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Encyclopedia > Napoleon's invasion of Russia
Kazan Cathedral in St Petersburg and the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow were built to commemorate the Russian victory against Napoleon.
Kazan Cathedral in St Petersburg and the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow were built to commemorate the Russian victory against Napoleon.

The invasion of the Russian Empire led by Napoleon I of France in 1812 was a turning point in the Napoleonic wars. The campaign reduced the French and allied invasion forces to less than two percent of their initial strength. Its sustained role in Russian culture may be seen in Tolstoy's War and Peace and the Soviet identification between it and the German invasion of 1941-1945. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x1536, 1026 KB) Koetoezov monument on the square in front of the Kazan cathedral in Saint Petersburg. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x1536, 1026 KB) Koetoezov monument on the square in front of the Kazan cathedral in Saint Petersburg. ... 19th-century view of the Kazan Cathedral in St. ... View of the cathedral in 1905 The Cathedral of Christ the Saviour (Russian: Храм Христа Спасителя) is the largest Orthodox church in the world. ... Official language Russian Official Religion Russian Orthodox Christianity Capital Saint Petersburg (Petrograd 1914-1925) Area Approx. ... Napoleon I Bonaparte, Emperor of the French, King of Italy (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution; the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from 11 November 1799 to 18 May 1804; then Emperor of the French (Empereur... 1812 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants Allies: • Great Britain/United Kingdom, • Prussia, • Austria, • Sweden, • Russia, • and Others • France • Denmark-Norway • Poland Casualties Full list The Napoleonic Wars consisted of a series of wars fought during Napoleon Bonapartes rule over France. ... The Russian culture is rooted in the early East Slavic culture. ... Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy (Russian: , Lev Nikolaevič Tolstoj), commonly referred to in English as Leo Tolstoy, (September 9, 1828 – November 20, 1910, N.S.; August 28, 1828 – November 7, 1910, O.S.) was a Russian novelist, philosopher, Christian anarchist, pacifist, educational reformer, vegetarian, moral thinker and an influential member of... War and Peace (Russian: Война и мир, Vojna i mir; in original orthography: Война и миръ, Vojna i mir) is an epic novel by Leo Tolstoy, first published from 1865 to 1869, which tells the story of Russian society during the Napoleonic Era. ... The Eastern Front was the theatre of combat between Nazi Germany and its allies against the Soviet Union during World War II. It was somewhat separate from the other theatres of the war, not only geographically, but also for its scale and ferocity. ...

Contents


Nomenclature

Until 1941 it was known in Russia as the Patriotic War (Russian Отечественная война, Otechestvennaya Voyna); the Russian term Patriotic War of 1812 distinguishes it from the Great Patriotic War, the term the Soviets applied to their front in World War II. For the movie, see 1941 (film) 1941 (MCMXLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1941 calendar). ... The Eastern Front1 was the theatre of combat between Nazi Germany and its allies against the Soviet Union during World War II. It was somewhat separate from the other theatres of the war, not only geographically, but also for its scale and ferocity. ... Motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Russian: Workers of the world, unite!) Anthem: The Internationale (1922-1944) Hymn of the Soviet Union (1944-1991) Capital Moscow Largest city Moscow Official language(s) None; Russian de facto Government Federation of Soviet Republics Establishment October Revolution  - Declared 30 December 1922   - Recognized 1... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, the use of images on this page may require cleanup, involving adjustment of image placement, formatting, size, or other adjustments. ...


Also in Russian, it is occasionally referred to as the "War of 1812," offering some opportunity for confusion since in English that usually refers to the 1812 conflict between the United Kingdom and the United States. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Combatants United States United Kingdom Strength United States Regular army : 99,000 Volunteers: 10,000* Rangers: 3,000 Militia: 458,000** Naval and marine: 20,000 Indigenous peoples New York Iroquois: 600 Northwestern allies: ? Southern allies: ? United Kingdom Regular army: 10,000+ Naval and marine: ? Canadian militia: 86,000+** Indigenous...


The Invasion

The Opposing Armies

Charles Minard's graph showing the strength of the Grande Armée as it marches to Moscow and back, with temperature (in Réaumur) plotted on the lower graph for the return journey. -30°Réaumur = -37.5° Celsius
Charles Minard's graph showing the strength of the Grande Armée as it marches to Moscow and back, with temperature (in Réaumur) plotted on the lower graph for the return journey. -30°Réaumur = -37.5° Celsius

June 24 1812, Grande Armée of 691,500 men, the largest army assembled up to that point in European history, crossed the river Neman and headed towards Moscow. Download high resolution version (988x565, 87 KB)Minards graph showing napoleons advance into europe (1885) This map by Charles Joseph Minard shows the advance of Napoleons army into Russia. ... Download high resolution version (988x565, 87 KB)Minards graph showing napoleons advance into europe (1885) This map by Charles Joseph Minard shows the advance of Napoleons army into Russia. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... The degree Réaumur is a unit of temperature named after René Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur, who first proposed it in 1731. ... A degree Celsius (°C) is a unit of temperature named after the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius (1701-1744), who first proposed a similar system in 1742. ... June 24 is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 190 days remaining. ... La Grande Armée (French the Big, Great or Grand Army) is the French military term for the main force in a military campaign. ... The Neman (Belarusian: ; Lithuanian: ; Russian: ; Polish: ; German: ) is a major Eastern European river rising in Belarus and flowing through Lithuania before draining into the Baltic Sea near KlaipÄ—da. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ...


The Grande Armée was divided as follows:

  • A central strike force of 250,000 under the emperor's personal command.
  • Two other frontline armies under Eugène de Beauharnais (80,000 men) and Jérôme Bonaparte (70,000 men).
  • Two detached corps under Jacques MacDonald (32,500 men) and Karl Schwarzenberg (34,000 Austrian troopers).
  • A reserve army of 225,000 troops.

In addition 80,000 National Guards had been conscripted for full military service defending the imperial frontier of the Grand Duchy of Warsaw. With these included total French imperial forces on the Russian border and in Russia came to some 771,500 men. This vast commitment of manpower severely strained the Empire - especially considering that there were a further 300,000 French troops fighting in Iberia and over 200,000 more in Germany and Italy. Eugène Rose de Beauharnais (September 3, 1781 - February 21, 1824) was the first child and only son of Joséphine de Tascher de la Pagerie and Alexandre, Vicomte de Beauharnais. ... Jérôme Bonaparte Jérôme Bonaparte, King of Westphalia (November 15, 1784 - June 24, 1860) was the youngest brother of Napoleon, who made him King of Westphalia (1807-1813). ... Etienne-Jacques-Joseph-Alexandre MacDonald Etienne-Jacques-Joseph-Alexandre MacDonald (November 17, 1765 - September 7, 1840), duke of Taranto and marshal of France, was born at Sedan, France. ... Schwarzenberg Monument at Schwarzenbergplatz, Vienna Karl Philipp Fürst zu Schwarzenberg (or Prince Charles Philip of Schwarzenberg (April 18, 1771 – October 15, 1820), Austrian Feldmarshall, was born at Vienna. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe. ...


450,000 French troops made up the majority of the army with French allies making up the rest. In addition to the detached Austrian corps under Schwarzenberg there were some 95,000 Poles, 90,000 Germans (24,000 Bavarians, 20,000 Saxons, 20,000 Prussians, 17,000 Westphalians and several thousand from smaller Rhineland states), 25,000 Italians, 12,000 Swiss, 4,800 Spaniards, 3,500 Croats and 2,000 Portuguese. In addition there were Dutch and also a number of Belgian contingents. In short every nationality in Napoleon's vast empire was represented.

Courage of General Raevsky.
Courage of General Raevsky.

According to most modern estimates, the Russian army numbered less than the French initially. Some 280,000 Russian troops were deployed to the Polish frontier (in preparation for Tsar Alexander I's planned invasion of the French satellite, the Grand Duchy of Warsaw). Total Russian armies numbered about 500,000 (some estimates place the number as low as 350,000, while others go anywhere up to 710,000 - probably a figure in the vicinity of 400,000 is more accurate) on the eve of war. These were divided into three main armies - the First Army of the West (commanded by General Mikhail Barclay de Tolly) of some 159,800 men, the Second Army of the West (commanded by General Pyotr Bagration) numbering 62,000, and the Third Army of the West (commanded by General Tormasov) numbering about 58,200. Two reserve forces, one of 65,000 and one of 47,000 supported these three frontline armies. Going by these figures the Russian armies immediately facing Napoleon numbered some 392,000. In addition, peace had been secured for St Petersburg with Sweden and the Ottoman Empire - freeing up over 100,000 more troopers. Efforts were made to swell Russian armies and by September troop numbers had been expanded to around 900,000 - not including irregular cossack units, which probably add a further 70,000 or 80,000 men to the total. Image File history File links Raevsky_exploit. ... Image File history File links Raevsky_exploit. ... Portrait by George Dawe in the Military Gallery For other uses, see Nikolay Raevsky (disambiguation). ... Aleksander I Pavlovich Romanov (Russian: Александр I Павлович) (December 23, 1777–December 1, 1825), was Emperor of Russia from March 23, 1801–December 1, 1825 and King of Poland from 1815–1825, as well as the first Grand Duke of Finland. ... Knyaz de Tolly Knyaz Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly, called by the Russians as Mikhail Bogdanovich Barklay de Tolly (Михаи́л Богда́нович Баркла́й-де-То́лли) (born December 21, 1761 in Riga, [then] Imperial Russia; died May 26, 1818 in Insterburg, [then] Prussia), was a Russian field marshal and Minister of War. ... Prince Pyotr Bagration (Пётр Иванович Багратион) (1765 - September 12, 1812), a descendant of the Georgian Royal family of the Bagrations, served as a Russian general. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Söğüt (1299-1326), Bursa (1326-1365), Edirne (1365-1453), Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul) (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah...


The March on Moscow

The invasion commenced on June 23, 1812. Napoleon had sent a final offer of peace to Saint Petersburg shortly before commencing operations. He never received a reply, so he gave the order to proceed into Russian Poland. He initially met little resistance and moved quickly into the enemy's territory. Barclay, the Russian commander-in-chief, refused to fight despite Bagration's urgings. Several times he attempted to establish a strong defensive position, but each time the French advance was too quick for him to finish preparations and he was forced to retreat once more. This has often been used as an example of the scorched earth policy. June 23 is the 174th day of the year (175 th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 191 days remaining. ... A scorched earth policy is a military tactic which involves destroying anything that might be useful to the enemy while advancing through or withdrawing from an area. ...


Political pressure on Barclay to give battle and the general's continuing resistance (viewed as intransigence by the populace) led to his removal from the position of commander-in-chief to be replaced by the boastful and popular Mikhail Illarionovich Kutuzov. Despite Kutuzov's rhetoric to the contrary, he continued in much the way Barclay had, immediately seeing that to face the French in open battle would be to sacrifice his army pointlessly. Finally he managed to establish a defensive position at Borodino (following an indecisive clash at Smolensk (August 16-18)). The Battle of Borodino on September 7 was the bloodiest single day of battle in the Napoleonic Wars, and possibly of recorded human history. The Russian army could only muster half of its strength on September 8 and was forced to retreat, leaving the road to Moscow open. Kutuzov also ordered the evacuation of the city. Mikhail Kutuzov Prince Mikhail Illarionovich Golenishchev-Kutuzov (Russian: ) (September 16, 1745 – April 28, 1813 (n. ... The First Battle of Smolensk took place on August 17, 1812, between 175,000 French under Napoleon Bonaparte and 130,000 Russians under Prince Bagration, of whom about 50,000 and 60,000 respectively were actually engaged. ... August 16 is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... August 18 is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants First French Empire Russian Empire Commanders Napoleon Bonaparte Mikhail Illarionovich Kutuzov Strength 134,000 155,000 Casualties 30,000 45,000 {{{notes}}} The Battle of Borodino (Russian: Бородино) (September 7, 1812, or August 26 in the Julian calendar then used in Russia), also called the Battle of the Moskva, was... September 7 is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years). ... Combatants Allies: • Great Britain/United Kingdom, • Prussia, • Austria, • Sweden, • Russia, • and Others • France • Denmark-Norway • Poland Casualties Full list The Napoleonic Wars consisted of a series of wars fought during Napoleon Bonapartes rule over France. ... September 8 is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years). ...

The French in Moscow
The French in Moscow

By this point the Russians had managed to draft large numbers of reinforcements into the army bringing total Russian land forces to their peak strength in 1812 of 904,000 with perhaps 100,000 in the immediate vicinity of Moscow - the remnants of Kutuzov's shattered army from Borodino partially reinforced. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (707x602, 40 KB) Summary Artist: Unknown German Title: French in Moscow, 1812 (Napoleon) Date:1820s Oil on canvas Source URL:http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (707x602, 40 KB) Summary Artist: Unknown German Title: French in Moscow, 1812 (Napoleon) Date:1820s Oil on canvas Source URL:http://www. ...


The Capture of Moscow

Napoleon moved into an empty city that was stripped of all supplies by its governor, Fyodor Rostopchin. Relying on classical rules of warfare aiming at capturing the enemy's capital [citation needed] (even though St. Petersburg had been the actual capital at that time), Napoleon had expected Czar Alexander I to offer his capitulation at the Poklonnaya Hill, but Russian command did not surrender. Instead, fires broke out in Moscow, and raged in the city from 14 to 18 September New Style (2 to 6 September Old Style). Moscow, constructed mainly of wooden buildings at the time, burnt down almost completely (it was estimated that 4/5ths of the city was destroyed), effectively depriving the French of shelter in the city. It is assumed that the fires were due to Russian sabotage. Subsequently, before leaving Moscow, Napoleon gave orders to have the Kremlin and all public buildings burnt. Additonally, the Grand Army, unhappy with military conditions and no sign of victory, began looting what little remained within Moscow, however during the long retreat most items had to be abandoned. Count Fyodor Vasilievich Rostopchin (Фёдор Васильевич Ростопчин in Russian) (3. ... Tsar, (Bulgarian цар�, Russian царь; often spelled Czar or Tzar in English), was the title used for the autocratic rulers of the First and Second Bulgarian Empires since 913, in Serbia in the middle of the 14th century, and in Russia from 1547 to 1917. ... Aleksander I Pavlovich Romanov (Russian: Александр I Павлович) (December 23, 1777–December 1, 1825), was Emperor of Russia from March 23, 1801–December 1, 1825 and King of Poland from 1815–1825, as well as the first Grand Duke of Finland. ... Night view of the hill from Kutuzov Avenue. ... In Britain and countries of the British Empire, Old Style or O.S. after a date means that the date is in the Julian calendar, in use in those countries until 1752; New Style or N.S. means that the date is in the Gregorian calendar, adopted on 14 September... In Britain and countries of the British Empire, Old Style or O.S. after a date means that the date is in the Julian calendar, in use in those countries until 1752; New Style or N.S. means that the date is in the Gregorian calendar, adopted on 14 September... Sabotage is a deliberate action aimed at weakening an enemy through subversion, obstruction, disruption, and/or destruction. ... Kremlin (Кремль) is the Russian word for citadel or castle and refers to any major fortified central complex found in historical Russian cities. ...


Napoleon would later remark that had he moved out of Moscow a fortnight earlier than he did, he could have destroyed Kutuzov's army encamped at nearby Tarutino. While this would have by no means left Russia defenseless, it would have deprived it of its only concentrated army capable of challenging the French.


Retreat

Napoleon's retreat from Moscow, painted by Adolph Northern in the 19th century
Napoleon's retreat from Moscow, painted by Adolph Northern in the 19th century

Sitting in the ashes of a ruined city without having received the Russian capitulation, and facing a Russian maneuver forcing him out of Moscow, Napoleon started his long retreat. At the Battle of Maloyaroslavets, Kutuzov was able to force the French army into using the very same scorched Smolensk road on which they had earlier moved East; continuing to block the southern flank to prevent the French from returning by a different route, Kutuzov again deployed partisan tactics to constantly strike at the French trail where it was weakest. Light Russian cavalry, including mounted Cossacks, assaulted and shattered isolated French units. 19th century art. ... 19th century art. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Prianishnikov_1812. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Prianishnikov_1812. ... 1812 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Illarion Mikhailovich Pryanishnikov (Russian: ) (20 March [O.S. 1 April] 1840 – 12 March [O.S. 24 March] 1894) was a Russian painter, one of the founders of the Peredvizhniki artistic school. ... The Battle of Maloyaroslavets took place on October 24, 1812, between the Russians, under Marshal Kutuzov, and part of the corps of Eugène de Beauharnais, Napoleons son_in_law, under General Delzons with numbered about 20,000 strong. ... Look up partisan on Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article needs cleanup. ...


Supplying the army became an impossibility - the lack of grass weakened the army's remaining horses, almost all of which died or were killed for food by starving soldiers. With no horses the French cavalry ceased to exist, and cavalrymen were forced to march on foot. In addition the lack of horses meant that cannons and wagons had to be abandoned, depriving the army of artillery and support convoys. Although the army was quickly able to replace its artillery in 1813 the abandonment of wagons created an immense logistics problem for the remainder of the war, as thousands of the best military wagons were left behind in Russia. As starvation and disease took their toll the desertion rate soared. Most of the deserters were taken prisoner or promptly executed by Russian peasants. The crossing of the river Berezina brought about another major defeat as Kutuzov, deciding that the time was right for an open battle, attacked and crushed the part of the French army that had not yet made it across the bridge. Kircholm, a 1925 painting by Wojciech Kossak. ... A small American Civil War-era cannon on a carriage A caun is any large tubular firearm designed to fire a heavy projectile over a considerable distance. ... A wagon (in old British English waggon) is a wheeled vehicle, ordinarily with four wheels, usually pulled by an animal such as a horse, mule or ox, which was used for transport of heavy goods in the past. ... A 155 mm artillery shell fired by a United States 11th Marine regiment M-198 howitzer Historically, artillery refers to any engine used for the discharge of projectiles during war. ... Categories: Rivers of Belarus | Belarus-related stubs ... Battle of Berezina was held on November 26-29, 1812 between the French army of Napoleon retreating after his invasion of Russia and crossing the Berezina, and Russian army under Kutuzov. ...


In early December 1812 Napoleon learned that General Claude de Malet had attempted a coup d'etat back in France. He abandoned the army and returned home on a sleigh, leaving Marshal Joachim Murat in charge. Murat later deserted in order to save his kingdom of Naples, leaving Napoleon's former stepson, Eugene de Beauharnais, in command. For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... Claude François de Malet (1754 - 1812) was a French general. ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... Joachim Murat, King of Naples, Marshal of France Murat portrait, by François Pascal Simon, Baron Gérard, c. ... Naples (Italian Napoli, Neapolitan Nàpule, from Greek Νέα Πόλις - Néa Pólis - meaning New City; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is the largest city in southern Italy and capital of Campania Region and the Province of Naples. ... Eugène Rose de Beauharnais (September 3, 1781 - February 21, 1824) was the first child and only son of Joséphine de Tascher de la Pagerie and Alexandre, Vicomte de Beauharnais. ...


In the following weeks, the remnants of the Grand Army were further diminished, and on December 14, 1812 they were expelled from Russian territory. Only about 22,000 of Napoleon's men survived the Russian campaign. Russian casualties in the few open battles are comparable to the French losses, but civilian losses along the devastated war path were much higher than the military casualties. In total, despite earlier estimates giving figures of several million dead, around one million were killed - fairly evenly split between the French and Russians. Military losses amounted to 300,000 French, 70,000 Poles, 50,000 Italians, 80,000 Germans and perhaps 450,000 Russians. As well as the loss of human life the French also lost some 200,000 horses and over 1,000 artillery pieces. December 14 is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1812 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


Historical Assessment

A hall of military fame in the Winter Palace with portraits of the Russian war heroes.
A hall of military fame in the Winter Palace with portraits of the Russian war heroes.

The Russian victory over the French army in 1812 marked a huge blow to Napoleon's ambitions of European dominance. Like the comprehensive defeat of French naval power at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805, the Russian campaign was a decisive turning-point of the Napoleonic Wars that ultimately led to Napoleon's defeat and exile on the island of Elba. For Russia the term Patriotic War (an English rendition of the Russian "Отечественная война") formed a symbol for a strengthened national identity that would have great effect on Russian patriotism in the 19th century. The indirect result of the patriotic movement of Russians was a strong desire for the modernisation of the country that would result in a series of revolutions, starting with the Decembrist revolt and ending with the February Revolution of 1917. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 340 KB)Photo taken inside the Hermitage Museum in St Petersburg by Robert Broadie on 12 April 2005. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 340 KB)Photo taken inside the Hermitage Museum in St Petersburg by Robert Broadie on 12 April 2005. ... Military Gallery Military Gallery (Russian: ) is a gallery of the Winter Palace in Saint Petersburg, Russia. ... Located between the Palace Embankment and the Palace Square, the Winter Palace (Russian: Зимний Дворец) in St. ... Combatants United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland First French Empire, Spain Commanders The Viscount Nelson † Pierre Charles Silvestre de Villeneuve Strength 27 ships of the line France: 18 ships of the line Spain: 15 ships of the line Casualties 449 killed 1,214 wounded Total: 1,673 4,480... 1805 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants Allies: • Great Britain/United Kingdom, • Prussia, • Austria, • Sweden, • Russia, • and Others • France • Denmark-Norway • Poland Casualties Full list The Napoleonic Wars consisted of a series of wars fought during Napoleon Bonapartes rule over France. ... Elba (top center) from space, February 1994 Elba and the Tuscan Archipelago. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Decembrists at the Senate Square The Decembrist revolt or the Decembrist uprising (Russian: ) was attempted in Imperial Russia by army officers who led about 3,000 Russian soldiers on December 14 (December 26 New Style), 1825. ... See Revolutions of 1848 in France for the February 1848 French revolution. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ...


Napoleon was not completely defeated in Russia. The following year he would raise an army of around 400,000 French troops supported by a quarter of a million French allied troops to contest control of Germany in an even larger campaign. It was not until the decisive Battle of Nations (October 16-19, 1813) that he was finally defeated, and even then he continued on to campaign in France in 1814. The Russian campaign, though, had revealed that Napoleon was not invincible. Smelling blood and, urged on by Prussian nationalists and Russian commanders, German nationalists revolted across the Confederation of the Rhine and Prussia. The decisive German campaign could not have occurred without the message the defeat in Russia sent to the world. Map of battle by 18 October 1813, from Meyers Encyclopaedia The Battle of Leipzig (October 16-19, 1813), also called the Battle of the Nations, was the largest conflict in the Napoleonic Wars and one of the worst defeats suffered by Napoleon Bonaparte. ... October 16 is the 289th day of the year (290th in Leap years). ... October 19 is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1813 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1814 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


List of Russian commanders

This is a list of Russian commanders in the Patriotic War of 1812. ... Mikhail Kutuzov Prince Mikhail Illarionovich Golenishchev-Kutuzov (Russian: ) (September 16, 1745 – April 28, 1813 (n. ... Knyaz de Tolly Knyaz Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly, called by the Russians as Mikhail Bogdanovich Barklay de Tolly (Михаи́л Богда́нович Баркла́й-де-То́лли) (born December 21, 1761 in Riga, [then] Imperial Russia; died May 26, 1818 in Insterburg, [then] Prussia), was a Russian field marshal and Minister of War. ... Prince Peter Khristianovich Wittgenstein (1769-1843) was a Russian Field Marshal distinguished for his services in the Napoleonic wars. ... Petr Ivanovich Bagration Prince Petr Ivanovich Bagration (Пётр Иванович Багратион) (1765 - September 12, 1812), a descendant of the Georgian Royal family of the Bagratids, served as a Russian general. ... Portrait by George Dawe in the Military Gallery Nikolay Nikolaevich Rayevsky (Russian: ) (14 September 1771 – 16 September 1829) was a Russian general and statesman who achieved fame for his feats of arms during the Napoleonic wars. ... Dmitry Sergeyevich Dokhturov (Russian: Дмитрий Сергеевич Дохтуров) (1756 - November 14(26), 1816, Moscow) was a Russian Infantry General (1810) and a prominent military leader during the Patriotic War of 1812. ... Count Mikhail Andreyevich Miloradovich (October 1 (O.S.), 1771 - December 14 (O.S.), 1825) was a Russian general prominent during the Napoleonic wars. ... Coat of arms of Count Leo Tolstoy This article is about the Tolstoy family; for the famous novelist, see Leo Tolstoy. ... Aleksey Petrovich Yermolov, or Ermolov (1777-1861), was the premier Russian military hero during the golden age of Russian Romanticism. ... Prince Mikhail Semyonovich Vorontsov (1782–1856), was a Russian prince and field-marshal, renowned for his success in the Napoleonic wars, and most famous for leading the Russian invasion of the Caucasus from 1844 to 1853. ... Portrait from the Military Gallery of Winter Palace. ... Platovs portrait from Military Gallery of the Winter Palace (1825) Count Matvei Ivanovich Platov (August 6, 1757 - January 3, 1818) was a Russian general who commanded the Don Cossacks in the Napoleonic wars. ... This article needs cleanup. ...

References

  • 1812: Napoleon's Fatal March on Moscow, Adam Zamoyski, HarperCollins, 644 Pages. ISBN 0-00-712375-2
  • Blundering to Glory:Napoleon's Military Campaigns (2nd edition) Owen Connelly. 254 pages. ISBN 0-8420-2780-7
  • 1812 Overture: orchestra piece written by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky in 1882 to celebrate the 70th aniversary of Russian victory over the French.
  • War and Peace, Leo Tolstoy, 938 Pages (first published from 1863-1869)

Adam Zamoyski - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... The 1812 overture complete with cannon fire was performed at the 2005 Classical Spectacular. ... A young Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (1874) Tchaikovsky redirects here. ... War and Peace (Russian: Война и мир, Vojna i mir; in original orthography: Война и миръ, Vojna i mir) is an epic novel by Leo Tolstoy, first published from 1865 to 1869, which tells the story of Russian society during the Napoleonic Era. ... Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy (Russian: , Lev Nikolaevič Tolstoj), commonly referred to in English as Leo Tolstoy, (September 9, 1828 – November 20, 1910, N.S.; August 28, 1828 – November 7, 1910, O.S.) was a Russian novelist, philosopher, Christian anarchist, pacifist, educational reformer, vegetarian, moral thinker and an influential member of...

External link

  • Losses Suffered by the Grande Armée during the Russian Campaign (graph)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Napoleon I of France - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (7754 words)
Napoleon was wholly ignorant of nautical matters, his orders to his admirals were often contradictory or useless, and the fleet of rafts he had prepared would have sunk in the Channel, or taken at least three days to transport his army, even if the crossing were unopposed.
Napoleon was finally defeated by the Duke of Wellington and Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher at Waterloo in present-day Belgium on 18 June 1815.
Napoleon was imprisoned and then exiled by the British to the island of Saint Helena (2,800 km off the Bight of Guinea in the South Atlantic Ocean) from 15 October 1815.
Strategy - LoveToKnow 1911 (9960 words)
That after the event Napoleon should have sought to justify himself is further proof of the essential duality of his nature, which only rose to intuitive genius in war under the pressure of visible and tangible realities.
The case of the French invasion of Russia in 1812 is an illustration.
The Napoleonic strategy, a s we have shown, depended primarily on the certainty of decision conferred on him by his " case-shot attack "; but the introduction of the long-range infantry rifle (muzzle-loader) rendered it practically impossible to bring the masses of artillery to the close ranges required by the Napoleonic method.
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