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Encyclopedia > Napoleon Bonaparte
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Bonaparte as general

Napoleon Bonaparte ( August 15 is the 227th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (228th in leap years), with 138 days remaining. August Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20... 15 August Years: 1766 1767 1768 - 1769 - 1770 1771 1772 Decades: 1730s 1740s 1750s - 1760s - 1770s 1780s 1790s Centuries: 17th century - 18th century - 19th century 1769 in art 1769 in literature 1769 in music 1769 in science List of state leaders in 1769 List of religious leaders in 1769 Events Baron Wolfgang... 1769 May 5 is the 125th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (126th in leap years). There are 240 days remaining. There are usually 92 days in Spring. We are considered halfway through Spring on May 5. May Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa 1 2 3 4... 5 May Years: 1818 1819 1820 - 1821 - 1822 1823 1824 Decades: 1790s 1800s 1810s - 1820s - 1830s 1840s 1850s Centuries: 18th century - 19th century - 20th century 1821 in art 1821 in literature 1821 in rail transport 1821 in science 1821 in music 1821 in sports List of state leaders in 1821 List of... 1821) was a general of the History of France series Gaul Franks Middle Ages Ancien Régime French Revolution Causes Estates-General National Assembly Storming of the Bastille National Constituent Assembly ( 1, 2, 3) Legislative Assembly and fall of the monarchy National Convention and Reign of Terror Directory Consulate Related: Glossary, Timeline, Wars, List of... French Revolution and was the ruler of France as Originally, three equal Consuls made up the government established by Napoleon Bonaparte after the coup of 18 Brumaire (November 9, 1799), which established the Consulate in France (1799-1804). Napoleon, however, soon arose as the strongest of the three. Contents // Categories: Stub ... First Consul (Premier Consul) of the The French people proclaimed Frances First Republic on 21 September 1792 as a result of the French Revolution and of the abolition of the French monarchy. This marked the first occasion in many centuries where a major European state moved from monarchical to republican mode, and presaged a new... French Republic from November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 50 days remaining. November Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20... November 11, Years: 1796 1797 1798 - 1799 - 1800 1801 1802 Decades: 1760s 1770s 1780s - 1790s - 1800s 1810s 1820s Centuries: 17th century - 18th century - 19th century 1799 in topic: Arts Architecture - Literature - Music Other topics Canada - Science Lists of leaders: Colonial governors - State leaders 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see... 1799 to May 18 is the 138th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (139th in leap years). There are 227 days remaining. May Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20... May 18, 1804 is a leap year starting on Sunday. Years: 1801 1802 1803 - 1804 - 1805 1806 1807 Decades: 1770s 1780s 1790s - 1800s - 1810s 1820s 1830s Centuries: 18th century - 19th century - 20th century 1804 in art 1804 in literature 1804 in music 1804 in science 1804 in sports List of state leaders... 1804, then as Emperor of the French (Empereur des Français) and King of Italy under the name Napoleon I from May 18 is the 138th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (139th in leap years). There are 227 days remaining. May Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20... May 18, 1804 is a leap year starting on Sunday. Years: 1801 1802 1803 - 1804 - 1805 1806 1807 Decades: 1770s 1780s 1790s - 1800s - 1810s 1820s 1830s Centuries: 18th century - 19th century - 20th century 1804 in art 1804 in literature 1804 in music 1804 in science 1804 in sports List of state leaders... 1804 to April 6 is the 96th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (97th in leap years). There are 269 days remaining. April Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19... April 6, Years: 1811 1812 1813 - 1814 - 1815 1816 1817 Decades: 1780s 1790s 1800s - 1810s - 1820s 1830s 1840s Centuries: 18th century - 19th century - 20th century 1814 in art 1814 in literature 1814 in science 1814 in music 1814 in sports List of state leaders in 1814 List of religious leaders in 1814... 1814, and again briefly from March 20 is the 79th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (80th in Leap years). There are 286 days remaining. March Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19... March 20 to June 22 is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 192 days remaining. June Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20... June 22, 1815 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). Contents // 1 Events 2 Ongoing events 3 Births 4 Deaths Events January 3 - Austria, Britain, and France form a secret defensive alliance treaty against Prussia and Russia. January 4 - Netherlands, Foundation of the first dutch student association, the... 1815.


Napoleon is considered to have been a military genius, and is known for commanding many successful campaigns, although also for some spectacular failures. Over the course of little more than a decade, he acquired control of most or all of the western and central mainland of World map showing location of Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is geologically and geographically a peninsula, forming the westernmost part of Eurasia. It is conventionally considered a continent, which, in this case, is more of a cultural distinction than a geographic one. ( National Geographic, however, officially recognises... Europe by conquest or alliance until his defeat at the Map of battle by 18 October 1813, from Meyers Encyclopaedia The Battle of Leipzig (October 16-19, 1813), also called the Battle of the Nations, was the largest conflict in the Napoleonic Wars and one of the worst defeats suffered by Napoleon Bonaparte. Following the disastrous campaign in Russia and... Battle of the Nations near Map of Germany showing Leipzig Leipzig [ˈlaiptsɪç] (Sorbian/Lusatian: Lipsk) is the largest city in the federal state (Bundesland) of Saxony in Germany. The name is derived from the Slavic word (see Sorbian) Lipsk (settlement where the linden trees stand). It is situated at the confluence of the... Leipzig in October Years: 1810 1811 1812 - 1813 - 1814 1815 1816 Decades: 1780s 1790s 1800s - 1810s - 1820s 1830s 1840s Centuries: 18th century - 19th century - 20th century 1813 in art 1813 in literature 1813 in science 1813 in music 1813 in sports List of state leaders in 1813 List of religious leaders in 1813... 1813, which led to his Abdication (from the Latin abdicatio disowning, renouncing, from ab, from, and dicare, to declare, to proclaim as not belonging to one), the act whereby a person in office renounces and gives up the same before the expiry of the time for which it is held. In Roman law, the term... abdication several months later. He staged a comeback known as the For information about the legislative programs of Franklin D. Roosevelt, see New Deal. The Hundred Days (French Cent-Jours) or the Waterloo Campaign commonly names the period between 20 March 1815, the date on which Napoleon Bonaparte arrived in Paris after his return from Elba, and 28 June 1815, the... Hundred Days (les Cent Jours), but was defeated decisively at the The Battle of Waterloo by William Sadler Battle of Waterloo Conflict Napoleonic Wars Date June 18, 1815 Place Waterloo, Belgium Result Decisive Allied victory Combatants France Anglo-Allied/Prussian Commanders Napoléon Bonaparte Duke of Wellington Gebhard von Blücher Strength 73,000 67,000 Anglo-Allied 60,000 Prussian... Battle of Waterloo in Belgium (disambiguation). The word Belgian redirects to this page. For an article about the horse breed, see Belgian (horse). The Kingdom of Belgium ( Dutch: Koninkrijk België, French: Royaume de Belgique, German: Königreich Belgien) is a country in Western Europe, bordered by the Netherlands, Germany, Luxembourg, France, and... Belgium on June 18 is the 169th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (170th in leap years), with 196 days remaining. June Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20... June 18, 1815 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). Contents // 1 Events 2 Ongoing events 3 Births 4 Deaths Events January 3 - Austria, Britain, and France form a secret defensive alliance treaty against Prussia and Russia. January 4 - Netherlands, Foundation of the first dutch student association, the... 1815, followed shortly afterwards by his capture by the The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and a member of the British Commonwealth and European Union. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, UK or, inaccurately, as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent parts. Three of these parts... British and his exile to the island of For alternate uses, see Saint Helena (disambiguation). This article needs cleanup. Please edit this article to conform to a higher standard of article quality. Saint Helena refers to both an island in the South Atlantic Ocean 2,800 km off the west coast of Africa belonging to the United Kingdom... Saint Helena, where he died.


Aside from his military achievements, Napoleon is also remembered for the establishment of the The original Napoleonic Code, or Code Napoléon (originally called the Code civil des francais, or civil code of the French), was the French civil code, established at the behest of Napoléon. It entered into force on March 21, 1804. The Napoleonic code was the first legal code to... Napoleonic Code, and he is considered to have been one of the " Enlightened absolutism (also known as enlightened despotism) is the absolutist rule of an enlightened monarch . This is a reference to the so-called Enlightenment, a historical period of the 18th and early 19th centuries. The main Enlightenment-era proponent of this system was Voltaire, who regularly corresponded with several of... enlightened monarchs". Napoleon appointed several members of the This article is about the family of Napoleon Bonaparte. There is also an article on the Argentinian paleontologist, José Bonaparte. Of Corsican origin, the Bonaparte (originally Buonaparte) family is the family of Napoleon I, who was elected as first consul of France on November 10, 1799 with the help of... Bonaparte family as monarchs; although they did not survive his downfall, a nephew, ... Napoleon III, ruled France later in the century.

Contents

Early life and military career

Family and Childhood

PD image from http://www.sru.edu/depts/cisba/compsci/dailey/217students/sgm8660/Final/ This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. This applies worldwide. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del... Portrait of Napoleon Bonaparte
Portrait of Napoleon Bonaparte

He was born Napoleone Buonaparte (in Corsican (Corsu or Lingua Corsa) is a Romance language spoken on the island of Corsica ( France), alongside French, which is the official language. Corsican is also spoken to some extent in the Gallura and Sassari areas of Sardinia ( Italy). It has similarities to Italian and in particular the Tuscany dialects... Corsican, Nabolione or Nabulione) in the city of Ajaccio ( Corsican: Aiacciu) is a city and commune of France, préfecture ( capital) of the département of Corse-du-Sud and, since 1810 capital of the région of Corsica. Population (1999): 52,880. Contents // 1 Geography 2 History 3 Sights 4 Economy 5 Miscellaneous Geography... Ajaccio on This article is about the Mediterranean island. For the place in the United States, see Corsica, South Dakota. Région Corse Capital Ajaccio Area 8,680 km² Regional President Camille de Rocca-Serra Population  - 2004 estimate  - 1999 census  - Density 272,000 260,196 30/km... Corsica.


He later adopted the more French-sounding Napoléon Bonaparte, the first known instance of which appears in an official report dated March 28 is the 87th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (88th in Leap years). There are 278 days remaining. March Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19... March 28, Years: 1793 1794 1795 - 1796 - 1797 1798 1799 Decades: 1760s 1770s 1780s - 1790s - 1800s 1810s 1820s Centuries: 17th century - 18th century - 19th century 1796 in art 1796 in literature 1796 in music 1796 in science List of state leaders in 1796 List of religious leaders in 1796 Contents // 1 Events... 1796.


His family was of minor Corsican The Lords and Barons prove their Nobility by hanging their Banners and exposing their Coats-of-arms at the Windows of the Lodge of the Heralds.—After a Miniature of the Tournaments of King Réné ( Fifteenth Century) MSS. of the National Library of Paris. The nobility... nobility. His father, Carlo Buonaparte, an attorney, was named Corsica's representative to the court of Louis XVI Louis XVI (August 23, 1754 - January 21, 1793), was King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then King of the French in 1791-1792. Suspended and arrested during the insurrection of the 10th of August, he was tried by the National Convention, found guilty of... Louis XVI in Years: 1775 1776 1777 - 1778 - 1779 1780 1781 Decades: 1740s 1750s 1760s - 1770s - 1780s 1790s 1800s Centuries: 17th century - 18th century - 19th century 1778 in art 1778 in literature 1778 in music 1778 in science List of state leaders in 1778 List of religious leaders in 1778 Events The term... 1778, where he remained for a number of years. The dominant influence of Napoleon's childhood was his mother, Letizia. Ahead of her time, she had her 8 children bathe every other day—at a time when even those in the upper classes took a bath perhaps once a month. Her firm discipline helped restrain the rambunctious boy, nicknamed Rabullione (the "meddler" or "disrupter").


Education

At age 10, Napoleon was admitted to a French military school at Brienne-le-Château, a small town near Troyes is a commune in northeastern France. It is the préfecture (capital) of the Aube département and is located on the Seine river. Population (1999): 60,958. History There have been several councils held at Troyes. The 1420 Treaty of Troyes, which settled the Hundred Years War, was... Troyes, on May 15 is the 135th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (136th in leap years). There are 230 days remaining. May Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20... May 15, Years: 1776 1777 1778 - 1779 - 1780 1781 1782 Decades: 1740s 1750s 1760s - 1770s - 1780s 1790s 1800s Centuries: 17th century - 18th century - 19th century 1779 in art 1779 in literature 1779 in music 1779 in science List of state leaders in 1779 List of religious leaders in 1779 Events The Iron... 1779. He had to learn to speak French before entering the school. He spoke French (Français) Spoken in: France and 53 other countries Region: Europe Total speakers: 77 million (128 million with second language speakers) Ranking: 11 Genetic classification: Indo-European   Italic    Romance    Italo-Western     Western      Gallo... French with a marked Italian (Italiano) Spoken in: Italy and 29 other countries Region: Southern Europe Total speakers: 70 million Ranking: 21 Genetic classification: Indo-European  Italic   Romance    Italo-Western     Italo-Dalmatian      Italian Official status Official language of: Italy... Italian accent throughout his life, and was a poor speller. He earned high marks in mathematics and geography, and passable grades in other subjects. Upon graduation from Brienne in Years: 1781 1782 1783 - 1784 - 1785 1786 1787 Decades: 1750s 1760s 1770s - 1780s - 1790s 1800s 1810s Centuries: 17th century - 18th century - 19th century 1784 in art 1784 in literature 1784 in music 1784 in science List of state leaders in 1784 List of religious leaders in 1784 Events January 6... 1784, Bonaparte was admitted to the elite École Royale Militaire in Paris (disambiguation). The Eiffel Tower has become the symbol of Paris throughout the world. Paris is the capital city of France, as well as the capital of the Île-de-France région, whose territory encompasses Paris and its suburbs. The city of Paris proper is also a... Paris, where he completed the course of study in one year while most other cadets required two. Although he had earlier sought a naval assignment, he studied For the thrash metal band, see Artillery (band) Historically, artillery refers to any engine used for the discharge of projectiles during war. The term also describes ground-based troops with the primary function of manning such weapons. Continental Artillery crew from the American Revolution The word as used in the... artillery at the École Militaire. Upon graduation in September, Years: 1782 1783 1784 - 1785 - 1786 1787 1788 Decades: 1750s 1760s 1770s - 1780s - 1790s 1800s 1810s Centuries: 17th century - 18th century - 19th century 1785 in art 1785 in literature 1785 in music 1785 in science List of state leaders in 1785 List of religious leaders in 1785 Events January 1st... 1785, he was In law a commission is a patent which allows a person to take possession of a state office and carry out official acts and duties. Although the term commissioned officer is a military term, civilian officers of the government such as judges, justices of the peace, marshals, and cabinet ministers... commissioned as a 2nd lieutenant of artillery, and took up his new duties in January is the first month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. January begins (astrologically) with the sun in the sign of Capricorn and ends in the sign of Aquarius. Astronomically speaking, the sun begins in the constellation... January Years: 1783 1784 1785 - 1786 - 1787 1788 1789 Decades: 1750s 1760s 1770s - 1780s - 1790s 1800s 1810s Centuries: 17th century - 18th century - 19th century 1786 in art 1786 in literature 1786 in music 1786 in science List of state leaders in 1786 List of religious leaders in 1786 Events May 21... 1786, at the age of 16.


Revolutionary Officer

Enlarge
Napoleon Bonaparte as young officer

He served on garrison duty in Valence is a scientific term in chemistry to describe electrons in the outermost orbital. Valence electrons are used by atoms in chemical reactions and are generally the most important factor in determining which reactions can and cannot take place, especially in covalent bonding. In the American periodic table, the number... Valence and Auxonne is a town in the département of Côte dOr in France, over the Saône river. It is twinned with Heidesheim in Germany. Categories: Stub ... Auxonne until after the outbreak of the Revolution in Years: 1786 1787 1788 - 1789 - 1790 1791 1792 Decades: 1750s 1760s 1770s - 1780s - 1790s 1800s 1810s Centuries: 17th century - 18th century - 19th century 1789 in topic: Arts Architecture - Literature - Music Other topics Canada - Science Lists of leaders: Colonial governors - State leaders 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see... 1789 (although he took nearly two years of leave in Corsica and Paris during this period). He spent most of the next several years on Corsica, where a complex three-way struggle was played out among royalists, revolutionaries, and Corsican nationalists. Bonaparte supported the In the context of the French Revolution, a Jacobin originally meant a member of the Jacobin Club (1789-1794). But even while the Club still existed, the name of Jacobins had been popularly applied to all promulgators of extreme revolutionary opinions. Nowadays, in France this term refers to a centralistic... Jacobin faction, and gained the position of lieutenant-colonel of a regiment of volunteers. After coming into conflict with the increasingly conservative nationalist leader, Pasquale Paoli (1725 - February 5, 1807), was a Corsican patriot and military leader. Paoli was born at Stretta in the parish of Rostino, the son of Giacinto Paoli, who had led the Corsican rebels against Genoese tyranny. Pasquale followed his father into exile, serving with distinction in the Neapolitan army... Pasquale Paoli, Bonaparte and his family were forced to flee to France in June Years: 1790 1791 1792 - 1793 - 1794 1795 1796 Decades: 1760s 1770s 1780s - 1790s - 1800s 1810s 1820s Centuries: 17th century - 18th century - 19th century 1793 in art 1793 in literature 1793 in music 1793 in science List of state leaders in 1793 List of religious leaders in 1793 Contents // 1 Events... 1793.


He soon was appointed as artillery commander in the French forces beseiging Location within France Coat of Arms of Toulon Toulon (Tolon in Provençal) is a city in southern France and a large military harbor on the Mediterranean coast, with a major French naval base. Located in the Provence-Alpes-Côte-dAzur région, Toulon is... Toulon, which had risen in revolt against the History of France series Gaul Franks Middle Ages Ancien Régime French Revolution Causes Estates-General National Assembly Storming of the Bastille National Constituent Assembly (1, 2, 3) Legislative Assembly and fall of the monarchy National Convention and Reign of Terror Directory Consulate Related: Glossary, Timeline, Wars, List of people... Terror and was occupied by The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and a member of the British Commonwealth and European Union. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, UK or, inaccurately, as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent parts. Three of these parts... British troops. He formulated a successful plan for assaulting the British positions, leading to the recapture of the city and a promotion to brigadier-general. His actions brought him to the attention of the The Committee of Public Safety (French: le Haut Comit de la sant publique), set up by the National Convention on April 6, 1793, formed the de facto executive government of France during the Reign of Terror (1793 - 1794) of the French Revolution. Under war conditions and with national survival seemingly... Committee of Public Safety, and he became a close associate of Augustin Robespierre, younger brother of the Revolutionary leader Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre, (May 6, 1758–July 28, 1794), known also to his contemporaries as the Incorruptible, is one of the best known of the leaders of the French Revolution. He was the leader of the Committee of Public Safety which oversaw the period of... Maximilien Robespierre. As a result, he was briefly imprisoned following the fall of the elder Robespierre in Years: 1791 1792 1793 - 1794 - 1795 1796 1797 Decades: 1760s 1770s 1780s - 1790s - 1800s 1810s 1820s Centuries: 17th century - 18th century - 19th century 1794 in art 1794 in literature 1794 in music 1794 in rail transport 1794 in science List of state leaders in 1794 List of religious leaders in... 1794, but was released within two weeks.


The "Whiff of Grapeshot"

In Years: 1792 1793 1794 - 1795 - 1796 1797 1798 Decades: 1760s 1770s 1780s - 1790s - 1800s 1810s 1820s Centuries: 17th century - 18th century - 19th century 1795 in art 1795 in literature 1795 in music 1795 in science List of state leaders in 1795 List of religious leaders in 1795 Contents // 1 Events... 1795, Bonaparte was serving in Paris (disambiguation). The Eiffel Tower has become the symbol of Paris throughout the world. Paris is the capital city of France, as well as the capital of the Île-de-France région, whose territory encompasses Paris and its suburbs. The city of Paris proper is also a... Paris when royalists and counter-revolutionaries organized an armed protest against the History of France series Gaul Franks Middle Ages Ancien Régime French Revolution Causes Estates-General National Assembly Storming of the Bastille National Constituent Assembly (1, 2, 3) Legislative Assembly and fall of the monarchy National Convention and Reign of Terror Directory Consulate Related: Glossary, Timeline, Wars, List of people... National Convention on 3rd October Organization is also the name of a Marxist terrorist group . Contents // 1 External links 2 Events 2.1 2400 BC - AD 1899 2.2 1900-1999 2.3 2000-2099 3 Births 3.1 1700-1899 3.2 1900-1999 4 Deaths 4.1 100 BC - AD 1899... October 3. Bonaparte was given command of the improvised forces defending the Convention in the Up to 1871 the Tuileries Palace was a palace in Paris, France, on the right bank of the River Seine. After the death of Henry II of France in 1559, his widow, Catherine de Medici (1519-1589) planned a new palace. She began the building of the palace of Tuileries... Tuileries Palace. He seized artillery pieces (with the aid of a young cavalry officer, Joachim Murat, (March 25, 1767 - October 13, 1815), a marshal of France, was King of Naples from 1808 to 1815. Born as the son of an innkeeper, he rose in the French army to the rank of a general. He married Napoleon Bonapartes sister Caroline in 1800, and was... Joachim Murat, who would later become his brother-in-law) and used them the following day to repel the attackers. He later boasted that he had cleared the streets with a "whiff of grapeshot." This triumph gained him sudden fame, wealth, and the patronage of the new This article is about the computing term. The Directory was also a government in revolutionary France from 1795 to 1799. In computing, a directory, catalog, or folder, is an entity in a file system which contains a group of files and other directories. A typical file system contains thousands of... Directory, particularly that of its leading member, Barras. Within weeks he was romantically attached to Barras' former mistress, Joséphine de Beauharnais, Empress Joséphine Joséphine de Beauharnais (June 23, 1763 - May 29, 1814) was the first wife of Napoléon Bonaparte, and became Empress of France. She was born Marie Josèphe Rose Tascher de la Pagerie in Les Trois-Îlets, Martinique on a slave plantation... Josephine de Beauharnais, whom he married in Years: 1793 1794 1795 - 1796 - 1797 1798 1799 Decades: 1760s 1770s 1780s - 1790s - 1800s 1810s 1820s Centuries: 17th century - 18th century - 19th century 1796 in art 1796 in literature 1796 in music 1796 in science List of state leaders in 1796 List of religious leaders in 1796 Contents // 1 Events... 1796.


Campaigns in Italy and Egypt

Just days after his marriage, Bonaparte took command of the French "Army of Italy" and led it on a successful The French Revolutionary Wars continued from 1795, with the French in an increasingly strong position as members of the First Coalition made separate peaces. Austria and Great Britain were the main remaining members of the coalition. The rebellion in the Vendée was also finally terminated by General Hoche. Mignet... invasion of Italy. At the The Battle of Lodi took place at Lodi, Lombardy, Italy on May 10, 1796. During the First Coalition, Napoleon Bonaparte, future Napoleon I of France, won a decisive victory against Austrian forces at Lodi bridge over the River Adda. The Austrians lost some 2,000 men. This was Napoleons... Lodi, he gained the nickname of "The Little Corporal" (le petit caporal), a term reflecting his camaraderie with the ordinary soldiers. He drove the The Republic of Austria ( German: Republik Österreich) is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It borders Germany and the Czech Republic to the north, Slovakia and Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. The state is a representative democracy... Austrian forces out of Regione Lombardia Capital Milan President Roberto Formigoni (CdL) Provinces Bergamo Brescia Como Cremona Lecco Lodi Mantua Milano Monza-Brianza Pavia Sondrio Varese Municipalities 1547 Area 23,863 km²  - Ranked 4th (7.9 %) Population (2001)  - Total  - Ranked  - Density 9,032,554 1st (15.8 %) 379/km² Map... Lombardy and defeated the army of the The Papal States (Gli Stati della Chiesa or Stati Pontificii, States of the Church) is one of the historical states of Italy before its unity under the crown of Savoy and comprised those territories over which the Pope was the ruler in a civil as well as a spiritual sense... Papal States, but ignored the Directory's order to march on The Roman Colosseum Rome (Italian and Latin Roma) is the capital city of Italy, and of its Lazio region. It is located on the lower Tiber river, near the Mediterranean Sea, at 41°50N, 12°15E. The Vatican City State, a sovereign enclave within Rome, is the seat... Rome and dethrone the Pope John Paul II has reigned since 22 Oct 1978. The Pope is the Catholic bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches (note that the name within the communion is simply the one Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church). In addition to... Pope. In early Years: 1794 1795 1796 - 1797 - 1798 1799 1800 Decades: 1760s 1770s 1780s - 1790s - 1800s 1810s 1820s Centuries: 17th century - 18th century - 19th century 1797 in art 1797 in literature 1797 in music 1797 in rail transport 1797 in science List of state leaders in 1797 List of religious leaders in... 1797, he The French Revolutionary Wars continued from 1796, with France fighting the First Coalition including Austria and Great Britain. On February 14, British admiral Jervis met and defeated a Spanish fleet off Portugal at the Battle of Cape St. Vincent. This prevented the Spanish fleet from rendezvousing with the French, removing... led his army into Austria and forced that power to sue for peace. The resulting The Treaty of Campo Formio was signed on October 17, 1797 (26 Vendémiaire, Year VI of the French Republic) by Napoleon Bonaparte and Count Ludwig von Cobenzl as representatives of France and Austria. It marked the collapse of the First Coalition, the victorious conclusion to Napoleons campaigns in... Treaty of Campo Formio gave France control of most of northern Italy, along with the The Low Countries are the countries on low-lying land around the delta of the Rhine and Meuse rivers— usually used in modern context to mean the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg (an alternate modern term, more often used today, is Benelux). The Low Countries were the scene of the... Low Countries and The Rhineland (Rheinland in German) is the general name for the land on both sides of the river Rhine in the west of Germany. A geographical term originally, it has also acquired some political and cultural connotations, becoming a political entity as the Prussian Rhine Province, and continuing in the... Rhineland, but a secret clause promised The Republic of Venice was a city-state in Venetia in Northeastern Italy, based around the city of Venice. It was known as the Most Serene Republic. It existed from the 9th century until the 18th century (1797). Most Serene Republic of Venice (Coat of Arms) Map goes here Official... Venice to Austria. Bonaparte then marched on Venice and forced its surrender, ending over 1,000 years of independence. Later in Years: 1794 1795 1796 - 1797 - 1798 1799 1800 Decades: 1760s 1770s 1780s - 1790s - 1800s 1810s 1820s Centuries: 17th century - 18th century - 19th century 1797 in art 1797 in literature 1797 in music 1797 in rail transport 1797 in science List of state leaders in 1797 List of religious leaders in... 1797, Bonaparte organized many of the French-dominated territories in Italy into the The Cisalpine Republic was a French client republic in Northern Italy from 1797 to 1802. It consisted of roughly the former Duchy of Milan, those portions of the Republic of Venice west of the Adige River, the Duchy of Modena, the Papal Legations, and the Piedmontese province of Novara. The... Cisalpine Republic.


Bonaparte was a brilliant military strategist, able to absorb the substantial body of military knowledge of his time and to apply it to the real-world circumstances of his era. He was not, however, an innovator, but rather a skilled practitioner of an art he learned from books; as he put it himself, "I have fought sixty battles and I have learned nothing which I did not know at the beginning." An For the thrash metal band, see Artillery (band) Historically, artillery refers to any engine used for the discharge of projectiles during war. The term also describes ground-based troops with the primary function of manning such weapons. Continental Artillery crew from the American Revolution The word as used in the... artillery officer by training, he used artillery innovatively as a mobile force to support Infantry in the First World War Infantry (or Infantrymen) are soldiers who fight primarily on foot, using personal weapons. They may arrive on scene in various ways, and are deployed either in formations or as skirmishers and guerillas. In the modern period, the term infantryman is reserved for the most... infantry attacks, and benefited from France's technological advantage in this branch of arms. He was an aggressive commander who enjoyed the loyalty of highly motivated soliders. Contemporary paintings of his headquarters during the Italian campaign show that he used the world's first Telecommunication is the extension of communication over a distance. In practice it also recognizes that something may be lost in the process; hence the term telecommunication covers all forms of distance and/or conversion of the original communications, including radio, telegraphy, television, telephony, data communication and computer networking. The elements... telecommunications system, the Claude Chappe (December 25, 1763 _ January 23, 1805) was a French inventor who in 1792 demonstrated a practical semaphore system that eventually spanned all of France. This was the first practical telecommunications system, and Claude was the first telecom mogul. Claude was born in Brûlon, France as the... Chappe The semaphore line was a signalling system invented by the Chappe brothers in France. It is different from the naval semaphore system that uses hand-held flags, which was invented later. Claude Chappe began development when he and his four brothers lost their livelihoods because of the French Revolution. They... semaphore line, first implemented in Years: 1789 1790 1791 - 1792 - 1793 1794 1795 Decades: 1760s 1770s 1780s - 1790s - 1800s 1810s 1820s Centuries: 17th century - 18th century - 19th century 1792 in topic: Arts Architecture - Literature - Music Other topics Canada - Science Lists of leaders: Colonial governors - State leaders 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see... 1792. He was also a master of both Spy and secret agent redirect here; for alternate use, see Spy (disambiguation) and Secret agent (disambiguation). Espionage is the practice of obtaining secrets (spying) from rivals or enemies for military, political, or economic advantage. It is usually thought of as part of an organized effort (i.e., governmental or corporate... intelligence and deception, using spies to gather information about opposing forces while seeking to conceal his own deployments, and often won battles by concentrating his forces on an unsuspecting enemy.


While campaigning in Italy, Bonaparte became increasingly influential in French politics. He published two newspapers, ostensibly for the troops in his army, but widely circulated within France as well. In May Years: 1794 1795 1796 - 1797 - 1798 1799 1800 Decades: 1760s 1770s 1780s - 1790s - 1800s 1810s 1820s Centuries: 17th century - 18th century - 19th century 1797 in art 1797 in literature 1797 in music 1797 in rail transport 1797 in science List of state leaders in 1797 List of religious leaders in... 1797 he founded a third newspaper, published in Paris, entitled Le Journal de Bonaparte et des hommes vertueux. Elections in mid-1797 gave the royalist party increased power, alarming Barras and his allies on the Directory. The royalists, in turn, began attacking Bonaparte for looting Italy and overstepping his authority in dealings with the Austrians (not without justification on both counts). Bonaparte soon sent General Augereau to Paris to lead a A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. It is different from a revolution, which is staged by a larger group and radically changes the political system. The term... coup d'etat and purge the royalists on September 4 is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years). There are 118 days remaining. September Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23... 4 September ( History of France series Gaul Franks Middle Ages Ancien Régime French Revolution Causes Estates-General National Assembly Storming of the Bastille National Constituent Assembly (1, 2, 3) Legislative Assembly and fall of the monarchy National Convention and Reign of Terror Directory Consulate Related: Glossary, Timeline, Wars, List of people... 18 Fructidor). This left Barras and his Republican allies in firm control again, but dependent on Bonaparte's "sword" to stay there. Bonaparte himself proceeded to the peace negotiations with Austria, then returned to Paris in December as the conquering hero and the dominant force in government, far more popular than any of the Directors.

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Napoleon visiting the plague victims of Jaffa

In March Years: 1795 1796 1797 - 1798 - 1799 1800 1801 Decades: 1760s 1770s 1780s - 1790s - 1800s 1810s 1820s Centuries: 17th century - 18th century - 19th century 1798 in art 1798 in literature 1798 in music 1798 in science List of state leaders in 1798 List of religious leaders in 1798 Contents // 1 Events... 1798, Bonaparte proposed an 1798 was a relatively quiet period in the French Revolutionary Wars. The major continental powers in the First coalition had made peace with France, leaving France dominant in Europe with only a slow naval war with Great Britain to worry about. The leaders of the Directory in Paris feared Napoleon... expedition to colonize The Arab Republic of Egypt, commonly known as Egypt, (in Arabic: مصر, romanized Mişr or Maşr, in Egyptian dialect) is a republic mostly located in northeastern Africa. Covering an area of about 1,020,000 km², it includes the Sinai Peninsula (considered part of... Egypt, then a province of the Osmanlı İmparatorluğu Devlet-i Aliye-i Osmaniye Ottoman Coat of Arms The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto El Muzaffer Daima The Ever Victorious (as written in tugra) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital İstanbul ( Constantinople/Asitane/Konstantiniyye ) Sovereigns Sultans of the... Ottoman Empire, seeking to protect French trade interests and undermine Britain's access to The Republic of India is the second most populous country in the world, with a population of over one billion, and is the seventh largest country by geographical area. India has grown significantly, both in population and in strategic importance in the last two decades. The Indian economy is the... India. The Directory, although troubled by the scope and cost of the enterprise, readily agreed to the plan in order to remove the popular general from the center of power.


An unusual aspect of the Egyptian expedition was the inclusion of a large group of scientists along with the invading force: among the other discoveries that resulted, the The Rosetta Stone solved a particularly difficult linguistic problem. The Rosetta Stone is a dark granite stone (often incorrectly identified as basalt) which provided modern researchers with translations of ancient text in Egyptian demotic script, Greek, and Egyptian hieroglyphics. Because Greek was well known, the stone was the key to... Rosetta Stone was found. This deployment of intellectual resources is considered by some an indication of Bonaparte's devotion to the principles of This article is a part of the History of Philosophy series. History of Western philosophy Pre-Socratic philosophy Ancient philosophy Medieval philosophy Renaissance philosophy 17th-century philosophy 18th-century philosophy 19th-century philosophy 20th-century philosophy Postmodern philosophy Contemporary philosophy Eastern philosophy The Age of Enlightenment (or The Enlightenment for... the Enlightenment, and by others a masterstroke of This article is about the type of communication. For other meanings, see Propaganda (disambiguation). North Korean propaganda showing a soldier destroying the United States Capitol building. Propaganda is a specific type of message presentation aimed at serving an agenda. At its root, the denotation of propaganda is to propagate (actively... propaganda obfuscating the true Imperialism is the policy of extending the control or authority over foreign entities as a means of acquisition and/or maintenance of empires, either through direct territorial or through indirect methods of exerting control on the politics and/or economy of other countries. The term is used by some to... imperialist motives of the invasion. In a largely unsuccessful effort to gain the support of the Egyptian populace, Bonaparte also issued proclamations casting himself as a liberator of the people from The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto El Muzaffer Daima The Ever Victorious (as written in tugra) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital İstanbul ( Constantinople/Asitane/Konstantiniyye ) Sovereigns Sultans of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million Area 12+ million km² Establishment 1299 Dissolution October... Ottoman oppression, and praising the precepts of This article forms part of the seriesIslam Vocabulary of Islam Five Pillars Profession of faith Prayer · Alms · Fasting Pilgrimage to Mecca Jihad (See Sixth pillar of Islam) Major Figures Muhammad Prophets of Islam Caliph · Shia Imam · The Mahdi Companions of Muhammad Holy Cities Events Mecca ·... Islam.


Bonaparte’s expedition seized This article is about the European nation. For other meanings, see this page. Repubblika ta Malta Republic of Malta ( In Detail) (Full size) Official languages Maltese and English Capital Valletta Largest City Birkirkara President Edward (Eddie) Fenech Adami Prime Minister Lawrence Gonzi Religion Catholicism Area  - Total  - % water Ranked... Malta on June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. June Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20... June 9 and then landed successfully at Antiquity and modernity stand cheek-by-jowl in Egypts chief Mediterranean seaport Located on the Mediterranean Sea coast, Alexandria (in Arabic, الإسكندرية — al-Iskandariyah) is the chief seaport in Egypt, and that countrys second largest city, and the... Alexandria on July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 183 days remaining. July Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20... July 1, eluding (temporarily) pursuit by the Royal Navy Ensign The Royal Navy is the navy of the United Kingdom. It operates a number of aircraft carriers, destroyers, frigates, fifteen nuclear submarines, and various other ships, as well as aircraft, and the UKs amphibious force: the Royal Marines. The Royal Navy is the largest navy in... Royal Navy. Although Bonaparte had massive success against the native An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (or Mameluks) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim Caliphs and the Ottoman Empire, and who on more than one occasion seized power for... Mamluk army (his 25,000 strong invading force defeated a 100,000 army), his fleet was largely destroyed by Lord Nelson Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson (September 29, 1758 – October 21, 1805) was a British admiral who won fame as a leading naval commander. He is famous for his participation in the Napoleonic Wars, most notably in the Battle of Trafalgar, where he lost his life. He became... Nelson at Battle of the Nile by Luny Thomas Battle of the Nile Conflict French Revolutionary Wars Date August 1, 1798 – August 2, 1798 Place Aboukir Bay, Egypt Result Decisive British victory Combatants Britain France Commanders Horatio Nelson François-Paul Brueys DAigalliers Strength 14 ships of the line (thirteen... The Battle of the Nile, so that Bonaparte became land-bound. His goal of strengthening the French position in the -1... Mediterranean Sea was thus frustrated, but his army nonetheless succeeded in consolidating power in Egypt, although it faced repeated nationalist uprisings.


In early Years: 1796 1797 1798 - 1799 - 1800 1801 1802 Decades: 1760s 1770s 1780s - 1790s - 1800s 1810s 1820s Centuries: 17th century - 18th century - 19th century 1799 in topic: Arts Architecture - Literature - Music Other topics Canada - Science Lists of leaders: Colonial governors - State leaders 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see... 1799 he led the army into the Ottoman province of The Syrian Arab Republic is a country in the Middle East, bordering (from south to north) on Lebanon, Israel, Jordan, Iraq and Turkey. The borders with Israel and Turkey are subject to dispute, pending the resolution of outstanding conflicts over possession of the Golan Heights and the region of Iskenderun... Syria, now modern The State of Israel (Hebrew: מדינת ישראל, translit.: Medinat Yisrael; Arabic: دولة اسرائيل, translit.: Daulat Israil) is a country in the Middle East on the eastern edge of the Mediterranean Sea... Israel, and defeated numerically superior The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto El Muzaffer Daima The Ever Victorious (as written in tugra) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital İstanbul ( Constantinople/Asitane/Konstantiniyye ) Sovereigns Sultans of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million Area 12+ million km² Establishment 1299 Dissolution October... Ottoman forces in several battles, but his army was weakened by disease and poor supplies. He was unable to reduce the fortress of Akko (Hebrew עכו; Arabic عكّا ʿAkkā; also, Acre, Accho, Acco, and St.-Jean dAcre), is a city in Western Galilee in the North District, Israel. According to the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), at the end of 2003 the city had... Acre, and was forced to retreat to Egypt in May. On July 25 is the 206th day (207th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 159 days remaining. July Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20... July 25, he defeated an Ottoman amphibious invasion at Abukir.


Ruler of France

The Coup of 18 Brumaire

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Portrait by Self portrait Jacques-Louis David (August 30, 1748 - December 29, 1825), most usually known as David (pronounced Dah-veed rather than Day-vid), was a French painter. David was born into a middle-class Parisian family. In 1757 his mother deserted him and he was subsequently raised by his uncles... Jacques-Louis David

While in Egypt, Bonaparte had kept a close eye on European affairs, relying largely on newspapers and dispatches that arrived only irregularly. On August 23 is the 235th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (236th in leap years), with 130 days remaining. August Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20... August 23, he abruptly set sail for France, taking advantage of a temporary departure of blockading British ships. Although he was later accused by political opponents of abandoning his troops, his departure actually had been authorized by the This article is about the computing term. The Directory was also a government in revolutionary France from 1795 to 1799. In computing, a directory, catalog, or folder, is an entity in a file system which contains a group of files and other directories. A typical file system contains thousands of... Directory, which had suffered a series of By 1799, the French Revolutionary Wars had resumed after a period of relative peace in 1798. The Second Coalition had organized against France, with Great Britain allying with Russia, Austria, the Ottoman Empire, and several of the minor German and Italian states. While Napoleons army was still embroiled in... military defeats to the forces of the The name Second Coalition (1798 - 1800) designates the second major concerted effort of multiple European powers to contain revolutionary France. The coalition comprised: Austria Great Britain (at war with France since 1793) Russia Turkey After Napoleon Bonaparte mounted an expedition to Egypt and, in spite of several land victories, was... Second Coalition, and feared an invasion. By the time he arrived back in Paris in October Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 2005 October is the tenth month of the year in... October, the military situation had improved thanks to several French victories. The Republic was bankrupt, however, and the corrupt and inefficient Directory was no more popular than ever.


Bonaparte was approached by one of the Directors, Sieyès, seeking his support for a coup to overthrow the The Constitution of 1795, Constitution of 22 August 1795, Constitution of the Year III, or Constitution of 5 Fructidor was a national constitution of France ratified by the National Convention on August 22, 1795 (5 Fructidor of the Year III under the French Revolutionary Calendar) during the French Revolution. It... constitution. The plot included Bonaparte's brother Lucien Bonaparte, Prince of Canino (May 21, 1775 - June 29, 1840) was the second of the brothers to Emperor Napoleon I of France. Lucien was the genuinely Revolutionary Bonaparte, and his relations with his brother were often abrasive. Born in Ajaccio, Corsica, and educated in mainland France, Lucien returned to... Lucien, then serving as speaker of the The Council of Five Hundred (Conseil des Cinq-Cent), or simply the Five Hundred was the lower house of the Directory (Directoire), the legislature of France from August 22, 1795 until November 9, 1799, roughly the second half of the period generally referred to as the French Revolution. The upper... Council of Five Hundred, Roger Ducos, another Director, and Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord (February 2, 1754 - May 17, French diplomat. He worked successfully from the regime of Louis XVI, through the revolution and then under Napoleon I, Louis XVIII and Louis_Philippe. Talleyrand was born into an aristocratic family in Paris but a foot injury in childhood or... Talleyrand. On November 9 is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 52 days remaining. November Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20... November 9, or 18 Brumaire, the coup of 18 Brumaire or sometimes simply Brumaire refers to the coup détat by which General Napoleon Bonaparte overthrew the government of the Directory to replace it by the Consulate. This occurred on November 9, 1799, which was 18 Brumaire in the year VIII under the... 18 Brumaire, and the following day, troops led by Bonaparte seized control and dispersed the legislative councils, leaving a rump to name Bonaparte, Sieyès, and Ducos as provisional Consuls to administer the government. Although Sieyès expected to dominate the new regime, he was outmaneuvered by Bonaparte, who drafted the The Constitution of the Year VIII, was a national constitution of France adopted December 24, 1799 (during the Year VIII of the French Revolutionary Calendar) established a form of government known as the Consulate. The coup of 18 Brumaire (November 9, 1799) had already effectively ended the French Revolution. The... Constitution of the Year VIII and secured his own election as Originally, three equal Consuls made up the government established by Napoleon Bonaparte after the coup of 18 Brumaire (November 9, 1799), which established the Consulate in France (1799-1804). Napoleon, however, soon arose as the strongest of the three. Contents // Categories: Stub ... First Consul. This made him the most powerful person in France, a power that was increased by the The Constitution of the Year X was a national constitution of France adopted during the Year X of the French Revolutionary Calendar. It superseded the Constitution of the Year VIII, revising the Consulate to augment Napoleon Bonapartes dictatorship by making him First Consul for Life. It was succeeded by... Constitution of the Year X, which made him First Consul for life.


The First Consul

Bonaparte instituted several lasting reforms including centralized admnistration of the départments, higher education, a tax system, a central bank, law codes, and road and sewer systems. He negotiated the After successfully committing a coup détat against the French Directory in 1799, and then one month later declaring himself First Consul with the support of a popular vote, Napoleon Bonaparte was convinced that coming to terms with the Catholic Church would be crucial to the success of his ventures... Concordat of 1801 with the The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. Members generally prefer the term Catholic Church, but this term has multiple meanings (see Catholicism); the term Roman Catholic Church is used in this article to avoid... Catholic Church, seeking to reconcile the mostly Catholic population with his regime. His set of civil laws, the The original Napoleonic Code, or Code Napoléon (originally called the Code civil des francais, or civil code of the French), was the French civil code, established at the behest of Napoléon. It entered into force on March 21, 1804. The Napoleonic code was the first legal code to... Napoleonic Code or Civil Code, has importance to this day in many countries. The Code was prepared by committees of legal experts under the supervision of Jean Jacques Régis de Cambacérès, who held the office Originally, three equal Consuls made up the government established by Napoleon Bonaparte after the coup of 18 Brumaire (November 9, 1799), which established the Consulate in France (1799-1804). Napoleon, however, soon arose as the strongest of the three. Contents // Categories: Stub ... Second Consul from Years: 1796 1797 1798 - 1799 - 1800 1801 1802 Decades: 1760s 1770s 1780s - 1790s - 1800s 1810s 1820s Centuries: 17th century - 18th century - 19th century 1799 in topic: Arts Architecture - Literature - Music Other topics Canada - Science Lists of leaders: Colonial governors - State leaders 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see... 1799 to 1804 is a leap year starting on Sunday. Years: 1801 1802 1803 - 1804 - 1805 1806 1807 Decades: 1770s 1780s 1790s - 1800s - 1810s 1820s 1830s Centuries: 18th century - 19th century - 20th century 1804 in art 1804 in literature 1804 in music 1804 in science 1804 in sports List of state leaders... 1804; Bonaparte, however, participated actively in the sessions of the In France, the Conseil dÉtat ( English: Council of State and sometimes Counsel of State) is an organ of the French national government. Its functions include assisting the executive with legal advice and being the supreme court for administrative justice. Its members are (for the most part) high level... Council of State that revised the drafts. Other codes were commissioned by Bonaparte to deal with criminal and commerce law; in Years: 1805 1806 1807 - 1808 - 1809 1810 1811 Decades: 1770s 1780s 1790s - 1800s - 1810s 1820s 1830s Centuries: 18th century - 19th century - 20th century 1808 in art 1808 in literature 1808 in music 1808 in science 1808 in sports List of state leaders in 1808 List of religious leaders in 1808... 1808, a Code of Criminal Instruction was published, which laid precise rules of operations for courts and, though it may seem somewhat biased in favor of the prosecution by today's standards, sought to preserve personal freedoms and remedy the abuses commonplace in the European courts of the day. Although Bonaparte was an The term authoritarian is used to describe an organization or a state which enforces strong and sometimes oppressive measures against the population, generally without attempts at gaining the consent of the population. In an authoritarian state, citizens are subject to state authority in many aspects of their lives, including many... authoritarian ruler, the same was true of all the European monarchs of the time, with the sole exception of Union Flag (1606-1800 The united Kingdom of Great Britain, also sometimes known as the United Kingdom of Great Britain, was created by the merger of the Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of England under the 1707 Act of Union to create a single kingdom encompassing the whole of... Britain. Bonaparte sought to restore law and order after the excesses of the Revolution, and reform the administration of the State.


An Interlude of Peace

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Napoléon crossing the Alps, by Self portrait Jacques-Louis David (August 30, 1748 - December 29, 1825), most usually known as David (pronounced Dah-veed rather than Day-vid), was a French painter. David was born into a middle-class Parisian family. In 1757 his mother deserted him and he was subsequently raised by his uncles... Jacques-Louis David

In Years: 1797 1798 1799 - 1800 - 1801 1802 1803 Decades: 1770s 1780s 1790s - 1800s - 1810s 1820s 1830s Centuries: 17th century - 18th century - 19th century 1800 in art 1800 in literature 1800 in music 1800 in science 1800 in sports List of state leaders in 1800 List of religious leaders in 1800... 1800, Bonaparte returned to Italy, which the Austrians had re-conquered during his absence in Egypt. He and his troops crossed the Alps in spring (although he actually rode a mule, not the white charger on which David famously depicted him). Although the campaign began badly, the Austrians were routed in June at The Battle of Marengo was fought in Italy on June 14, 1800 as the decisive battle of the war of the Second Coalition. The Marengo plain is situated near the city of Alessandria, in Piedmont, north-western Italy. It resulted in a French victory under Napoleon Bonaparte against the Austrians... Marengo, leading to an armistice. Napoleon's brother Joseph Bonaparte (January 7, 1768—July 28, 1844) was the eldest brother of the French Emperor Napoleon I, who made him King of Naples (1806–1808) and Spain (1808–1813). Bonaparte was born Giuseppe Bonaparte at Corte in Corsica. As a lawyer, politician, and diplomat, he served... Joseph, who was leading the peace negotiations in Lunéville, reported that due to British backing for Austria, Austria would not recognize France's newly gained territory. As negotiations became more and more fractious, Bonaparte gave orders to his general Jean Victor Marie Moreau (February 4, 1763 - September 2, 1813), French general, was born at Morlaix in Brittany. His father was an avocat in good practice, and instead of allowing him to enter the army, as he attempted to do, insisted on his studying law at the University of Rennes... Moreau to strike Austria once more. Moreau led France to victory at The Battle of Hohenlinden near Munich was fought on December 3, 1800, during the French victory under General Moreau against the Austrians under Archduke Karl, forcing him to sign an armistice. In terms of the number of troops involved it was the largest in the French Revolutionary Wars and quite... Hohenlinden. As a result the Treaty of Lunéville was signed in February Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28   2005 February is the second month of the year in the Gregorian... February Years: 1798 1799 1800 - 1801 - 1802 1803 1804 Decades: 1770s 1780s 1790s - 1800s - 1810s 1820s 1830s Centuries: 18th century - 19th century - 20th century 1801 in art 1801 in literature 1801 in music 1801 in science 1801 in sports List of state leaders in 1801 List of religious leaders in 1801... 1801, under which the French gains of the The Treaty of Campo Formio was signed on October 17, 1797 (26 Vendémiaire, Year VI of the French Republic) by Napoleon Bonaparte and Count Ludwig von Cobenzl as representatives of France and Austria. It marked the collapse of the First Coalition, the victorious conclusion to Napoleons campaigns in... Treaty of Campo Formio were reaffirmed and increased; the British also committed themselves to sign a peace treaty and finally signed the The Treaty of Amiens was signed on March 25, 1802 (Germinal 4, year X in the French Revolutionary Calendar) by Joseph Bonaparte and the Marquis Cornwallis as a Definitive Treaty of Peace between France and Britain. Together with the Treaty of Lunéville (1801) the treaty of Amiens marked the... Treaty of Amiens in For alternative meanings, see March (disambiguation). March Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31   2005 March is... March Years: 1799 1800 1801 - 1802 - 1803 1804 1805 Decades: 1770s 1780s 1790s - 1800s - 1810s 1820s 1830s Centuries: 18th century - 19th century - 20th century 1802 in art 1802 in literature 1802 in music 1802 in science 1802 in sports List of state leaders in 1802 List of religious leaders in 1802... 1802, under which This article is about the European nation. For other meanings, see this page. Repubblika ta Malta Republic of Malta ( In Detail) (Full size) Official languages Maltese and English Capital Valletta Largest City Birkirkara President Edward (Eddie) Fenech Adami Prime Minister Lawrence Gonzi Religion Catholicism Area  - Total  - % water Ranked... Malta was to be handed over to France.


The peace between France and Britain was uneasy at best. The "legitimate" monarchies of Europe were reluctant to recognize a republic, fearing that the ideas of the revolution might be exported to them. In Britain, the Louis XVIII (November 17, 1755 - September 16, 1824) was King of France from 1814 (although he declared that he considered his reign to have begun in 1795) until his death in 1824. Early Life Louis-Stanislas-Xavier was born on November 17, 1755 in the Palace of Versailles, Versailles, France... brother of Louis XVI was welcomed as a state guest although officially Britain recognized France as a republic. Britain failed to evacuate Malta and Egypt as promised, and protested against France's Annexation is the legal merging of some territory into another body. A city might annex unincorporated areas or a country might annex other disputed territories. Sometimes also used to refer to mergers of countries. Contents // 1 Examples of Annexation 1.1 Pacific Northwest and California 1.2 Texas 1.3... annexation of Regione Piemonte Capital Torino President Enzo Ghigo (House of Freedoms) Provinces Alessandria Asti Biella Cuneo Novara Turin Verbano-Cusio-Ossola Vercelli Municipalities 1,206 Area 25,400 km²  - Ranked 2nd (8.4 %) Population (2001)  - Total  - Ranked  - Density 4,214,677 6th (7.4 %) 166/km² Map... Piedmont, and Napoleon's Act of Mediation in The Swiss Confederation or Switzerland is a landlocked federal state in Europe, with neighbours Germany, France, Italy, Austria and Liechtenstein. The country has a strong tradition of political and military neutrality, but also of international co-operation, and is home to many international organisations. Confoederatio Helvetica (CH), the Latin version... Switzerland (although neither of these areas was covered by the Treaty of Amiens).


In Years: 1800 1801 1802 - 1803 - 1804 1805 1806 Decades: 1770s 1780s 1790s - 1800s - 1810s 1820s 1830s Centuries: 18th century - 19th century - 20th century 1803 in art 1803 in literature 1803 in music 1803 in science 1803 in sports List of state leaders in 1803 List of religious leaders in 1803... 1803, Bonaparte faced a major setback when an army he sent to reconquer Santo Domingo, population 2,061,200 (2003), is the capital of the Dominican Republic. The city is located on the Caribbean Sea, at the mouth of the Ozama River. It is the oldest continuously inhabited European settlement in the Americas, and was the first seat of Spanish colonial rule in... Santo Domingo and establish a base was destroyed by a combination of Yellow fever (also called black vomit or sometimes The American Plague) is an acute viral disease. It is still an important cause of hemorrhage illness in several African and South American countries despite existence of an effective vaccine. In the past it was a source of several devastating epidemics. The... yellow fever and fierce resistance led by Toussaint L'Ouverture. Recognizing that the French possessions on the mainland of World map showing location of North America A satellite composite image of North America North America is the third largest continent in area and in population after Eurasia and Africa. It is bounded on the north by the Arctic Ocean, on the east by the North Atlantic Ocean, on the... North America would now be indefensible, and facing imminent war with Britain, he sold them to the The United States of America — also referred to as the United States, the U.S.A., the U.S., America¹, the States, or (archaically) Columbia — is a federal republic of 50 states located primarily in central North America (with the exception of two states: Alaska and Hawaii... United States—the From Frank Bond, Louisiana and the Louisiana Purchase. Government Printing Office, 1912 Map No. 4. Via the Louisiana Purchase the United States acquired more than 529,911,680 acres (2,144,476 km2) of territory from France in 1803 for $15 million (which, if adjusted for inflation, would equal approximately... Louisiana Purchase—for less than three A two cent euro coin In currency, the cent is a monetary unit that equals th of the basic unit of value. It also refers to the coin which is worth one cent. In the US and Canada, a common nickame of the 1¢ coin is penny, plural pennies. (In... cents per This article is about the unit of measure known as the acre. For other definitions, see Acre (disambiguation). An acre is a measure of land area in Imperial units or U.S. customary units. It is equal to 43 560 square feet, or 4840 square yards. The precise meaning... acre ($7.40/km²). The dispute over This article is about the European nation. For other meanings, see this page. Repubblika ta Malta Republic of Malta ( In Detail) (Full size) Official languages Maltese and English Capital Valletta Largest City Birkirkara President Edward (Eddie) Fenech Adami Prime Minister Lawrence Gonzi Religion Catholicism Area  - Total  - % water Ranked... Malta provided the pretext for Britain to declare war on France in Years: 1800 1801 1802 - 1803 - 1804 1805 1806 Decades: 1770s 1780s 1790s - 1800s - 1810s 1820s 1830s Centuries: 18th century - 19th century - 20th century 1803 in art 1803 in literature 1803 in music 1803 in science 1803 in sports List of state leaders in 1803 List of religious leaders in 1803... 1803 to support French royalists.


Emperor of the French

Main article: History of France Chronological Gaul Franks Middle Ages Ancien Régime French Revolution First Empire Nineteenth century Third Republic Vichy France Modern France Topical Economic history Military history Social history Timeline The First French Empire, commonly known as the French Empire, the Napoleonic Empire or simply as The Empire, covers... First French Empire


In January 1804 is a leap year starting on Sunday. Years: 1801 1802 1803 - 1804 - 1805 1806 1807 Decades: 1770s 1780s 1790s - 1800s - 1810s 1820s 1830s Centuries: 18th century - 19th century - 20th century 1804 in art 1804 in literature 1804 in music 1804 in science 1804 in sports List of state leaders... 1804, Bonaparte's police uncovered an assassination plot against him, supposedly sponsored by the Bourbon may refer to: Bourbon whiskey House of Bourbon Île Bourbon was the name of Réunion from 1642 until the French Revolution Places in the United States of America: Bourbon, Indiana Bourbon, Missouri Bourbon County, Kentucky Bourbon Street in the French Quarter of New Orleans, Lousiana Bourbon-lArchambault... Bourbons. In retaliation, Bonaparte ordered the arrest of the Duc d'Enghien, in a violation of the sovereignty of For other uses, see Baden (disambiguation). Baden was a territory in the southwest of what later became unified Germany. It came into existence in the 12th century as the Margravate of Baden and subsequently split into different lines, which were unified in 1771. It became the much-enlarged Grand Duchy... Baden. After a hurried secret trial, the Duke was executed on March 21 is the 80th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (81st in leap years). There are 285 days remaining. March Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19... 21 March. Bonaparte then used this incident to justify the re-creation of a hereditary monarchy in France, with himself as Emperor is also a Norwegian black metal band; see Emperor (band). An emperor is a monarch and sovereign ruler of an empire or any other imperial realm. Emperors are generally recognised to be above kings in honour. They may obtain their position hereditarily, or by force, such as a coup... Emperor, on the theory that a Bourbon may refer to: Bourbon whiskey House of Bourbon Île Bourbon was the name of Réunion from 1642 until the French Revolution Places in the United States of America: Bourbon, Indiana Bourbon, Missouri Bourbon County, Kentucky Bourbon Street in the French Quarter of New Orleans, Lousiana Bourbon-lArchambault... Bourbon restoration would be impossible once the Bonapartist succession was entrenched in the constitution.

Coronation of Napoleon, by Jacques-Louis David. Currently displayed in the Musée du Louvre in Paris, France. The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author...
Coronation of Napoleon, by Jacques-Louis David. Currently displayed in the Musée du Louvre in Paris, France. The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author... Enlarge
Coronation of Napoleon, memorialized by Self portrait Jacques-Louis David (August 30, 1748 - December 29, 1825), most usually known as David (pronounced Dah-veed rather than Day-vid), was a French painter. David was born into a middle-class Parisian family. In 1757 his mother deserted him and he was subsequently raised by his uncles... Jacques-Louis David

Napoleon crowned himself Emperor is also a Norwegian black metal band; see Emperor (band). An emperor is a monarch and sovereign ruler of an empire or any other imperial realm. Emperors are generally recognised to be above kings in honour. They may obtain their position hereditarily, or by force, such as a coup... Emperor on December 2 is the 336th day (337th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 29 days remaining. December Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19... 2 December 1804 is a leap year starting on Sunday. Years: 1801 1802 1803 - 1804 - 1805 1806 1807 Decades: 1770s 1780s 1790s - 1800s - 1810s 1820s 1830s Centuries: 18th century - 19th century - 20th century 1804 in art 1804 in literature 1804 in music 1804 in science 1804 in sports List of state leaders... 1804 (illustration, right) at Notre Dame de Paris, main entrance Night view of Notre Dame from the south, spring 2001. A familiar sight: the front gate of Notre Dame with tourists The interior of Notre Dame cathedral This article is about the Notre-Dame cathedral in Paris. For other uses of Notre Dame, please... Notre-Dame Cathedral. Claims that he seized the crown out of the hands of Pius VII, né Giorgio Barnaba Luigi Chiaramonti, (August 14, 1740 - August 20, 1823) was Pope from March 14, 1800 to August 20, 1823. Pope Pius VII Barnaba Chiaramonti was born at Cesena into a noble Italian family. He was educated in Ravenna before joining the Benedictine order in 1756 to... Pope Pius VII during the ceremony in order to avoid subjecting himself to the authority of the pontiff are In Judeo-Christian theologies, apocrypha refers to religious Sacred text that have questionable authenticity or are otherwise disputed. When most in the Western world refer to the Apocrypha, they are typically referring to the 14 books excluded from Protestant Bibles (see below). Contents // 1 Definition 2 Apocrypha of the Bible... apocryphal; in fact, the coronation procedure had been agreed upon in advance. After the Imperial regalia had been blessed by the Pope, Napoleon crowned himself before crowning his wife Joséphine de Beauharnais, Empress Joséphine Joséphine de Beauharnais (June 23, 1763 - May 29, 1814) was the first wife of Napoléon Bonaparte, and became Empress of France. She was born Marie Josèphe Rose Tascher de la Pagerie in Les Trois-Îlets, Martinique on a slave plantation... Joséphine as Empress. Then at This is about the Italian city of Milan. For other uses, see Milan (disambiguation). Piazza della Scala Milan (Milano in the Italian language, and Milán in Milanese dialect, from Latin, Mediolanum with the meaning of in the middle of the plain) is the main city in northern Italy, and... Milan's cathedral on May 26 is the 146th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (147th in leap years). There are 219 days remaining before the end of the year. May Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14... 26 May Years: 1802 1803 1804 - 1805 - 1806 1807 1808 Decades: 1770s 1780s 1790s - 1800s - 1810s 1820s 1830s Centuries: 18th century - 19th century - 20th century 1805 in art 1805 in literature 1805 in music 1805 in science 1805 in sports List of state leaders in 1805 List of religious leaders in 1805... 1805, Napoleon was crowned The title King of Italy was assumed by Napoleon Bonaparte, who was crowned with the Iron Crown of Lombardy in the Cathedral of Milan, May 26, 1805. His son was briefly King of Rome. The title was recreated in 1861 for Vittorio Emanuele II of the House of Savoy. Contents... King of Italy, with the The Iron Crown of Lombardy is both a reliquary and one of the most ancient royal insignia of Europe. It is kept in the Cathedral at Monza, Lombardy. The Iron Crown is so called from a narrow band of iron within it, said to be beaten out of one of... Iron Crown of Lombardy.


By Years: 1802 1803 1804 - 1805 - 1806 1807 1808 Decades: 1770s 1780s 1790s - 1800s - 1810s 1820s 1830s Centuries: 18th century - 19th century - 20th century 1805 in art 1805 in literature 1805 in music 1805 in science 1805 in sports List of state leaders in 1805 List of religious leaders in 1805... 1805 the In the Napoleonic Wars, the Third Coalition against Napoléon emerged in 1805, and consisted of an alliance of Britain, Austria, Russia, Naples, and Sweden against France. The coalition, seeking to take advantage of the concentration of Napoléons forces in the north for an invasion of Britain made... Third Coalition against Napoleon had formed in Europe. A plan by the French, along with the The Kingdom of Spain or Spain ( Spanish: Reino de España or España; Catalan: Regne dEspanya; Basque: Espainiako Erresuma; Galician: Reino da España) is a country located in the southwest of Europe. It shares the Iberian Peninsula with Portugal, Gibraltar and Andorra. To the... Spanish, to defeat the Royal Navy Ensign The Royal Navy is the navy of the United Kingdom. It operates a number of aircraft carriers, destroyers, frigates, fifteen nuclear submarines, and various other ships, as well as aircraft, and the UKs amphibious force: the Royal Marines. The Royal Navy is the largest navy in... Royal Navy failed dramatically at the The Battle of Trafalgar, as seen from the mizen starboard shrouds of the Victory by J. M. W. Turner (oil on canvas, 1806–1808) Battle of Trafalgar Conflict Napoleonic Wars Date 21 October 1805 Place Cape Trafalgar Result Decisive British victory Combatants United Kingdom France, Spain Commanders The Viscount... Battle of Trafalgar ( October 21 is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 71 days remaining. October Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20... 21 October Years: 1802 1803 1804 - 1805 - 1806 1807 1808 Decades: 1770s 1780s 1790s - 1800s - 1810s 1820s 1830s Centuries: 18th century - 19th century - 20th century 1805 in art 1805 in literature 1805 in music 1805 in science 1805 in sports List of state leaders in 1805 List of religious leaders in 1805... 1805), and The Royal Navy is the navy of the United Kingdom. It operates a number of aircraft carriers, destroyers, frigates, fifteen nuclear submarines, and various other ships, as well as aircraft, and the UKs amphibious force: the Royal Marines. The Royal Navy is the largest navy in Western Europe. Like... Britain gained lasting control of the seas. Napoleon then finally abandoned all hope of invading Britain, and turned his attention once again to his Continental rivals. He secured a major victory against The Republic of Austria ( German: Republik Österreich) is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It borders Germany and the Czech Republic to the north, Slovakia and Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. The state is a representative democracy... Austria and Russia - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes.css; @import /skins/monobook/IE55Fixes.css; @import /skins/monobook/IE60Fixes.css; /**/ Russia From Wikipedia The Russian Federation ( Russian: Росси́йская Федера́ция, transliteration: Rossiyskaya Federatsiya or Rossijskaja... Russia at At the Battle of Austerlitz (December 2, 1805), during the Napoleonic War of the Third Coalition, a French force of approximately 73,000 under Napoleon decisively defeated a joint Russo_Austrian force of over 89,000, commanded by Russian General Kutuzov with General von Weyrother commanding the Austrian contingent. The battle... Austerlitz ( December 2 is the 336th day (337th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 29 days remaining. December Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19... 2 December), forcing Austria yet again to sue for peace; and, in the following year, humbled The coat of arms of the Kingdom of Prussia, 1701-1918 The word Prussia (German: Preußen or Preussen, Polish: Prusy, Lithuanian: Prusai, Latin: Borussia) has had various (often contradictory) meanings: The land of the Baltic Prussians (in what is now parts of southern Lithuania, the Kaliningrad exclave of Russia... Prussia at the The Battle of Jena was fought on October 14, 1806, in Jena, in todays Germany, and resulted in a French victory under Napoleon Bonaparte against the Prussians under General Hohenlohe. Hegel, who was then a professor at the University of Jena, is said to have completed his chef d... Battle of Jena-Auerstedt ( October 14 is the 287th day of the year (288th in Leap years). There are 78 days remaining. October Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23... 14 October Years: 1803 1804 1805 - 1806 - 1807 1808 1809 Decades: 1770s 1780s 1790s - 1800s - 1810s 1820s 1830s Centuries: 18th century - 19th century - 20th century 1806 in art 1806 in literature 1806 in music 1806 in science 1806 in sports List of state leaders in 1806 List of religious leaders in 1806... 1806). Napoleon marched on through Poland (disambiguation). The Republic of Poland, a democratic country with a population of 38,626,349 and area of 312,685 km², is located in Central Europe, between Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south, Ukraine and Belarus to the east, and the Baltic... Poland but was attacked by the Russians at the bloody battle of Napoléon on the field of Eylau by Antoine-Jean Gros Battle of Eylau Conflict Napoleonic Wars Date February 7, 1807 – February 8, 1807 Place Eylau, Poland Result Inconclusive Combatants France Russia, Prussia Commanders Napoléon Benigssen Strength 75,000, 200 guns 76,000, 450 guns Casualties 20,000... Eylau on February 6 is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. There are 328 days remaining, 329 in leap years. February Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19... 6 February Years: 1804 1805 1806 - 1807 - 1808 1809 1810 Decades: 1770s 1780s 1790s - 1800s - 1810s 1820s 1830s Centuries: 18th century - 19th century - 20th century 1807 in art 1807 in literature 1807 in music 1807 in science 1807 in sports List of state leaders in 1807 List of religious leaders in 1807... 1807. After a major victory at Friedland is the name of several locations the city Friedland in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany the city Friedland in Brandenburg, Germany the municipality Friedland in Lower Saxony, Germany the old German name of the city Pravdinsk in former East Prussia (now Kaliningrad Oblast) This is a disambiguation page — a... Friedland he signed a The Treaties of Tilsit were two agreements signed by Napoleon I of France in the town of Tilsit in July, 1807. The first was signed on July 7, between Tsar Alexander I of Russia and Napoleon I of France. The second was signed with Prussia on July 9. The treaties... treaty at Tilsit in East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. The northern part of East Prussia corresponds... East Prussia with the Russian tsar Aleksandr Pavlovich Romanov or Tsar Alexander I (The Blessed), (Александр I Павлович) (December 23, 1777–December 1, 1825), Russia (reigned March 23, 1801–December 1, 1825), son of the Grand Duke Paul Petrovich... Alexander I, dividing Europe between the two In the context of international relations and diplomacy, power (sometimes clarified as international power, national power, or state power) is the ability of one state to influence or control other states. States with this ability are called powers, middle powers, regional powers, great powers (sometimes capitalized), superpowers, and hyperpowers. Recently... powers. He placed puppet rulers on the thrones of German states, including his brother Jérôme Bonaparte (November 15, 1784 - June 24, 1860) was the youngest brother of Emperor Napoleon I of France. He was born Roland Buonaparte in Ajaccio, Corsica. He served with the French navy before going to the United States where he married Elizabeth Patterson (1785-1879), daughter of a... Jerome as King of the new state of Westphalia (in German, Westfalen) is a (historic) region in Germany, centred on the cities of Dortmund, Münster, Bielefeld, and Osnabrück and now included in the Bundesland of North Rhine-Westphalia (and the (south-)west of Lower Saxony). Westphalia is roughly the region between the rivers Rhine and Weser... Westphalia. In the French part of Poland, he established the Księstwo Warszawskie (Coat of Arms) Location Official languages Polish Established church Roman Catholic Capital Warsaw Largest City Warsaw Head of state Duke of Warsaw Area about 158,000 km² Population about 3 million Existed 1807 - 1814 The Duchy of Warsaw (Polish: Księstwo Warszawskie, Latin: Ducatus Varsoviae... Duchy of Warsaw with the State Service Flag Civil Flag Statistics Capital: Dresden Area: 18,338 km² Inhabitants: 4,600,000 (2000) pop. density: 251 inh./km² Homepage: sachsen.de ISO 3166-2: DE-SN Politics Minister-president: Georg Milbradt (CDU) Ruling party: CDU/SPD Map With an area of 18,400 sq. km. and... Saxonian King as ruler.


The Peninsula War and the War of the Fifth Coalition

Since he failed at conquering the British militarily, he decided to try to conquer them economically, by banning all merchandise and ships from continental Europe. Napoleon attempted to enforce a Europe-wide commercial boycott of Britain called the " The Continental System was a foreign-policy cornerstone of Napoleon I of France in his struggle against the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Napoleon was a great general, and could probably have defeated the British had he managed to land an army in England. However, he was quite... Continental System". The English economy did suffer to an extent from this - but no more so than the French Empire's economy and neither nation was in a position to challenge the other.


The Republic of Portugal (República Portuguesa), or Portugal, is a democratic republic located on the west and southwest parts of the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe; it is the westernmost country in continental Europe. Portugal is bordered by Spain to the north and east and by the Atlantic... Portugal did not comply with this Continental System and in Years: 1804 1805 1806 - 1807 - 1808 1809 1810 Decades: 1770s 1780s 1790s - 1800s - 1810s 1820s 1830s Centuries: 18th century - 19th century - 20th century 1807 in art 1807 in literature 1807 in music 1807 in science 1807 in sports List of state leaders in 1807 List of religious leaders in 1807... 1807 Napoleon sought The Kingdom of Spain or Spain ( Spanish: Reino de España or España; Catalan: Regne dEspanya; Basque: Espainiako Erresuma; Galician: Reino da España) is a country located in the southwest of Europe. It shares the Iberian Peninsula with Portugal, Gibraltar and Andorra. To the... Spain's support in an invasion of Portugal. When Spain refused Napoleon sent forces into Spain as well. After mixed results were encountered by his generals Napoleon himself intervened and defeated the Spanish army, retook Madrid and then defeated a British army sent to support the Spanish, driving it to the coast and ignoble withdrawal from Iberia can mean: The Iberian peninsula of southwest Europe; That part of it inhabited by the Iberians, speaking the Iberian language. Caucasian Iberia of eastern Georgia in the 4th century BC-5th century AD; Iberia Airlines, the Spanish national airline. Three Imperial Roman provinces comprising Hispania, roughly corresponding to modern... Iberia (in which its commander, Sir John Moore (November 13, 1761 - January 16, 1809) was a British soldier and General. He was born in Glasgow, the son of John Moore, a doctor and writer. A career soldier he joined the British Army in 1776, an ensign in the 51st Foot then based on Minorca. He... Sir John Moore, was killed). He installed the King of Alternate uses: See Naples (disambiguation) Naples (Italian Napoli, Neapolitan Napule, from Greek Νέα-Πόλις, latinised in Neapolis) is the largest town in southern Italy, capital of Campania region. The city has a population of about 1 million, and together with its suburbs, the metropolitan... Naples, his brother Joseph Bonaparte (January 7, 1768—July 28, 1844) was the eldest brother of the French Emperor Napoleon I, who made him King of Naples (1806–1808) and Spain (1808–1813). Bonaparte was born Giuseppe Bonaparte at Corte in Corsica. As a lawyer, politician, and diplomat, he served... Joseph Bonaparte, as king of Spain (making one of his marshals and brother-in-law, Joachim Murat, (March 25, 1767 - October 13, 1815), a marshal of France, was King of Naples from 1808 to 1815. Born as the son of an innkeeper, he rose in the French army to the rank of a general. He married Napoleon Bonapartes sister Caroline in 1800, and was... Joachim Murat King of Naples).


The Spanish, inspired by Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. According to the theory of nationalism, the preservation of identity features, the independence in all subjects, the wellbeing, and the glory of ones own nation are fundamental values... nationalist and The Roman Catholic Church believes its founding was based on Jesus appointment of Saint Peter as the primary church leader, later Bishop of Rome. The Roman Catholic Church is the largest religious denomination of Christianity with over one billion members. It maintains the claim that it is both organisationally and... Catholic opposition to the French, rose in revolt. However at this time Austria broke its alliance with France without warning and Napoleon was forced to assume command of forces on the Danube and German fronts. A bloody draw at The Battle of Aspern-Essling (May 22, 1809), was fought between the French and their allies under Napoleon and the Austrians commanded by the archduke Charles. At the time of the battle Napoleon was in possession of Vienna, the bridges over Danube had been broken, and the archdukes army... Aspern-Essling ( May 21 is the 141st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (142nd in leap years). There are 224 days remaining. May Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20... May 21- May 22 is the 142nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (143rd in leap years). There are 223 days remaining. May Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20... 22, Years: 1806 1807 1808 - 1809 - 1810 1811 1812 Decades: 1770s 1780s 1790s - 1800s - 1810s 1820s 1830s Centuries: 18th century - 19th century - 20th century 1809 in topic: Arts Architecture - Art - Literature - Music Other topics Canada - Rail transport - Science - South Africa - Sport Lists of leaders: Colonial governors - State leaders 1809 was a... 1809) near This article is about the city and federal state in Austria. For other places or things called Vienna, see Vienna (disambiguation). State Coat of Arms General Information State Capital: Vienna ISO 3166-2: AT-9 Vehicle Registration: W Community Identification Number: 90101 - 92301 Postal code: 1010 - 1230 Area code: 01... Vienna was the closest Napoleon ever came to a defeat in a battle with more or less equal numbers on each side. After both sides had licked their wounds for two months the principal French and Austrian armies engaged again near Vienna resulting in a French victory at The Battle of Wagram, around the isle of Lobau on the Danube and on the plain of the Marchfeld around the village of Wagram 15 km north east of Vienna, Austria, took place on July 5 and 6, 1809 and resulted in the decisive victory of French forces under Napoleon... Battle of Wagram ( July 6 is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 178 days remaining. July Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20... 6 July).


Following this a new peace was signed between Austria and France and in the following year the Austrian Archduchess Marie-Louise married Napoleon, following his divorce of Josephine.


The War of the Sixth Coalition (Russia, the Battle of Nations & the Invasion of France)

Although the The Congress of Erfurt was the meeting between Emperor Napoleon I of France and Tsar Alexander I of Russia in 1808 intended to reaffirm the alliance concluded the previous year with the Treaty of Tilsit which followed the end of the War of the Fourth Coalition. At Tilsit Napoleon had... Congress of Erfurt had sought to preserve the Russo-French alliance, by Years: 1808 1809 1810 - 1811 - 1812 1813 1814 Decades: 1780s 1790s 1800s - 1810s - 1820s 1830s 1840s Centuries: 18th century - 19th century - 20th century 1811 in art 1811 in literature 1811 in science 1811 in music 1811 in sports List of state leaders in 1811 List of religious leaders in 1811... 1811 tensions were again increasing between the two nations. Despite being an avid admirer of Napoleon since first meeting him in 1807, Alexander had been under strong pressure from the Russian aristocracy to break off the alliance with France, as they considered it an insult to Russian pride.


The first signs that the alliance was deteriorating was the easing of the application of the Continental System in Russia. This enraged Napoleon, who it seems had genuinely liked Alexander since their meeting and thus felt betrayed. By Years: 1809 1810 1811 - 1812 - 1813 1814 1815 Decades: 1780s 1790s 1800s - 1810s - 1820s 1830s 1840s Centuries: 18th century - 19th century - 20th century 1812 in art 1812 in literature 1812 in science 1812 in music 1812 in sports List of state leaders in 1812 List of religious leaders in 1812... 1812, advisors to Alexander suggested that a vast revolution was brewing across Germany and that the time was right for an invasion of the French Empire (and the recapture of Poland).


Large numbers of troops were deployed to the Polish borders (reaching over 300,000 out of the total Russian army strength of 410,000). However Napoleon anticipated this and after the initial reports of Russian war preparations he began expanding his Grande Armée to a massive force of over 600,000 men (despite already having over 300,000 men deployed in Iberia). Napoleon ignored repeated advice against an invasion of the vast Russian heartland, and prepared his forces for an offensive campaign.


On June 23 is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 191 days remaining. June Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20... June 23, Years: 1809 1810 1811 - 1812 - 1813 1814 1815 Decades: 1780s 1790s 1800s - 1810s - 1820s 1830s 1840s Centuries: 18th century - 19th century - 20th century 1812 in art 1812 in literature 1812 in science 1812 in music 1812 in sports List of state leaders in 1812 List of religious leaders in 1812... 1812, Napoleons invasion of Russia in 1812 was a critical turning point in the Napoleonic wars, proving disastrous for France and its allies. Napoleon called it the Second Polish War, while it has been known in Russia as the Patriotic War ( Russian: Отечеств... Napoleon's invasion of Russia commenced.


Victor Hugo Victor Hugo (February 26, 1802 - May 22, 1885) was a French author, the most important of the Romantic authors in the French language. His major works include the novels The Hunchback of Notre Dame and Les Misérables, and a large body of poetry. Contents // 1 Life and... Victor Hugo would write in his poem, "Russia 1812" (1873):

The snow fell, and its power was multiplied.
For the First time the Eagle bowed its head - dark days!
Slowly the Emperor returned - behind him Moscow!
Its onion domes still burned.

Napoleon, in an attempt to gain increased support from Polish nationalists, termed the war the "Second Polish War" (the first Polish war being the liberation of Poland from Russia, Prussia and Austria). Polish nationalists wanted all of Russian Poland to be incorporated into the Księstwo Warszawskie (Coat of Arms) Location Official languages Polish Established church Roman Catholic Capital Warsaw Largest City Warsaw Head of state Duke of Warsaw Area about 158,000 km² Population about 3 million Existed 1807 - 1814 The Duchy of Warsaw (Polish: Księstwo Warszawskie, Latin: Ducatus Varsoviae... Grand Duchy of Warsaw and a new Kingdom of Poland created. For political reasons this was unlikely to happen (principally because it would bring Prussia and Austria into the war against France). Napoleon also rejected requests to free the Russian Costumes of Slaves or Serfs, from the Sixth to the Twelfth Centuries, collected by H. de Vielcastel, from original Documents in the great Libraries of Europe. A serf is a laborer who is bound to the land. Serfs differ from slaves in that serfs cannot be sold apart from the... serfs, fearing this might provoke a conservative reaction in his rear.


The Russians under Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly, called by the Russians Mikhail Bogdanovich, Prince Barclay de Tolly (Михаил Богданович Барклай-де-Толли) (1761 - 1818), Russian field marshal... Mikhail Bogdanovich Barclay de Tolly were unable to successfully defeat Napoleon's huge, well-organized army and retreated instead. A brief attempt at resistance was offered at Several battles at or around the town of Smolensk in Russia are known as the Battle of Smolensk. These are: The Battle of Smolensk in 1812, during Napoleons invasion of Russia. The Battle of Smolensk in 1941, during World War II, in which the German Army Group Centre engaged... Smolensk ( August 16 is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. There are 137 days remaining. August Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19... August 16- August 17 is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. There are 136 days remaining. August Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19... 17), but the Russians were defeated in a series of battles in the area and Napoleon resumed the advance. The Russians then repeatedly avoided battle with the Grand Armée, although in a few cases only because Napoleon uncharacteristically hesitated to attack when the opportunity presented itself.


Criticized over his tentative strategy of continual retreat, Barclay was replaced by Prince Mikhail Illarionovich Golenishchev-Kutuzov (September 16, 1745 – April 28, 1813 (n.s.), or 5th September 1745 - 16th April 1813 (o.s.)) was the one-eyed Russian Field Marshal popularly credited with saving his country from Napoleons invasion. Contents // 1 Early career 2 Napoleonic wars in Europe 3... Kutuzov. Realising the reality of the situation, Kutuzov continued Barclay's strategy. Kutuzov also soon came under criticism for this and finally offered battle. It appeared both Barclay and Kutuzov had been correct in their assessments of the situation for, outside Saint Basils Cathedral Moscow  listen? ( Russian/Cyrillic: Москва́, pronunciation: Moskva), capital of Russia, located on the river Moskva, and encompassing 1097.12 km2. Its coordinates are 55°45′ N 37°37′ E. The citys population... Moscow on September 7 is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years). There are 115 days remaining. September Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23... 7 September, the Russian army was defeated after what may have been the bloodiest day of battle in history - the The Battle of Borodino (September 7, 1812 (August 26 in the Old Style Russian calendar)), also called the Battle of the Moskova, was the largest single-day battle of the Napoleonic Wars and arguably the greatest battle in human history up to that date, involving nearly quarter a million soldiers... Battle of Borodino (see article for comparisons to the first day of the See Battle of the Somme (disambiguation) for other battles and meanings Men of the 11th Battalion, The Cheshire Regiment. Near La Boisselle, July 1916 Battle of the Somme Conflict First World War Date 1 July 1916 – 18 November 1916 Place Somme, Picardy, France Result Stalemate Combatants Britain, France, Canada... Battle of the Somme).


The Russians retreated and Napoleon was able to enter Moscow, assuming that Alexander I would negotiate peace. Moscow began to burn in accordance with orders of the city's governor, Rastopchin, a probable psychopath and French-hater whose orders to burn the city had not been authorized by the Tsar. Within the month, fearing loss of control in France, Napoleon left Moscow. The French suffered greatly in the course of a ruinous retreat; the Army had begun as over 650,000 frontline troops, but in the end fewer than 40,000 crossed the Categories: Rivers of Belarus | Belarus-related stubs ... Berezina River (November 1812) to escape. In total French losses in the campaign were 570,000 against about 400,000 Russian casualties and several hundred thousand civilian deaths.


Napoleon was determined not to lose hold of Germany and there was a lull in fighting over the winter of Years: 1809 1810 1811 - 1812 - 1813 1814 1815 Decades: 1780s 1790s 1800s - 1810s - 1820s 1830s 1840s Centuries: 18th century - 19th century - 20th century 1812 in art 1812 in literature 1812 in science 1812 in music 1812 in sports List of state leaders in 1812 List of religious leaders in 1812... 1812 Years: 1810 1811 1812 - 1813 - 1814 1815 1816 Decades: 1780s 1790s 1800s - 1810s - 1820s 1830s 1840s Centuries: 18th century - 19th century - 20th century 1813 in art 1813 in literature 1813 in science 1813 in music 1813 in sports List of state leaders in 1813 List of religious leaders in 1813... 13 whilst both the Russians and the French recovered from their massive losses of around half a million soldiers each. A small Russian army harassed the French in Poland and eventually 30,000 French troops there withdrew to Germany to rejoin the expanding force there - numbering 130,000 with the reinforcements from Poland. This force continued to expand, with Napoleon aiming for a force of 400,000 French troops supported by a quarter of a million German troops.


Heartened by Napoleon's losses in Russia, Prussia soon rejoined the Coalition that now included Russia, the United Kingdom, Spain, and Portugal. Napoleon assumed command in Germany and soon inflicted a series of defeats on the Allies culminating in the The Battle of Dresden was fought on August 26_27, 1813, and resulted in a French victory under Austrians, Russians and Prussians under General Schwartzenberg. Categories: Stub | Battles of the Napoleonic Wars ... Battle of Dresden on August 26 is the 238th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (239th in leap years). There are 127 days remaining. August Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19... August 26- August 27 is the 239th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (240th in leap years), with 126 days remaining. August Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20... 27, Years: 1810 1811 1812 - 1813 - 1814 1815 1816 Decades: 1780s 1790s 1800s - 1810s - 1820s 1830s 1840s Centuries: 18th century - 19th century - 20th century 1813 in art 1813 in literature 1813 in science 1813 in music 1813 in sports List of state leaders in 1813 List of religious leaders in 1813... 1813 causing almost 100,000 casualties to the Coalition forces (the French sustaining only around 30,000). It appeared the Napoleon of old was back and that the Coalition might be forced to conclude a peace treaty if this run continued.


However, the numbers continued to mount against Napoleon as The Kingdom of Sweden ( Swedish: Konungariket Sverige  listen?) is a Nordic country in Scandinavia, in Northern Europe. It is bordered by Norway on the west, Finland on the northeast, the Skagerrak Strait and the Kattegat Strait on the southwest, and the Baltic Sea and the Gulf of Bothnia on... Sweden and The Republic of Austria ( German: Republik Österreich) is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It borders Germany and the Czech Republic to the north, Slovakia and Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. The state is a representative democracy... Austria joined the Coalition. Eventually the French army was caught by a force twice its size at the Map of battle by 18 October 1813, from Meyers Encyclopaedia The Battle of Leipzig (October 16-19, 1813), also called the Battle of the Nations, was the largest conflict in the Napoleonic Wars and one of the worst defeats suffered by Napoleon Bonaparte. Following the disastrous campaign in Russia and... Battle of Nations ( October 16 is the 289th day of the year (290th in Leap years). There are 76 days remaining. October Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23... October 16- October 19 is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. There are 73 days remaining. October Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19... 19) at Map of Germany showing Leipzig Leipzig [ˈlaiptsɪç] (Sorbian/Lusatian: Lipsk) is the largest city in the federal state (Bundesland) of Saxony in Germany. The name is derived from the Slavic word (see Sorbian) Lipsk (settlement where the linden trees stand). It is situated at the confluence of the... Leipzig. Some of the German states switched sides in the midst of the battle, further undermining the French position. This was by far the largest battle of the Napoleonic Wars and cost both sides a combined total of over 120,000 casualties.


After this Napoléon withdrew in an orderly fashion back into France, but his army was now reduced to less than 100,000 against more than half a million Allied troops. Although some historians consider the defensive campaigns of late 1813 and early 1814 to be among Napoleon's most brilliant, the French were now surrounded (with British armies pressing from the south in addition to the Coalition forces moving in from Germany) and vastly outnumbered. The French armies could only delay, not prevent, inevitable defeat.


Exile in Elba, return and Waterloo

Paris was occupied on March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (91st in Leap years). There are 275 days remaining. March Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19... 31 March 1814. His The title of marshal of France (maréchal de France) was derived from the office of marescallus Franciae created by Philippe Auguste for Albéric Clément (circa 1190). It later became a distinction and takes precedence above the constable, which was originally an office above the marshal. Up to... marshals asked Napoléon to abdicate, and he did so on April 6 is the 96th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (97th in leap years). There are 269 days remaining. April Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19... 6 April in favour of his son. The In general, allies are people or groups that have joined an alliance and are working together to achieve some common purpose. In general English usage, those who share a common goal and whose work toward that goal is complementary may be viewed as allies for various purposes even when no... Allies, however, demanded Unconditional Surrender refers to a surrender without conditions, except for those provided by International Law conditional surrender. The most notable use of the term was in the Second World War. United States usage Has been used in United States military doctrine as a precondition of victory twice in that country... unconditional surrender and Napoléon abdicated again, unconditionally, on April 11 is the 101st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (102nd in leap years). There are 264 days remaining. April Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19... 11 April. In the Treaty of Fontainebleau the victors exiled the Corsican to See Village of Elba, New York and Town of Elba, New York for the locations in the United States. Elba is an island in Tuscany, Italy, 20 km from the coastal town of Grosseto. It is the biggest island of the Tuscan Archipelago, and the third biggest Italian island. Elba... Elba, a small island in the The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2.5 million km². Contents // 1 Name 2 Geography 3 Bordering countries 4 Subdivisions 5 Geology 6 See also 7 External links... Mediterranean 20 km off the coast of Italy (disambiguation). The Italian Republic or Italy ( Italian: Repubblica Italiana or Italia) is a country in southern Europe. It comprises a boot-shaped peninsula and two large islands in the Mediterranean Sea, Sicily and Sardinia, and shares its northern alpine boundary with France, Switzerland, Austria and Slovenia. The independent countries... Italy. They let him keep the title of "Emperor" but restricted his For alternative meanings, see Empire (disambiguation) An empire (also known technically, abstractly or disparagingly as an imperium, and with powers known among Romans as imperium) comprises a set of regions locally ruled by governors, viceroys or client kings in the name of an emperor. By extension, one could classify as... empire to that tiny island.


Napoléon tried to poison himself and failed; on the voyage to Elba he was almost assassinated. In France, the royalists had taken over and restored Louis XVIII (November 17, 1755 - September 16, 1824) was King of France from 1814 (although he declared that he considered his reign to have begun in 1795) until his death in 1824. Early Life Louis-Stanislas-Xavier was born on November 17, 1755 in the Palace of Versailles, Versailles, France... King Louis XVIII to power. On Elba, Napoléon became concerned about his wife and, more especially, his son, in the hands of the Austrians. The French government refused to pay the allowance guaranteed to him by the Treaty of Fountainebleau, and he heard rumours that he was about to be banished to a remote island in the Atlantic (disambiguation). Earths five Oceans Atlantic Ocean Arctic Ocean Indian Ocean Pacific Ocean Southern Ocean The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one-fifth of its surface. The oceans name, derived from Greek mythology, means the Sea of Atlas. This ocean occupies an elongated... Atlantic. Napoléon escaped from Elba on February 26 is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. There are 308 days remaining, 309 in leap years. February Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19... 26 February 1815 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). Contents // 1 Events 2 Ongoing events 3 Births 4 Deaths Events January 3 - Austria, Britain, and France form a secret defensive alliance treaty against Prussia and Russia. January 4 - Netherlands, Foundation of the first dutch student association, the... 1815 and returned to the mainland on March 1 is the 60th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (61st in leap years). There are 305 days remaining. March Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19... 1 March 1815 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). Contents // 1 Events 2 Ongoing events 3 Births 4 Deaths Events January 3 - Austria, Britain, and France form a secret defensive alliance treaty against Prussia and Russia. January 4 - Netherlands, Foundation of the first dutch student association, the... 1815. When he returned to the mainland, Louis XVIII (November 17, 1755 - September 16, 1824) was King of France from 1814 (although he declared that he considered his reign to have begun in 1795) until his death in 1824. Early Life Louis-Stanislas-Xavier was born on November 17, 1755 in the Palace of Versailles, Versailles, France... King Louis XVIII sent troops to stop him. Napoleon simply got out of his carriage and walked up to the soldiers and said "If any man would like to shoot his emperor, he may do so". The men then followed him to Paris (disambiguation). The Eiffel Tower has become the symbol of Paris throughout the world. Paris is the capital city of France, as well as the capital of the Île-de-France région, whose territory encompasses Paris and its suburbs. The city of Paris proper is also a... Paris. He arrived on March 20 is the 79th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (80th in Leap years). There are 286 days remaining. March Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19... 20 March, quickly raising a regular army of 140,000 and a volunteer force of around 200,000 and governed for a For information about the legislative programs of Franklin D. Roosevelt, see New Deal. The Hundred Days (French Cent-Jours) or the Waterloo Campaign commonly names the period between 20 March 1815, the date on which Napoleon Bonaparte arrived in Paris after his return from Elba, and 28 June 1815, the... Hundred Days.


Napoléon's final defeat came at the hands of the The Duke of Wellington Period in Office: January, 1828–November, 1830 PM Predecessor: The Viscount Goderich PM Successor: The Earl Grey Date of Birth: 1 May 1769 Place of Birth: Unknown, possibily Dublin or County Meath Date of Death: 14 September 1852 Place of Death: Walmer, Kent Political Party... Duke of Wellington and Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher at the The Battle of Waterloo by William Sadler Battle of Waterloo Conflict Napoleonic Wars Date June 18, 1815 Place Waterloo, Belgium Result Decisive Allied victory Combatants France Anglo-Allied/Prussian Commanders Napoléon Bonaparte Duke of Wellington Gebhard von Blücher Strength 73,000 67,000 Anglo-Allied 60,000 Prussian... Battle of Waterloo in present-day Belgium (disambiguation). The word Belgian redirects to this page. For an article about the horse breed, see Belgian (horse). The Kingdom of Belgium ( Dutch: Koninkrijk België, French: Royaume de Belgique, German: Königreich Belgien) is a country in Western Europe, bordered by the Netherlands, Germany, Luxembourg, France, and... Belgium on June 18 is the 169th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (170th in leap years), with 196 days remaining. June Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20... 18 June 1815 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). Contents // 1 Events 2 Ongoing events 3 Births 4 Deaths Events January 3 - Austria, Britain, and France form a secret defensive alliance treaty against Prussia and Russia. January 4 - Netherlands, Foundation of the first dutch student association, the... 1815.


Off the port of Rochefort, Napoléon made his formal surrender while on board Napoleon Bonaparte on board the Bellerophon in Plymouth Sound by Sir Charles Lock Eastlake, painted 1815. The first HMS Bellerophon of the Royal Navy was a 74-gun ship of the line launched 6 October 1786 on the River Medway near Chatham. She fought at the battle of The Glorious... HMS Bellerophon on July 15 is the 196th day (197th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 169 days remaining. July Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20... 15 July 1815 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). Contents // 1 Events 2 Ongoing events 3 Births 4 Deaths Events January 3 - Austria, Britain, and France form a secret defensive alliance treaty against Prussia and Russia. January 4 - Netherlands, Foundation of the first dutch student association, the... 1815.


Exile in Saint Helena and death

Download high resolution version (700x1010, 94 KB)Napoleon Bonaparte on board the Bellerophon in Plymouth Sound by Sir Charles Locke Eastlake, 1815 The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of...
Download high resolution version (700x1010, 94 KB)Napoleon Bonaparte on board the Bellerophon in Plymouth Sound by Sir Charles Locke Eastlake, 1815 The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of... Enlarge
Napoléon on the Napoleon Bonaparte on board the Bellerophon in Plymouth Sound by Sir Charles Lock Eastlake, painted 1815. The first HMS Bellerophon of the Royal Navy was a 74-gun ship of the line launched 6 October 1786 on the River Medway near Chatham. She fought at the battle of The Glorious... Bellerophon at City of Plymouth Geography Status: Unitary, City (1928) Region: South West England Ceremonial County: Devon Area: - Total Ranked 266th 79.78 km² Admin. HQ: Plymouth ONS code: 00HG Demographics Population: - Total (2002 est.) - Density Ranked 43rd 240,467 3,014 / km² Ethnicity: 98.4% White Politics Plymouth City Council http... Plymouth, before his exile to For alternate uses, see Saint Helena (disambiguation). This article needs cleanup. Please edit this article to conform to a higher standard of article quality. Saint Helena refers to both an island in the South Atlantic Ocean 2,800 km off the west coast of Africa belonging to the United Kingdom... Saint Helena.

Napoléon was imprisoned and then exiled by the British to the island of For alternate uses, see Saint Helena (disambiguation). This article needs cleanup. Please edit this article to conform to a higher standard of article quality. Saint Helena refers to both an island in the South Atlantic Ocean 2,800 km off the west coast of Africa belonging to the United Kingdom... Saint Helena (2,800 km off the Bight of Guinea) from October 15 is the 288th day of the year (289th in Leap years). There are 77 days remaining. October Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23... 15 October 1815 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). Contents // 1 Events 2 Ongoing events 3 Births 4 Deaths Events January 3 - Austria, Britain, and France form a secret defensive alliance treaty against Prussia and Russia. January 4 - Netherlands, Foundation of the first dutch student association, the... 1815. There, with a small cadre of followers, he dictated his memoirs and criticized his captors. In the last half of April 1821, he wrote out his own will and several Codicil can refer to: An addition made to a will Any addition or appendix, such as a corollary to a theorem A poem by Derek Walcott This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. If an article link... codicils (a total of 40-odd pages). When he died, on May 5 is the 125th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (126th in leap years). There are 240 days remaining. There are usually 92 days in Spring. We are considered halfway through Spring on May 5. May Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa 1 2 3 4... 5 May Years: 1818 1819 1820 - 1821 - 1822 1823 1824 Decades: 1790s 1800s 1810s - 1820s - 1830s 1840s 1850s Centuries: 18th century - 19th century - 20th century 1821 in art 1821 in literature 1821 in rail transport 1821 in science 1821 in music 1821 in sports List of state leaders in 1821 List of... 1821, his last words were: "France, the Army, head of the Army, Joséphine."


In 1955 the diaries of Louis Marchand, Napoléon's valet, appeared in print. He describes Napoléon in the months leading up to his death, and led many, most notably Sten Forshufvud was a Swedish dentist and expert on poisons who formulated and supported the theory that Napoleon was assassinated by a member of his entourage while in exile. He co-authored a book with Ben Weider about the assassination. Categories: Stub ... Sten Forshufvud and Ben Weider (born February 1, Canadian businessman from sports and Napoleonic history. In sports he founded and runs a physical fitness and sporting goods company bearing his name. In Napoleonic circles he is known as a forceful advocate of the theory that Napoleon was assassinated by a member of his... Ben Weider, to conclude that he had been killed by germanium – arsenic – selenium P Ar Sb       Full table General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15 (VA), 4, p Density, Hardness 5727 kg/m3, 3.5 Appearance metallic grey Atomic properties Atomic weight 74.92160 amu Atomic radius (calc... arsenic poisoning. Arsenic was at the time sometimes used as a poison as it was undetectable when administered over a long period of time. In 2001 Pascal Kintz, of the Strasbourg Forensic Institute in France, added credence to this claim with a study of arsenic levels found in a lock of Napoléon's hair preserved after his death: they were seven to thirty-eight times higher than normal.


Cutting up hairs into short segments and analysing each segment individually provides a histogram of arsenic concentration in the body. This analysis on hair from Napoléon suggests that large but non-lethal doses were absorbed at random intervals. The arsenic severely weakened Napoléon and remained in his system. There, it could have reacted with Calomel (chemical formula Hg2Cl2) is a mild chloride of mercury, a heavy, white or yellowish white substance, insoluble and tasteless, much used in medicine as a mercurial and purgative; mercurous chloride. It occurs native as the mineral horn quicksilver or horn mercury. Categories: Chlorides | Stub ... calomel- and gold – mercury – thallium Cd Hg Uub     Full table General Name, Symbol, Number Mercury, Hg, 80 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12 (IIB), 6 , d Density, Hardness liquid 13.579e3 kg/m3 solid @ -39oC 15.6e3 kg/m3 1.5 Mohs Appearance Silvery white Atomic... mercury-based compounds—common medicines at the time—and thus been the immediate cause of his death.


More recent analysis on behalf of the magazine Science et Vie showed that similar concentrations of arsenic can be found in Napoléon's hair in samples taken from 1805, 1814 and 1821. The lead investigator, Ivan Ricordel (head of toxicology for the Paris Police), stated that if arsenic had been the cause, Napoléon would have died years earlier. Arsenic was also used in some wallpaper, as a green pigment, and even in some patent medicines, and the group suggested that the most likely source in this case was a hair tonic. Prior to the discovery of An antibiotic is a drug that kills or slows the growth of bacteria. Antibiotics are one class of antimicrobials, a larger group which also includes anti-viral, anti-fungal, and anti-parasitic drugs. They are relatively harmless to the host, and therefore can be used to treat infection. The term... antibiotics, arsenic was also a widely used, but ineffective, treatment for Depression-era U.S. poster advocating early syphilis treatment Syphilis (historically called lues) is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) that is caused by a spirochaete bacterium, Treponema pallidum. Syphilis has many alternate names, such as: Miss Siff, the Pox, and has been given many national attributions, e.g. the French... syphilis. (This has led to speculation that Napoléon might have suffered from syphilis.) Controversy remains as the Science et Vie analysis has not addressed all points of the arsenic poisoning theory.


Marriages and children

Napoléon was twice married:

emplress josephine of france, painted by francois gerard This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. This applies worldwide. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert...
emplress josephine of france, painted by francois gerard This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. This applies worldwide. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert... Enlarge
Joséphine de Beauharnais Empress Joséphine
  • Firstly, on March 9 is the 68th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (69th in Leap years). There are 297 days remaining. March Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19... March 9, Years: 1793 1794 1795 - 1796 - 1797 1798 1799 Decades: 1760s 1770s 1780s - 1790s - 1800s 1810s 1820s Centuries: 17th century - 18th century - 19th century 1796 in art 1796 in literature 1796 in music 1796 in science List of state leaders in 1796 List of religious leaders in 1796 Contents // 1 Events... 1796 to Joséphine de Beauharnais. He later crowned her as Empress Joséphine. She produced no heirs for him, leading to a Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the ending of a marriage, which can be contrasted with an annulment which is a declaration that a marriage is void, though the effects of marriage may be recognized in such unions, such as spousal support, child custody and distribution of property. In developed... divorce.
  • Secondly, on March 11 is the 70th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (71st in Leap year). There are 295 days remaining. March Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19... March 11, Years: 1807 1808 1809 - 1810 - 1811 1812 1813 Decades: 1780s 1790s 1800s - 1810s - 1820s 1830s 1840s Centuries: 18th century - 19th century - 20th century 1810 in art 1810 in literature 1810 in rail transport 1810 in science 1810 in music 1810 in sports List of state leaders in 1810 List of... 1810 (by The word proxy can mean more than one thing: a person authorized to act for another person, or upon request by another person (see eg.: Proxy murder) a political or business proxy representative a networking server proxy server a design pattern called proxy pattern a measurement used in social science... proxy) to Marie Louise (December 12, 1791 _ December 17, 1847) was the second wife of Napoleon Bonaparte and Empress of The French. She was born Maria Luisa Leopoldine Franziska Theresia Josepha Lucia von Hapsburg-Lothringen, Princess Imperial and Archduchess of Austria, Princess Royal of Hungary and Bohemia, in Vienna, the daughter... Archduchess Marie Louise of Austria, who became his second empress. They had one child.
    • Napoléon Francis Joseph Charles Bonaparte ( March 20 is the 79th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (80th in Leap years). There are 286 days remaining. March Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19... March 20, Years: 1808 1809 1810 - 1811 - 1812 1813 1814 Decades: 1780s 1790s 1800s - 1810s - 1820s 1830s 1840s Centuries: 18th century - 19th century - 20th century 1811 in art 1811 in literature 1811 in science 1811 in music 1811 in sports List of state leaders in 1811 List of religious leaders in 1811... 1811- July 22 is the 203rd day (204th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 162 days remaining. July Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20... July 22, Years: 1829 1830 1831 - 1832 - 1833 1834 1835 Decades: 1800s 1810s 1820s - 1830s - 1840s 1850s 1860s Centuries: 18th century - 19th century - 20th century 1832 in art 1832 in literature 1832 in rail transport 1832 in science 1832 in music 1832 in sports List of state leaders in 1832 List of... 1832), King of Rome. He is known as Napoleon Francis Joseph Charles Bonaparte (March 20, 1811 -July 22, 1832), Duke of Reichstadt, was the son of Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte and his second wife, Archduchess Marie Louise of Austria. Three years after his birth in Paris, the First French Empire - to which he was heir - collapsed, and Napoleon Bonaparte... Napoléon II of France although he never ruled. In his later life he was known as the Duke of Reichstadt.

Napoléon also had at least two illegitimate children who both had descendants:

  • Charles, Count Léon, ( Years: 1803 1804 1805 - 1806 - 1807 1808 1809 Decades: 1770s 1780s 1790s - 1800s - 1810s 1820s 1830s Centuries: 18th century - 19th century - 20th century 1806 in art 1806 in literature 1806 in music 1806 in science 1806 in sports List of state leaders in 1806 List of religious leaders in 1806... 1806 - Years: 1878 1879 1880 - 1881 - 1882 1883 1884 Decades: 1850s 1860s 1870s - 1880s - 1890s 1900s 1910s Centuries: 18th century - 19th century - 20th century 1881 in topic: Arts Architecture - Art - Literature - Music Other topics Canada - Rail transport - Science - Sport Lists of leaders: Colonial governors - State leaders Contents // 1 Events 1.1... 1881), son by Louise Catherine Eléonore Denuelle de la Plaigne ( Years: 1784 1785 1786 - 1787 - 1788 1789 1790 Decades: 1750s 1760s 1770s - 1780s - 1790s 1800s 1810s Centuries: 17th century - 18th century - 19th century 1787 in art 1787 in literature 1787 in music 1787 in science List of state leaders in 1787 List of religious leaders in 1787 Events In Britain... 1787 - Years: 1865 1866 1867 - 1868 - 1869 1870 1871 Decades: 1830s 1840s 1850s - 1860s - 1870s 1880s 1890s Centuries: 18th century - 19th century - 20th century 1868 in topic: Arts Architecture - Art - Literature - Music Other topics Canada - Rail transport - Science - Sport Lists of leaders: Colonial governors - State leaders Events January 3 - Meiji Emperor... 1868).
  • Alexandre Florian Joseph Colonna, Comte Walewski (May 4, 1810 - October 27, French politician and diplomat, was born at Walewice near Warsaw, the son of Napoleon I and his mistress Marie, Countess Walewski. Alexandre Walewski At fourteen Walewski refused to enter the Russian army, escaping to London and thence to Paris... Alexandre Joseph Colonna, Count Walewski, ( May 4 is the 124th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (125th in leap years). There are 241 days remaining. May Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20... May 4, Years: 1807 1808 1809 - 1810 - 1811 1812 1813 Decades: 1780s 1790s 1800s - 1810s - 1820s 1830s 1840s Centuries: 18th century - 19th century - 20th century 1810 in art 1810 in literature 1810 in rail transport 1810 in science 1810 in music 1810 in sports List of state leaders in 1810 List of... 1810 - October 27 is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 65 days remaining. October Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20... October 27, Years: 1865 1866 1867 - 1868 - 1869 1870 1871 Decades: 1830s 1840s 1850s - 1860s - 1870s 1880s 1890s Centuries: 18th century - 19th century - 20th century 1868 in topic: Arts Architecture - Art - Literature - Music Other topics Canada - Rail transport - Science - Sport Lists of leaders: Colonial governors - State leaders Events January 3 - Meiji Emperor... 1868), son of Marie, Countess Walewski (or Walewska) born Laczinska (1789 - 1817) wife of Count Athenasius Walewski, mistress of Napoleon I Bonaparte and mother of Alexandre Joseph Colonna, Count Walewski. Her parents were Count Mathieu Laczynski and Eva Zaborowska. Countess Marie Walewski In 1807 in Warsaw Napoleon fell in love with a Polish... Marie, Countess Walewski ( Years: 1786 1787 1788 - 1789 - 1790 1791 1792 Decades: 1750s 1760s 1770s - 1780s - 1790s 1800s 1810s Centuries: 17th century - 18th century - 19th century 1789 in topic: Arts Architecture - Literature - Music Other topics Canada - Science Lists of leaders: Colonial governors - State leaders 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see... 1789 - Years: 1814 1815 1816 - 1817 - 1818 1819 1820 Decades: 1780s 1790s 1800s - 1810s - 1820s 1830s 1840s Centuries: 18th century - 19th century - 20th century 1817 in art 1817 in literature 1817 in science 1817 in music 1817 in sports List of state leaders in 1817 List of religious leaders in 1817... 1817).

Other information points to Napoléons's having had further illegitimate children:

  • Émilie Louise Marie Françoise Joséphine Pellapra, daughter by Françoise-Marie LeRoy.
  • Karl Eugin von Mühlfeld, son by Victoria Kraus.
  • Hélène Napoleone Bonaparte, daughter by Countess Montholon.
  • Barthélemy St Hilaire ( August 19 is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. There are 134 days remaining. August Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19... August 19, Years: 1802 1803 1804 - 1805 - 1806 1807 1808 Decades: 1770s 1780s 1790s - 1800s - 1810s 1820s 1830s Centuries: 18th century - 19th century - 20th century 1805 in art 1805 in literature 1805 in music 1805 in science 1805 in sports List of state leaders in 1805 List of religious leaders in 1805... 1805 - November 24 is the 328th day (329th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. There are 37 days remaining. November Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19... November 24, 1895 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). Contents // 1 Events 1.1 January 1.2 February 1.3 March 1.4 April 1.5 May 1.6 June 1.7 July 1.8 August 1.9 September 1.10 November 1.11 December 1.12... 1895) whose mother remains unknown.

Burial

Napoléon had asked in his will to be buried on the banks of the This article is about the river in France; it should not be confused with the Senne, a much smaller river that flows through Brussels. For other rivers named Seine, see Seine River (disambiguation). A seine is also a kind of fishing net. Seine The Seine viewed from the Eiffel Tower... Seine, but when he died in 1821 he was buried on Saint Helena. This final wish was not executed until 1840, when his remains were taken to France in the frigate Belle-Poule and entombed in The church at the Invalides, with its dome Les Invalides in Paris, France consists of a complex of buildings in the 7th arrondissement, now containing museums and monuments, all relating to Frances military history, as well as a hospital and a retirement home for war veterans, the buildings... Les Invalides, Paris. Hundreds of millions have visited his tomb since that date.


Legacy

Napoleon is credited with introducing the concept of the modern professional The term Conscript may refer to people enlisted in the armed forces through conscription. It may also refer to an artificial script, as opposed to a natural writing system. This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. If... conscript army to Europe, an innovation which other states were forced to follow.


In The French Republic or France ( French: République française or France) is a country whose metropolitan territory is located in western Europe, and which is further made up of a collection of overseas islands and territories located in other continents. France is a democracy organised as a... France, Napoleon is also seen as having preserved the Revolution by creating and perpetuating its myth. He ended the lawlessness and disorder spawned by the Revolution; in modern terms, he was a "law and order" ruler. Furthermore, the History of France Chronological Gaul Franks Middle Ages Ancien Régime French Revolution First Empire Nineteenth century Third Republic Vichy France Modern France Topical Economic history Military history Social history Timeline The Napoleonic Wars lasted from 1804 until 1815. They were a continuation of the conflicts sparked by the French... Napoleonic Wars also exported the History of France series Gaul Franks Middle Ages Ancien Régime French Revolution Causes Estates-General National Assembly Storming of the Bastille National Constituent Assembly ( 1, 2, 3) Legislative Assembly and fall of the monarchy National Convention and Reign of Terror Directory Consulate Related: Glossary, Timeline, Wars, List of... Revolution to the rest of Europe, and it is believed that the movements of national unification and the rise of the -1... nation state, notably in Italy (disambiguation). The Italian Republic or Italy ( Italian: Repubblica Italiana or Italia) is a country in southern Europe. It comprises a boot-shaped peninsula and two large islands in the Mediterranean Sea, Sicily and Sardinia, and shares its northern alpine boundary with France, Switzerland, Austria and Slovenia. The independent countries... Italy and The Federal Republic of Germany ( German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is one of the worlds leading industrialised countries, located in the heart of Europe. Due to its central location, Germany has more neighbours than any other European country: these are Denmark in the north, Poland and the Czech Republic in the... Germany, were rooted in and precipitated—if not caused—by the Napoleonic rule of those areas.


The The original Napoleonic Code, or Code Napoléon (originally called the Code civil des francais, or civil code of the French), was the French civil code, established at the behest of Napoléon. It entered into force on March 21, 1804. Even though the Napoleonic code was not... Code Napoleon was adopted throughout much of Europe and remained after Napoleon's defeat. Professor Dieter Langewiesche of the University of Tübingen describes the code as a "revolutionary project" which spurred the development of Bourgeois at the end of the thirteenth century. --facsimile of Miniature in Manuscript no. 6820, in the National Library of Paris. The bourgeoisie is one of the wealthy classes into which a capitalist society is typically divided, according to certain western schools of economic thought, especially Marxism. The term is... bourgeois society in The Federal Republic of Germany ( German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is one of the worlds leading industrialised countries, located in the heart of Europe. Due to its central location, Germany has more neighbours than any other European country: these are Denmark in the north, Poland and the Czech Republic in the... Germany by expanding the right to own property and breaking the back of Feudalism comes from the Late Latin word feudum, itself borrowed from a Germanic root *fehu, a commonly used term in the Middle Ages which means fief, or land held under certain obligations by feodati. Even though the word origin is from the Middle Ages, the concept of feudalism was not... feudalism. Langewiesche also credits Napoleon with reorganizing what had been the History of Germany Timeline Franks Holy Roman Empire German Confederation German Empire Weimar Republic Nazi Germany World War II Since 1945 The Holy Roman Empire ( German: Heiliges Römisches Reich) ( Italian: Sacro Romano Impero) ( Latin: Sacrum Romanum Imperium) ( Czech: Svatá říše římská... Holy Roman Empire made up of more than 1,000 entities into a more streamlined network of 40 states providing the basis for the History of Germany series Franks Holy Roman Empire German Confederation German Empire Weimar Republic Nazi Germany Nazi Germany (WWII) Germany since 1945 The German Confederation (German Deutscher Bund) was a loose association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of... German Confederation and the future The unification of Germany can refer to: the 1871 formation of the German Empire under Otto von Bismarck. the 1990 reunification of Germany at the end of the Cold War. This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title... unification of Germany under the This article or section should include material from German Monarchy History of Germany series Franks Holy Roman Empire German Confederation German Empire Weimar Republic Nazi Germany Nazi Germany (WWII) Germany since 1945 The term German Empire (the translation from German of Deutsches Reich) commonly refers to Germany, from its consolidation... Second Reich in Years: 1868 1869 1870 - 1871 - 1872 1873 1874 Decades: 1840s 1850s 1860s - 1870s - 1880s 1890s 1900s Centuries: 18th century - 19th century - 20th century 1871 in topic: Arts Architecture - Art - Literature - Music Other topics Canada - Rail transport - Science - Sport Lists of leaders: Colonial governors - State leaders Contents // 1 Events 1.1... 1871.


See also

  • The original Napoleonic Code, or Code Napoléon (originally called the Code civil des francais, or civil code of the French), was the French civil code, established at the behest of Napoléon. It entered into force on March 21, 1804. The Napoleonic code was the first legal code to... Napoleonic Code
  • The Napoleonic Era is a period in the History of France. It is generally classified as the fourth stage of the French Revolution, the first being the National Assembly, the second being the Legislative Assembly, and the third being the Directory. The Napoleonic Era begins roughly with Napoleons coup... Napoleonic Era
  • Napoleon I of France celebrated his accomplishments with an extensive set of commemorative medals struck by the Paris Medal Mint. The exact number of these medals is not precisely known since the official records of Napoleons reign, including the list of medals struck by the mint, were erased by... Napoleonic medal
  • History of France Chronological Gaul Franks Middle Ages Ancien Régime French Revolution First Empire Nineteenth century Third Republic Vichy France Modern France Topical Economic history Military history Social history Timeline The Napoleonic Wars lasted from 1804 until 1815. They were a continuation of the conflicts sparked by the French... Napoleonic Wars
  • The title of marshal of France (maréchal de France) was derived from the office of marescallus Franciae created by Philippe Auguste for Albéric Clément (circa 1190). It later became a distinction and takes precedence above the constable, which was originally an office above the marshal. Up to... Marshal of France, for a list of Napoleon's Marshals
  • Napoleon and the Jews. The rise of Napoleon Bonaparte proved an important event in the emancipation of the Jews of Europe from old laws restricting them to Jewish ghettos, as well as limiting rights to property, worship, and careers. Contents // 1 Napoleons Law and the Jews 2 Napoleon and... Napoleon and the Jews
  • Napoléon Bonaparte, emperor of France, has become a worldwide cultural icon symbolizing strength, genius, and political solidity. Since his death, countless towns, streets, ships, and even cartoon characters have been named after him. In Western culture, believing oneself to be Napoléon has become semi-synonymous with delusions and... Napoleon in popular culture (esp. as a by-word for mental ill health)

References

  • "Bonaparte (Napoléon Ier) (http://www.insecula.com/contact/A003985.html/)." Insecula: L'encyclopedie des artes et de l'architecture. Accessed on September 25 is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years). There are 97 days remaining. September Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23... 25 September 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, and also: The International Year of Freshwater The European Disability Year Years: 2000 2001 2002 - 2003 - 2004 2005 2006 Decades: 1970s 1980s 1990s - 2000s - 2010s 2020s 2030s Centuries: 20th century - 21st century - 22nd century News by month: Jan... 2003.
  • "Napoleon (http://www.napoleonseries.org/index.cfm)." Napoleon Series. Accessed on February 10 is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. There are 324 days remaining, 325 in leap years. February Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19... 10 February 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. It was designated the: International Year of Rice (by the United Nations) International Year to Commemorate the Struggle against Slavery and its Abolition (by UNESCO) Elections were held in 73 countries during 2004. See a list of elections... 2004.
  • "Napoleon I of France (http://www.france.com/docs/364.html)." France.com. Accessed on February 20 is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. There are 314 days remaining, 315 in leap years. February Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19... 20 February Years: 2002 2003 2004 - 2005 - 2006 2007 2008 Decades: 1970s 1980s 1990s - 2000s - 2010s 2020s 2030s Centuries: 20th century - 21st century - 22nd century News by month: Jan - Feb - Mar - Apr - May - Jun Jul - Aug - Sep - Oct - Nov - Dec 2005 in topic: Arts Architecture - Art - Film - Literature - Music - Television Politics Elections... 2005.
  • Asprey, Robert (2000). The Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-04879-X.
  • Cronin, Vincent (1994). Napoleon. London: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-00-637521-9.
  • Durant, will and Durant, Ariel (1975). The Age of Napoleon. New York: Simon and Schuster. ISBN 0-671-21988-X (PT. 11).
  • McLynn, Frank (1998). Napoleon. London: Pimlico. ISBN 0-7126-6247-2.
  • Pope, Stephen (1999) The Cassel Dictionary of the Napoleonic WarsCassel
  • Zamoyski, Adam (2004) 1812: Napoleon's Fatal March on MoscowHarperCollins
  • Full texts of
    • The constitution of the Consulate (http://wikisource.org/wiki/Constitution_du_13_d%C3%A9cembre_1799) (in French (Français) Spoken in: France and 53 other countries Region: Europe Total speakers: 77 million (128 million with second language speakers) Ranking: 11 Genetic classification: Indo-European   Italic    Romance    Italo-Western     Western      Gallo... French)
    • The Imperial Constitution (http://wikisource.org/wiki/Constitution_du_18_mai_1804) (in French)

External links

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Napoleon Bonaparte
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Napoleon
    • Free eBook of Memoirs of Napoleon (http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/3567) at Project Gutenberg (PG) was launched by Michael Hart in 1971 in order to provide a library, on what would later become the Internet, of free electronic versions (sometimes called e-texts) of physically existing books. The texts provided are mostly in the public domain, either because they were never under... Project Gutenberg
    • Free eBook of The Life of Napoleon I (http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/14300) at Project Gutenberg (PG) was launched by Michael Hart in 1971 in order to provide a library, on what would later become the Internet, of free electronic versions (sometimes called e-texts) of physically existing books. The texts provided are mostly in the public domain, either because they were never under... Project Gutenberg
  • "The Strange Story of Napoleon's Wallpaper" (http://www.grand-illusions.com/napoleon/napol1.htm) - discussing the possibility of arsenic poisoning
  • Napoleon - Portraits and Paintings (http://www.geocities.com/superstorelink/napoleon.html)
Preceded by:
College of 5 directors:
Paul BARRAS
Roger DUCOS
Louis-Jérôme GOHIER
Jean-François MOULIN
Joseph SIEYÈS
Head of State of France
(1st time)
Succeeded by:
Louis XVIII (November 17, 1755 - September 16, 1824) was King of France from 1814 (although he declared that he considered his reign to have begun in 1795) until his death in 1824. Early Life Louis-Stanislas-Xavier was born on November 17, 1755 in the Palace of Versailles, Versailles, France... Louis XVIII
(King of France)
Provisional Consul
along with:
Roger DUCOS
Joseph SIEYÈS
(Nov. 11 - Dec. 12 1799)
First Consul
along with:
Jean-Jacques CAMBACÉRÈS
(Second Consul)
Charles-François LEBRUN
(Third Consul)
(Dec. 12 1799 - May 18, 1804)
Emperor of the French
(May 18, 1804 - Apr. 6, 1814)
Preceded by:
Louis XVIII (November 17, 1755 - September 16, 1824) was King of France from 1814 (although he declared that he considered his reign to have begun in 1795) until his death in 1824. Early Life Louis-Stanislas-Xavier was born on November 17, 1755 in the Palace of Versailles, Versailles, France... Louis XVIII
(King of France)
Head of State of France
(2nd time)
(Emperor of the French)
(Mar. 20 - June 22, 1815)
Succeeded by:
Napoleon Francis Joseph Charles Bonaparte (March 20, 1811 -July 22, 1832), Duke of Reichstadt, was the son of Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte and his second wife, Archduchess Marie Louise of Austria. Three years after his birth in Paris, the First French Empire - to which he was heir - collapsed, and Napoleon Bonaparte... Napoleon II of France
(Emperor of France)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Napoleon Bonaparte | Emperor of the French (930 words)
Napoleon Bonaparte was born on August 15, 1769 in Ajaccio on the Mediterranean island of Corsica, the son of Carlo and Letizia Bonaparte.
Napoleon was one of the greatest military commanders in history.
Napoleon Bonaparte's Farewell to the Old Guard—On April 20, 1814 the Emperor of France and would-be ruler of Europe said goodbye to the Old Guard after his failed invasion of Russia and defeat by the Allies.
Napoleon Bonaparte Speech - Farewell to the Old Guard (598 words)
Napoleon built a 500,000 strong Grand Army which used modern tactics and improvisation in battle to sweep across Europe and acquire an Empire for France.
Thus Napoleon was forced to begin a long retreat, and saw his army decimated to a mere 20,000 men by the severe Russian winter and chaos in the ranks.
Napoleon then lost the support of most of his generals and was forced to abdicate on April 6, 1814.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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