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Encyclopedia > Napoleon I of France
Napoléon I
Emperor of the French
Napoleon in His Study by Jacques-Louis David (1812)
Reign 20 March 18046 April 1814
1 March 181522 June 1815
Coronation 2 December 1804
Full name Napoléon Bonaparte
Titles King of Italy
Mediator of the Swiss Confederation
Protector of the Confederation of the Rhine
Born August 15, 1769(1769-08-15)
Ajaccio, Corsica
Died May 5, 1821 (aged 51)
Saint Helena
Buried Les Invalides, Paris
Predecessor Louis XVI
Successor Louis XVIII
Consort Joséphine de Beauharnais
Marie Louise of Austria
Issue Napoleon II
Royal House Bonaparte
Father Carlo Buonaparte
Mother Letizia Ramolino

Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from 11 November 1799 to 18 May 1804, Emperor of the French (Empereur des Français) under the name Napoléon I (Napoléon 1er) from 18 May 1804 to 6 April 1814, and was briefly restored as Emperor from 20 March to 22 June 1815. He was also King of Italy, Mediator of the Swiss Confederation and Protector of the Confederation of the Rhine Download high resolution version (625x927, 102 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Jacques-Louis David (August 30, 1748 – December 29, 1825) was a highly influential French painter in the Neoclassical style, considered to be the prominent painter of the era. ... March 20 is the 79th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (80th in leap years). ... 1804 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... April 6 is the 96th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (97th in leap years). ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... March 1 is the 60th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (61st in leap years). ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... June 22 is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 192 days remaining. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... December 2 is the 336th day (337th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1804 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... King of Italy is a title adopted by many rulers after the fall of the Roman Empire. ... The Confederation of the Rhine in 1812 Capital Frankfurt Political structure Confederation Protector Napoleon I Primate  - 1806-1813 Karl von Dalberg  - 1813 Eugène de Beauharnais Historical era Napoleonic Wars  - Formation 12 July, 1806  - Collapse 19 October, 1813 The Confederation of the Rhine or Rhine Confederation (German: ; French: ) lasted from... August 15 is the 227th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (228th in leap years), with 138 days remaining. ... 1769 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Location within France Ajaccio (French: Ajaccio; Corsican: Aiacciu) is a city (commune) of France. ... (Territorial collectivity flag) (Territorial collectivity logo) Location Administration Capital Ajaccio President of the Executive Council Ange Santini (UMP) (since 2004) Departments Corse-du-Sud Haute-Corse Arrondissements 5 Cantons 52 Communes 360 Statistics Land area1 8,680 km² Population (Ranked 25th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... May 5 is the 125th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (126th in leap years). ... The coronation banquet for George IV 1821 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The church at the Invalides Court of the museum of the Army Les Invalides in Paris, France consists of a complex of buildings in the 7th arrondissement containing museums and monuments, all relating to Frances military history, as well as a hospital and a retirement home for war veterans... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... Louis XVI, born Louis-Auguste de France (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then as King of the French from 1791 to 1792. ... Louis XVIII (November 17, 1755 - September 16, 1824) was King of France and Navarre from 1814 (although he declared that he considered his reign to have begun in 1795) until his death in 1824, with a brief break in 1815 due to Napoleons return in the Hundred Days. ... Joséphine de Beauharnais (June 23, 1763 – May 29, 1814), born Marie Josèphe Rose Tascher de la Pagerie, became on first marriage Joséphine, Viscountess of Beauharnais[1], became on second marriage Joséphine, Empress of the French[2], was the first wife of Napoléon Bonaparte and thus... Marie Louise (full name: Maria Ludovica Leopoldina Franziska Therese Josepha Lucia von Habsburg-Lothringen, later after 1817 in Italian Maria Luigia dAsburgo-Lorena, Duchessa di Parma, Piacenza, e Guastalla) (b. ... Napoleon II, Duke of Reichstadt (March 20, 1811 – July 22, 1832) was the son of Napoleon Bonaparte, and briefly the second Emperor of the French. ... Of Italian origin, the Bonaparte (originally Buonaparte) family is the family of the Corsican Napoleon I, who was elected as first consul of France on November 10, 1799 with the help of his brother, Lucien Bonaparte, president of the Council of Five Hundred at Saint-Cloud. ... Carlo Maria Buonaparte (March 29, 1746 – February 24, 1785) was the father of Napoleon I of France. ... Maria Letizia Bonaparte nee Ramonlino (24 August 1750, Ajaccio - 2 February 1836, Rome) was born to Giovanni Geronimo Ramolino (April 13, 1723 - 1755) and Angela Maria Pietrasanta (c. ... August 15 is the 227th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (228th in leap years), with 138 days remaining. ... 1769 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Location within France Ajaccio (French: Ajaccio; Corsican: Aiacciu) is a city (commune) of France. ... (Territorial collectivity flag) (Territorial collectivity logo) Location Administration Capital Ajaccio President of the Executive Council Ange Santini (UMP) (since 2004) Departments Corse-du-Sud Haute-Corse Arrondissements 5 Cantons 52 Communes 360 Statistics Land area1 8,680 km² Population (Ranked 25th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... May 5 is the 125th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (126th in leap years). ... The coronation banquet for George IV 1821 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... A title used by Napoleon Bonaparte following his seizure of power in France. ... November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... May 18 is the 138th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (139th in leap years). ... 1804 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Map of the First French Empire in 1811, with the Empire in dark blue and sattelite states in light blue Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1804-1814/1815 Napoleon I Napoleon II Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif History  - French Consulate  - Established 18... May 18 is the 138th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (139th in leap years). ... 1804 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... April 6 is the 96th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (97th in leap years). ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... March 20 is the 79th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (80th in leap years). ... June 22 is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 192 days remaining. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... The flag of the Kingdom of Italy was a rectangular version of the flag of the Italian Republic, with Napoleons emblem on the green field. ... The Confederation of the Rhine in 1812 Capital Frankfurt Political structure Confederation Protector Napoleon I Primate  - 1806-1813 Karl von Dalberg  - 1813 Eugène de Beauharnais Historical era Napoleonic Wars  - Formation 12 July, 1806  - Collapse 19 October, 1813 The Confederation of the Rhine or Rhine Confederation (German: ; French: ) lasted from...


Over the course of little more than a decade, the armies of France under his command fought almost every European power and acquired control of most of continental Europe by conquest or alliance. He appointed several members of his family and close friends as monarchs of countries he conquered and as important government figures (his brother Lucien was Minister of the Interior of France during the Consulate). The disastrous invasion of Russia in 1812 marked a turning point. Following the Russian campaign and the defeat at Leipzig in October 1813, the Sixth Coalition invaded France, forcing Napoleon to abdicate in April 1814. He was exiled to the island of Elba. Shortly afterward, he staged a comeback known as the Hundred Days (les Cent Jours), but was defeated at Waterloo on 18 June 1815. Napoleon spent the remaining six years of his life on the island of St. Helena in the Atlantic Ocean under British supervision. The total of the deaths in the wars instigated by Napoleon in all countries has been estimated as high as 6.5 million. World map showing the location of Europe. ... Lucien Bonaparte, painted by François-Xavier Fabre, after 1800. ... The entrance to the Ministry in Place Beauvau is guarded by one gendarme (to the left) and one policewoman (to the right). ... Kazan Cathedral in St Petersburg and the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow were built to commemorate the Russian victory against Napoleon. ... Combatants French Empire Duchy of Warsaw Confederation of the Rhine[1] Austria Prussia Russia Sweden Commanders Napoleon I Jozef Antoni Poniatowski† Frederick Augustus of Saxony Barclay De Tolly Count Benningsen Prince of Schwarzenberg Gebhard von Blücher Prince Charles John of Sweden Strength 191,000 330,000 Casualties 38,000... The Sixth Coalition (1812-1814) was a coalition of Austria, Prussia, Russia, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and a number of German States against Napoleonic France. ... Elba (bottom centre) from space, February 1994. ... The Hundred Days (French Cent-Jours) or the Waterloo Campaign commonly refers to the period between 20 March 1815, the date on which Napoleon Bonaparte arrived in Paris after his return from Elba, and 8 July 1815, the date of the restoration of King Louis XVIII. The phrase Cent jours... Combatants First French Empire Seventh Coalition: United Kingdom Kingdom of Prussia United Netherlands Hanover Nassau Brunswick Commanders Napoleon Bonaparte Michel Ney Duke of Wellington Gebhard von Blücher Strength 73,000 67,000 Coalition 60,000 Prussian (48,000 engaged by about 18:00) Casualties 25,000 dead or wounded... June 18 is the 169th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (170th in leap years), with 196 days remaining. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... The Napoleonic Wars (1799-1815) direct and indirect casualties breakdown as follows: NOTE: Deaths listed include being killed in action and/or of other causes such as dying of disease, wounds, starvation, exposure, drowning, friendly fire, atrocities etc. ...


Napoleon developed few military innovations, apart from the divisional squares employed in Egypt, the placement of artillery into batteries, and replacing the division with army corps as the standard all-arms unit. He used the best tactics from a variety of sources, as well as the French army, modernized and reformed, to score several major victories. Despite his eventual defeat, his campaigns are studied at military academies all over the world and he is widely regarded as one of the greatest commanders ever to have lived. Aside from his disastrous military adventures, Napoleon is also remembered for the establishment of the Napoleonic Code (Code Napoléon). An infantry square is a battle tactic of infantry when faced with cavalry. ... Artillery with Gabion fortification Cannons on display at Fort Point Continental Artillery crew from the American Revolution Firing of an 18-pound gun, Louis-Philippe Crepin, (1772 – 1851) A forge-welded Iron Cannon in Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu. ... Remains of a battery of English cannon from Youghal, County Cork. ... Symbol of the Polish 1st Legions Infantry Division in NATO code A division is a large military unit or formation usually consisting of around ten to twenty thousand soldiers. ... A corps (plural same as singular; a word that migrated from the French language, pronounced IPA: (cor), but originating in the Latin corpus, corporis meaning body) is either a large military unit or formation, an administrative grouping of troops within an army with a common function (such as artillery or... First page of the 1804 original edition The Napoleonic Code, or Code Napoléon (originally called the Code civil des Français) was the French civil code, established at the behest of Napoléon I. It was drafted rapidly by a commission of four eminent jurists and entered into force...

Contents

Early life

Napoleon Bonaparte as a young officer

He was born Napoleone di Buonaparte (in Corsican, Nabolione or Nabulione) in the town of Ajaccio on Corsica, France, on 15 August 1769, one year after the island was transferred to France by the Republic of Genoa. He later adopted the more French-sounding Napoléon Bonaparte. Download high resolution version (512x768, 36 KB) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Download high resolution version (512x768, 36 KB) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Corsican (Corsu or Lingua Corsa) is a Romance language spoken on the island of Corsica (France), alongside French, which is the official language. ... Location within France Ajaccio (French: Ajaccio; Corsican: Aiacciu) is a city (commune) of France. ... (Territorial collectivity flag) (Territorial collectivity logo) Location Administration Capital Ajaccio President of the Executive Council Ange Santini (UMP) (since 2004) Departments Corse-du-Sud Haute-Corse Arrondissements 5 Cantons 52 Communes 360 Statistics Land area1 8,680 km² Population (Ranked 25th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... August 15 is the 227th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (228th in leap years), with 138 days remaining. ... 1769 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The Republic of Genoa, in full the Most Serene Republic of Genoa (known as the Ligurian Republic from 1798 to 1805) was an independent state in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast from ca. ...


The family, formerly known as Buonaparte, were minor Italian nobility coming from Tuscan stock of Lombard origin set in Lunigiana.[2] The family moved to Florence and later broke into two branches; the original one, Buonaparte-Sarzana, were compelled to leave Florence, coming to Corsica in the 16th century when the island was a possession of the Republic of Genoa. Tuscany (Italian Toscana) is a region in central Italy, bordering on Latium to the south, Umbria to the east, Emilia-Romagna and Liguria to the north, and the Tyrrhenian Sea to the west. ... The Lombards (Latin Langobardi, whence comes the alternative name Longobards found in older English texts), were a Germanic people originally from Northern Europe that entered the late Roman Empire. ... Lunigiana is an historical territory of Italy, which today falls within the provinces of La Spezia and Massa Carrara. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... The Republic of Genoa, in full the Most Serene Republic of Genoa (known as the Ligurian Republic from 1798 to 1805) was an independent state in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast from ca. ...


His father Carlo Buonaparte born 1746 in the Republic of Genoa; an attorney, he was named Corsica's representative to the court of Louis XVI in 1778, where he remained for a number of years. The dominant influence of Napoleon's childhood was his mother, Maria Letizia Ramolino.[3] Her firm discipline helped restrain the rambunctious Napoleon, nicknamed Rabullione (the "meddler" or "disrupter"). Carlo Maria Buonaparte (March 29, 1746 – February 24, 1785) was the father of Napoleon I of France. ... The Republic of Genoa, in full the Most Serene Republic of Genoa (known as the Ligurian Republic from 1798 to 1805) was an independent state in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast from ca. ... Louis XVI, born Louis-Auguste de France (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then as King of the French from 1791 to 1792. ... Maria Letizia Bonaparte nee Ramonlino (24 August 1750, Ajaccio - 2 February 1836, Rome) was born to Giovanni Geronimo Ramolino (April 13, 1723 - 1755) and Angela Maria Pietrasanta (c. ...


Napoleon was a younger brother of Joseph Bonaparte. He was an older brother of Lucien Bonaparte, Elisa Bonaparte, Louis Bonaparte, Pauline Bonaparte, Caroline Bonaparte and Jérôme Bonaparte. Joseph Bonaparte Joseph Napoleon Bonaparte, King of Naples, King of Spain (January 7, 1768 – July 28, 1844) was the older brother of French Emperor Napoleon I, who made him King of Naples and Sicily (1806–1808) and later King of Spain. ... Lucien Bonaparte, painted by François-Xavier Fabre, after 1800. ... Maria Anna Elisa Bonaparte Bacciochi, Grand Duchess of Tuscany (January 13, 1777 - August 7, 1820) was the fourth surviving child and eldest surviving daughter of Carlo Buonaparte and Letizia Ramolino. ... Louis I Napoleon Bonaparte, King of Holland, Grand Duke of Berg and Cleves, Count of Saint-Leu (Lodewijk Napoleon in Dutch) (September 2, 1778 – July 25, 1846) was the fifth surviving child and fourth surviving son of Carlo Buonaparte and Letizia Ramolino. ... Pauline Bonaparte, Princess and Duchess of Guastalla (October 20, 1780- June 9, 1825) (she spelled the named Buonaparte) was the younger sister of Napoleon I of France, and was his favorite sister. ... Caroline Bonaparte Maria Annunziata Carolina Bonaparte, Queen of Naples, Grand Duchess of Berg and Cleves (Ajaccio, Corsica, 25 March 1782 – 18 May 1839 in Florence), better known as Caroline Bonaparte, was the seventh surviving child and third surviving daughter of Carlo Buonaparte and Letizia Ramolino. ... Jérôme Bonaparte Jérôme Bonaparte, King of Westphalia (November 15, 1784 - June 24, 1860) was the youngest brother of Napoleon, who made him King of Westphalia (1807-1813). ...


Napoleon's noble, moderately affluent background and family connections afforded him greater opportunities to study than were available to a typical Corsican of the time. On 15 May 1779, at age nine, Napoleon was admitted to a French military school at Brienne-le-Château, a small town near Troyes. He had to learn French before entering the school, but he spoke with a marked Italian accent throughout his life and never learned to spell properly.[4] It was here that Bonaparte first met the Champagne maker Jean-Remy Moët. The friendship of these two men would have lasting impact on the history of the Champagne region and on the beverage itself.[5] Upon graduation from Brienne in 1784, Bonaparte was admitted to the elite École Royale Militaire in Paris, where he completed the two-year course of study in only one year. An examiner judged him as "very applied [to the study of] abstract sciences, little curious as to the others; [having] a thorough knowledge of mathematics and geography[.]"[6] Although he had initially sought a naval assignment, he studied artillery at the École Militaire. May 15 is the 135th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (136th in leap years). ... 1779 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... There are three types of military academies: High school level institutions (up to age 19), university level institutions, and those only serving to prepare officer cadets for commissioning into the armed services of a state ( such as RMA Sandhurst ). United States usage The term Military School primarily refers to (middle... Brienne-le-Château is a commune of the Aube département, in France. ... Troyes is a town in northeastern France. ... It has been suggested that Blanc de noirs be merged into this article or section. ... Jean-Remy Moët Jean-Remy Moët (1758 – 1841) was a French vintner and wine merchant who helped bring the Champagne house of Moët et Chandon to international prominence. ... Location of the Champagne province in France The Champagne wine region (archaic English: ) is a historic province within the Champagne administrative province in the northeast of France. ... Building of the École Militaire The École Militaire (French for military school) is a vast complex of buildings housing various military teaching facilities located in Paris, France southeast of the Champ-de-Mars. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... Artillery with Gabion fortification Cannons on display at Fort Point Continental Artillery crew from the American Revolution Firing of an 18-pound gun, Louis-Philippe Crepin, (1772 – 1851) A forge-welded Iron Cannon in Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu. ...


Early military career

Upon graduation in September 1785, he was commissioned as a second lieutenant in La Fère artillery regiment and took up his new duties in January 1786 at the age of 16.[7] Napoleon served on garrison duty in Valence and Auxonne until after the outbreak of the Revolution in 1789 (although he took nearly two years of leave in Corsica and Paris during this period). He spent most of the next several years on Corsica, where a complex three-way struggle was playing out between royalists, revolutionaries, and Corsican nationalists. Bonaparte supported the Jacobin faction and gained the rank of lieutenant-colonel of a regiment of volunteers. After coming into conflict with the increasingly conservative nationalist leader, Pasquale Paoli, Bonaparte and his family were forced to flee to France in June 1793. An officer is a member of a military or naval service who holds a position of responsibility. ... Second Lieutenant is the lowest commissioned rank in many armed forces. ... Location within France Champs de Mars and Kiosque Peynet in Valence A World War I memorial in Valence ville Valence is a commune in south-eastern France, the capital of the département of Drôme, situated on the left bank of the Rhône, 65 miles south of Lyon... Auxonne is a town in the département of Côte dOr in France, over the Saône river. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... It has been suggested that Jacobin/Sandbox be merged into this article or section. ... Pasquale Paoli (April 6, 1725 – February 5, 1807), was a Corsican patriot and military leader, most famous for being the chief rival of French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte. ...


Through the help of fellow Corsican Saliceti, Napoleon was appointed as artillery commander in the French forces besieging Toulon, which had risen in revolt against the republican government and was occupied by British troops. He formulated a successful plan: he placed guns at Point l'Eguillete, threatening the British ships in the harbour, forcing them to evacuate. A successful assault, during which Bonaparte was wounded in the thigh, led to the recapture of the city and a promotion to brigadier-general. His actions brought him to the attention of the Committee of Public Safety, and he became a close associate of Augustin Robespierre, younger brother of the Revolutionary leader Maximilien Robespierre. As a result, he was briefly imprisoned in the Chateau d'Antibes on 6 August 1794 following the fall of the elder Robespierre, but was released within two weeks. Antoine Christophe Saliceti (1757-1809), French revolutionist, was born at Saliceto, in Corsica, on the 26th of August 1757, of a family of Piacenza. ... Panorama of Toulon area Satellite view Coat of Arms of Toulon view of Toulon harbour around 1750, by Joseph Vernet. ... Motto: (Liberty, equality, brotherhood, or death!) Anthem: La Marseillaise (unofficial) Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Republic Various  - 1792-1795 National Convention (rule by legislature)  - 1794-1799 Directory  - 1799-1804 First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte Legislature National Convention French Directory French Consulate History  - Storming of the Bastille/French Revolution 14 July... The Committee of Public Safety (French: Comité de salut public), set up by the National Convention on April 6, 1793, formed the de facto executive government of France during the Reign of Terror (1793 - 1794) of the French Revolution. ... Augustin Bon Joseph de Robespierre (January 21, 1763 - July 28, 1794) was the younger brother of French Revolutionary leader, Maximilien Robespierre. ... Anonymous Portrait of Maximilien Robespierre c. ... August 6 is the 218th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (219th in leap years), with 147 days remaining. ... 1794 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


"Whiff of grapeshot"

For more details on this topic, see 13 Vendémiaire.

In 1795, Bonaparte was serving in Paris when royalists and counter-revolutionaries organized an armed protest against the National Convention on 3 October. Bonaparte was given command of the improvised forces defending the Convention in the Tuileries Palace. He seized artillery pieces with the aid of a young cavalry officer, Joachim Murat, who later became his brother-in-law. He used the artillery the following day to repel the attackers. He later boasted that he had cleared the streets with a "whiff of grapeshot", although the fighting had been vicious throughout Paris. This triumph earned him sudden fame, wealth, and the patronage of the new Directory, particularly that of its leader, Barras. Within weeks he was romantically attached to Barras's former mistress, Josephine de Beauharnais, whom he married on 9 March 1796. The Journée of 13 Vendémaire, Year 4, The St. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... This article is about a legislative body and constitutional convention during the French Revolution. ... October 3 is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Up to 1871 the Tuileries Palace was a palace in Paris, France, on the right bank of the River Seine. ... Joachim Murat, King of Naples, Marshal of France. ... Grapeshot was a kind of anti-personnel ammunition used in cannons. ... Executive Directory (in French Directoire exécutif), commonly known as the Directory (or Directoire) held executive power in France from November 2, 1795 until November 10, 1799: following the Convention and preceding the Consulate. ... Paul François Jean Nicolas Barras Paul François Jean Nicolas, vicomte de Barras (June 30, 1755 – January 29, 1829) was a French revolutionary and the main executive leader of the Directory regime of 1795 - 1799. ... Joséphine de Beauharnais, Empress Joséphine Joséphine de Beauharnais (June 23, 1763 - May 29, 1814) was the first wife of Napoléon Bonaparte, and became Empress of France. ... March 9 is the 68th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (69th in leap years). ... Year 1796 (MDCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Italian campaign of 1796–97

Napoleon at the Bridge of the Arcole by Baron Antoine-Jean Gros, (ca. 1801), Louvre, Paris
Napoleon at the Bridge of the Arcole by Baron Antoine-Jean Gros, (ca. 1801), Louvre, Paris

Days after his marriage, Bonaparte took command of the French "Army of Italy" on 27 March 1796, leading it on a successful invasion of Italy. At the Lodi, he gained the nickname of "The Little Corporal" (le petit caporal), a term reflecting his camaraderie with his soldiers, many of whom he knew by name. He drove the Austrians out of Lombardy and defeated the army of the Papal States. Because Pope Pius VI had protested the execution of Louis XVI, France retaliated by annexing two small papal territories. Bonaparte ignored the Directory's order to march on Rome and dethrone the Pope. It was not until the next year that General Berthier captured Rome and took Pius VI prisoner on 20 February. The pope died of illness while in captivity. In early 1797, Bonaparte led his army into Austria and forced that power to sue for peace. The resulting Treaty of Campo Formio gave France control of most of northern Italy, along with the Low Countries and Rhineland, but a secret clause promised Venice to Austria. Bonaparte then marched on Venice and forced its surrender, ending over 1,000 years of independence. Later in 1797, Bonaparte organized many of the French dominated territories in Italy into the Cisalpine Republic. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 408 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1037 × 1523 pixel, file size: 798 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) c. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 408 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1037 × 1523 pixel, file size: 798 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) c. ... The battle of Arcole Napoleon had 19000 men and DAlvincy 24000 well trained and well equiped. ... Napoleon on the battlefield of Preussisch-Eylau (detail), 1808. ... Look up Circa on Wiktionary, the free dictionary The Latin word circa, literally meaning about, is often used to describe various dates (often birth and death dates) that are uncertain. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... March 27 is the 86th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (87th in leap years). ... Year 1796 (MDCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... The French Revolutionary Wars continued from 1795, with the French in an increasingly strong position as members of the First Coalition made separate peaces. ... Italic textThe Battle of Lodi took place at Lodi, Lombardy, Italy on May 10, 1796. ... Lombardy (Italian: Lombardia, Lombard: Lumbardìa) is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. ... Coat of arms Map of the Papal States; the reddish area was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy in 1860, the rest (grey) in 1870. ... Pius VI, born Giovanni Angelo Braschi (December 27, 1717 – August 29, 1799), Pope from 1775 to 1799, was born at Cesena. ... Louis XVI, born Louis-Auguste de France (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then as King of the French from 1791 to 1792. ... Executive Directory (in French Directoire exécutif), commonly known as the Directory (or Directoire) held executive power in France from November 2, 1795 until November 10, 1799: following the Convention and preceding the Consulate. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... Louis Alexandre Berthier, prince de Neuchâtel (February 20, 1753 - June 1, 1815), marshal of France and chief of the staff under Napoleon I, was born at Versailles. ... February 20 is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The French Revolutionary Wars continued from 1796, with France fighting the First Coalition including Austria and Great Britain. ... Suing for peace is an act by a warring nation to initiate a peace process in which the peace terms are more favorable than an unconditional surrender. ... The Treaty of Campo Formio was signed on October 17, 1797 (26 Vendémiaire, Year VI of the French Republic) by Napoleon Bonaparte and Count Ludwig von Cobenzl as representatives of France and Austria. ... The Low Countries, the historical region of de Nederlanden, are the countries (see Country) on low-lying land around the delta of the Rhine, Scheldt, and Meuse (Maas) rivers. ... The Rhineland (Rheinland in German) is the general name for the land on both sides of the river Rhine in the west of Germany. ... Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796 Capital Venice Language(s) Italian, Latin Religion Roman Catholic Government Republic Doge  - 1789-1797 Ludovico Manin History  - Established 727 (697)  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797 Map of the Venetian Republic, circa 1000. ... The flag of the Cisalpine Republic was the Transpadane Republic vertical Italian tricolour, with the square shape of the Cispadane Republic The Cisalpine Republic (Italian: Repubblica Cisalpina) was a French client republic in Northern Italy that lasted from 1797 to 1802. ...


His remarkable series of military triumphs were a result of his ability to apply his encyclopedic knowledge of conventional military thought to real-world situations, as demonstrated by his creative use of artillery tactics, using it as a mobile force to support his infantry. As he described it: "I have fought sixty battles and I have learned nothing which I did not know at the beginning." Contemporary paintings of his headquarters during the Italian campaign depict his use of the Chappe semaphore line, first implemented in 1792. He was also a master of both intelligence and deception and had an uncanny sense of knowing when to strike. He often won battles by concentrating his forces on an unsuspecting enemy by using spies to gather information about opposing forces and by concealing his own troop deployments. In this campaign, often considered his greatest, Napoleon's army captured 160,000 prisoners, 2,000 cannons, and 170 standards. A year of campaigning had witnessed major breaks with the traditional norms of 18th century warfare and marked a new era in military history. Artillery with Gabion fortification Cannons on display at Fort Point Continental Artillery crew from the American Revolution Firing of an 18-pound gun, Louis-Philippe Crepin, (1772 – 1851) A forge-welded Iron Cannon in Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu. ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I. Infantry are soldiers who fight primarily on foot with small arms in organized military units, though they may be transported to the battlefield by horses, ships, automobiles, skis, or other means. ... Claude Chappe Claude Chappe (December 25, 1763 – January 23, 1805) was a French inventor who in 1792 demonstrated a practical semaphore system that eventually spanned all of France. ... A Chappe semaphore tower near Saverne, France // The semaphore or optical telegraph is an apparatus for conveying information by means of visual signals, with towers with pivoting blades or paddles, shutters, in a matrix, or hand-held flags etc. ... Spy and Secret agent redirect here. ... The word standard has several meanings: Classically, standard referred to a flag or banner; especially, a national or other ensign carried into battle; thus standard bearer indicates the one who bears, or carries, the standard. ...


While campaigning in Italy, General Bonaparte became increasingly influential in French politics. He published two newspapers, ostensibly for the troops in his army, but widely circulated within France as well. In May 1797 he founded a third newspaper, published in Paris, entitled Le Journal de Bonaparte et des hommes vertueux. Elections in mid-1797 gave the royalist party increased power, alarming Barras and his allies on the Directory. The royalists, in turn, began attacking Bonaparte for looting Italy and overstepping his authority in dealings with the Austrians. Bonaparte sent General Augereau to Paris to lead a coup d'etat and purge the royalists on 4 September (18 Fructidor). This left Barras and his Republican allies in firm control again, but dependent on Bonaparte's military command to stay there. Bonaparte himself proceeded to the peace negotiations with Austria, then returned to Paris in December as the conquering hero and the dominant force in government, far more popular than any of the Directors. Executive Directory (in French Directoire exécutif), commonly known as the Directory (or Directoire) held executive power in France from November 2, 1795 until November 10, 1799: following the Convention and preceding the Consulate. ... Pierre François Charles Augereau, duc de Castiglione Pierre François Charles Augereau, duc de Castiglione (October 21, 1757 – June 12, 1816) was a French General, marshal of France and protagonist of both the French Revolutionary Wars and Napoleonic Wars. ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... September 4 is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years). ... Executive Directory (in French Directoire exécutif), commonly known as the Directory (or Directoire) held executive power in France from November 2, 1795 until November 10, 1799: following the Convention and preceding the Consulate. ... Executive Directory (in French Directoire exécutif), commonly known as the Directory (or Directoire) held executive power in France from November 2, 1795 until November 10, 1799: following the Convention and preceding the Consulate. ...


Egyptian expedition of 1798–99

Napoleon visiting the plague victims of Jaffa, by Antoine-Jean Gros
Napoleon visiting the plague victims of Jaffa, by Antoine-Jean Gros

In March 1798, Bonaparte proposed a military expedition to seize Egypt, then a province of the Ottoman Empire, seeking to protect French trade interests and undermine Britain's access to India. The Directory, although troubled by the scope and cost of the enterprise, readily agreed to the plan in order to remove the popular general from the center of power. Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... Napoleon on the battlefield of Preussisch-Eylau (detail), 1808. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–22 Mehmed VI... Executive Directory (in French Directoire exécutif), commonly known as the Directory (or Directoire) held executive power in France from November 2, 1795 until November 10, 1799: following the Convention and preceding the Consulate. ...


An unusual aspect of the Egyptian expedition was the inclusion of a large group of scientists assigned to the French expeditionary force: among their discoveries was the finding of the Rosetta Stone. This deployment of intellectual resources is considered by some an indication of Bonaparte's devotion to the principles of the Enlightenment, and by others as a masterstroke of propaganda, obfuscating the true imperialist motives of the invasion. In a largely unsuccessful effort to gain the support of the Egyptian populace, Bonaparte also issued proclamations casting himself as a liberator of the people from Ottoman oppression, and praising the precepts of Islam. The Rosetta Stone in the British Museum. ... ... Soviet Propaganda Poster during the Great Patriotic War. ... // Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. ... A proclamation (Lat. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–22 Mehmed VI... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ...


Bonaparte's expedition seized Malta from the Knights of Saint John on 9 June and then landed successfully at Alexandria on 1 July, temporarily eluding pursuit by the Royal Navy. The Knights Hospitaller (the or Knights of Malta or Knights of Rhodes) is a tradition which began as a Benedictine nursing Order founded in the 11th century based in the Holy Land, but soon became a militant Christian Chivalric Order under its own charter, and was charged with the care... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... Alexandria (Greek: , Coptic: , Arabic: , Egyptian Arabic: Iskindireyya), (population of 3. ... July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 183 days remaining. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ...


After landing on the coast of Egypt, he fought the Battle of the Pyramids against the Mamelukes, an old power in the Middle East, approximately 4 miles from the pyramids. Bonaparte's forces were greatly outnumbered by the Mamelukes cavalry, 20,000 to 60,000,[8] but Bonaparte formed hollow squares, keeping cannons and supplies safely on the inside. In all, only 300 French were killed, as opposed to approximately 6,000 Egyptians. Combatants French Republic Mamluks Commanders Napoleon Bonaparte Murad Bey Strength 20,000[1] 60,000[1] Casualties 300 5,000-6,000 Battle of the Pyramids, Francois-Louis-Joseph Watteau, 1798-1799. ... An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (or Mameluks) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim Caliphs and the Ottoman Empire, and who on more than one occasion seized power for... This is about the polyhedron. ... An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (or Mameluks) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim Caliphs and the Ottoman Empire, and who on more than one occasion seized power for...


While the battle on land was a resounding French victory, the British Royal Navy managed to compensate at sea. The ships that had landed Bonaparte and his army sailed back to France, but a fleet of ships of the line that had come with them remained to support the army along the coast. On 1 August the British fleet under Horatio Nelson fought the French in the Battle of the Nile capturing or destroying all but two French vessels. With Bonaparte land-bound, his goal of strengthening the French position in the Mediterranean Sea was frustrated, but his army nonetheless succeeded in consolidating power in Egypt, although it faced repeated uprisings. The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ... Ships of the line were 1st, 2nd, or 3rd-rated ships in the rating system of the Royal Navy. ... August 1 is the 213th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (214th in leap years), with 152 days remaining. ... Lord Nelson Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson (September 29, 1758 – October 21, 1805) was a British admiral who won fame as a leading naval commander. ... Battle of the Nile Conflict French Revolutionary Wars Date August 1, 1798 – August 2, 1798 Place Aboukir Bay, Egypt Result Decisive British victory The Battle of the Nile, also known as the Battle of Aboukir Bay, was an important naval battle of the French Revolutionary Wars between a British... Composite satellite image of the Mediterranean Sea. ...

Bonaparte Before the Sphinx, (ca. 1868) by Jean-Léon Gérôme, Hearst Castle
Bonaparte Before the Sphinx, (ca. 1868) by Jean-Léon Gérôme, Hearst Castle

In early 1799, he led the army into the Ottoman province of Syria, now modern Israel and Syria, and defeated numerically superior Ottoman forces in several battles, but his army was weakened by disease, mostly bubonic plague, and poor supplies. Napoleon led 13,000 French soldiers to the conquest of the coastal towns of El Arish, Gaza, Jaffa, and Haifa. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 474 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1214 pixel, file size: 146 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Napoleon I of France User:D... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 474 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1214 pixel, file size: 146 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Napoleon I of France User:D... Look up Circa on Wiktionary, the free dictionary The Latin word circa, literally meaning about, is often used to describe various dates (often birth and death dates) that are uncertain. ... Pollice Verso by Jean-Léon Gérôme, 1872, is the immediate source of the thumbs down gesture in popular culture. ... The Hearst Castle facade is patterned after a Spanish cathedral. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–22 Mehmed VI... Bubonic plague is the best-known variant of the deadly infectious disease, plague, which is caused by the enterobacteria Yersinia pestis. ... Articles with similar titles include the Spanish name Garza. ... Jaffa port Jaffa ( Hebrew: יָפוֹ, Yafo Arabic: يَافَا  ; also Japho, Joppa; also, ~1350 B.C.E. Amarna Letters: Yapu; ), is an ancient port city located in south Tel Aviv, Israel on the Mediterranean Sea. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


The storming of Jaffa was particularly brutal. Although the French took control of the city within a few hours after the attack began, the French soldiers bayoneted approximately 2,000 Turkish soldiers who were trying to surrender. The soldiers' ferocity then turned to the inhabitants of the town. Men, women, and children were robbed and murdered for three days, and the massacre ended with even more bloodshed, as Napoleon ordered that 3,000 additional Turkish prisoners be executed. [4]


After his army was weakened by the plague, Napoleon was unable to reduce the fortress of Acre, and was forced to return to Egypt in May. In order to speed up the retreat, Bonaparte took the controversial step of killing prisoners and plague-stricken men along the way. His supporters have argued that this decision was necessary given the continuing harassment of stragglers by Ottoman forces. Back in Egypt, on 25 July, Bonaparte defeated an Ottoman amphibious invasion at Abukir. The city of Acre [1] is in the Western Galilee district in northern Israel. ... July 25 is the 206th day (207th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 159 days remaining. ... Combatants France Ottoman Turks Commanders Napoleon Bonaparte Mustafa IV Strength 10,000 8,000 Casualties 1,000 killed and wounded 6,000 killed, wounded, or drowned. ...


With the Egyptian campaign stagnating, and political instability developing back home, Bonaparte left Egypt for France in August, 1799, leaving his army under General Kléber. Jean Baptiste Kléber. ...


Ruler of France

Coup d'état of 18 Brumaire

Main article: 18 Brumaire
Napoleonic Empire, 1811: France in dark blue, satellite states in light blue
Napoleonic Empire, 1811: France in dark blue, satellite states in light blue

While in Egypt, Bonaparte tried to keep a close eye on European affairs, relying largely on newspapers and dispatches that arrived only irregularly. On 23 August 1799, he abruptly set sail for France, taking advantage of the temporary departure of British ships blockading French coastal ports. Napoléon Bonaparte in the coup détat of 18 brumaire. ... Image File history File links Europe_map_Napoleon_1811. ... Image File history File links Europe_map_Napoleon_1811. ... August 23 is the 235th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (236th in leap years), with 130 days remaining. ... 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


Although he was later accused of abandoning his troops, his departure had been ordered by the Directory, which had suffered a series of military defeats to the forces of the Second Coalition, and feared an invasion. Executive Directory (in French Directoire exécutif), commonly known as the Directory (or Directoire) held executive power in France from November 2, 1795 until November 10, 1799: following the Convention and preceding the Consulate. ... By 1799, the French Revolutionary Wars had resumed after a period of relative peace in 1798. ... The name Second Coalition (1798 - 1800) designates the second major concerted effort of multiple European powers to contain Revolutionary France. ...


By the time he returned to Paris in October, the military situation had improved due to several French victories. The Republic was bankrupt, however, and the corrupt and inefficient Directory was unpopular with the French public more than ever. The French Republic or France (French: République française or France) is a country whose metropolitan territory is located in western Europe, and which is further made up of a collection of overseas islands and territories located in other continents. ...


Bonaparte was approached by one of the Directors, Sieyès, seeking his support for a coup to overthrow the constitution. The plot included Bonaparte's brother Lucien, then serving as speaker of the Council of Five Hundred, Roger Ducos, another Director, and Talleyrand. On 9 November (18 Brumaire), and the following day, troops led by Bonaparte seized control and dispersed the legislative councils, leaving a rump to name Bonaparte, Sieyès, and Ducos as provisional Consuls to administer the government. Although Sieyès expected to dominate the new regime, he was outmanoeuvred by Bonaparte, who drafted the Constitution of the Year VIII and secured his own election as First Consul. This made him the most powerful person in France, a power that was increased by the Constitution of the Year X, which declared him First Consul for life. Emmanuel Joseph Sieyes, 1817, by Jacques-Louis David Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès (May 3, 1748 – June 20, 1836) (IPA: or ) was a French abbé and statesman, one of the chief theorists of the French Revolution, French Consulate, and First French Empire. ... Lucien Bonaparte, painted by François-Xavier Fabre, after 1800. ... The Council of Five Hundred (Conseil des Cinq-Cents), or simply the Five Hundred was the lower house of the legislature of France during the period commonly known (from the name of the executive branch during this time) as the Directory (Directoire), from August 22, 1795 until November 9, 1799... French politician (1747–1816) - Homme politique, philosophe, etc. ... Charles Maurice de Talleyrand Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord (February 2, 1754 - May 17, 1838) was a French diplomat. ... November 9 is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 52 days remaining. ... Napoléon Bonaparte in the coup détat of 18 brumaire. ... A rump state is the remnant of a once-larger government, left with limited powers or authority after a disaster, invasion or military occupation. ... The Constitution of the Year VIII, was a national constitution of France adopted December 24, 1799 (during the Year VIII of the French Revolutionary Calendar) established a form of government known as the Consulate. ... A title used by Napoleon Bonaparte following his seizure of power in France. ... The Constitution of the Year X was a national constitution of France adopted during the Year X (1802) of the French Revolutionary Calendar. ... A title used by Napoleon Bonaparte following his seizure of power in France. ...


First Consul

Main article: French Consulate

Bonaparte instituted several lasting reforms, including centralized administration of the départements, higher education, a tax system, a central bank, law codes, and road and sewer systems. He negotiated the Concordat of 1801 with the Catholic Church, seeking to reconcile the mostly Catholic population with his regime. His set of civil laws, the Napoleonic Code or Civil Code, has importance to this day in many countries. The Code was prepared by committees of legal experts under the supervision of Jean Jacques Régis de Cambacérès, who held the office Second Consul from 1799 to 1804; Bonaparte, however, participated actively in the sessions of the Council of State that revised the drafts. Other codes were commissioned by Bonaparte to codify criminal and commerce law. In 1808, a Code of Criminal Instruction was published, which enacted precise rules of judicial procedure. Although contemporary standards may consider these procedures as favouring the prosecution, when enacted they sought to preserve personal freedoms and to remedy the prosecutorial abuses commonplace in European courts. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The départements (or departments) are administrative units of France, roughly analogous to British counties and are now grouped into 22 metropolitan and four overseas régions. ... The Concordat of 1801 reaffirmed the Roman Catholic Church as the major religion of France and restored some of its civil status. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... First page of the 1804 original edition The Napoleonic Code, or Code Napoléon (originally called the Code civil des Français) was the French civil code, established at the behest of Napoléon I. It was drafted rapidly by a commission of four eminent jurists and entered into force... Jean-Jacques-Régis de Cambacérès Jean-Jacques-Régis de Cambacérès, Duke of Parma, (18 October 1753 - 8 March 1824), French lawyer and statesman, is best remembered as the author of the Code Napoléon, which still forms the basis of French law. ... Originally, three equal Consuls made up the government established by Napoleon Bonaparte after the coup of 18 Brumaire (November 9, 1799), which established the Consulate in France (1799-1804). ... In France, the Conseil dÉtat (English: Council of State and sometimes Counsel of State) is an organ of the French national government. ...

Napoléon crossing the Alps, by Jacques-Louis David. Notice the names of Hannibal, Charlemagne (Karolus Magnus), and Bonaparte in the rocks below
Napoléon crossing the Alps, by Jacques-Louis David. Notice the names of Hannibal, Charlemagne (Karolus Magnus), and Bonaparte in the rocks below

In 1800, Bonaparte returned to Italy, which the Austrians had reconquered during his absence in Egypt. He and his troops crossed the Alps in spring (although he actually rode a mule, not the white charger on which David famously depicted him). While the campaign began badly, the Austrians were eventually routed in June at Marengo, leading to an armistice. Napoleon's brother Joseph, who was leading the peace negotiations in Lunéville, reported that due to British backing for Austria, Austria would not recognize France's newly gained territory. As negotiations became more and more fractious, Bonaparte gave orders to his general Moreau to strike Austria once more. Moreau led France to victory at Hohenlinden. As a result the Treaty of Lunéville was signed in February 1801, under which the French gains of the Treaty of Campo Formio were reaffirmed and increased. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (640x800, 158 KB) Napoleon Crossing the Alps painted by Jacques-Louis David (1748-1825), oil on canvas, 259 x 221 cm (8 6 x 7 3), 1801, Musée national du château de Malmaison - R.M.N. File links The... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (640x800, 158 KB) Napoleon Crossing the Alps painted by Jacques-Louis David (1748-1825), oil on canvas, 259 x 221 cm (8 6 x 7 3), 1801, Musée national du château de Malmaison - R.M.N. File links The... Jacques-Louis David (August 30, 1748 – December 29, 1825) was a highly influential French painter in the Neoclassical style, considered to be the prominent painter of the era. ... Hannibal, the son of Hamilcar Barca, (247 BC – ca. ... A portrait of Charlemagne by Albrecht Dürer that was painted several centuries after Charlemagnes death. ... Of Italian origin, the Bonaparte (originally Buonaparte) family is the family of the Corsican Napoleon I, who was elected as first consul of France on November 10, 1799 with the help of his brother, Lucien Bonaparte, president of the Council of Five Hundred at Saint-Cloud. ... Jacques-Louis David (August 30, 1748 – December 29, 1825) was a highly influential French painter in the Neoclassical style, considered to be the prominent painter of the era. ... The Battle of Marengo was fought in Italy on June 14, 1800 as the decisive battle of the war of the Second Coalition. ... Joseph Bonaparte Joseph Napoleon Bonaparte, King of Naples, King of Spain (January 7, 1768 – July 28, 1844) was the older brother of French Emperor Napoleon I, who made him King of Naples and Sicily (1806–1808) and later King of Spain. ... Lunéville is a commune in the French région of Lorraine. ... Jean Victor Marie Moreau Jean Victor Mark Andrew Moreau (February 14, 1763 – September 2, 1813) was a French general. ... Combatants First French Republic Austrian empire Commanders General Moreau Archduke John Strength 180,000 120,000 Casualties 6,000 dead and wounded 8,000 dead and wounded, 12,000 captured, 200 cannons lost The Battle of Hohenlinden near Munich was fought on December 3, 1800, during the French Revolutionary Wars. ... The Treaty of Lunéville was signed on February 9, 1801 between the French Republic and the Holy Roman Empire by Joseph Bonaparte and Louis, Count Cobentzel, respectively. ... The Treaty of Campo Formio was signed on October 17, 1797 (26 Vendémiaire, Year VI of the French Republic) by Napoleon Bonaparte and Count Ludwig von Cobenzl as representatives of France and Austria. ...


Interlude of peace

Sacre of the Emperor Napoleon I and the crowning of the Empress Joséphine in the cathedral of Notre-Dame of Paris, memorialized by Jacques-Louis David
Sacre of the Emperor Napoleon I and the crowning of the Empress Joséphine in the cathedral of Notre-Dame of Paris, memorialized by Jacques-Louis David

The British signed the Treaty of Amiens in March 1802, which set terms for peace, including the withdrawal of British troops from several colonial territories recently occupied. The peace between France and Britain was uneasy and short-lived. The monarchies of Europe were reluctant to recognize a republic, fearing that the ideas of the revolution might be exported to them. In Britain, the brother of Louis XVI was welcomed as a state guest although officially Britain recognized France as a republic. Britain failed to evacuate Malta, as promised, and protested against France's annexation of Piedmont, and Napoleon's Act of Mediation in Switzerland (although neither of these areas was covered by the Treaty of Amiens). Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (3008 × 2000 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (3008 × 2000 pixel, file size: 3. ... Jacques-Louis David (August 30, 1748 – December 29, 1825) was a highly influential French painter in the Neoclassical style, considered to be the prominent painter of the era. ... The Treaty of Amiens was signed on March 25, 1802 (Germinal 4, year X in the French Revolutionary Calendar) by Joseph Bonaparte and the Marquis Cornwallis as a Definitive Treaty of Peace between France and the United Kingdom. ... Louis XVIII (November 17, 1755 - September 16, 1824) was King of France and Navarre from 1814 (although he declared that he considered his reign to have begun in 1795) until his death in 1824, with a brief break in 1815 due to Napoleons return in the Hundred Days. ... Ceremonies during the annexation of Hawaii. ... For other uses, see Piedmont (disambiguation). ... The Act of Mediation was issued by Napoleon Bonaparte on 19 February 1803, abolishing the Helvetic Republic which had existed since the invasion of Switerland by French troops in 1798. ...


In 1803, Bonaparte faced a major setback when an army he sent to reconquer Haiti and establish a base was destroyed by a combination of yellow fever and fierce resistance led by Toussaint L'Ouverture and Jean-Jacques Dessalines. Recognizing that the French possessions on the mainland of North America would now be indefensible, and facing imminent war with Britain, he sold them to the United States —the Louisiana Purchase—for less than three cents per acre ($7.40/km²). The dispute over Malta ended up with Britain declaring war on France in 1803 to support French royalists. François-Dominique Toussaint LOuverture François-Dominique Toussaint LOuverture, also Toussaint Bréda, Toussaint-Louverture (c. ... Jean-Jacques Dessalines Jean-Jacques Dessalines (September 20, 1758–October 17, 1806) was a leader of the Haitian Revolution and an Emperor of Haiti (1804–1806 under the name of Jacques I). ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... The Louisiana Purchase. ... A two-cent euro coin A United States penny, or 1¢ In currency, the cent is a monetary unit that equals 1/100 of the basic unit of value. ... An acre is the name of a unit of area in a number of different systems, including Imperial units and United States customary units. ...

Napoleon on his Imperial throne, Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres, 1806
Napoleon on his Imperial throne, Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres, 1806

Download high resolution version (409x656, 50 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (409x656, 50 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres (pronounced (Ang, rhymes with bang, with a hint of the r, but the final es is not pronounced) (August 29, 1780 - January 14, 1867) was a French Romantic painter. ...

Emperor of the French

Main article: First French Empire

In January 1804, Bonaparte's police uncovered an assassination plot against him, ostensibly sponsored by the Bourbons. In retaliation, Bonaparte ordered the arrest of the Duc d'Enghien, in a violation of the sovereignty of Baden. After a hurried secret trial, the Duke was executed on 21 March. Bonaparte then used this incident to justify the re-creation of a hereditary monarchy in France, with himself as Emperor, on the theory that a Bourbon restoration would be impossible once the Bonapartist succession was entrenched in the constitution. Map of the First French Empire in 1811, with the Empire in dark blue and sattelite states in light blue Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1804-1814/1815 Napoleon I Napoleon II Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif History  - French Consulate  - Established 18... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house. ... Louis-Antoine-Henri de Bourbon-Condé, duc dEnghien (August 22, 1772 – March 21, 1804) was a relative of the Bourbon monarchs of France, and is more famous for his death than his life. ... Baden is a historical state in the southwest of Germany, on the right bank of the Rhine. ... March 21 is the 80th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (81st in leap years). ... An emperor is a (male) monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house. ...


Napoleon crowned himself Emperor on 2 December 1804 at Notre Dame de Paris. Claims that he seized the crown out of the hands of Pope Pius VII during the ceremony in order to avoid subjecting himself to the authority of the pontiff are apocryphal; in fact, the coronation procedure had been agreed upon in advance. After the Imperial regalia had been blessed by the Pope, Napoleon crowned himself before crowning his wife Joséphine as Empress (the moment depicted in David's famous painting, illustrated above). Then at Milan's cathedral on 26 May 1805, Napoleon was crowned King of Italy with the Iron Crown of Lombardy. An emperor is a (male) monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. ... December 2 is the 336th day (337th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1804 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Notre Dame de Paris: Western Facade For the novel by Victor Hugo, see The Hunchback of Notre Dame. ... Pope Pius VII, OSB (August 14, 1742—August 20, 1823), born Barnaba Niccolò Maria Luigi Chiaramonti, was Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from March 14, 1800 to August 20, 1823. ... In Judeo-Christian theologies, apocrypha refers to religious Sacred text that have questionable authenticity or are otherwise disputed. ... Joséphine de Beauharnais, Empress Joséphine Joséphine de Beauharnais (June 23, 1763 - May 29, 1814) was the first wife of Napoléon Bonaparte, and became Empress of France. ... This article is about the city in Italy. ... May 26 is the 146th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (147th in leap years). ... 1805 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... King of Italy is a title adopted by many rulers after the fall of the Roman Empire. ... The Iron Crown of Lombardy (Corona Ferrea) is both a reliquary and one of the most ancient royal insignia of Europe. ...

Napoleon's Throne. Louvre Museum
Napoleon's Throne. Louvre Museum

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (480x736, 272 KB)Napoleons Throne. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (480x736, 272 KB)Napoleons Throne. ...

Coalitions against Napoleon

Main article: Third Coalition

In 1805 Britain convinced Austria and Russia to join a Third Coalition against Napoleon. Napoleon knew the French fleet could not defeat the Royal Navy and therefore tried to lure the British fleet away from the English Channel so that, in theory at least, a Spanish and French fleet could take control of the Channel long enough for French armies to cross to England. Napoleon was wholly ignorant of nautical matters, his orders to his admirals were often contradictory or useless, and the fleet of rafts he had prepared would have sunk in the Channel, or taken at least three days to transport his army, even if the crossing was unopposed. However, with Austria and Russia preparing an invasion of France and its allies, he had to change his plans and turn his attention to the continent. The newly formed Grande Armee secretly marched to Germany. On 20 October 1805, it surprised the Austrians at Ulm. The next day, however, with the Battle of Trafalgar (21 October 1805), the Royal Navy gained lasting control of the seas. A few weeks later, Napoleon defeated Austria and Russia at Austerlitz (a decisive victory he would be the most proud of in his military career) on 2 December--the first anniversary of his coronation--forcing Austria yet again to sue for peace. In the Napoleonic Wars, the Third Coalition against Napoléon emerged in 1805, and consisted of an alliance of the United Kingdom, Austria, Russia, Naples, and Sweden against France. ... In the Napoleonic Wars, the Third Coalition against Napoléon emerged in 1805, and consisted of an alliance of the United Kingdom, Austria, Russia, Naples, and Sweden against France. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ... La Grande Armée (in English, the Big or Grand Army) is the French military term for the main force in a military campaign. ... October 20 is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 72 days remaining. ... 1805 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The Capitulation Of Ulm The Battle of Ulm, of the Napoleonic Wars, was fought in 1805 at Ulm in Wurttemberg. ... Combatants United Kingdom First French Empire Kingdom of Spain Commanders Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson † Pierre Charles Silvestre de Villeneuve Strength 27 ships of the line France: 18 ships of the line and 8 others. ... October 21 is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 71 days remaining. ... 1805 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ... Combatants First French Empire Russian Empire, Austrian Empire Commanders Napoleon I Alexander I Strength 65,000[1] 73,000[2] Casualties 1,305 dead, 6,940 wounded, 573 captured, 1 standard lost[3] 15,000 dead or wounded, 12,000 captured, 180 guns lost, 50 standards lost[3] The Battle... December 2 is the 336th day (337th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Main article: Fourth Coalition

The Fourth Coalition was assembled the following year, and Napoleon defeated Prussia at the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt (14 October 1806). He marched on against advancing Russian armies through Poland, and was attacked at the bloody Battle of Eylau on 6 February 1807. After a decisive victory at Friedland, he signed a treaty at Tilsit in East Prussia with Tsar Alexander I of Russia, dividing Europe between the two powers. He placed puppet rulers on the thrones of German states, including his brother Jerome as king of the new state of Westphalia. In the French-controlled part of Poland, he established the Duchy of Warsaw, with King Frederick Augustus I of Saxony as ruler. Between 1809 and 1813, Napoleon also served as Regent of the Grand Duchy of Berg for his brother Louis Bonaparte. In the Napoleonic Wars, the Fourth Coalition was an alliance organized against Napoleons French Empire in 1806–1807. ... In the Napoleonic Wars, the Fourth Coalition was an alliance organized against Napoleons French Empire in 1806–1807. ... Motto: Suum cuique Latin: To each his own Prussia at its peak, as leading state of the German Empire Capital Königsberg, later Berlin Political structure Duchy, Kingdom, Republic Duke1  - 1525–68 Albert I  - 1688–1701 Frederick III King1  - 1701–13 Frederick I  - 1888–1918 William II Prime Minister1,2... Combatants First French Empire Prussia Commanders Napoleon I Louis Nicolas Davout Duke of Brunswick Prince Hohenlohe Strength 90,000 (Jena); 27,000 (Auerstedt) 38,000 (Jena); 63,000 (Auerstedt) Casualties 5,000 dead and wounded (Jena); 7,000 killed, wounded, or missing (Auerstedt) 25,000 dead, wounded, or captured (Jena... October 14 is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Battle of Eylau, fought on February 7–8, 1807, was a bloody and inconclusive contest between the forces of Napoléon and a mostly Russian army under General Bennigsen. ... February 6 is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1807 (MDCCCVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... Combatants First French Empire Russian Empire Commanders Napoléon Bonaparte General Bennigsen Strength 80,000 60,000 Casualties 8,000 killed and wounded[1] 20,000 killed and wounded[2] The Battle of Friedland, fought on June 14, 1807 about twenty-seven miles (43 km) southeast of the modern Russian... The Treaties of Tilsit were two agreements signed by Napoleon I of France in the town of Tilsit in July, 1807. ... A railway bridge in Tilsit Sovetsk (Советск) is a town on the Neman River in the Russian Kaliningrad Oblast, which prior to 1945 was known by its German name, Tilsit, and was in East Prussia. ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... Aleksandr I Pavlovich (Russian: Александр I Павлович) (December 23, 1777–December 1, 1825?), was Emperor of Russia from 23 March 1801-1 December 1825 and Ruler of Poland from 1815–1825, as well as the first Grand Duke of Finland. ... In the context of international relations and diplomacy, power (sometimes clarified as international power, national power, or state power) is the ability of one state to influence or control other states. ... Germany is a federation of 16 states called Länder (singular Land, which may be translated as country) or unofficially Bundesländer (singular Bundesland, German federal state). ... Jérôme Bonaparte (November 15, 1784 - June 24, 1860) was the youngest brother of Emperor Napoleon I of France. ... The Kingdom of Westphalia is a historical state in present-day Germany that existed from 1807-1813. ... Coat of arms Map of the Duchy of Warsaw after 1809. ... Frederick Augustus I of Saxony Frederick Augustus I (or III) of Saxony (December 23, 1750 - May 5, 1827). ... The Free State of Saxony (German: Freistaat Sachsen; Sorbian: Swobodny Stat Sakska) is the easternmost federal state of Germany. ... Berg was a medieval territory in todays North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Louis I Napoleon Bonaparte, King of Holland, Grand Duke of Berg and Cleves, Count of Saint-Leu (Lodewijk Napoleon in Dutch) (September 2, 1778 – July 25, 1846) was the fifth surviving child and fourth surviving son of Carlo Buonaparte and Letizia Ramolino. ...


In addition to military endeavours against Britain, Napoleon also waged economic war, attempting to enforce a Europe-wide commercial boycott of Britain called the "Continental System". Although this action hurt the British economy, it also damaged the French economy and was not a decisive factor. The Continental System was a foreign-policy cornerstone of Napoleon I of France in his struggle against the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland during the Napoleonic Wars. ...

The Surrender of Madrid, Antoine-Jean Gros, c. 1810

Main article: Peninsular War
Portugal did not comply with this Continental System and in 1807 Napoleon sought Spain's support for an invasion of Portugal. When Spain refused, Napoleon invaded Spain as well. After mixed results were produced by his generals, Napoleon himself took command and defeated the Spanish army, retook Madrid and then outmaneuvered a British army sent to support the Spanish and drove it to the coast. The French occupation of Iberia however led to the costly and brutal Peninsular War which robbed Napoleon of several hundred thousand of his finest troops at the hands of Spanish guerrillas and led to major defeats inflicted by the Allies under the Duke of Wellington. Napoleon installed one of his marshals and brother-in-law, Joachim Murat, as the King of Naples, and his brother Joseph Bonaparte, as King of Spain. The Spanish, inspired by nationalism and the Roman Catholic Church, and angry over atrocities committed by French troops, rose in revolt, a guerilla war which continued, with British support, until 1814. Download high resolution version (2560x1811, 450 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2560x1811, 450 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Napoleon on the battlefield of Preussisch-Eylau (detail), 1808. ... Combatants Kingdom of Spain, United Kingdom, Kingdom of Portugal French Empire The Peninsular War or Spanish War of Independence (Guerra de la Independencia Española) was a war in the Iberian Peninsula. ... The Battle of Bailén was a series of clashes between the Spanish regular army— operating in conjunction with guerilla formations—under Generals Castaños and Reding and the French commanded by General Pierre Dupont, between July 18 and July 22, 1808, as a part of the Peninsular War. ... The Spanish Army (Ejército de Tierra in Spanish; literally, Land Army) is one branch of the Spanish Armed Forces, in charge of land operations. ... Combatants Kingdom of Spain, United Kingdom, Kingdom of Portugal French Empire The Peninsular War or Spanish War of Independence (Guerra de la Independencia Española) was a war in the Iberian Peninsula. ... Guerilla may refer to Guerrilla warfare. ... Field Marshal Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, KG, GCB, GCH, PC, FRS (c. ... Joachim Murat, King of Naples, Marshal of France. ... “Napoli” redirects here. ... Joseph Bonaparte Joseph Napoleon Bonaparte, King of Naples, King of Spain (January 7, 1768 – July 28, 1844) was the older brother of French Emperor Napoleon I, who made him King of Naples and Sicily (1806–1808) and later King of Spain. ... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see terminology below) is the Christian church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins to the original Christian community founded by Jesus Christ and led by the Twelve Apostles, in particular Saint Peter. ... are you looking for the political definition of guerilla war? Guerilla War is a video game by SNK. It is an overhead shooter. ...


Main article: Fifth Coalition
Austria unexpectedly broke its alliance with France and Napoleon was forced to assume command of forces on the Danube and German fronts. A bloody draw ensued at Aspern-Essling (2122 May 1809) near Vienna, which was the closest Napoleon ever came to a defeat in a battle with more or less equal numbers on each side. After a two month interval, the principal French and Austrian armies engaged again near Vienna resulting in a French victory at Wagram (6 July). Following this a new peace was signed between Austria and France and in the following year the Austrian Archduchess Marie Louise married Napoleon, following his divorce of Josephine. The Fifth Coalition was an alliance between the Austrian Empire and the United Kingdom, formed in 1809 to fight Napoleons French Empire. ... The Battle of Aspern-Essling (May 22, 1809), was fought between the French and their allies under Napoleon and the Austrians commanded by the archduke Charles. ... (Redirected from 21 May) May 21 is the 141st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (142nd in leap years). ... May 22 is the 142nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (143rd in leap years). ... Year 1809 (MDCCCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... Vienna (German: , see also other names) is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ... The Battle of Wagram, around the isle of Lobau on the Danube and on the plain of the Marchfeld around the town of Deutsch-Wagram, 15 km north-east of Vienna, Austria, took place on July 5 and 6, 1809 and resulted in the decisive victory of French forces under... July 6 is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 178 days remaining. ... Marie Louise (full name: Maria Ludovica Leopoldina Franziska Therese Josepha Lucia von Habsburg-Lothringen, later after 1817 in Italian Maria Luigia dAsburgo-Lorena, Duchessa di Parma, Piacenza, e Guastalla) (b. ...


Invasion of Russia

Napoleon's retreat from Moscow, painted by Adolph Northern in the 19th century
Napoleon's retreat from Moscow, painted by Adolph Northern in the 19th century

Although the Congress of Erfurt had sought to preserve the Russo-French alliance, by 1811 tensions were again increasing between the two nations. Although Alexander and Napoleon had a friendly personal relationship since their first meeting in 1807, Alexander had been under strong pressure from the Russian aristocracy to break off the alliance with France. Had Russia withdrawn without France doing anything the other countries would have followed suit and revolted against Napoleon. Thus it was necessary to show that France would respond. 19th century art. ... 19th century art. ... Combatants First French Empire Russian Empire Commanders Napoleon Eugène de Beauharnais Jérôme Bonaparte Jaques MacDonald Karl Philipp Alexander I of Russia Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly Pyotr Bagration Strength 771,500 troops 900,000 troops Casualties 300,000 French 70,000 Poles 50,000 Italians 80,000... The Congress of Erfurt was the meeting between Emperor Napoleon I of France and Tsar Alexander I of Russia in 1808 intended to reaffirm the alliance concluded the previous year with the Treaty of Tilsit which followed the end of the War of the Fourth Coalition. ...


The first sign that the alliance was deteriorating was the easing of the application of the Continental System in Russia, angering Napoleon. By 1812, advisors to Alexander suggested the possibility of an invasion of the French Empire (and the recapture of Poland). The Continental System was a foreign-policy cornerstone of Napoleon I of France in his struggle against the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland during the Napoleonic Wars. ...


Large numbers of troops were deployed to the Polish borders (reaching over 300,000 out of the total Russian army strength of 410,000). After receiving the initial reports of Russian war preparations, Napoleon began expanding his Grande Armée to a massive force of over 450,000–600,000 men (despite already having over 300,000 men deployed in Iberia). Napoleon ignored repeated advice against an invasion of the vast Russian heartland, and prepared his forces for an offensive campaign. La Grande Armée (in English, the Big or Grand Army) is the French military term for the main force in a military campaign. ...


On 22 June 1812, Napoleon's invasion of Russia commenced. In an attempt to gain increased support from Polish nationalists and patriots, Napoleon termed the war the "Second Polish War" (the first Polish war being the liberation of Poland from Russia, Prussia and Austria). Polish patriots wanted the Russian part of partitioned Poland to be incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Warsaw and a new Kingdom of Poland created, although this was rejected by Napoleon, who feared it would bring Prussia and Austria into the war against France. Napoleon also rejected requests to free the Russian serfs, fearing this might provoke a conservative reaction in his rear. June 22 is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 192 days remaining. ... For the overture by Tchaikovsky, see 1812 Overture; For the wars, see War of 1812 (USA - United Kingdom) or Patriotic War of 1812 (France - Russia) For the Siberia Airlines plane crashed over the Black Sea on October 4, 2001, see Siberia Airlines Flight 1812 1812 was a leap year starting... Kazan Cathedral in St Petersburg and the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow were built to commemorate the Russian victory against Napoleon. ... Coat of arms Map of the Duchy of Warsaw after 1809. ... Costumes of Slaves or Serfs, from the Sixth to the Twelfth Centuries, collected by H. de Vielcastel, from original Documents in the great Libraries of Europe. ...

French Monarchy -
Bonaparte Dynasty

Napoleon I
Children
   Napoleon II
Siblings
   Napoleone
   Maria Anna
   Joseph, King of Spain
   Lucien, Prince of Canino
   Elisa, Grand Duchess of Tuscany
   Louis, King of Holland
   Pauline, Princess of Guastalla
   Caroline, Queen of Naples
   Jérôme, King of Westphalia
Nephews and nieces
   Princess Julie
   Princess Zénaïde
   Princess Charlotte
   Prince Charles
   Prince Louis
   Prince Pierre
   Prince Napoleon Charles
   Prince Napoleon Louis
   Napoleon III
   Prince Jérôme
   Prince Napoleon Joseph
   Princess Mathilde
Grandnephews and -nieces
   Prince Joseph
   Prince Lucien-Louis
   Prince Roland
   Princess Jeanne
   Prince Charles
   Prince Jerome
   Napoleon (V) Victor
Great Grandnephews and -nieces
   Princess Marie
   Princess Marie Clotilde
   Napoleon (VI) Louis
Great Great Grandnephews and -nieces
   Napoleon (VII) Charles
   Princess Catherine
   Princess Laure
   Prince Jerome
Great Great Great Grandnephews and -nieces
   Princess Caroline
   Prince Jean-Christophe
Napoleon II
Napoleon III
Children
   Napoleon (IV), Prince Imperial

The Russians under Mikhail Bogdanovich Barclay de Tolly ingeniously avoided a decisive engagement which Napoleon longed for, preferring to retreat ever deeper into the heart of Russia. A brief attempt at resistance was offered at Smolensk (1617 August), but the Russians were defeated in a series of battles in the area and Napoleon resumed the advance. The Russians then repeatedly avoided battle with the Grande Armée, although in a few cases only because Napoleon uncharacteristically hesitated to attack when the opportunity presented itself. When the army progressed further, serious problems in foraging surfaced, aggravated by the scorched earth tactics of the Russian army.[9][10] Along with the hunger, the French also had to face the harsh Russian winter. One American study concluded that the winter only had a major effect once Napoleon was in full retreat. "However, in regard to the claims of "General Winter," the main body of Napoleon's Grande Armée diminished by half during the first eight weeks of his invasion before the major battle of the campaign. This decrease was partly due to garrisoning supply centres, but disease, desertions, and casualties sustained in various minor actions caused thousands of losses. At Borodino on 7 September 1812 - the only major engagement fought in Russia - Napoleon could muster no more than 135,000 troops, and he lost at least 30,000 of them to gain a narrow and Pyrrhic victory almost 600 miles deep in hostile territory. The sequels were his uncontested and self-defeating occupation of Moscow and his humiliating retreat, which began on 19 October, before the first severe frosts later that month and the first snow on 5 November."[11] Image File history File links Armoiries-Empire. ... Napoleon II, Duke of Reichstadt (March 20, 1811 – July 22, 1832) was the son of Napoleon Bonaparte, and briefly the second Emperor of the French. ... Joseph Bonaparte Joseph Napoleon Bonaparte, King of Naples, King of Spain (January 7, 1768 – July 28, 1844) was the older brother of French Emperor Napoleon I, who made him King of Naples and Sicily (1806–1808) and later King of Spain. ... Lucien Bonaparte, painted by François-Xavier Fabre, after 1800. ... Maria Anna Elisa Bonaparte Bacciochi, Grand Duchess of Tuscany (January 13, 1777 - August 7, 1820) was the fourth surviving child and eldest surviving daughter of Carlo Buonaparte and Letizia Ramolino. ... Louis I Napoleon Bonaparte, King of Holland, Grand Duke of Berg and Cleves, Count of Saint-Leu (Lodewijk Napoleon in Dutch) (September 2, 1778 – July 25, 1846) was the fifth surviving child and fourth surviving son of Carlo Buonaparte and Letizia Ramolino. ... Pauline Bonaparte, Princess and Duchess of Guastalla (October 20, 1780- June 9, 1825) (she spelled the named Buonaparte) was the younger sister of Napoleon I of France, and was his favorite sister. ... Caroline Bonaparte Maria Annunziata Carolina Bonaparte, Queen of Naples, Grand Duchess of Berg and Cleves (Ajaccio, Corsica, 25 March 1782 – 18 May 1839 in Florence), better known as Caroline Bonaparte, was the seventh surviving child and third surviving daughter of Carlo Buonaparte and Letizia Ramolino. ... Jérôme Bonaparte Jérôme Bonaparte, King of Westphalia (November 15, 1784 - June 24, 1860) was the youngest brother of Napoleon, who made him King of Westphalia (1807-1813). ... Zénaïde Laetitia Julie Bonaparte (1801-1854) was the daughter of Joseph Bonaparte and Julie Clary. ... Charlotte Bonaparte (October 31, 1802-March 2, 1839) was the daughter of Joseph Bonaparte, the older brother of Emperor Napoleon I, and Julie Clary. ... Charles Lucien Jules Laurent Bonaparte (May 24, 1803 – July 29, 1857) was a French naturalist and ornithologist. ... Louis Lucien Bonaparte (January 4, 1813 - November 3, 1891) was the third son of Napoleons second surviving brother, Lucien Bonaparte. ... Pierre-Napoléon Bonaparte Pierre-Napoléon Bonaparte (11 October 1815 - 7 April 1881) was born in Rome, Italy, the son of Lucien Bonaparte and his second wife Alexandrine de Bleschamp. ... Napoleon Charles Bonaparte (October 10, 1802-May 5, 1807) was the eldest son of Louis Bonaparte and Hortense de Beauharnais. ... Napoleon Louis Bonaparte (October 11, 1804 - March 17, 1831) was the middle son of Louis Bonaparte, King of Holland (aka Louis I of Holland), and Hortense de Beauharnais. ... Napoléon III of France, born Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873) was President of the French Republic from 1848 to 1851, then from 2 December 1851 to 2 December 1852 the ruler of a dictatorial government, then Emperor of the French under the name... Jerome Napoleon Bonaparte (July 7, 1805 - June 17, 1870) was a son of Jerome Bonaparte and Elizabeth Patterson, and a nephew of Emperor Napoleon I. He was born in Camberwell, Surrey, England, but lived in the United States with his mother, whose marriage had been annulled at the order of... Portrait of Prince Napoleon by Jean-Hippolyte Flandrin in 1860 Napoléon Joseph Charles Paul, Prince Napoleon (September 9, 1822 – March 17, 1891) was the son of Jerome Bonaparte and Catharina of Württemberg. ... Princess Mathilde Mathilde Bonaparte, (May 27, 1820 – January 2, 1904), was a daughter of Napoleons brother Jerome Bonaparte and his second wife Catharina of Württemberg. ... Joseph Lucien Charles Napoleo Bonaparte (12 February 1824 - 2 September 1865) was the son of Charles Lucien Bonaparte and Zénaïde Laetitia Julie Bonaparte. ... Lucien Louis Joseph Napoleon Cardinal Bonaparte (November 15, 1828-November 19, 1895) was born in Rome, the son of Charles Lucien Bonaparte and his wife Zénaïde. ... Charles Joseph Bonaparte (June 9, 1851 – June 28, 1921) was a grandson of Jérôme Bonaparte (the youngest brother of the French emperor Napoleon I), and a member of the United States Cabinet. ... Jerome Napoleon Bonaparte II (November 5, 1830 - September 3, 1893) was a son of Jerome Napoleon Bonaparte and Susan May Williams. ... NapolÄ—on-Victor Bonaparte (about 1905) Napoléon Victor Jérôme Frédéric Bonaparte (July 18, 1862 - May 3, 1926) was the son of Prince Napoleon and Marie Clothilde of Sardinia, daughter of Victor Emmanuel II of Italy. ... Princess Marie Bonaparte (2 July 1882-21 September 1962) was a French psychoanalyst, closely linked with Freud. ... Louis Napoléon, born as Louis Jerome Victor Emmanuel Leopold Marie Bonaparte, (23 January 1914 - 3 May 1997) was claimant to the Imperial throne of France in the Prince Napoléon pretentious line from 1926 until his death. ... Napoléon VII, Prince Imperial (Charles Marie Jérôme Victor Napoléon) (born 19 October 1950) is a French politician, and claims to be the current head of the Imperial House of France as heir male to the rights and legacy established by his great-great-great uncle, Emperor... Jean-Christophe Louis Ferdinand Albéric Bonaparte was born on the 11 July 1986 in Saint-Raphaël, Var and is the son of Prince Charles Napoléon and Princess Béatrice of Bourbon-Two Sicilies. ... Napoleon II, Duke of Reichstadt (March 20, 1811 – July 22, 1832) was the son of Napoleon Bonaparte, and briefly the second Emperor of the French. ... Napoléon III of France, born Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873) was President of the French Republic from 1848 to 1851, then from 2 December 1851 to 2 December 1852 the ruler of a dictatorial government, then Emperor of the French under the name... Napoléon Eugène Louis John Joseph, called Napoleon IV, (March 16, 1856 – June 1, 1879), Prince Imperial, Fils de France, was the only child of Emperor Napoleon III of France and his Empress consort Eugénie de Montijo. ... Knyaz de Tolly Knyaz Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly, called by the Russians as Mikhail Bogdanovich Barklay de Tolly (Михаи́л Богда́нович Баркла́й-де-То́лли) (born December 21, 1761 in Riga, [then] Imperial Russia; died May 26, 1818 in Insterburg, [then] Prussia), was a Russian field marshal and Minister of War. ... Battle of Smolensk may refer to: Battle of Smolensk (1812), during Napoleons invasion of Russia Battle of Smolensk (1941), encirclement and capture of the Soviet 16th and 20th armies by German Army Group Centre Battle of Smolensk (1943), recapture of the city by the Soviet 39th, 43rd and 10th... (Redirected from 16 August) August 16 is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... August 17 is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A scorched earth policy is a military tactic which involves destroying anything that might be useful to the enemy while advancing through or withdrawing from an area. ... General Winter is a nickname given to the cold Russian winter, which contributed to the defeat of the invasions of Napoleon in 1812 and Nazi Germany in 1941. ... September 7 is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years). ... For the overture by Tchaikovsky, see 1812 Overture; For the wars, see War of 1812 (USA - United Kingdom) or Patriotic War of 1812 (France - Russia) For the Siberia Airlines plane crashed over the Black Sea on October 4, 2001, see Siberia Airlines Flight 1812 1812 was a leap year starting... A Pyrrhic victory is a victory with devastating cost to the victor. ... October 19 is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... November 5 is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 56 days remaining. ...


Criticized over his tentative strategy of continual retreat, Barclay was replaced by Kutuzov, although he continued Barclay's strategy. Kutuzov eventually offered battle outside Moscow on 7 September. Losses were nearly even for both armies, with slightly more casualties on the Russian side, after what may have been the bloodiest day of battle in history - the Battle of Borodino (see article for comparisons to the first day of the Battle of the Somme). Although Napoleon was far from defeated, the Russian army had accepted, and withstood, the major battle the French hoped would be decisive. After the battle, the Russian army withdrew and retreated past Moscow. Mikhail Kutuzov Prince Mikhail Illarionovich Golenishchev-Kutuzov (Russian: ) (September 16, 1745 – April 28, 1813 (n. ... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2007)    - Density 10,469,000   9684. ... September 7 is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years). ... Combatants First French Empire Russian Empire Commanders Napoleon I Mikhail Kutuzov Strength 82,400 infantry 26,700 cavalry 14,900 artillery troops with 587 guns[1] 72,000 infantry 17,300 cavalry 14,500 artillery troops with 637 guns[2] Casualties ~6,600 killed ~21,400 wounded [3] ~43,000... Combatants British Empire United Kingdom Australia Canada New Zealand Newfoundland South Africa France German Empire Commanders Douglas Haig Joseph Joffre Max von Gallwitz Fritz von Below Strength 13 British and 11 French divisions (initial) 51 British and 48 French divisions (final) 10½ divisions (initial) 50 divisions (final) Casualties 419,654...


The Russians retreated and Napoleon was able to enter Moscow, assuming that the fall of Moscow would end the war and that Alexander I would negotiate peace. However, on orders of the city's military governor and commander-in-chief, Fyodor Rostopchin, rather than capitulating, Moscow was ordered burned. Within the month, fearing loss of control back in France, Napoleon left Moscow. Count Fyodor Vasilievich Rostopchin (Фёдор Васильевич Ростопчин in Russian) (3. ... A scorched earth policy is a military tactic which involves destroying anything that might be useful to the enemy while advancing through or withdrawing from an area. ...


The French suffered greatly in the course of a ruinous retreat; the Army had begun as over 650,000 frontline troops, but in the end fewer than 40,000 crossed the Berezina River (November 1812) to escape. The strategy employed by Kutuzov had culminated in a magnificent victory and the deliverance of the Russian people. In total, French losses in the campaign were 570,000 against about 400,000 Russian casualties and several hundred thousand civilian deaths. Categories: Rivers of Belarus | Belarus-related stubs ...


War of the Sixth Coalition

Napoleon campaigning in Northern France in 1814, by Jean-Louis-Ernest Meissonier
Napoleon campaigning in Northern France in 1814, by Jean-Louis-Ernest Meissonier

There was a lull in fighting over the winter of 1812–13 whilst both the Russians and the French recovered from their massive losses. A small Russian army harassed the French in Poland and eventually 30,000 French troops there withdrew to the German states to rejoin the expanding force there - numbering 130,000 with the reinforcements from Poland. This force continued to expand, with Napoleon aiming for a force of 400,000 French troops supported by a quarter of a million German troops. Download high resolution version (1940x1036, 276 KB)Napoleon retreating from Moscow. ... Download high resolution version (1940x1036, 276 KB)Napoleon retreating from Moscow. ... Jean-Louis-Ernest Meissonier (21 February 1815 - 21 January 1891) was a leading French Classicist painter and sculptor famous for his depictions of Napoleon, his armies and military themes. ...


Heartened by Napoleon's losses in Russia, Prussia soon rejoined the Coalition that now included Russia, the United Kingdom, Spain, and Portugal. Napoleon assumed command in Germany and soon inflicted a series of defeats on the Allies culminating in the Battle of Dresden on 2627 August 1813 causing almost 100,000 casualties to the Coalition forces (the French sustaining only around 30,000). The Battle of Dresden was fought on August 26-27, 1813, and resulted in a French victory under Napoleon Bonaparte against Austrians, Russians and Prussians under General Schwartzenberg. ... (Redirected from 26 August) August 26 is the 238th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (239th in leap years). ... August 27 is the 239th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (240th in leap years), with 126 days remaining. ... Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Despite these initial successes, however, the numbers continued to mount against Napoleon as Sweden and Austria joined the Coalition. Eventually the French army was pinned down by a force twice its size at the Battle of Nations (1619 October) at Leipzig. Some of the German states switched sides in the midst of the battle, further undermining the French position. This was by far the largest battle of the Napoleonic Wars and cost both sides a combined total of over 120,000 casualties. Combatants French Empire Duchy of Warsaw Confederation of the Rhine[1] Austria Prussia Russia Sweden Commanders Napoleon I Jozef Antoni Poniatowski† Frederick Augustus of Saxony Barclay De Tolly Count Benningsen Prince of Schwarzenberg Gebhard von Blücher Prince Charles John of Sweden Strength 191,000 330,000 Casualties 38,000... (Redirected from 16 October) October 16 is the 289th day of the year (290th in Leap years). ... October 19 is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...   [] (Sorbian/Lusatian: Lipsk) is the largest city in the federal state of Saxony in Germany with a population of over 504,000. ... Combatants Allies: Austrian Empire[1] Kingdom of Portugal Kingdom of Prussia[1] Russian Empire[2] Kingdom of Spain[3] Kingdom of Sweden United Kingdom[4] Ottoman Empire[5] French Empire Kingdom of Holland Kingdom of Italy Kingdom of Naples Duchy of Warsaw Kingdom of Bavaria[6] Kingdom of Saxony[7...


After this Napoleon withdrew in an orderly fashion back into France, but his army was now reduced to less than 100,000 against more than half a million Allied troops. The French were now surrounded (with British armies pressing from the south in addition to the Coalition forces moving in from the German states) and vastly outnumbered. The French armies could only delay an inevitable defeat.


Exile, return and Waterloo

The Abdication
The Abdication
Return from Elba
Return from Elba

Paris was occupied on 31 March 1814. At the urging of his marshals, Napoleon abdicated on 6 April in favour of his son. The Allies, however, demanded unconditional surrender and Napoleon abdicated again, unconditionally, on 11 April. In the Treaty of Fontainebleau the victors exiled him to Elba, a small island in the Mediterranean 20 km off the coast of Italy. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 593 pixelsFull resolution (1345 × 997 pixel, file size: 532 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Napoleon I of France Metadata This... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 593 pixelsFull resolution (1345 × 997 pixel, file size: 532 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Napoleon I of France Metadata This... Image File history File links Return of Napoleon from Elba Artwork by Ambroise-Louis Garneray File links The following pages link to this file: Napoleon I of France ... Image File history File links Return of Napoleon from Elba Artwork by Ambroise-Louis Garneray File links The following pages link to this file: Napoleon I of France ... Elba (bottom centre) from space, February 1994. ... March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (91st in leap years), with 275 days remaining. ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Baton of a modern Marshal of France The Marshal of France (French: Maréchal de France) is a military distinction in contemporary France, not a military rank. ... April 6 is the 96th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (97th in leap years). ... Unconditional surrender refers to a surrender without conditions, except for those provided by international law. ... April 11 is the 101st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (102nd in leap years). ... The Treaty of Fontainebleau refers to a number of agreements signed at Fontainebleau, France, often at the Château de Fontainebleau: October 24, 1745 creating a military alliance between Louis XV of France and Charles Edward Stuart. ... Elba (bottom centre) from space, February 1994. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ...


In France, the royalists had taken over and restored Louis XVIII to power. Separated from his wife and son (who had come under Austrian control), cut off from the allowance guaranteed to him by the Treaty of Fontainebleau, and aware of rumours that he was about to be banished to a remote island in the Atlantic, Napoleon escaped from Elba on 26 February 1815 and returned to the mainland on 1 March 1815. Louis XVIII sent the 5th Regiment of the Line, led by Marshal Ney who had formerly served under Napoleon in Russia, to meet him at Grenoble on 7 March 1815. Napoleon approached the regiment alone, dismounted his horse and, when he was within earshot of Ney's forces, shouted "Soldiers of the Fifth, you recognize me. If any man would shoot his emperor, he may do so now". Following a brief silence, the soldiers shouted "Vive L'Empereur!" and marched with Napoleon to Paris. He arrived on 20 March, quickly raising a regular army of 140,000 and a volunteer force of around 200,000 and governed for a Hundred Days. Louis XVIII (November 17, 1755 - September 16, 1824) was King of France and Navarre from 1814 (although he declared that he considered his reign to have begun in 1795) until his death in 1824, with a brief break in 1815 due to Napoleons return in the Hundred Days. ... The Atlantic Ocean forms a component of the all-encompassing World Ocean and is directly linked to the Arctic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean, the Indian Ocean, and the Southern Ocean. ... February 26 is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... March 1 is the 60th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (61st in leap years). ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... Louis XVIII (November 17, 1755 - September 16, 1824) was King of France and Navarre from 1814 (although he declared that he considered his reign to have begun in 1795) until his death in 1824, with a brief break in 1815 due to Napoleons return in the Hundred Days. ... Michel Ney, Marshal of France. ... Grenoble (Arpitan: Grasanòbol) is a city and commune in south-east France, situated at the foot of the Alps, at the confluence of the Drac into the Isère River. ... March 7 is the 66th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (67th in leap years). ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... March 20 is the 79th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (80th in leap years). ... The Hundred Days (French Cent-Jours) or the Waterloo Campaign commonly refers to the period between 20 March 1815, the date on which Napoleon Bonaparte arrived in Paris after his return from Elba, and 8 July 1815, the date of the restoration of King Louis XVIII. The phrase Cent jours...


Napoleon was finally defeated by the Duke of Wellington and Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher at Waterloo in present-day Belgium on 18 June 1815. Field Marshal Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, KG, GCB, GCH, PC, FRS (c. ... Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher. ... Combatants First French Empire Seventh Coalition: United Kingdom Kingdom of Prussia United Netherlands Hanover Nassau Brunswick Commanders Napoleon Bonaparte Michel Ney Duke of Wellington Gebhard von Blücher Strength 73,000 67,000 Coalition 60,000 Prussian (48,000 engaged by about 18:00) Casualties 25,000 dead or wounded... June 18 is the 169th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (170th in leap years), with 196 days remaining. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ...


Off the port of Rochefort, after unsuccessfully attempting to escape to the United States, Napoléon made his formal surrender while on board HMS Bellerophon on 15 July 1815. Rochefort is a commune in western France, a seaport on the Atlantic Ocean. ... Napoleon Bonaparte on board the Bellerophon in Plymouth Sound by Sir Charles Lock Eastlake, painted 1815. ... July 15 is the 196th day (197th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 169 days remaining. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ...


Exile and Death on Saint Helena

Napoléon on Bellerophon at Plymouth, before his exile to Saint Helena
Napoléon on Bellerophon at Plymouth, before his exile to Saint Helena

Napoleon was imprisoned and then exiled by the British to the island of Saint Helena (2,800 km off the Bight of Guinea in the South Atlantic Ocean) from 15 October 1815. Whilst there, with a small cadre of followers, he dictated his memoirs, and criticized his captors. Sick for much of his time on Saint Helena, Napoleon died on 5 May 1821. His last words were: "Tête d'Armée!" (Head of Army!).[12][13] His heritage was distributed to his close followers, among them General Marbot, whom he asked to continue his writings on the "Grandeur de la France." Image File history File links Download high resolution version (700x1010, 94 KB) Summary Sir Charles Locke Eastlake: Napoleon Bonaparte on board the Bellerophon in Plymouth Sound, 1815 Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Napoleon I of France HMS Bellerophon (1786) ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (700x1010, 94 KB) Summary Sir Charles Locke Eastlake: Napoleon Bonaparte on board the Bellerophon in Plymouth Sound, 1815 Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Napoleon I of France HMS Bellerophon (1786) ... Napoleon Bonaparte on board the Bellerophon in Plymouth Sound by Sir Charles Lock Eastlake, painted 1815. ... Plymouth is a city of 243,795 inhabitants (2001 census) in the south-west of England, or alternatively the West Country, and is situated within the traditional and ceremonial county of Devon at the mouths of the rivers Plym and Tamar and at the head of one of the world... October 15 is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years). ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... May 5 is the 125th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (126th in leap years). ... The coronation banquet for George IV 1821 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


Revelations concerning Napoleon's personal religious faith leaves little doubt that he was a Christian, at least at the end of his life. Not long after Napoleon’s death, in a third lecture before Oxford University, Henry Parry Liddon [[5]] made the following observation:

If the first Napoleon was not a theologian, he was at least a man whom vast experience had taught what kind of forces can really produce a lasting effect upon mankind, and under what conditions they may be expected to do so. A time came when the good Providence of God had chained down that great but ambitious spirit to the rock of St. Helena; and the conqueror of civilized Europe had leisure to gather up the results of his unparalleled life, and to ascertain with an accuracy, not often attainable by monarchs or warriors, his own true place in history. When conversing, as was his habit, about the great men of the ancient world, and comparing himself with them, he turned, it is said, to Count Montholon with the enquiry, “Can you tell me who Jesus Christ was?” The question was declined, and Napoleon proceeded, “Well, then, I will tell you. Alexander, Caesar, Charlemagne, and I myself have founded great empires; but upon what did these creations of our genius depend? Upon force. Jesus alone founded His empire upon love, and to this very day millions would die for Him. . . . I think I understand something of human nature; and I tell you, all these were men, and I am a man: none else is like Him; Jesus Christ was more than man. I have inspired multitudes with such an enthusiastic devotion that they would have died for me, . . but to do this it was necessary that I should be visibly present with the electric influence of my looks, of my words, of my voice. When I saw men and spoke to them, I lighted up the flame of self-devotion in their hearts. . . . Christ alone has succeeded in so raising the mind of man towards the Unseen, that it becomes insensible to the barriers of time and space. Across a chasm of eighteen hundred years, Jesus Christ makes a demand which is beyond all others difficult to satisfy; He asks for that which a philosopher may often seek in vain at the hands of his friends, or a father of his children, or a bride of her spouse, or a man of his brother. He asks for the human heart; He will have it entirely to Himself. He demands it unconditionally; and forthwith His demand is granted. Wonderful! In defiance of time and space, the soul of man, with all its powers and faculties, becomes an annexation to the empire of Christ. All who sincerely believe in Him, experience that remarkable supernatural love towards Him. This phenomenon is unaccountable; it is altogether beyond the scope of man’s creative powers. Time, the great destroyer, is powerless to extinguish this sacred flame; time can neither exhaust its strength nor put a limit to its range. This is it which strikes me most; I have often thought of it. This it is which proves to me quite convincingly the Divinity of Jesus Christ. [6]

The following footnote to the above text historically verifies the several sources of Napoleon’s convictions concerning Christianity:

171. This is freely translated from the passages quoted by Luthardt, [[7]] Apologetische Vortrage, pp. 234, 293; and Bersier, Serm. p. 334. The same conversation is given substantially by Chauvelot, Divinité du Christ, pp. 11–13, Paris 1863; in a small brochure attributed to M. le Pasteur Bersier, and published by the Religious Tract Society, Napoleon, Meyrueis, Paris, 1859; by M. Auguste Nicolas, in his Etudes Philosophiques sur le Christianisme, Bruxelles, 1849, tom. ii. pp. 352–356; and by the Chevalier de Beauterne in his Sentiment de Napoleon sur le Christianisme, edit. par M. Bathild Bouniol, Paris 1864, pp. 87–118. In the preface to General Bertrand’s Campagnes d’Egypte et de Syrie, there is an allusion to some reported conversations of Napoleon on the questions of the existence of GOD and of our Lord’s Divinity, which, the General says, never took place at all. But M. de Montholon, who with General Bertrand was present at the conversations which are recorded by the Chevalier de Beauterne, writes from Ham on May 30, 1841 to that author: ‘J’ai lu avec un vif interêt votre brochure; Sentiment de Napoléon sur la Divinité de Jesus-Christ, et je ne pense pas qu’il soit possible de mieux exprimer les croyances religieuses de l’empereur.’ Sentiment de Napoleon, Avertissem. p. viii. Writing, as it would seem, in ignorance of this testimony, M. Nicolas says: ‘Cite plusieurs fois et dans des circonstances solennelles, ce jugement passe généralement pour historique.’ Etudes, ii. p. 352. note (1.).

The Governor ordered a post-mortem examination, which was performed the day after Napoleon's death by Prof Antommarchi under the direction of Dr Shortt.[14] Dr A Arnott, the physician who attended Napoleon during his last illness, also attended the post-mortem and wrote about his observations.[14] Other medical, military and civic observers were also present.[14] Archibald Arnott (b. ...


Napoleon had asked in his will to be buried on the banks of the Seine, but was buried on Saint Helena, in the "valley of the willows". In 1840 his remains were taken to France in the frigate Belle-Poule and was to be entombed in a porphyry sarcophagus at Les Invalides, Paris. However, Egyptian porphyry (used for the tombs of Roman emperors) was unavailable, so red quartzite was obtained - but from Russian Finland, eliciting protests from those who still remembered the Russians as enemies. Hundreds of millions have visited his tomb since that date. A replica of his simple Saint Helena tomb is also found at Les Invalides. The Seine (pronounced in French) is a major river of north-western France, and one of its commercial waterways. ... The Belle-Poule was a 60-gun frigate of the French Navy, famous for bringing back the ashed of Napoléon from Saint Helena back to France. ... Porphyry is a very hard igneous rock consisting of large-grained crystals, such as feldspar or quartz, dispersed in a fine-grained feldspathic matrix or groundmass. ... The church at the Invalides Court of the museum of the Army Les Invalides in Paris, France consists of a complex of buildings in the 7th arrondissement containing museums and monuments, all relating to Frances military history, as well as a hospital and a retirement home for war veterans...


Cause of death

The cause of Napoleon's death has been disputed on a number of occasions. Francesco Antommarchi, the physician chosen by Napoleon's family and the leader of the post mortem examination,[14] gave stomach cancer as a reason for Napoleon's death on his death certificate. In the later half of the twentieth century, a different theory arose conjecturing that Napoleon was the victim of arsenic poisoning. Francesco Antommarchi, (1780-1838) Napoleons attached physician at St. ... Stomach cancer (also called gastric cancer) can develop in any part of the stomach and may spread throughout the stomach and to other organs; particularly the esophagus and the small intestine. ...


Arsenic poisoning theory

In 1955, the diaries of Louis Marchand, Napoleon's valet, appeared in print. His description of Napoleon in the months leading up to his death, led many, most notably Sten Forshufvud and Ben Weider, to conclude that he had been killed by arsenic poisoning. Arsenic was at the time sometimes used as a poison as it was undetectable when administered over a long period of time. Arsenic was also used as a stomach tonic, in some wallpaper, as a green pigment, and even in some patent medicines. As Napoleon's body was found to be remarkably well-preserved when it was moved in 1840, it gives support to the arsenic theory, as arsenic is a strong preservative. In 2001, Pascal Kintz, of the Strasbourg Forensic Institute in France, added credence to this claim with a study of arsenic levels found in a lock of Napoleon's hair preserved after his death: they were seven to thirty-eight times higher than normal. Sten Forshufvud was a Swedish dentist and expert on poisons who formulated and supported the theory that Napoleon was assassinated by a member of his entourage while in exile. ... Ben Weider (born February 1, 1924) is a Canadian businessman from Montreal well-known in two areas, sports and Napoleonic history. ... General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 4, p Appearance metallic gray Standard atomic weight 74. ...


Cutting up hairs into short segments and analysing each segment individually provides a histogram of arsenic concentration in the body. This analysis on hair from Napoléon suggests that large but non-lethal doses were absorbed at random intervals. The arsenic severely weakened Napoléon and remained in his system.


The medical regime imposed on Napoleon by his doctors included treatment with antimony potassium tartrate, regular enemas and a 600 milligram dose of mercuric chloride to purge his intestines in the days immediately prior to his death. A group of researchers from the San Francisco Medical Examiner's Department speculate that this treatment may have led to Napoleon's death by causing a serious potassium deficiency.[15] Tartaric acid or H2C4H4O6 is a white crystalline organic acid. ... Mercury(II) chloride (also called mercuric chloride and corrosive sublimate) is a poisonous white soluble crystalline salt of mercury. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ...

The frigate Belle-Poule brings back the remains of Napoléon to France
The frigate Belle-Poule brings back the remains of Napoléon to France

More recent analysis on behalf of the magazine Science et Vie showed that similar concentrations of arsenic can be found in Napoleon's hair in samples taken from 1805, 1814 and 1821. The lead investigator, Ivan Ricordel (head of toxicology for the Paris Police), stated that if arsenic had been the cause, Napoléon would have died years earlier. The group suggested that the most likely source in this case was a hair tonic. However the group does not address the arsenic absorption patterns revealed by the analysis commissioned by Forshufvud. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2205x1400, 1009 KB) Le transfert des cendres de Napoléon à bord de La Belle Poule, le 15 octobre 1840 Louis-Eugène-Gabriel Isabey (1803 - 1886) http://members. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2205x1400, 1009 KB) Le transfert des cendres de Napoléon à bord de La Belle Poule, le 15 octobre 1840 Louis-Eugène-Gabriel Isabey (1803 - 1886) http://members. ... Science & Vie (Science and Life) is a science magazine issued in France since 1913. ... The Préfet de Police is an official of the Government of France who supervises police and emergency services to Paris and the surrounding eight departments of Hauts-de-Seine, Seine-Saint-Denis, Seine-et-Marne, Val-de-Marne, Essonne, Yvelines and Val dOise, and has other security duties...


Prior to the discovery of antibiotics, arsenic was also a widely used treatment for syphilis. This has led to speculation that Napoleon might have suffered from that disease. An antibiotic is a drug that kills or slows the growth of bacteria. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Stomach cancer theory

In May, 2005 a team of Swiss physicians claimed that the reason for Napoleon's death was stomach cancer, which was also the cause of his father's death. From a multitude of forensic reports they derive that Napoleon at his death weighed approx. 76 kg (168 lb) while a year earlier he weighed approx. 91 kg (200 lb), confirming the autopsy result reported by Antommarchi. A team of physicians from the University of Monterspertoli led by Professor Biondi recently confirmed this. Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ...


In October, 2005, a document was unearthed in Scotland that presented an account of the autopsy, which again seems to confirm Antommarchi's conclusion.[16] More recent analysis of the etiology and pathogenesis of Napoleon's illness also suggests that Napoleon's illness was a sporadic gastric carcinoma of advanced stage.[17] The original post-mortem examination carried out by Francesco Antommarchi concluded Napoleon died of stomach cancer without knowing Napoleon’s father had died of stomach cancer.[13] An extensive 2007 study found no evidence of arsenic poisoning in the organs, such as hem­or­rhag­ing in the lin­ing in­side the heart, and also concluded that stomach cancer was the cause of death.[18][19][20] Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic)1 Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic, Scots Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II... In medicine, stomach cancer (also called gastric cancer) can develop in any part of the stomach and may spread throughout the stomach and to other organs. ... Francesco Antommarchi, (1780-1838) Napoleons attached physician at St. ... Carlo Maria Buonaparte (March 29, 1746 – February 24, 1785) was the father of Napoleon I of France. ...


Marriages and children

Napoleon's first wife, Joséphine de Beauharnais
Napoleon's first wife, Joséphine de Beauharnais

Napoleon was married twice: emplress josephine of france, painted by francois gerard This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... emplress josephine of france, painted by francois gerard This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Joséphine de Beauharnais (June 23, 1763 – May 29, 1814), born Marie Josèphe Rose Tascher de la Pagerie, became on first marriage Joséphine, Viscountess of Beauharnais[1], became on second marriage Joséphine, Empress of the French[2], was the first wife of Napoléon Bonaparte and thus...

  • 9 March 1796 to Joséphine de Beauharnais. He formally adopted her son Eugène and cousin Stéphanie after assuming the throne to arrange "dynastic" marriages for them. He had her daughter Hortense marry his brother, Louis. Though Napoleon and Joséphine's marriage was unconventional, and both were known to have many affairs, they were ultimately devoted to each other and when Joséphine agreed to divorce so he could remarry in the hopes of producing an heir, it was devastating for both. It was also the first under the Napoleonic Code. Napoleon's letters to Joséphine are romantic and interesting. They are available in the original French on the French wikisource site. [8]
  • 11 March 1810 by proxy to Marie Louise, Archduchess of Austria, then in a ceremony on 1 April. They remained married until his death, although she did not join him in his exile.
    • Napoleon Francis Joseph Charles (20 March 181122 July 1832), King of Rome. Known as Napoleon II although he never ruled. Was later known as the Duke of Reichstadt. He had no issue.

Acknowledged two illegitimate children, both of whom had issue: March 9 is the 68th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (69th in leap years). ... Year 1796 (MDCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Joséphine de Beauharnais (June 23, 1763 – May 29, 1814), born Marie Josèphe Rose Tascher de la Pagerie, became on first marriage Joséphine, Viscountess of Beauharnais[1], became on second marriage Joséphine, Empress of the French[2], was the first wife of Napoléon Bonaparte and thus... Eugène Rose de Beauharnais (September 3, 1781 - February 21, 1824) was the first child and only son of Joséphine de Tascher de la Pagerie and Alexandre, Vicomte de Beauharnais. ... Painting of Stéphanie de Beauharnais by François Pascal Simon, Baron Gérard (1806) Stéphanie Louise Adrienne de Beauharnais (August 28, 1789 – January 29, 1860) was the consort of Karl, Grand Duke of Baden. ... Hortense de Beauharnais depicted in Queen Hortense - A Life Picture of the Napoleonic Era, 1910 Hortense de Beauharnais, Queen of Holland, Grand Duchess of Berg and Cleves, Countess of Saint-Leu (April 10, 1783 - October 5, 1837), was the wife of Louis Bonaparte, King of Holland and the mother of... Louis I Napoleon Bonaparte, King of Holland, Grand Duke of Berg and Cleves, Count of Saint-Leu (Lodewijk Napoleon in Dutch) (September 2, 1778 – July 25, 1846) was the fifth surviving child and fourth surviving son of Carlo Buonaparte and Letizia Ramolino. ... For the record label, see Divorce Records. ... March 11 is the 70th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (71st in leap years). ... 1810 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... A proxy marriage is a marriage in which either the bride or the groom is not physically present for the wedding. ... Marie Louise (full name: Maria Ludovica Leopoldina Franziska Therese Josepha Lucia von Habsburg-Lothringen, later after 1817 in Italian Maria Luigia dAsburgo-Lorena, Duchessa di Parma, Piacenza, e Guastalla) (b. ... April 1 is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 274 days remaining. ... March 20 is the 79th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (80th in leap years). ... 1811 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... July 22 is the 203rd day (204th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 162 days remaining. ... Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Napoleon II, Duke of Reichstadt (March 20, 1811 – July 22, 1832) was the son of Napoleon Bonaparte, and briefly the second Emperor of the French. ...

May have had further illegitimate offspring: Count Léon Charles (1806 - 1881) was the illegitimate son of Emperor Napoleon I of France and Catherine Eléonore Denuelle de la Plaigne (1787 - 1868). ... Alexandre Florian Joseph Colonna, Comte Walewski (May 4, 1810 - October 27, 1868), Polish politician and diplomat, was born at Walewice near Warsaw, the son of Napoleon I and his mistress Marie, Countess Walewski. ... May 4 is the 124th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (125th in leap years). ... 1810 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... October 27 is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 65 days remaining. ... 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Marie, Countess Walewski (or Walewska) born Laczinska (1789 - 1817) wife of Count Athenasius Walewski, mistress of Napoleon I Bonaparte and mother of Alexandre Joseph Colonna, Count Walewski. ...

  • Émilie Louise Marie Françoise Joséphine Pellapra, by Françoise-Marie LeRoy.
  • Karl Eugin von Mühlfeld, by Victoria Kraus.
  • Hélène Napoleone Bonaparte, by Countess Montholon.
  • Jules Barthélemy-Saint-Hilaire (19 August 180524 November 1895) whose mother remains unknown.

Charles Tristan, marquis de Montholon (1782 - August 21, 1853), was born at Paris. ... Jules Barthélemy-Saint-Hilaire (August 19, 1805 - November 24, 1895) was a French philosopher, journalist and statesman. ... August 19 is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1805 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... November 24 is the 328th day (329th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

Legacy

Statue of Napoléon in Les Invalides, eyes on the French flag
Statue of Napoléon in Les Invalides, eyes on the French flag
Tomb of Napoleon I, located in the Church of the Dome at Les Invalides
Tomb of Napoleon I, located in the Church of the Dome at Les Invalides

Napoleon is credited with introducing the concept of the modern professional conscript army to Europe, an innovation which other states eventually followed. He did not introduce many new concepts into the French military system, borrowing mostly from previous theorists and the implementations of preceding French governments, but he did expand or develop much of what was already in place. Corps replaced divisions as the largest army units, artillery was integrated into reserve batteries, the staff system became more fluid, and cavalry once again became a crucial formation in French military doctrine. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1217x1800, 203 KB) Work by Rama File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Napoleon I of France ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1217x1800, 203 KB) Work by Rama File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Napoleon I of France ... The church at the Invalides Court of the museum of the Army Les Invalides in Paris, France consists of a complex of buildings in the 7th arrondissement containing museums and monuments, all relating to Frances military history, as well as a hospital and a retirement home for war veterans... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (3008 × 2000 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (3008 × 2000 pixel, file size: 3. ... The church at the Invalides Court of the museum of the Army Les Invalides in Paris, France consists of a complex of buildings in the 7th arrondissement containing museums and monuments, all relating to Frances military history, as well as a hospital and a retirement home for war veterans... A corps (plural same as singular; a word that migrated from the French language, pronounced IPA: (cor), but originating in the Latin corpus, corporis meaning body) is either a large military unit or formation, an administrative grouping of troops within an army with a common function (such as artillery or...


Napoleon's biggest influence in the military sphere was in the conduct of warfare. Weapons and technology remained largely static through the Revolutionary and Napoleonic eras, but 18th century operational strategy underwent massive restructuring. Sieges became infrequent to the point of near-irrelevance, a new emphasis towards the destruction, not just outmaneuvering, of enemy armies emerged. Invasions of enemy territory occurred over broader fronts, thus introducing a plethora of strategic opportunities that made wars costlier and, just as importantly, more decisive (this strategy has since become known as Napoleonic warfare, though he himself did not give it this name). Defeat for a European power now meant much more than losing isolated enclaves; near-Carthaginian peaces intertwined whole national efforts, sociopolitical, economic, and militaristic, into gargantuan collisions that severely upset international conventions as understood at the time. It can be argued that Napoleon's initial success sowed the seeds for his downfall. Not used to such catastrophic defeats in the rigid power system of 18th century Europe, many nations found existence under the French yoke difficult, sparking revolts, wars, and general instability that plagued the continent until 1815. Carthaginian Peace refers to a peace brought about through the total destruction of the enemy. ...


In France, Napoleon is seen by some as having ended lawlessness and disorder, and the wars he fought as having served to export the Revolution to the rest of Europe. The movements of national unification and the rise of the nation state, notably in Italy and Germany, may have been precipitated by the Napoleonic rule of those areas. The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... A nation-state is a specific form of state, which exists to provide a sovereign territory for a particular nation, and which derives its legitimacy from that function. ...


The Napoleonic Code was adopted throughout much of Europe and remained in force after Napoleon's defeat. Napoleon himself once said: "My true glory is not to have won 40 battles... Waterloo will erase the memory of so many victories... But what nothing will destroy, what will live forever, is my Civil Code." Professor Dieter Langewiesche of the University of Tübingen describes the code as a "revolutionary project" which spurred the development of bourgeois society in Germany by expanding the right to own property and breaking the back of feudalism. Langewiesche also credits Napoleon with reorganizing what had been the Holy Roman Empire made up of more than 1,000 entities into a more streamlined network of 40 states providing the basis for the German Confederation and the future unification of Germany under the German Empire in 1871. First page of the 1804 original edition The Napoleonic Code, or Code Napoléon (originally called the Code civil des Français) was the French civil code, established at the behest of Napoléon I. It was drafted rapidly by a commission of four eminent jurists and entered into force... A view from the campus Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen (German: Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen, sometimes quotes as Eberhardina) is a public university located on the Neckar river, in the city of Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ... Bourgeois at the end of the thirteenth century. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire in c. ... The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ... Motto Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871–1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick...


Critics of Napoleon argue that his true legacy was a loss of status for France and many needless deaths:

After all, the military record is unquestioned—17 years of wars, perhaps six million Europeans dead, France bankrupt, her overseas colonies lost. And it was all such a great waste, for when the self-proclaimed tête d'armée was done, France's "losses were permanent" and she "began to slip from her position as the leading power in Europe to second-class status—that was Bonaparte's true legacy."[21]

Napoleon is sometimes alleged to have been in many ways the direct inspiration for later autocrats: he never flinched when facing the prospect of war and destruction for thousands, friend or foe, and turned his search of undisputed rule into a continuous cycle of conflict throughout Europe, ignoring treaties and conventions alike. Even if other European powers continually offered Napoleon terms that would have restored France's borders to situations only dreamt by the Bourbon kings, he always refused compromise, and only accepted surrender. But Napoleon was in many ways closer to historical figures like Alexander or Caesar, and it is one of the reasons for the vivacity and strength of his legacy. Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1] Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC–June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), was one of the most successful military commanders in history. ... Gaius Julius Caesar [1] (Latin pronunciation ; English pronunciation ; July 12 or July 13, 100 BC or 102 BC – March 15, 44 BC), was a Roman military and political leader and one of the most influential men in classical antiquity. ...


Living at the tail end of the Enlightenment era, Napoleon also became notorious for his effort to suppress the slave revolt in Haiti and his 1801 decision to re-establish slavery in France after it was banned following the revolution. Look up Enlightenment in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Wiktionary has related dictionary definitions, such as: slave Slave may refer to: Slavery, where people are owned by others, and live to serve their owners without pay Slave (BDSM), a form of sexual and consenual submission Slave clock, in technology, a clock or timer that synchrnonizes to a master clock... Slave redirects here. ...


Nevertheless, many in the international community still admire the many accomplishments of the emperor as evidenced by the International Napoleonic Congress held in Dinard, France in July 2005 that included participation by members of the French and American military, French politicians, scholars from as far away as Israel and Russia, and a parade recreating the Grand Army.


Napoleon was hated by his many enemies, but respected by them at the same time. The Duke of Wellington, Sir Arthur Wellesley, when asked who he thought was the greatest general that ever lived, answered "In this age, in past ages, in any age, Napoleon." Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington (1 May 1769–14 September 1852) was an Anglo-Irish soldier and statesman, widely considered one of the leading military and political figures of the 19th century. ...


Napoleon's height

A Caricature depicting a diminutive Napoleon
A Caricature depicting a diminutive Napoleon

Many historians have recently argued that, contrary to popular belief, Napoleon was not short as often depicted in popular culture. Although historians disagree on Napoleon’s precise height, it has been suggested that he was actually slightly taller than the average early 19th-century Frenchman.[22] Some historians claim the French emperor's height was recorded as 5 ft 2 in French units, corresponding to 1.68 meters or 5 ft 6 in Imperial units. A French inch was 2.71 centimetres while an Imperial inch is 2.54 centimetres.[23] The metric system was introduced during the French First Republic, but was not in widespread use until after Napoleon's death. However, other historians reject this claim, pointing out it is unlikely that Napoleon was measured with a French yardstick after his death, Napoleon was under British control on St.Helena, and was almost certainly measured with a British yardstick, which would suggest that the measurement of 5 ft 2 in is accurate.[24] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 750 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 819 pixel, file size: 141 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Napoleon I of France ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 750 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 819 pixel, file size: 141 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Napoleon I of France ... The Imperial units are an irregularly standardized system of units that have been used in the United Kingdom and its former colonies, including the Commonwealth countries. ... The International System of Units (symbol: SI) (for the French phrase Syst me International dUnit s) is the most widely used system of units. ... Motto: (Liberty, equality, brotherhood, or death!) Anthem: La Marseillaise (unofficial) Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Republic Various  - 1792-1795 National Convention (rule by legislature)  - 1794-1799 Directory  - 1799-1804 First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte Legislature National Convention French Directory French Consulate History  - Storming of the Bastille/French Revolution 14 July...


Napoleon's nickname of le petit caporal may add to the confusion, as non-Francophones may mistakenly interpret petit by its literal meaning of "small"; in fact, it is an affectionate term reflecting on his camaraderie with ordinary soldiers (for example, petit ami means "boyfriend" in French, petite amie means "girlfriend," and mon petit chou ("my little cabbage") is a term of affection). He also surrounded himself with the soldiers of his elite guard, who were usually six feet or taller. A Francophone is a person who speaks French natively or by adoption (i. ...


Noteworthy family members

Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (April 20, 1808 - January 9, 1873) was the son of King Louis Bonaparte and Queen Hortense de Beauharnais; both monarchs of the French puppet state, the Kingdom of Holland. ... The canonical example of Second Empire style is the Opéra Garnier, in which Neo-Baroque meets Neo-Renaissance. ... Charles Joseph Bonaparte (June 9, 1851 – June 28, 1921) was a grandson of Jérôme Bonaparte (the youngest brother of the French emperor Napoleon I), and a member of the United States Cabinet. ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ...

See also

Wikisource
Wikisource has original works written by or about:
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Map of the First French Empire in 1811, with the Empire in dark blue and sattelite states in light blue Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1804-1814/1815 Napoleon I Napoleon II Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif History  - French Consulate  - Established 18... In the fields of psychology and psychoanalysis, Napoleon complex (or Napoleon syndrome) is a colloquial term used to describe a type of inferiority complex suffered by people who are short. ... First page of the 1804 original edition The Napoleonic Code, or Code Napoléon (originally called the Code civil des Français) was the French civil code, established at the behest of Napoléon I. It was drafted rapidly by a commission of four eminent jurists and entered into force... The Napoleonic Era is a period in the History of France and Europe. ... Napoleon I of France celebrated his accomplishments with an extensive set of commemorative medals struck by the Paris Medal Mint. ... Combatants Allies: Austrian Empire[1] Kingdom of Portugal Kingdom of Prussia[1] Russian Empire[2] Kingdom of Spain[3] Kingdom of Sweden United Kingdom[4] Ottoman Empire[5] French Empire Kingdom of Holland Kingdom of Italy Kingdom of Naples Duchy of Warsaw Kingdom of Bavaria[6] Kingdom of Saxony[7... Baton of a modern Marshal of France The Marshal of France (French: Maréchal de France) is a military distinction in contemporary France, not a military rank. ... 1804 print, in which Napoleon grants the Jews freedom to worship, represented by the hand given to the Jewish woman The rise of Napoleon Bonaparte proved an important event in the emancipation of the Jews of Europe from old laws restricting them to Jewish ghettos, as well as the many... Napoleon Bonaparte, Emperor of the French, has become a worldwide cultural icon symbolizing strength, genius, and military and political power. ... In mathematics, Napoleons theorem is a theorem that states that if we construct equilateral triangles on the sides of any triangle (all outward or all inward), the centres of those equilateral triangles themselves form an equilateral triangle. ... This article covers nonfiction. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Crime of Napoleon (in French Le Crime de Napoléon) is a controversial book published in 2005 by French historian Claude Ribbe. ... IDescription de lÉgypte (English: Description of Egypt) is the monumental French comprehensive scientific description of ancient and modern Egypt as well as its natural history. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Napoléon 1er, Empereur des Français
  2. ^ Rocca (1996), "Il piccolo caporale"; Mazzucchelli (1930), "Napoleone III"; Merezkovskij (1988), "Nepoleon"; Archivio Nazionale di Stato di Modena
  3. ^ Cronin (1994), pp. 20–21; McLynn (1998), p.8.
  4. ^ McLynn (1998), p. 18.
  5. ^ D. & P. Kladstrup Champagne pg 61–68 Harper Collins Publisher ISBN 0060737921
  6. ^ Asprey (2000), p. 13.
  7. ^ McLynn (1998), p. 31.
  8. ^ Smith, D. p.140
  9. ^ George Nafziger, 'Napoleon's Invasion of Russia (1984) ISBN 0-88254-681-3
  10. ^ George Nafziger, "Rear services and foraging in the 1812 campaign: Reasons of Napoleon's defeat" (Russian translation online)
  11. ^ Combat Studies Institute.
  12. ^ Tsouras, P. G. The book of Military Quotations. Zenith Press, 2005. pg.245.
  13. ^ a b Johnson, P. Napoleon: A life. Penguin Books, 2002. pgs.180–181.
  14. ^ a b c d Wilson, J B. "Dr. Archibald Arnott: surgeon to the 20th Foot and physician to Napoleon.". Brit Med Journal 3(5978): 293–295. (2 August 1975) Retrieved on 8 February 2007. 
  15. ^ Doctors may have killed Napoleon. 23 July 2004 [1]
  16. ^ Napoleon died of stomach cancer, new report. 14 Oct., 2005. [2]
  17. ^ Alessandro Lugli, Inti Zlobec, Gad Singer, Andrea Kopp Lugli, Luigi M Terracciano and Robert M Genta (2007) Napoleon Bonaparte's gastric cancer: a clinicopathologic approach to staging, pathogenesis, and etiology. Nature Clinical Practice Gastroenterology & Hepatology 4, 52–57 [3]
  18. ^ Lugli, Alessandro et al. (2007) "Napoleon Bonaparte's gastric cancer: a clinicopathologic approach to staging, pathogenesis, and etiology" Nature Clinical Practice Gastroenterology & Hepatology 4(1): pp. 52–57
  19. ^ Sara Goudarzi, "Mystery Of Napoleon's Death Said Solved", MSNBC.com
  20. ^ ABC News: What Killed Napoleon?
  21. ^ The Claremont Institute: The Little Tyrant, A review of Napoleon: A Penguin Life, by Paul Johnson.. Retrieved on 2005-12-18. The quoted passages within this text are from Johnson.
  22. ^ http://www.napoleon.org/en/essential_napoleon/faq/index.asp#ancre54. Retrieved on 2005-12-18.
  23. ^ measure Historydata: miscellaneous. Retrieved on 2005-12-18.
  24. ^ Connelly, O. p.7

George F. Nafziger is an American writer, an author and editor of numerous books and articles in military history. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the Gregorian calendar, December 18 is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years), with 13 days remaining until the end of the year. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the Gregorian calendar, December 18 is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years), with 13 days remaining until the end of the year. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the Gregorian calendar, December 18 is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years), with 13 days remaining until the end of the year. ...

References

  • Bonaparte (Napoléon Ier). Insecula: L'encyclopedie des artes et de l'architecture. Retrieved on 25 September 2003.
  • Napoleon. Napoleon Series. Retrieved on 02 April 2004.
  • Napoleon I of France. France.com. Retrieved on 20 February 2005.
  • (CSI). CSI studies. Retrieved on 31 March 2006.
  • Asprey, Robert (2000). The Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-04879-X. 
  • Connelly, O. Blundering to Glory: Napoleon’s Military Campaigns. Rowman & Littlefield Pub., 2006. 3rd ed.
  • Cronin, Vincent (1994). Napoleon. London: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-00-637521-9. 
  • Durant, Will and Durant, Ariel (1975). The Age of Napoleon. New York: Simon and Schuster. ISBN 0-671-21988-X (PT. 11). 
  • McLynn, Frank (1998). Napoleon: A Biography. London: Pimlico. ISBN 0-7126-6247-2. 
  • Hazareesingh, Sudhir. Legend of Napoleon. London: Granta Books, 2004 (hardcover, ISBN 1-86207-667-7); 2005 (paperback, ISBN 1-86207-789-4)
  • Pope, Stephen (1999). The Cassel Dictionary of the Napoleonic Wars. Cassel. ISBN 0-304-35229-2. 
  • Schom, Alan (1998). Napoleon Bonaparte: A Life. Perennial. ISBN 0-06-092958-8. 
  • Smith, Digby (1998). The Greenhill Napoleonic Wars Data Book. Greenhill Books. 
  • Zamoyski, Adam (2004). 1812: Napoleon's Fatal March on Moscow. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-00-718489-1. 
  • A. Gautier, Un drogman à Sainte-Hélène, le baron Barthélémi de Stürmer (1787–1863), Le Bulletin, Association des anciens élèves, Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales (INALCO)(National Institute of Languages and Oriental Civilizations), October 2003, pp. 39–48.

September 25 is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 2 is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 273 days remaining. ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... February 20 is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (91st in leap years), with 275 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Vincent Cronin (born May 24, 1924 in Tredegar, Wales) is a British historical, cultural, and biographical writer whose works have been widely translated into European languages. ... Count Adam Zamoyski (b. ...

Further reading

Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive, and distribute cultural works. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive, and distribute cultural works. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive, and distribute cultural works. ...

External links

Organizations studying Napoleon

  • The Napoleonic Society of America - Society founded in 1983 to inform and provide its members with the means to share its knowledge and views about Napoleon and the Napoleonic Empire
  • International Napoleonic Society - "The purpose of the International Napoleonic Society is to promote the study of the Napoleonic Era in accordance with proper academic standards"
Napoleon I of France
House of Bonaparte
Born: 15 August 1769
Died: 5 May 1821
Political offices
French Directory Provisional Consulate
November 11December 12, 1799
Served alongside:
Roger DUCOS
Joseph SIEYÈS
Consulate created
Consulate First Consul
12 December 179918 May 1804
Served alongside:
Jean-Jacques CAMBACÉRÈS
(Second Consul)
Charles-François LEBRUN
(Third Consul)
Empire declared
Preceded by
French Directory
French Head of State
12 December 17996 April 1814
Succeeded by
Louis XVIII
Regnal Titles
Preceded by
Louis XVI (as King of the French)
Emperor of the French
18 May 18046 April 1814
Succeeded by
Louis XVIII (as King of France and Navarre)
Preceded by
Louis XVIII (as King of France and Navarre)
Emperor of the French
1 March 181522 June 1815
Succeeded by
Napoleon II
Preceded by
Francis II (used title until 1806)
King of Italy
18051814
Succeeded by
Vittorio Emmanuel II (though did not become King of Italy until 1861)
Preceded by
Francis II (as Holy Roman Emperor-Elect)
Protector of the Confederation of the Rhine Succeeded by
Franz I, Emperor of Austria (Formerly known as Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor-Elect; ruled as President of the German Confederation


Of Italian origin, the Bonaparte (originally Buonaparte) family is the family of the Corsican Napoleon I, who was elected as first consul of France on November 10, 1799 with the help of his brother, Lucien Bonaparte, president of the Council of Five Hundred at Saint-Cloud. ... August 15 is the 227th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (228th in leap years), with 138 days remaining. ... 1769 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... May 5 is the 125th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (126th in leap years). ... The coronation banquet for George IV 1821 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Executive Directory (in French Directoire exécutif), commonly known as the Directory (or Directoire) held executive power in France from November 2, 1795 until November 10, 1799: following the Convention and preceding the Consulate. ... November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... December 12 is the 346th day (347th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 19 days remaining. ... 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... French politician (1747–1816) - Homme politique, philosophe, etc. ... Emmanuel Joseph Sieyes, 1817, by Jacques-Louis David Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès (May 3, 1748 – June 20, 1836) (IPA: or ) was a French abbé and statesman, one of the chief theorists of the French Revolution, French Consulate, and First French Empire. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A title used by Napoleon Bonaparte following his seizure of power in France. ... December 12 is the 346th day (347th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 19 days remaining. ... 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... May 18 is the 138th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (139th in leap years). ... 1804 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Jean-Jacques-Régis de Cambacérès Jean-Jacques-Régis de Cambacérès, Duke of Parma, (18 October 1753 - 8 March 1824), French lawyer and statesman, is best remembered as the author of the Code Napoléon, which still forms the basis of French law. ... Charles François Lebrun, duc de Plaisance, prince de lempire (19 March 1739 - 16 June 1824) was a French statesman. ... Map of the First French Empire in 1811, with the Empire in dark blue and sattelite states in light blue Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1804-1814/1815 Napoleon I Napoleon II Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif History  - French Consulate  - Established 18... Executive Directory (in French Directoire exécutif), commonly known as the Directory (or Directoire) held executive power in France from November 2, 1795 until November 10, 1799: following the Convention and preceding the Consulate. ... French Head of State was a trasitional title for the head of the French government from August 1840 tp February [1848]]. The title was held by Louis-Philippe of France, who was King of France. ... December 12 is the 346th day (347th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 19 days remaining. ... 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... April 6 is the 96th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (97th in leap years). ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Louis XVIII (November 17, 1755 - September 16, 1824) was King of France and Navarre from 1814 (although he declared that he considered his reign to have begun in 1795) until his death in 1824, with a brief break in 1815 due to Napoleons return in the Hundred Days. ... Louis XVI, born Louis-Auguste de France (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then as King of the French from 1791 to 1792. ... Kings ruled in France from the Middle Ages to 1848. ... May 18 is the 138th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (139th in leap years). ... 1804 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... April 6 is the 96th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (97th in leap years). ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Louis XVIII (November 17, 1755 - September 16, 1824) was King of France and Navarre from 1814 (although he declared that he considered his reign to have begun in 1795) until his death in 1824, with a brief break in 1815 due to Napoleons return in the Hundred Days. ... Louis XVIII (November 17, 1755 - September 16, 1824) was King of France and Navarre from 1814 (although he declared that he considered his reign to have begun in 1795) until his death in 1824, with a brief break in 1815 due to Napoleons return in the Hundred Days. ... Kings ruled in France from the Middle Ages to 1848. ... March 1 is the 60th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (61st in leap years). ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... June 22 is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 192 days remaining. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... Napoleon II, Duke of Reichstadt (March 20, 1811 – July 22, 1832) was the son of Napoleon Bonaparte, and briefly the second Emperor of the French. ... Francis I in Austrian coronation regalia, 1832 Austrian thaler of Francis II, dated 1821. ... King of Italy is a title adopted by many rulers after the fall of the Roman Empire. ... 1805 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... King Victor Emmanuel II of Italy. ... Francis I in Austrian coronation regalia, 1832 Austrian thaler of Francis II, dated 1821. ... The Confederation of the Rhine in 1812 Capital Frankfurt Political structure Confederation Protector Napoleon I Primate  - 1806-1813 Karl von Dalberg  - 1813 Eugène de Beauharnais Historical era Napoleonic Wars  - Formation 12 July, 1806  - Collapse 19 October, 1813 The Confederation of the Rhine or Rhine Confederation (German: ; French: ) lasted from... Francis I in Austrian coronation regalia, 1832 Austrian thaler of Francis II, dated 1821. ... The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ...

Persondata
NAME Bonaparte, Napoleon
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Napoleon I Bonaparte, Emperor of the French, King of Italy
SHORT DESCRIPTION French general and ruler
DATE OF BIRTH 15 August 1769
PLACE OF BIRTH Ajaccio, Corsica
DATE OF DEATH 5 May 1821
PLACE OF DEATH Saint Helena

August 15 is the 227th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (228th in leap years), with 138 days remaining. ... 1769 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Location within France Ajaccio (French: Ajaccio; Corsican: Aiacciu) is a city (commune) of France. ... (Territorial collectivity flag) (Territorial collectivity logo) Location Administration Capital Ajaccio President of the Executive Council Ange Santini (UMP) (since 2004) Departments Corse-du-Sud Haute-Corse Arrondissements 5 Cantons 52 Communes 360 Statistics Land area1 8,680 km² Population (Ranked 25th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... May 5 is the 125th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (126th in leap years). ... The coronation banquet for George IV 1821 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Napoleon I of France - France.com (1925 words)
Napoleon was one of the so-called "enlightened monarchs".
He was born Napoleone Buonaparte in the city of Ajaccio on the island of Corsica one year after Corsica had been sold to France by the Republic of Genoa.
A coalition against France formed in Europe, the royalists rose again, and Napoléon abandoned his troops and returned to Paris in 1799; in November of that year, a coup d'état made him the ruler and military dictator ("First Consul") of France.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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