... For the Thoroughbred racehorse of the same name, see English Channel (horse). ... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ... Pierre-Charles-Jean-Baptiste-Silvestre de Villeneuve (31 December 1763 &#8211; 22 April 1806) was a French naval officer during the Napoleonic Wars. ... The battle of Cape Finisterre was a naval battle of the War of the Third Coalition in the Napoleonic Wars, fought on 22 July 1805 off Cape Finisterre in northwest Spain between a British fleet commanded by Vice Admiral Robert Calder and a French fleet commanded by Admiral Pierre Charles... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1805 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Location Location of Cádiz Coordinates : Time Zone : General information Native name Cádiz (Spanish) Spanish name Cádiz Postal code – Website http://www. ... Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants United Kingdom First French Empire Kingdom of Spain Commanders Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson † Pierre Charles Silvestre de Villeneuve Strength 27 ships of the line and 6 others. ... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Vice-Admiral Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, KB (29 September 1758 – 21 October 1805) was a British admiral famous for his participation in the Napoleonic Wars, most notably in the Battle of Trafalgar, a decisive British victory in the war, where he lost his life. ...

European strategic situation in 1805 before the War of the Third Coalition

In April 1805 the United Kingdom and Russia signed a treaty with the aim of removing the French from Holland and Switzerland. Austria joined the alliance after the annexation of Genoa and the proclamation of Napoleon as King of Italy on 17 March 1805. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1260x970, 202 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Napoleonic Wars Third Coalition Ulm Campaign ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1260x970, 202 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Napoleonic Wars Third Coalition Ulm Campaign ... For other uses, see Genoa (disambiguation). ... The flag of the Kingdom of Italy was a rectangular version of the flag of the Italian Republic, with Napoleons emblem on the green field. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1805 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


The Austrians began the war by invading Bavaria with an army of about 70,000 under Karl Mack von Leiberich, and the French army marched out from Boulogne in late July, 1805 to confront them. At Ulm (September 25October 20) Napoleon surrounded Mack's army, forcing its surrender without significant losses. With the main Austrian army north of the Alps defeated (another army under Archduke Charles manoeuvred inconclusively against André Masséna's French army in Italy), Napoleon occupied Vienna. Far from his supply lines, he faced a larger Austro-Russian army under the command of Mikhail Kutuzov, with the Emperor Alexander of Russia personally present. On December 2 Napoleon crushed the joint Austro-Russian army in Moravia at Austerlitz (usually considered his greatest victory). He inflicted a total of 25,000 casualties on a numerically superior enemy army while sustaining fewer than 7,000 in his own force. Anthem Königsstrophe Kingdom of Bavaria within the German Empire. ... Karl Freiherr Mack von Leiberich (August 25, 1752 - December 22, 1828), Austrian soldier, was born at Nenslingen, in Bavaria. ... Combatants First French Empire Austrian Empire Commanders Napoleon I Mack von Liebereich # Strength 150,000 72,000 Casualties 5,980 dead or wounded 12,000 dead or wounded, 30,000 captured The Ulm Campaign September-October 1805. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Victorious Archduke Charles of Austria during the Battle of Aspern_Essling (May 21_22, 1809) The epileptic younger brother of Holy Roman Emperor Francis II, Archduke Charles of Austria (Erzherzog Karl) (September 5, 1771 - April 30, 1847) achieved respect both as a commander and as a reformer of Austrias army. ... André Masséna, duc de Rivoli, prince dEssling, maréchal dEmpire. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... Prince Mikhail Illarionovich Golenishchev-Kutuzov (September 16, 1745 &#8211; April 28, 1813 (n. ... Aleksandr I Pavlovich (Russian: Александр I Павлович) (December 23, 1777 – December 1, 1825?), was Emperor of Russia from 23 March 1801-1 December 1825 and Ruler of Poland from 1815–1825, as well as the first Grand Duke of Finland. ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Flag of Moravia Moravia (Czech and Slovak: Morava; German: ; Hungarian: ; Polish: ) is a historical region in the east of the Czech RepublicCzechia. ... Combatants French Empire Russian Empire Austrian Empire Commanders Napoleon I Alexander I Francis II Strength 65,000[1] 73,000[2] Casualties 1,305 dead, 6,940 wounded, 573 captured, 1 standard lost[3] 15,000 dead or wounded, 12,000 captured, 180 guns lost, 50 standards lost[3] The...


Austria signed the Treaty of Pressburg (26 December 1805) and left the Coalition. The Treaty required the Austrians to give up Venetia to the French-dominated Kingdom of Italy and the Tyrol to Bavaria. The Treaty of Pressburg was signed on December 26, 1805 between France and Austria as a consequence of the Austrian defeats by France at Ulm (September 25 - October 20) and Austerlitz (December 2). ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1805 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... “Venetia” redirects here. ... The flag of the Kingdom of Italy was a rectangular version of the flag of the Italian Republic, with Napoleons emblem on the green field. ... Coat of arms of the Counts of Tyrol Austria-Hungary in 1914, showing Tirol–Vorarlberg as the left-most province, coloured cream Capital Meran (Merano), until 1848 Government Principality Historical era Middle Ages  - Created County 1140  - Bequeathed to Habsburgs 1363 or 1369  - Joined Council of Princes 1582  - Trent, Tyrol and...


With the withdrawal of Austria from the war, stalemate ensued. Napoleon's army had a record of continuous unbroken victories on land, but the full force of the Russian army had not yet come into play.


Fourth Coalition 1806–1807

Main article: Fourth Coalition
Napoleon in Berlin (Meynier). After defeating Prussian forces at Jena, the French Army entered Berlin on October 27, 1806
Napoleon in Berlin (Meynier). After defeating Prussian forces at Jena, the French Army entered Berlin on October 27, 1806

The Fourth Coalition (1806–07) of Prussia, Russia, Saxony, Sweden, and the United Kingdom against France formed within months of the collapse of the previous coalition. In July 1806 Napoleon formed the Confederation of the Rhine out of the many tiny German states which constituted the Rhineland and most other western parts of Germany. He amalgamated many of the smaller states into larger electorates, duchies and kingdoms to make the governance of non-Prussian Germany smoother. Napoleon elevated the rulers of the two largest Confederation states, Saxony and Bavaria, to the status of kings. In the Napoleonic Wars, the Fourth Coalition was an alliance organized against Napoleons French Empire in 1806–1807. ... Image File history File links Charles_Meynier_-_Napoleon_in_Berlin. ... Image File history File links Charles_Meynier_-_Napoleon_in_Berlin. ... Combatants First French Empire Prussia Commanders Napoleon I Louis Nicolas Davout Duke of Brunswick Prince Hohenlohe Strength 90,000 (Jena); 27,000 (Auerstedt) 38,000 (Jena); 63,000 (Auerstedt) Casualties 5,000 dead and wounded (Jena); 7,000 killed, wounded, or missing (Auerstedt) 25,000 dead, wounded, or captured (Jena... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... In the Napoleonic Wars, the Fourth Coalition was an alliance organized against Napoleons French Empire in 1806–1807. ... The Confederation of the Rhine in 1812 Capital Frankfurt Political structure Confederation Protector Napoleon I Primate  - 1806-1813 Karl von Dalberg  - 1813 Eugène de Beauharnais Historical era Napoleonic Wars  - Formation 12 July, 1806  - Collapse 19 October, 1813 The Confederation of the Rhine or Rhine Confederation (German: ; French: ) lasted from... The Rhineland (Rheinland in German) is the general name for the land on both sides of the river Rhine in the west of Germany. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DED Capital Dresden Minister-President Georg Milbradt (CDU) Governing parties CDU / SPD Votes in Bundesrat 4 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  18,416 km² (7,110 sq mi) Population 4,252,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 231 /km... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ...


In August 1806 the Prussian king, Friedrich Wilhelm III made the decision to go to war independently of any other great power, save the distant Russia. (A more sensible course of action might have involved declaring war the previous year and joining Austria and Russia. This might have contained Napoleon and prevented the Coalition disaster at Austerlitz.) In any event, the Russian army, an ally of Prussia, still remained far away when Prussia declared war. In September Napoleon unleashed all the French forces east of the Rhine. Napoleon himself defeated a Prussian army at Jena (October 14, 1806), and Davout defeated another at Auerstädt on the same day. Some 160,000 French soldiers (increasing in number as the campaign went on) attacked Prussia, moving with such speed that Napoleon succeeded in destroying as an effective military force the entire quarter-of-a-million strong Prussian army — which sustained 25,000 casualties, lost a further 150,000 prisoners and 4,000 artillery pieces, and over 100,000 muskets stockpiled in Berlin. At Jena Napoleon fought only a detachment of the Prussian force. Auerstädt involved a single French corps defeating the bulk of the Prussian army. Napoleon entered Berlin on 27 October 1806. He visited the tomb of Frederick the Great and instructed his marshals to remove their hats there, saying, "If he were alive we wouldn't be here today". In total Napoleon had taken only 19 days from beginning his attack on Prussia until knocking it out of the war with the capture of Berlin and the destruction of its principal armies at Jena and Auerstädt. By contrast, Prussia had fought for three years in the War of the First Coalition with little achievement. Frederick William III Frederick William III, known in German as Friedrich Wilhelm III, reigned as king of Prussia from 1797 to 1840. ... The Battle of Jena was fought on October 14, 1806, in Jena, in todays Germany, and resulted in a French victory under Napoleon Bonaparte against the Prussians under General Hohenlohe. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Louis Nicolas dAvout (May 10, 1770 - June 1, 1823), better known as Davout, was duke of Auerstädt, prince of Eckmühl, and a marshal of France. ... The Battle of Auerstädt was fought on 14 October 1806, and resulted in a French victory under marshall Davout against the Prussians under General Brunswick. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Frederick the Great Frederick II of Prussia (Friedrich der Große, Frederick the Great, January 24, 1712 &#8211; August 17, 1786) was the Hohenzollern king of Prussia 1740&#8211;86. ...


During the conflict, the island of Malta sent supplies and reinforcements to Russia and Prussia in the hopes they could form a political alliance against Napoleonic France; but Barbary Coast pirates intercepted them. The Barbary Coast, or Barbary, was the term used by Europeans from the 16th until the 19th century to refer to the coastal regions of what is now Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya. ...


The next stage of the war involved the French driving Russian forces out of Poland and instituting a new state, the Duchy of Warsaw. Napoleon then turned north to confront the remainder of the Russian army and to attempt to capture the temporary Prussian capital at Königsberg. A tactical draw at Eylau (February 7February 8, 1807) forced the Russians to withdraw further north. Napoleon then routed the Russian army at Friedland (June 14, 1807). Following this defeat, Alexander had to make peace with Napoleon at Tilsit (July 7, 1807). By September, Marshal Brune completed the occupation of Swedish Pomerania, allowing the Swedish army, however, to withdraw with all its munitions of war. Coat of arms Map of the Duchy of Warsaw after 1809. ... Former German name of the city of Kaliningrad. ... The Battle of Eylau, fought on February 7–8, 1807, was a bloody and inconclusive contest between the forces of Napoléon and a mostly Russian army under General Bennigsen. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1807 (MDCCCVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... Combatants First French Empire Russian Empire Commanders Napoléon Bonaparte General Bennigsen Strength 80,000 60,000 Casualties 8,000 killed and wounded[1] 20,000 killed and wounded[2] The Battle of Friedland, fought on June 14, 1807 about twenty-seven miles (43 km) southeast of the modern Russian... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1807 (MDCCCVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Treaties of Tilsit were two agreements signed by Napoleon I of France in the town of Tilsit in July, 1807. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1807 (MDCCCVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... Lithograph of Guillaume Marie Anne Brune by Delpech Guillaume Marie Anne Brune (March 13, 1763 – August 2, 1815) was a marshal of France. ... Swedish Pomerania (Swedish: Svenska Pommern) was a Dominion under the Swedish Crown from the 17th to the 19th century, situated on the German Baltic Sea coast. ...


During 1807 the British attacked Denmark with the aim of capturing the Danish fleet. The Danes had a large fleet which could have greatly aided the French if it had fallen into their hands: Danish vessels could have replaced many of the ships the French had lost at Trafalgar in 1805. The British attacked Copenhagen and captured the Danish fleet. This helped bring Denmark into the war on the side of the French.


At the Congress of Erfurt (September – October 1808) Napoleon and Alexander agreed that Russia should force Sweden to join the Continental System, which led to the Finnish War of 1808–09 and to the division of Sweden into two parts separated by the Gulf of Bothnia. The eastern part became the Russian Grand Duchy of Finland. The Congress of Erfurt was the meeting between Emperor Napoleon I of France and Tsar Alexander I of Russia in 1808 intended to reaffirm the alliance concluded the previous year with the Treaty of Tilsit which followed the end of the War of the Fourth Coalition. ... Combatants Russia Sweden Commanders Fyodor Buxhoeveden Boris Knorring Barclay de Tolly Wilhelm Mauritz Klingspor Carl Johan Adlercreutz Georg Carl von Döbeln The Finnish War was fought between Sweden and Russia from February 1808 to September 1809. ... The Baltic Sea The Gulf of Bothnia (Fin. ... The Grand Duchy of Finland was a state that existed 1809–1917 as part of the Russian Empire. ...


Fifth Coalition 1809

Main article: Fifth Coalition
Surrender of Madrid (Gros), 1808. Napoleon enters Spain's capital during the Peninsular War

The Fifth Coalition (1809) of the United Kingdom and Austria against France formed as the United Kingdom engaged in the Peninsular War against France. The Fifth Coalition was an alliance between the Austrian Empire and the United Kingdom, formed in 1809 to fight Napoleons French Empire. ... Download high resolution version (2560x1811, 450 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2560x1811, 450 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Fifth Coalition was an alliance between the Austrian Empire and the United Kingdom, formed in 1809 to fight Napoleons French Empire. ... For the 1862 American Civil War campaign, see Peninsula Campaign. ...


Once again, the United Kingdom stood alone, and the sea became the major theatre of war between the United Kingdom and Napoleon's allies. During the time of the Fifth Coalition, the Royal Navy won a succession of victories in the French colonies and another major naval victory against the neutral Denmark at the Battle of Copenhagen (September 2, 1807). In warfare, a theater or theatre is normally used to define a specific geographic area within which armed conflict occurs. ... Combatants United Kingdom Denmark Commanders James Gambier Ernst Peymann Casualties 42 killed, 145 wounded, 24 missing[1] 5,000 soldiers and militia[1] The Second Battle of Copenhagen, (16 August - 5 September 1807) was a British attack on the civilian population of Copenhagen in order to seize the Danish fleet. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1807 (MDCCCVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ...


On land, the Fifth Coalition attempted few extensive military endeavours. One, the Walcheren Expedition of 1809, involved a dual effort by the British Army and the Royal Navy to relieve Austrian forces under intense French pressure. It ended in disaster after the Army commander — John Pitt, 2nd Earl of Chatham — failed to capture the objective, the naval base of French-controlled Antwerp. For the most part of the years of the Fifth Coalition, British military operations on land — apart from in the Iberian Peninsula — remained restricted to hit-and-run operations executed by the Royal Navy, which dominated the sea after having beaten down almost all substantial naval opposition from France and its allies and blockading what remained of the latter's naval forces in heavily fortified French-controlled ports. These rapid-attack operations functioned rather like exo-territorial guerrilla strikes: they aimed mostly at destroying blockaded French naval and mercantile shipping, and disrupting French supplies, communications, and military units stationed near the coasts. Often, when British allies attempted military actions within several dozen miles or so of the sea, the Royal Navy would arrive and would land troops and supplies and aid the Coalition's land forces in a concerted operation. Royal Navy ships even provided artillery support against French units when fighting strayed near enough to the coastline. However, the ability and quality of the land forces governed these operations. For example, when operating with inexperienced guerrilla forces in Spain, the Royal Navy sometimes failed to achieve its objectives simply because of the lack of manpower that the Navy's guerrilla allies had promised to supply. The Walcheren expedition (July 30 - December 10, 1809), a British military operation during the Napoleonic Wars, formed the last in a series of operations in Flanders (present-day Belgium) in 1809. ... John Pitt, 2nd Earl of Chatham (9 October 1756 - 24 September 1835) was the eldest son of Pitt the Elder, and elder brother to Pitt the Younger. ... For other uses, see Antwerp (disambiguation). ...

The European strategic situation in February 1809

The struggle also continued in the sphere of economic warfare — the French Continental System against the British naval blockade of French-controlled territory. Due to military shortages and lack of organisation in French territory, numerous breaches of the Continental System occurred as French-dominated states engaged in illicit (though often tolerated) trade with British smugglers. Both sides entered additional conflicts in attempts to enforce their blockade; the British fought the United States in the War of 1812 (1812-15), and the French engaged in the Peninsular War (1808-14). The Iberian conflict began when Portugal continued trade with the United Kingdom despite French restrictions. When Spain failed to maintain the system the Spanish alliance with France came to an end and French troops gradually encroached on Spanish territory until they occupied Madrid. British intervention soon followed. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1260x965, 209 KB) Author: Department of History, United States Military Academy URL: [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1260x965, 209 KB) Author: Department of History, United States Military Academy URL: [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This article is about the U.S. – U.K. war. ... For the 1862 American Civil War campaign, see Peninsula Campaign. ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ...


Austria, previously an ally of the French, took the opportunity to attempt to restore its imperial territories in Germany as held prior to Austerlitz. Austria achieved a number of initial victories against the thinly-spread army of Marshal Davout. Napoleon had left Davout with only 170,000 troops to defend France's entire eastern frontier (In the 1790s, 800,000 troops had carried out the same task, but holding a much shorter front). Davout, Marshal of France Louis Nicolas dAvout (May 10, 1770 – June 1, 1823), better known as Davout, duc dAuerstädt, prince dEckmühl, and a marshal of France. ...


Napoleon had enjoyed easy success in Spain, retaking Madrid, defeating the Spanish and consequently forcing a withdrawal of the heavily out-numbered British army from the Iberian Peninsula (Battle of Corunna, 16 January 1809). Austria's attack prevented Napoleon from successfully wrapping up operations against British forces by necessitating his departure for Austria, and he never returned to the Peninsula theatre. In his absence and in the absence of his best marshals (Davout remained in the east throughout the war) the French situation in Spain deteriorated, especially when the prodigious British general, Sir Arthur Wellesley, arrived to command the British forces. For the battle near Madrid in the Spanish Civil War, see Battle of the La Corunna Road. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1809 (MDCCCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington (1 May 1769&#8211;14 September 1852) was an Anglo-Irish soldier and statesman, widely considered one of the leading military and political figures of the 19th century. ...


The Austrians drove into the Duchy of Warsaw, but suffered defeat at the Battle of Raszyn April 19, 1809. The Polish army captured West Galicia following its earlier success. Coat of arms Map of the Duchy of Warsaw after 1809. ... During its long and complicated history, the town of Raszyn in Poland was the site of several battles. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1809 (MDCCCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... ...

The French Empire in Europe in 1811, near its peak extent. Dark and light green areas indicate the French Empire and its territories; blue, pink and yellow areas indicate French client and satellite states
The French Empire in Europe in 1811, near its peak extent. Dark and light green areas indicate the French Empire and its territories; blue, pink and yellow areas indicate French client and satellite states

Napoleon assumed personal command in the east and bolstered the army there for his counter-attack on Austria. After a well-run campaign that, after a few small battles, forced the Austrians to withdraw from Bavaria, Napoleon advanced into Austria. His hurried attempt to cross the Danube resulted in the massive Battle of Aspern-Essling (22 May 1809) — Napoleon's first significant tactical defeat. Failure by the Austrian commander, Archduke Karl, to follow up on his indecisive victory meant that Napoleon could prepare for a renewed attempt to seize Vienna, and in early July he did so. He defeated the Austrians at Wagram, on July 5July 6 (During this battle Napoleon stripped Marshal Bernadotte of his title and ridiculed him in front of other senior officers. Shortly thereafter, Bernadotte took up the offer from Sweden to fill the vacant position of Crown Prince there. Later he would actively participate in wars against his former Emperor). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2249x1805, 980 KB)Map of Europe in 1811 (French Empire) taken from the 1912 Cambridge Modern History Atlas source: http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2249x1805, 980 KB)Map of Europe in 1811 (French Empire) taken from the 1912 Cambridge Modern History Atlas source: http://www. ... Combatants First French Empire Austrian Empire Commanders Napoleon I Archduke Charles Strength 90,000 95,000 Casualties 21,000 23,400 The strategic situation and the Battle of Aspern-Essling on May 22, 1809. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1809 (MDCCCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... Archduke Charles of Austria, Duke of Teschen (de: Erzherzog Karl von Österreich, Herzog von Teschen, also known as Karl von Österreich-Teschen) (September 5, 1771–April 30, 1847) was a son of Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor (1747–1792) and his wife Infanta Maria Luisa of Spain (1745–1792). ... The Battle of Wagram, around the isle of Lobau on the Danube and on the plain of the Marchfeld around the town of Deutsch-Wagram, 15 km north-east of Vienna, Austria, took place on July 5 and 6, 1809 and resulted in the decisive victory of French forces under... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... King Charles XIV of Sweden, Charles III of Norway, or domestically Carl XIV Johan and Carl III Johan respectively, Jean Baptiste Jules Bernadotte (January 26, 1763 - March 8, 1844) was born at Pau, France, the son of Henri Bernadotte (1711-1780), procurator at Pau, and Jeanne St. ...


The War of the Fifth Coalition ended with the Treaty of Schönbrunn (October 14, 1809). In the east only the Tyrolese rebels led by Andreas Hofer continued to fight the French-Bavarian army until finally defeated in November 1809, while in the west the Peninsular War continued. The Treaty of Schönbrunn was signed between France and Austria in 1809, ending the war of the Fifth Coalition during the Napoleonic Wars, at the beautiful castle Schloss Schönbrunn, which can be visited today as a tourist site. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1809 (MDCCCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... Coat of arms of the Counts of Tyrol Austria-Hungary in 1914, showing Tirol–Vorarlberg as the left-most province, coloured cream Capital Meran (Merano), until 1848 Government Principality Historical era Middle Ages  - Created County 1140  - Bequeathed to Habsburgs 1363 or 1369  - Joined Council of Princes 1582  - Trent, Tyrol and... Andreas Hofer on an Austrian stamp. ...


In 1810 the French Empire reached its greatest extent. On the continent, the British and Portuguese remained restricted to the area around Lisbon (behind their impregnable lines of Torres Vedras) and to besieged Cadiz. Napoleon married Marie-Louise, an Austrian Archduchess, with the aims of ensuring a more stable alliance with Austria and of providing the Emperor with an heir (something his first wife, Josephine, had failed to do). As well as the French Empire, Napoleon controlled the Swiss Confederation, the Confederation of the Rhine, the Duchy of Warsaw and the Kingdom of Italy. Territories allied with the French included: For other uses, see Lisbon (disambiguation). ... The Lines of Torres Vedras The Lines of Torres Vedras were a line of forts in Portugal built in secrecy between November 1809 and September 1810 during the Peninsular War. ... Combatants  Spain, United Kingdom, Portugal French Empire Commanders Manuel La Peña Thomas Graham Claude Victor Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult Strength 13,000 Spanish 4,000 Anglo-Portuguese 60,000 Casualties 896 dead, 3,706 wounded[1] 4,000–5,000 dead or wounded[2] The Siege of C... Marie Louise (full name: Maria Ludovica Leopoldina Franziska Therese Josepha Lucia von Habsburg-Lothringen, later after 1817 in Italian Maria Luigia dAsburgo-Lorena, Duchessa di Parma, Piacenza, e Guastalla) (b. ...

and Napoleon's former enemies, Prussia and Austria. Joseph Bonaparte Coat of arms of Joseph Bonaparte as King of Spain (1808-1813). ... The Kingdom of Westphalia is a historical state in present-day Germany that existed from 1807-1813. ... Jérôme Bonaparte Jérôme Bonaparte, King of Westphalia (November 15, 1784 - June 24, 1860) was the youngest brother of Napoleon, who made him King of Westphalia (1807-1813). ... Joachim Murat, King of Naples, Marshal of France. ... Caroline Bonaparte Maria Annunziata Carolina Bonaparte, Queen of Naples, Grand Duchess of Berg and Cleves (Ajaccio, Corsica, 25 March 1782 – 18 May 1839 in Florence), better known as Caroline Bonaparte, was the seventh surviving child and third surviving daughter of Carlo Buonaparte and Letizia Ramolino. ... A principality is a monarchical feudatory or sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a Monarch with the title of prince or princess (a synonym is princedom) or (in the widest sense) a Monarch with another title within the generic use of the term prince. ... Maria Anna Elisa Bonaparte Bacciochi, Grand Duchess of Tuscany (January 13, 1777 - August 7, 1820) was the fourth surviving child and eldest surviving daughter of Carlo Buonaparte and Letizia Ramolino. ... Felice Pasquale Bacciocchi (May 8, 1762 - April 27, 1841) was a Corsican officer who married Elisa Maria Bonaparte in 1797 and became Prince of Lucca, but without the associated powers. ...

For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... The Confederation of the Rhine in 1812 Capital Frankfurt Political structure Confederation Protector Napoleon I Primate  - 1806-1813 Karl von Dalberg  - 1813 Eugène de Beauharnais Historical era Napoleonic Wars  - Formation 12 July, 1806  - Collapse 19 October, 1813 The Confederation of the Rhine or Rhine Confederation (German: ; French: ) lasted from... The Kingdom of Westphalia is a historical state in present-day Germany that existed from 1807-1813. ... Map of the duchies of Jülich, Cleves, and Berg circa 1477. ... The Grand Duchy of Frankfurt was a German state of Napoleonic creation. ... The Bishopric of Würzburg was an ecclesiastical principality in the Holy Roman Empire, located in Lower Franconia, around the City of Würzburg. ... The Principality of Leyen was a Napoleonic German state which existed 1806 - 1814 in Hohengeroldseck, in the west of modern Baden-Württemberg. ... Merchant flag of the Kingdom of Etruria. ... Capital Naples Government Monarchy King  - 1285-1309 Charles II  - 1815-1816 Ferdinand I History  - Established 1285  - Union with Sicily 1816 The Kingdom of Naples was an informal name of the polity officially known as the Kingdom of Sicily which existed on the mainland of southern Italy after of the secession... The Kingdom of Holland 1806 - 1810 (Koninkrijk Holland in Dutch, Royaume dHollande in French) was set up by Napoleon Bonaparte as a puppet kingdom for his third brother, Louis Bonaparte, in order to better control the Netherlands. ... Coat of arms Map of the Duchy of Warsaw after 1809. ...

The Russia campaign of 1812

The Treaty of Tilsit in 1807 resulted in the Anglo-Russian War (1807–12). Tsar Alexander I declared war on the United Kingdom after the British attack on Denmark in September 1807. British men-of-war supported the Swedish fleet during the Finnish War and had victories over the Russians in the Gulf of Finland in July 1808 and August 1809. However, the success of Russian army on the land forced Sweden to sign peace-treaties with Russia in 1809 and with France in 1810 and to join the Continental Blockade against Britain. Franco-Russian relations became progressively worse after 1810, and the Russian war with the UK effectively came to an end. In April 1812 Britain, Russia and Sweden signed secret agreements directed against Napoleon. Kazan Cathedral in St Petersburg and the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow were built to commemorate the Russian victory against Napoleon. ... The Treaties of Tilsit were two agreements signed by Napoleon I of France in the town of Tilsit in July, 1807. ... The Anglo-Russian War (1807-1812) was a war between the United Kingdom and Russia which took place in 1807-1812, during the Napoleonic Wars. ... A man of war (also man-of-war, man-o-war or simply man) is an armed naval vessel. ... Combatants Russia Sweden Commanders Fyodor Buxhoeveden Boris Knorring Barclay de Tolly Wilhelm Mauritz Klingspor Carl Johan Adlercreutz Georg Carl von Döbeln The Finnish War was fought between Sweden and Russia from February 1808 to September 1809. ... The Baltic Sea The Gulf of Finland is an arm of the Baltic Sea that extends between Finland (to the north) and Estonia (to the south) all the way to the city of Saint Petersburg in Russia, where the river Neva drains into it. ... The Continental System was a foreign-policy cornerstone of Napoleon I of France in his struggle against the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland during the Napoleonic Wars. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ...


In 1812 Napoleon invaded Russia. He aimed to compel Emperor Alexander I to remain in the Continental System and to remove the imminent threat of a Russian invasion of Poland. The French-led Grande Armée, consisting of 650,000 men (270,000 Frenchmen and many soldiers of allies or subject areas), crossed the Niemen River on June 23, 1812. Russia proclaimed a Patriotic War, while Napoleon proclaimed a Second Polish war, but against the expectations of the Poles (who supplied almost 100,000 troops for the invasion-force) he avoided any concessions to Poland, having in mind further negotiations with Russia. Russia maintained a scorched-earth policy of retreat, broken only by the Borodino on September 7, 1812. This bloody confrontation ended in a tactical draw, but Napoleon eventually forced the Russians to back down, thus opening the road to Moscow. By September 14, 1812 the Grande Armée had captured Moscow; although by this point the Russians had largely abandoned the city, even releasing prisoners from Moscow's prisons to inconvenience the French. Alexander I refused to capitulate, and with no sign of clear victory in sight Napoleon had to withdraw from Moscow after the governor, Count Fyodor Vasilievich Rostopchin, allegedly ordered the city burnt to the ground. So the disastrous Great Retreat from Moscow began, with 370,000 casualties (largely as a result of starvation and the freezing weather conditions) and 200,000 captured. By November, when the remnants of the Grande Armée crossed the Berezina River, only 27,000 fit soldiers remained. Napoleon then left his army and returned to Paris to prepare to defend Poland against the advancing Russians. His situation seemed less dire than at first — the Russians had lost around 400,000 men, leaving their army depleted. However, they had the advantage of shorter supply-lines and could replenish their armies with greater speed than the French. Aleksandr I Pavlovich (Russian: Александр I Павлович) (December 23, 1777 – December 1, 1825?), was Emperor of Russia from 23 March 1801-1 December 1825 and Ruler of Poland from 1815–1825, as well as the first Grand Duke of Finland. ... External links Wikimedia Commons has multimedia related to: Neman Categories: Belarus-related stubs | Rivers of Belarus | Rivers of Lithuania | Russian rivers ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the overture by Tchaikovsky, see 1812 Overture; For the wars, see War of 1812 (USA - United Kingdom) or Patriotic War of 1812 (France - Russia) For the Siberia Airlines plane crashed over the Black Sea on October 4, 2001, see Siberia Airlines Flight 1812 1812 was a leap year starting... Combatants First French Empire Russian Empire Commanders Napoleon I Mikhail Kutuzov Strength 82,400 infantry 26,700 cavalry 14,900 artillery troops with 587 guns[1] 72,000 infantry 17,300 cavalry 14,500 artillery troops with 637 guns[2] Casualties ~6,600 killed ~21,400 wounded [3] ~43,000... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the overture by Tchaikovsky, see 1812 Overture; For the wars, see War of 1812 (USA - United Kingdom) or Patriotic War of 1812 (France - Russia) For the Siberia Airlines plane crashed over the Black Sea on October 4, 2001, see Siberia Airlines Flight 1812 1812 was a leap year starting... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the overture by Tchaikovsky, see 1812 Overture; For the wars, see War of 1812 (USA - United Kingdom) or Patriotic War of 1812 (France - Russia) For the Siberia Airlines plane crashed over the Black Sea on October 4, 2001, see Siberia Airlines Flight 1812 1812 was a leap year starting... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Count Fyodor Vasilievich Rostopchin (Фёдор Васильевич Ростопчин in Russian) (3. ... Categories: Rivers of Belarus | Belarus-related stubs ...


Sixth Coalition 1812–1814

Main article: Sixth Coalition

Seeing an opportunity in Napoleon's historic defeat, Prussia, Sweden, Austria, and a number of German states re-entered the war. Napoleon vowed that he would create a new army as large as that he had sent into Russia, and quickly built up his forces in the east from 30,000 to 130,000 and eventually to 400,000. Napoleon inflicted 40,000 casualties on the Allies at Lützen (May 2, 1813) and Bautzen (May 20May 21, 1813). Both battles involved total forces of over 250,000 — making them some of the largest conflicts of the wars so far. The Sixth Coalition (1812-1814) was a coalition of Austria, Prussia, Russia, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and a number of German States against Napoleonic France. ... Combatants First French Empire Prussia Russia Commanders Napoleon I of France Jacques Lauriston Michel Ney Nicolas Oudinot Auguste Marmont Gebhard von Blücher Peter Wittgenstein Gerhard von Scharnhorst† Strength 120,000 73,000 Casualties 18-22,000 18-22,000 The Battle of Lützen was the first major engagement... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Battle of Bautzen was fought on May 21, 1813, and resulted in a French victory under Napoléon Bonaparte against the Kingdom of Prussians and Russians. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Meanwhile, in the Peninsular War, at Vitoria (June 21, 1813), Arthur Wellesley's victory over Joseph Bonaparte finally broke the French power in Spain. The French had to retreat out of Spain, over the Pyrenees. For the 1862 American Civil War campaign, see Peninsula Campaign. ... Combatants French Empire United Kingdom Spain Portugal Commanders Jean-Baptiste Jourdan, Joseph Bonaparte Marquess of Wellington Strength 58,000 80,000 Casualties ~5,000 dead or wounded, 3,000 captured[1] ~5,000 dead or wounded[1] In the Battle of Vitoria (June 21, 1813) Wellington and his Portuguese and... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Joseph Bonaparte Coat of arms of Joseph Bonaparte as King of Spain (1808-1813). ... Pic de Bugatetin the Néouvielle Natural Reserve Central Pyrenees For the mountains in Victoria, Australia, see Pyrenees (Victoria). ...


The belligerents declared an armistice from June 4, 1813 (continuing until August 13) during which time both sides attempted to recover from approximately quarter of a million losses since April. During this time Coalition negotiations finally brought Austria out in open opposition to France. Two principal Austrian armies took the field, adding an additional 300,000 troops to the Coalition armies in Germany. In total the Allies now had around 800,000 front-line troops in the German theatre, with a strategic reserve of 350,000 formed to support the frontline operations. is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Napoleon succeeded in bringing the total imperial forces in the region up to around 650,000 — although only 250,000 came under his direct command, with another 120,000 under Nicolas Charles Oudinot and 30,000 under Davout. The Confederation of the Rhine furnished Napoleon with the bulk of the remainder of his forces, with Saxony and Bavaria as the principal contributors. In addition, to the south, Murat's Kingdom of Naples and Eugène de Beauharnais's Kingdom of Italy had a combined total of 100,000 men under arms. In Spain an additional 150,000 to 200,000 French troops steadily retreated before Spanish and British forces numbering around 150,000. Thus in total around 900,000 French troops in all theatres faced somewhere around a million Coalition troops (not including the strategic reserve under formation in Germany). The gross figures may however mislead slightly, as most of the German troops fighting on the side of the French fought at best unreliably and stood on the verge of defecting to the Allies. One can reasonably say that Napoleon could count on no more than 450,000 troops in Germany — which left him outnumbered about two to one. Nicolas Charles Oudinot (April 25, 1767 - September 13, 1847), duke of Reggio, was a marshal of France. ... Eugène Rose de Beauharnais (September 3, 1781 - February 21, 1824) was the first child and only son of Joséphine de Tascher de la Pagerie and Alexandre, Vicomte de Beauharnais. ...


Following the end of the armistice, Napoleon seemed to have regained the initiative at Dresden (August 1813), where he defeated a numerically-superior Coalition army and inflicted enormous casualties, while the French army sustained relatively few. However, the failures of his marshals and a slow resumption of the offensive on his part cost him any advantage that this victory might have secured him. At the Battle of Leipzig in Saxony (October 16October 19, 1813), also called the "Battle of the Nations", 191,000 French fought more than 300,000 Allies, and the defeated French had to retreat into France. Napoleon then fought a series of battles, including the Battle of Arcis-sur-Aube, in France itself, but the overwhelming numbers of the Allies steadily forced him back. The Battle of Dresden was fought on August 26-27, 1813, and resulted in a French victory under Napoleon Bonaparte against Austrians, Russians and Prussians under General Schwartzenberg. ... Combatants French Empire Duchy of Warsaw Confederation of the Rhine[1] Austria Prussia Russia Sweden Commanders Napoleon I Jozef Antoni Poniatowski† Frederick Augustus of Saxony Barclay De Tolly Count Benningsen Prince of Schwarzenberg Gebhard von Blücher Prince Charles John of Sweden Strength 191,000 330,000 Casualties 38,000... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DED Capital Dresden Minister-President Georg Milbradt (CDU) Governing parties CDU / SPD Votes in Bundesrat 4 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  18,416 km² (7,110 sq mi) Population 4,252,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 231 /km... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Napoleonic Wars lasted from 1804 until 1815. ...

The Russian army enters Paris in 1814

The Allies entered Paris on March 30, 1814. During this time Napoleon fought his Six Days Campaign, in which he won multiple battles against the enemy forces advancing towards Paris. However, during this entire campaign he never managed to field more than 70,000 troops against more than half a million Coalition troops. At the Treaty of Chaumont (March 9, 1814) the Allies agreed to preserve the Coalition until Napoleon's total defeat. Image File history File links Russian Army Enters Paris in 1814 (early 19th-cent. ... Image File history File links Russian Army Enters Paris in 1814 (early 19th-cent. ... The Battle of Paris was fought during the Napoleonic Wars in 1814. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Six Days Campaign was a critical series of battles in Napoleons final defence of France in 1814 as the Allies advanced on Paris. ... The Treaty of Chaumont signed on 9 March 1814 by the Austrians, Prussians, Russians, and British during the War of the Sixth Coalition offered Napoleon (whom rejected it) a cease-fire in exchange for France reverting to her 1791 (Pre-French Revolutionary Wars) frontiers. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Napoleon determined to fight on, even now, incapable of fathoming his massive fall from power. During the campaign he had issued a decree for 900,000 fresh conscripts, but only a fraction of these ever materialized, and Napoleon's increasingly unrealistic schemes for victory eventually gave way to the reality of the hopeless situation. Napoleon abdicated on April 6. However, occasional military actions continued in Italy, Spain, and Holland throughout the spring of 1814. is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The victors exiled Napoleon to the island of Elba, and restored the French Bourbon monarchy in the person of Louis XVIII. They signed the Treaty of Fontainebleau (11 April 1814) and initiated the Congress of Vienna to redraw the map of Europe. Elba (bottom centre) from space, February 1994. ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... Louis XVIII (17 November 1755 – 16 September 1824), was a King of France and Navarre. ... The Treaty of Fontainebleau refers to a number of agreements signed at Fontainebleau, France, often at the Château de Fontainebleau: October 24, 1745 creating a military alliance between Louis XV of France and Charles Edward Stuart. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Congress of Vienna was a conference between ambassadors from the major powers in Europe that was chaired by the Austrian statesman Klemens Wenzel von Metternich and held in Vienna, Austria, from late September, 1814, to June 9, 1815. ...


Gunboat War 1807–1814

Main article: Gunboat War

Denmark-Norway originally declared itself neutral in the Napoleonic Wars, established a navy, and engaged in trade with both sides. The British attacked, captured, and or destroyed large portions of the Dano-Norwegian fleet in the First Battle of Copenhagen (2 April 1801), and again in the Second Battle of Copenhagen (August – September 1807). This ended the Danish neutrality, and the Danish engaged in a naval guerilla war in which small gunboats would attack larger British ships in Danish and Norwegian waters. The Gunboat War effectively ended with a British victory at the Battle of Lyngør in 1812, involving the destruction of the last large Danish ship — the frigate Najaden. Battle between the frigate HMS Tartar and Norwegian gunboats near Bergen in 1808 The Gunboat War (1807-1814) was the naval conflict between Denmark-Norway against the British navy during the Napoleonic Wars. ... The Kingdom of Denmark-Norway, consisting of Denmark and Norway, including Norways possessions Iceland, Greenland and the Faroe Islands, is a term used for the two united kingdoms after their amalgamation as one state in 1536. ... A military/political reference to a nation which remains uninvolved in an armed conflict, making no alliance to any nation engaged on any side. ... Combatants Great Britain Denmark-Norway Commanders Admiral Sir Hyde Parker Lord Nelson Olfert Fischer, Steen Bille Strength Nelson: 12 ships of the line, 5 frigates, 7 bombs, 6 others Parker (reserve): 8 ships of the line Fischer: 7 ships of the line, 10 others Bille: 17 ships, 1 land battery... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... Combatants United Kingdom Denmark Commanders James Gambier Ernst Peymann Casualties 42 killed, 145 wounded, 24 missing[1] 5,000 soldiers and militia[1] The Second Battle of Copenhagen, (16 August - 5 September 1807) was a British attack on the civilian population of Copenhagen in order to seize the Danish fleet. ... // Strategic background to the battle The British imposed a blockade on supply lines between Norway and Denmark during the Napoleonic War in the Skagerrak sound, except for Norwegian ships transporting lumber to Britain. ... For the bird, see Frigatebird. ... Najaden was a frigate in the Royal Danish-Norwegian Navy. ...


Seventh Coalition 1815

Main article: Seventh Coalition
See also Hundred Days and the Neapolitan War between the Kingdom of Naples and the Austrian Empire.

The Seventh Coalition (1815) pitted the United Kingdom, Russia, Prussia, Sweden, Austria, the Netherlands and a number of German states against France. The period known as the Hundred Days began after Napoleon left Elba and landed at Cannes (March 1, 1815). Travelling to Paris, picking up support as he went, he eventually overthrew the restored Louis XVIII. The Allies rapidly gathered their armies to meet him again. Napoleon raised 280,000 men, whom he distributed amongst several armies. To add to the 90,000 troops in the standing army he recalled well over a quarter of a million veterans from past campaigns and issued a decree for the eventual draft of around 2.5 million new men into the French army. This faced an initial Coalition force of about 700,000 — although Coalition campaign-plans provided for one million front-line troops supported by around 200,000 garrison, logistics and other auxiliary personnel. The Coalition intended this force to have overwhelming numbers against the numerically inferior imperial French army — which in fact never came close to reaching Napoleon's goal of more than 2.5 million under arms. The Seventh Coalition was hurriedly prepared during the Napoleonic Wars in 1815 after Napoleons return to France and before his successful entry of Paris. ... The Hundred Days (French Cent-Jours) or the Waterloo Campaign commonly refers to the period between 20 March 1815, the date on which Napoleon Bonaparte arrived in Paris after his return from Elba, and 8 July 1815, the date of the restoration of King Louis XVIII. The phrase Cent jours... Combatants Austria Sicily Naples Commanders Johann Frimont Frederick Bianchi Adam Albert von Neipperg Ferdinand IV Joachim Murat Michele Carascosa Strength 120,000 82,000 Casualties 10,000 10,000 This article is about the military conflict between Austria and Naples in 1815. ... Capital Naples Government Monarchy King  - 1285-1309 Charles II  - 1815-1816 Ferdinand I History  - Established 1285  - Union with Sicily 1816 The Kingdom of Naples was an informal name of the polity officially known as the Kingdom of Sicily which existed on the mainland of southern Italy after of the secession... Anthem Volkshymne (Peoples Anthem) The Austrian Empire Capital Vienna Language(s) German Hungarian Romanian Czech Slovakian Slovenian Croatian Serbian Italian Polish Ruthenian Religion Roman Catholic Government Monarchy History  - Established 1804  - Ausgleich 1867 The Crown of the Austrian Emperor The Austrian Empire (German: ) was a modern era successor empire founded... The Seventh Coalition was hurriedly prepared during the Napoleonic Wars in 1815 after Napoleons return to France and before his successful entry of Paris. ... The Hundred Days (French Cent-Jours) or the Waterloo Campaign commonly refers to the period between 20 March 1815, the date on which Napoleon Bonaparte arrived in Paris after his return from Elba, and 8 July 1815, the date of the restoration of King Louis XVIII. The phrase Cent jours... Cannes - receding storm Cannes, as seen from a ferry speeding towards lÃŽle Saint-Honorat Cannes (pronounced ) (Provençal Occitan: Canas in classical norm or Cano in Mistralian norm) is a city and commune in southern France, located on the Riviera, in the Alpes-Maritimes département and the r... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... Louis XVIII (November 17, 1755 - September 16, 1824) was King of France from 1814 (although he declared that he considered his reign to have begun in 1795) until his death in 1824. ...

Map of the Waterloo campaign
Map of the Waterloo campaign

Napoleon took about 124,000 men of the Army of the North on a pre-emptive strike against the Allies in Belgium. He intended to attack the Coalition armies before they combined, in the hope of driving the British into the sea and the Prussians out of the war. His march to the frontier achieved the surprise he had planned. He forced Prussia to fight at Ligny on June 16, 1815, and the defeated Prussians retreated in some disorder. On the same day the left wing of the Army of the North, under the command of Marshal Michel Ney, succeeded in stopping any of Wellington's forces going to the aid of Blücher's Prussians by fighting a blocking action at Quatre Bras. But Ney failed to clear the cross-roads and Wellington reinforced the position. With the Prussian retreat, Wellington had to retreat as well, however. He fell back to a previously reconnoitred position on an escarpment at Mont St Jean, a few miles south of the village of Waterloo. Napoleon took the reserve of the Army of the North, and reunited his forces with those of Ney to pursue Wellington's army, but not before he ordered Marshal Grouchy to take the right wing of the Army of the North and stop the Prussians re-grouping. Grouchy failed, and although he engaged and defeated the Prussian rearguard under the command of Lt-Gen von Thielmann in the Battle of Wavre (18–19 June), the rest of the Prussian army "marched towards the sound of the guns" in the direction of Waterloo. Napoleon delayed the start of fighting at the Battle of Waterloo on the morning of June 18 for several hours while he waited for the ground to dry after the previous night's rain. By late afternoon the French army had not succeeded in driving Wellington's forces from the escarpment on which they stood. When the Prussians arrived and attacked the French right flank in ever-increasing numbers, Napoleon's strategy of keeping the Coalition armies divided had failed and a combined Coalition general advance drove his army from the field in confusion. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x910, 42 KB)Map of force movements and major engagements during the Waterloo Campaign, June 15-18, 1815. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x910, 42 KB)Map of force movements and major engagements during the Waterloo Campaign, June 15-18, 1815. ... The Battle of Ligny, fought June 16, 1815, was a French victory under Napoleon against the Prussian army under Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher in the Napoleonic Wars. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... Michel Ney, Marshal of France. ... Combatants France Anglo-Allies[1] Commanders Michel Ney Duke of Wellington William II of the Netherlands Strength 18,000 infantry, 2,000 cavalry and 32 guns (a total of 24,000 troops by the end of the battle) 20,000 by the end of the battle Casualties 4,000 4... In geology, an escarpment is a transition zone between different physiogeographic provinces that involves an elevation differential, often involving high cliffs. ... Waterloo The top of the knoll and the famous lion. ... Emmanuel, Marquis de Grouchy, Marshal of France Emmanuel, marquis de Grouchy (October 23, 1766 – May 29, 1847), marshal of France, was born in Paris. ... Johann Adolf, freiherr von Thielmann (1765-1824), Prussian cavalry soldier, was born at Dresden. ... Combatants First French Empire Prussia Commanders Marshal Grouchy Johann von Thielmann Strength 33,000, 80 cannons[1] 17,000, 48 cannons[1] Casualties 2,500[1] 2,500[1] Hundred Days Quatre Bras – Ligny – Waterloo – Wavre Map of the Waterloo campaign In the Battle of Wavre a Prussian rearguard was... Combatants French Empire Seventh Coalition: United Kingdom Prussia United Netherlands Hanover Nassau Brunswick Commanders Napoleon Bonaparte, Michel Ney Duke of Wellington, Gebhard von Blücher Strength 73,000 67,000 Anglo-Allies 60,000 Prussian (48,000 engaged by about 18:00) Casualties 25,000 killed or wounded 7,000... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Grouchy partially redeemed himself by organizing a successful and well-ordered retreat towards Paris, where Marshal Davout had 117,000 men at the ready to turn back the 116,000 men of Blücher and Wellington. Militarily it appeared quite possible (indeed probable) that the French could defeat Wellington and Blücher, but politics proved the source of the Emperor's downfall. Furthermore, even had Davout succeeded in defeating the two northern Coalition armies, around 400,000 Russian and Austrian troops continued to advance from the east.


On arriving at Paris three days after Waterloo, Napoleon still clung to the hope of a concerted national resistance; but the temper of the chambers, and of the public generally, did not favour his view. The politicians forced Napoleon to abdicate again on June 22, 1815. Despite the Emperor’s abdication, irregular warfare continued along the eastern borders and on the outskirts of Paris until the signing of a cease-fire on July 4. On 15 July Napoleon surrendered himself to the British squadron at Rochefort. The Allies exiled him to the remote South Atlantic island of Saint Helena, where he died on 5 May 1821. Many parliaments or other legislatures consist of two chambers: an elected lower house, and an upper house or Senate which may be appointed or elected by a different mechanism from the lower house. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Rochefort is the name of several communes in France, of a municipality in Belgium and a commune in Switzerland: Rochefort in the Charente-Maritime département of France Rochefort in the Côte-dOr département of France Rochefort in the Savoie département of France Rochefort, Belgium Rochefort... For other uses, see Atlantic (disambiguation) The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one-fifth of its surface. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1821 (MDCCCXXI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Meanwhile in Italy, Joachim Murat, whom the Allies had allowed to remain King of Naples after the Napoleon's initial defeat, once again allied himself with his brother-in-law, triggering the Neapolitan War (March to May, 1815). Hoping to find support amongst Italian nationalists fearful of the increasing influence of the Habsburgs in Italy, Murat issued the Rimini Proclamation inciting them to war. The proclamation failed and the Austrians soon crushed Murat at the Battle of Tolentino (2 May to 3 May 1815), forcing him to flee. The Bourbons returned to the throne of Naples on 20 May 1815. A firing squad eventually executed Murat on 13 October 1815 after a failed attempt to regain his throne. Joachim Murat, King of Naples, Marshal of France. ... Capital Naples Government Monarchy King  - 1285-1309 Charles II  - 1815-1816 Ferdinand I History  - Established 1285  - Union with Sicily 1816 The Kingdom of Naples was an informal name of the polity officially known as the Kingdom of Sicily which existed on the mainland of southern Italy after of the secession... Combatants Austria Sicily Naples Commanders Johann Frimont Frederick Bianchi Adam Albert von Neipperg Ferdinand IV Joachim Murat Michele Carascosa Strength 120,000 82,000 Casualties 10,000 10,000 This article is about the military conflict between Austria and Naples in 1815. ... Battle of Tolentino Conflict Neapolitan War Date 2-3 May 1815 Place Tolentino, Macerata, Italy Result Austrian decisive victory The Battle of Tolentino was the decisive battle in the Neapolitan War, fought by the king of Naples Joachim Murat to keep the throne after the Congress of Vienna. ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ...


Political effects

Napoleon as King of Italy (Appiani)
Napoleon as King of Italy (Appiani)

The Napoleonic Wars brought great changes to Europe. Though Napoleon brought most of Western Europe under his rule (a feat not seen since the days of the Roman Empire, although Charlemagne reduced a large area of central Europe into a single empire), a state of constant warfare between France and the combined other major powers of Europe for over two decades finally took its toll. By the end of the Napoleonic Wars, France no longer held the role of the dominant power in Europe, as it had since the times of Louis XIV. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x2722, 629 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Legion of Honor ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x2722, 629 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Legion of Honor ... Andrea Appiani (1754-1817), was an Italian neoclassical painter, the best fresco painter of his time. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Charlemagne (left) and Pippin the Hunchback. ... Map of Carolingian Empire The term Carolingian Empire is sometimes used to refer to the realm of the Franks under the dynasty of the Carolingians. ... This article deals with the world most powerful nations and empires before the Congress of Vienna. ... Louis XIV redirects here. ...


The United Kingdom emerged as, arguably, the most powerful country in the world. Britain's Royal Navy held unquestioned naval superiority throughout the world, and Britain's industrial economy made it the most powerful commercial country as well. This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ...


In most European countries, the importation of the ideals of the French Revolution (democracy, due process in courts, abolition of privileges, etc.) left a mark. European monarchs found it difficult to restore pre-revolutionary absolutism, and had perforce to keep some of the reforms brought about during Napoleon's rule. Institutional legacies have remained to this day: many European countries have a civil-law legal system, with clearly redacted codes compiling their basic laws — an enduring legacy of the Napoleonic Code. In United States law, adopted from English Law, due process (more fully due process of law) is the principle that the government must normally respect all of a persons legal rights instead of just some or most of those legal rights when the government deprives a person of life... Absolute monarchy is an idealized form of government, a monarchy where the ruler has the power to rule his or her country and citizens freely with no laws or legally-organized direct opposition telling him or her what to do, although some religious authority may be able to discourage the... For other uses of civil law, see civil law. ... A civil code is a systematic compilation of laws designed to comprehensively deal with the core areas of private law. ... First page of the 1804 original edition The Napoleonic Code, or Code Napoléon (originally called the Code civil des Français) was the French civil code, established at the behest of Napoléon I. It was drafted rapidly by a commission of four eminent jurists and entered into force...


A relatively new and increasingly powerful movement became significant. Nationalism would shape the course of much of future European history; its growth spelled the beginning of some nations and states and the end of others. The map of Europe changed dramatically in the hundred years following the Napoleonic Era, based not on fiefs and aristocracy, but on the perceived basis of human culture, national origins, and national ideology. Bonaparte's reign over Europe sowed the seeds for the founding of the nation-states of Germany and Italy by starting the process of consolidating city-states, kingdoms and principalities. Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... The Napoleonic Era is a period in the History of France and Europe. ...


Another concept emerged — that of Europe. Napoleon mentioned on several occasions his intention to create a single European state, and although his defeat set the thought of a unified Europe back over one-and-a-half centuries, the idea re-emerged after the end of the Second World War. Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ...


Military legacy

Napoléon crossing the Alps (David). In 1800 Bonaparte took the French Army across the Alps, eventually defeating the Austrians at Marengo
Napoléon crossing the Alps (David). In 1800 Bonaparte took the French Army across the Alps, eventually defeating the Austrians at Marengo

The Napoleonic Wars also had a profound military impact. Until the time of Napoleon, European states had employed relatively small armies with a large proportion of mercenaries — who sometimes fought against their own native countries. However, military innovators in the middle of the 18th century began to recognize the potential of an entire nation at war: a "nation in arms". Image File history File links Download high resolution version (640x800, 158 KB) Napoleon Crossing the Alps painted by Jacques-Louis David (1748-1825), oil on canvas, 259 x 221 cm (8 6 x 7 3), 1801, Musée national du château de Malmaison - R.M.N. File links The... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (640x800, 158 KB) Napoleon Crossing the Alps painted by Jacques-Louis David (1748-1825), oil on canvas, 259 x 221 cm (8 6 x 7 3), 1801, Musée national du château de Malmaison - R.M.N. File links The... Jacques-Louis David (August 30, 1748 – December 29, 1825) was a highly influential French painter in the Neoclassical style, considered to be the prominent painter of the era. ... The Battle of Marengo was fought in Italy on June 14, 1800 as the decisive battle of the war of the Second Coalition. ... For other uses, see Mercenary (disambiguation). ...


France, with the fourth-largest population in the world by the end of the 18th century (27 million, as compared to the United Kingdom's 12 million and Russia's 35 to 40 million), seemed well poised to take advantage of the levée en masse. Because the French Revolution and Napoleon's reign witnessed the first application of the lessons of the 18th century's wars on trade and dynastic disputes, commentators often falsely assume that such ideas arose from the revolution rather than found their implementation in it. Levée en masse (literally Mass uprising) is a French term for mass conscription. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on...


Not all the credit for the innovations of this period should go to Napoleon, however. Lazare Carnot played a large part in the reorganization of the French army from 1793 to 1794 — a time which saw previous French misfortunes reversed, with Republican armies advancing on all fronts. Lazare Carnot Comte Lazare Nicolas Marguerite Carnot (May 13, 1753—August 2, 1823) was a French politician, engineer, and mathematician. ...


The sizes of the armies involved give an obvious indication of the changes in warfare. During Europe's major pre-revolutionary war, the Seven Years' War of 1756-1763, few armies ever numbered more than 200,000. By contrast, the French army peaked in size in the 1790s with 1.5 million Frenchmen enlisted. In total, about 2.8 million Frenchmen fought on land and about 150,000 at sea, bringing the total for France to almost 3 million combatants. Combatants Kingdom of Prussia Kingdom of Great Britain and its American Colonies Electorate of Hanover Iroquois Confederacy Kingdom of Portugal Electorate of Brunswick Electorate of Hesse-Kassel Philippines Archduchy of Austria Kingdom of France Empire of Russia Kingdom of Sweden Kingdom of Spain Electorate of Saxony Kingdom of Naples and...


The United Kingdom had 747,670 men under arms between 1792 and 1815. In addition, about a quarter of a million personnel served in the Royal Navy. In September 1812, Russia had about 904,000 enlisted men in its land forces, and between 1799 and 1815 a total of 2.1 million men served in the Russian army, with perhaps 400,000 serving from 1792 to 1799. A further 200,000 or so served in the Russian Navy from 1792 to 1815. One cannot readily find consistent equivalent statistics for other major combatants. Austria's forces peaked at about 576,000 and had little or no naval component. Apart from the United Kingdom, Austria proved the most persistent enemy of France, and one can reasonably assume that more than a million Austrians served in total. Prussia never had more than 320,000 men under arms at any given time, only just ahead of the United Kingdom. Spain's armies also peaked in size at around 300,000, but to this one needs to add a considerable force of guerrillas. Otherwise only the United States (286,730 total combatants), the Maratha Confederation, the Ottoman Empire, Italy, Naples and the Duchy of Warsaw ever had more than 100,000 men under arms. Even small nations now had armies rivalling the Great Powers' forces of past wars in size. However, one should bear in mind that the above numbers of soldiers come from military records and in practice the actual numbers of fighting men would fall below this level due to desertion, fraud by officers claiming non-existent soldiers' pay, death and, in some countries, deliberate exaggeration to ensure that forces met enlistment-targets. Despite this, the size of armed forces expanded at this time. This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... Guerilla may refer to Guerrilla warfare. ... Flag of the Maratha Empire Extent of the Maratha Empire ca. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... Capital Naples Government Monarchy King  - 1285-1309 Charles II  - 1815-1816 Ferdinand I History  - Established 1285  - Union with Sicily 1816 The Kingdom of Naples was an informal name of the polity officially known as the Kingdom of Sicily which existed on the mainland of southern Italy after of the secession... Coat of arms Map of the Duchy of Warsaw after 1809. ... In the context of international relations and diplomacy, power (sometimes clarified as international power, national power, or state power) is the ability of one state to influence or control other states. ...


The initial stages of the Industrial Revolution had much to do with larger military forces — it became easy to mass-produce weapons and thus to equip significantly larger forces. The United Kingdom served as the largest single manufacturer of armaments in this period, supplying most of the weapons used by the Coalition powers throughout the conflicts (although using relatively few itself). France produced the second-largest total of armaments, equipping its own huge forces as well as those of the Confederation of the Rhine and other allies. A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... The Confederation of the Rhine in 1812 Capital Frankfurt Political structure Confederation Protector Napoleon I Primate  - 1806-1813 Karl von Dalberg  - 1813 Eugène de Beauharnais Historical era Napoleonic Wars  - Formation 12 July, 1806  - Collapse 19 October, 1813 The Confederation of the Rhine or Rhine Confederation (German: ; French: ) lasted from...


Napoleon himself showed innovative tendencies in his use of mobility to offset numerical disadvantages, as brilliantly demonstrated in the rout of the Austro-Russian forces in 1805 in the Battle of Austerlitz. The French Army reorganized the role of artillery, forming independent, mobile units as opposed to the previous tradition of attaching artillery pieces in support of troops. Napoleon standardized cannonball sizes to ensure easier resupply and compatibility among his army's artillery pieces. Combatants French Empire Russian Empire Austrian Empire Commanders Napoleon I Alexander I Francis II Strength 65,000[1] 73,000[2] Casualties 1,305 dead, 6,940 wounded, 573 captured, 1 standard lost[3] 15,000 dead or wounded, 12,000 captured, 180 guns lost, 50 standards lost[3] The... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ... Different types of cannon balls recovered from the Vasa, sunk in 1628 Round shot is a type of projectile fired from guns or cannons. ...


Another advance affected warfare: the semaphore system had allowed the French War-Minister, Carnot, to communicate with French forces on the frontiers throughout the 1790s. The French continued to use this system throughout the Napoleonic wars. Additionally, aerial surveillance came into use for the first time when the French used a hot-air balloon to survey Coalition positions before the Battle of Fleurus, on June 26, 1794. Advances in ordnance and rocketry also occurred in the course of the conflict. A Chappe semaphore tower near Saverne, France // The semaphore or optical telegraph is an apparatus for conveying information by means of visual signals, with towers with pivoting blades or paddles, shutters, in a matrix, or hand-held flags etc. ... Mixed reconnaissance patrol of the Polish Home Army and the Soviet Red Army during Operation Tempest, 1944 Reconnaissance is the military term for the active gathering of information about an enemy, or other conditions, by physical observation. ... The Battle of Fleurus, fought on June 26, 1794 was one of the most decisive battles in the Low Countries during the French, under Jourdan were able to more effectively concentrate their forces in order to achieve victory against the Austrian army under Saxe-Cobourg. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1794 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Weapon (disambiguation). ... A rocket is a vehicle, missile or aircraft which obtains thrust by the reaction to the ejection of fast moving exhaust from within a rocket engine. ...


In fiction

Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy(Lyof, Lyoff) (September 9 [O.S. August 28] 1828 – November 20 [O.S. November 7] 1910) (Russian: , IPA:  ), commonly referred to in English as Leo Tolstoy, was a Russian writer – novelist, essayist, dramatist and philosopher – as well as pacifist Christian anarchist and educational reformer. ... For other uses, see War and Peace (disambiguation). ... Stendhal. ... The Charterhouse of Parma (French: La Chartreuse de Parme) is one of Stendhals two acknowledged masterpieces (and only complete novels) along with The Red and the Black. ... Combatants French Empire Seventh Coalition: United Kingdom Prussia United Netherlands Hanover Nassau Brunswick Commanders Napoleon Bonaparte, Michel Ney Duke of Wellington, Gebhard von Blücher Strength 73,000 67,000 Anglo-Allies 60,000 Prussian (48,000 engaged by about 18:00) Casualties 25,000 killed or wounded 7,000... Horatio Hornblower is a fictional character, an officer in the British Royal Navy during the Napoleonic Wars, originally the protagonist of a series of novels by C. S. Forester, and later the subject of films and television programs. ... The Aubrey&#8211;Maturin series, also known as the Aubreyad, is a sequence of 20 historical novels by Patrick OBrian, set during the Napoleonic Wars and centering on the friendship between Captain Jack Aubrey of the Royal Navy and his ships surgeon Stephen Maturin, who is also a... Bernard Cornwell OBE (born February 23, 1944) is a prolific and popular English historical novelist. ... Richard Sharpe is the central character in Bernard Cornwells Sharpe which also formed the basis for the Sharpe television series, where the eponymous character was played by Sean Bean. ... William Makepeace Thackeray (July 18, 1811 – December 24, 1863) was a British novelist of the 19th century. ... Title-page to Vanity Fair, drawn by Thackeray, who furnished the illustrations for many of his earlier editions Vanity Fair: A Novel without a Hero is a novel by William Makepeace Thackeray that satirizes society in early 19th-century England. ... Combatants French Empire Seventh Coalition: United Kingdom Prussia United Netherlands Hanover Nassau Brunswick Commanders Napoleon Bonaparte, Michel Ney Duke of Wellington, Gebhard von Blücher Strength 73,000 67,000 Anglo-Allies 60,000 Prussian (48,000 engaged by about 18:00) Casualties 25,000 killed or wounded 7,000... Covers for the US mass-market paperback editions of the trilogy. ... Naomi Novik (1973—) is an American novelist. ... Parallel universe or alternate reality in science fiction and fantasy is a self-contained separate reality coexisting with our own. ... Lord Nicholas Ramage was the fictional character at the center of a series of sea novels written by Dudley Pope. ... Dudley Pope (29 December 1925 - 25 April 1997) was a British writer of both nautical fiction and history, most notable for his Lord Ramage series of historical novels. ... Charlotte Brontë (IPA: ) (April 21, 1816 – March 31, 1855) was an English novelist and the eldest of the three Brontë sisters whose novels have become enduring classics of English literature. ... Shirley is the name of several places in the world: Shirley, London in the London Borough of Croydon, England Shirley, West Midlands, England Shirley, New Zealand, a suburb of Christchurch Shirley, Arkansas, United States of America Shirley, Massachusetts, United States of America Shirley, New York, United States of America Shirley... This article is about the novel. ... Alexandre Dumas redirects here. ... The Count of Monte Cristo is a classic adventure novel by Alexandre Dumas, père. ... 1873 engraving of Jane Austen, based on a portrait drawn by her sister Cassandra. ... For films named Pride and Prejudice, see Pride and Prejudice (film). ...

See also

This list includes those battles which either directly involved Napoleon Bonaparte, (such as the Siege of Toulon, his Italian Campaigns, and Egyptian expedition); or, were fought during the Napoleonic Era, November 9, 1799 - June 18, 1815. ... British military history is a long and varied topic, extending from the prehistoric and ancient historic period, through the Roman invasions of Julius Cæsar and Claudius and subsequent Roman occupation; warfare in the Mediaeval period, including the invasions of the Saxons and the Vikings in the Early Middle Ages... The British invasions of the Río de la Plata (Spanish: Invasiones Inglesas al Río de la Plata) were a series of unsuccessful British attempts at military control of the Spanish colonies located around the Río de la Plata basin in South America, between 1806 and 1807, as... Henry IV at the Battle of Ivry, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... Marked by revolt, revolution, and the rise of the middle class, the period of European restoration (1814-1848) refers to the monarchical struggle for legitimacy against their citizens (see: Italian Carbonari) and military (see: Russian Decembrists) following the French Revolutionary (1789-1802) and Napoleonic (1802-1814) wars. ... Following the ouster of Napoleon Bonaparte in 1814, the Allies restored the Bourbon Dynasty to the French throne. ... Baton of a modern Marshal of France The Marshal of France (French: Maréchal de France) is a military distinction in contemporary France, not a military rank. ... The Napoleonic Wars (1799-1815) direct and indirect casualties breakdown as follows: NOTE: Deaths listed include being killed in action and/or of other causes such as dying of disease, wounds, starvation, exposure, drowning, friendly fire, atrocities etc. ... The Napoleonic Era is a period in the History of France and Europe. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article is about the U.S. – U.K. war. ... // Eastbourne Redoubt was built at what is now Royal Parade, Eastbourne, East Sussex, England between 1804 and 1810 to support the associated Martello Towers. ... Martello towers are small defensive forts built by the British Empire at the time of the Napoleonic Wars. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Buffinton, Arthur H. The Second Hundred Years' War, 1689-1815. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1929.
  2. ^ Crouzet, Francois. "The Second Hundred Years War: Some Reflections". French History 10 (1996), pp. 432-450.
  3. ^ Scott, H. M. Review: "The Second 'Hundred Years War' 1689-1815". The Historical Journal 35 (1992), pp. 443-469.

References

  • Asprey, Robert (2000). The Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-04879-X. 
  • Blanning, T. C. W. (2002). The Culture of Power and the Power of Culture. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-822745-0. 
  • Cronin, Vincent (1994). Napoleon. London: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-00-637521-9. 
  • Pope, Stephen (1999). The Cassel Dictionary of the Napoleonic Wars. Cassel. ISBN 0-304-35229-2. 
  • Schom, Alan (1998). Napoleon Bonaparte: A Life. Perennial. ISBN 0-06-092958-8. 
  • Tombs, Robert and Isabelle (2006). That Sweet Enemy. William Heinemann. ISBN 978-1-4000-4024-7. 
  • Zamoyski, Adam (2004). 1812: Napoleon's Fatal March on Moscow. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-00-718489-1. 

External links

  • The Napoleonic Wars Collection Website
  • Napoleon, His Army and Enemies
  • Napoleonic Guide
  • Chronology Napoleon
  • Chronology Wellington
  • Chronology Austria Napoleonic Wars
  • Chronology France Napoleonic Wars
  • Chronology Germany Napoleonic Wars
  • Chronology Great Britain Napoleonic Wars
  • Chronology Holland Napoleonic Wars
  • Chronology Italy Napoleonic Wars
  • Chronology Poland Napoleonic Wars
  • Chronology Russia Napoleonic Wars
  • Chronology Spain Napoleonic Wars
  • Chronology Sweden Napoleonic Wars
  • Chronology Switzerland Napoleonic Wars
  • Napoleonic Wars from the United States Military Academy
  • War and Peace by Leo Tolstoy
  • Eastbourne Redoubt Fortress Museum
  • Eastbourne Redoubt
  • Eastbourne Redoubt
  • Eastbourne Borough Council site

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... USMA redirects here. ... Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy(Lyof, Lyoff) (September 9 [O.S. August 28] 1828 – November 20 [O.S. November 7] 1910) (Russian: , IPA:  ), commonly referred to in English as Leo Tolstoy, was a Russian writer – novelist, essayist, dramatist and philosopher – as well as pacifist Christian anarchist and educational reformer. ...


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