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Encyclopedia > Napoléon
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Bonaparte as general

Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 17695 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution and was the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from November 11, 1799 to May 18, 1804, then as Emperor of the French (Empereur des Français) and King of Italy under the name Napoleon I from May 18, 1804 to April 6, 1814, and again briefly from March 20 to June 22, 1815. August 15 is the 227th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (228th in leap years), with 138 days remaining. ... Events Baron Wolfgang von Kempelen exhibits the Mechanical Turk, a chess-playing machine May 14 - Charles III of Spain sends Spanish missionaries, who found California missions in San Diego, Santa Barbara, San Francisco and Monterey and begin the settlement of California. ... May 5 is the 125th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (126th in leap years). ... Events February 23 - The Philadelphia College of Apothecaries founds the first pharmacy college. ... The period of the French Revolution in the history of France covers the years between 1789 and 1799, in which democrats and republicans overthrew the absolute monarchy and the Roman Catholic Church was forced to undergo radical restructuring. ... Originally, three equal Consuls made up the government established by Napoleon Bonaparte after the coup of 18 Brumaire (November 9, 1799), which established the Consulate in France (1799-1804). ... The French people proclaimed Frances First Republic on 21 September 1792 as a result of the French Revolution and of the abolition of the French monarchy. ... November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... May 18 is the 138th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (139th in leap years). ... 1804 is a leap year starting on Sunday. ... May 18 is the 138th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (139th in leap years). ... 1804 is a leap year starting on Sunday. ... April 6 is the 96th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (97th in leap years). ... 1814 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... March 20 is the 79th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (80th in Leap years). ... June 22 is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 192 days remaining. ... 1815 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


Napoleon is considered to have been a military genius, and is known for commanding many successful campaigns, although also for some spectacular failures. Over the course of little more than a decade, he acquired control of most or all of the western and central mainland of Europe by conquest or alliance until his defeat at the Battle of the Nations near Leipzig in October 1813, which led to his abdication several months later. He staged a comeback known as the Hundred Days (les Cent Jours), but was defeated decisively at the Battle of Waterloo in Belgium on June 18, 1815, followed shortly afterwards by his capture by the British and his exile to the island of Saint Helena, where he died. World map showing location of Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is geologically and geographically a peninsula, forming the westernmost part of Eurasia. ... Map of battle by 18 October 1813, from Meyers Encyclopaedia The Battle of Leipzig (October 16-19, 1813), also called the Battle of the Nations, was the largest conflict in the Napoleonic Wars and one of the worst defeats suffered by Napoleon Bonaparte. ... Map of Germany showing Leipzig Leipzig [ˈlaiptsɪç] (Sorbian/Lusatian: Lipsk) is the largest city in the federal state (Bundesland) of Saxony in Germany. ... 1813 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Abdication (from the Latin abdicatio disowning, renouncing, from ab, from, and dicare, to declare, to proclaim as not belonging to one), the act whereby a person in office renounces and gives up the same before the expiry of the time for which it is held. ... For information about the legislative programs of Franklin D. Roosevelt, see New Deal. ... Battle of Waterloo Conflict Napoleonic Wars Date June 18, 1815 Place Waterloo, Belgium Result Decisive Allied victory Map of the Waterloo campaign The Battle of Waterloo, fought on June 18, 1815, was Napoleon Bonapartes last battle. ... The Kingdom of Belgium ( Dutch: Koninkrijk België, French: Royaume de Belgique, German: Königreich Belgien) is a country in Western Europe, bordered by the Netherlands, Germany, Luxembourg, France, and the North Sea. ... June 18 is the 169th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (170th in leap years), with 196 days remaining. ... 1815 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and a member of the British Commonwealth and European Union. ... For alternate uses, see Saint Helena (disambiguation). ...


Aside from his military achievements, Napoleon is also remembered for the establishment of the Napoleonic Code, and he is considered to have been one of the "enlightened monarchs". Napoleon appointed several members of the Bonaparte family as monarchs. Although they did not survive his downfall, a nephew, Napoleon III, ruled France later in the century. The original Napoleonic Code, or Code Napoléon (originally called the Code civil des francais, or civil code of the French), was the French civil code, established at the behest of Napoléon. ... Enlightened absolutism (also known as enlightened despotism) is the absolutist rule of an enlightened monarch . ... This article is about the family of Napoleon Bonaparte. ... ...

Contents

Early life

Family and Childhood

Portrait of Napoleon Bonaparte
Portrait of Napoleon Bonaparte

He was born Napoleone Buonaparte (in Corsican, Nabolione or Nabulione) in the city of Ajaccio on Corsica. PD image from http://www. ... Corsican (Corsu or Lingua Corsa) is a Romance language spoken on the island of Corsica ( France), alongside French, which is the official language. ... Ajaccio ( Corsican: Aiacciu) is a city and commune of France, préfecture ( capital) of the département of Corse-du-Sud and, since 1810 capital of the région of Corsica. ... This article is about the Mediterranean island. ...


He later adopted the more French-sounding Napoléon Bonaparte, the first known instance of which appears in an official report dated March 28, 1796. March 28 is the 87th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (88th in Leap years). ... 1796 was a leap year starting on Friday. ...


His family was of minor Corsican nobility. His father, Carlo Buonaparte, an attorney, was named Corsica's representative to the court of Louis XVI in 1778, where he remained for a number of years. The dominant influence of Napoleon's childhood was his mother, (Maria) Letizia Ramolino. Ahead of her time, she had her 8 children bathe every other day—at a time when even those in the upper classes took a bath perhaps once a month. Her firm discipline helped restrain the rambunctious boy, nicknamed Rabullione (the "meddler" or "disrupter"). The Lords and Barons prove their Nobility by hanging their Banners and exposing their Coats-of-arms at the Windows of the Lodge of the Heralds. ... Louis XVI Louis XVI (August 23, 1754 - January 21, 1793), was King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then King of the French in 1791-1792. ... Events The term Thoroughbred was first used in the United States in an advertisement in a Kentucky gazette to describe a New Jersey stallion called Pilgarlick . ...


Education

At age 10, Napoleon was admitted to a French military school at Brienne-le-Château, a small town near Troyes, on May 15, 1779. He had to learn to speak French before entering the school. He spoke French with a marked Italian accent throughout his life, and was a poor speller. He earned high marks in mathematics and geography, and passable grades in other subjects. Upon graduation from Brienne in 1784, Bonaparte was admitted to the elite École Royale Militaire in Paris, where he completed the course of study in one year while most other cadets required two. Although he had earlier sought a naval assignment, he studied artillery at the École Militaire. Upon graduation in September, 1785, he was commissioned as a 2nd lieutenant of artillery, and took up his new duties in January 1786, at the age of 16. Troyes is a commune in northeastern France. ... May 15 is the 135th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (136th in leap years). ... Events The Iron Bridge is completed across the Severn river in Shropshire; the first all cast-iron bridge ever constructed. ... French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ... Italian is a Romance language spoken by about 70 million people, most of whom live in Italy. ... Events January 6 - the Turks agree to Russias annexation of the Crimea in the Treaty of Constantinople January 14 - The US Congress ratifies the Treaty of Paris with England to end the American Revolutionary War February 27 – Count of St Germain dies of pneumonia in Schleswig-Holstein February 28... The Eiffel Tower has become the symbol of Paris throughout the world. ... Historically, artillery refers to any engine used for the discharge of projectiles during war. ... Events January 1st The first issue of the Daily Universal Register, later known as The Times, is published in London. ... In law a commission is a patent which allows a person to take possession of a state office and carry out official acts and duties. ... January is the first month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... 1786 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


Revolutionary Officer

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Napoleon Bonaparte as young officer

He served on garrison duty in Valence and Auxonne until after the outbreak of the Revolution in 1789 (although he took nearly two years of leave in Corsica and Paris during this period). He spent most of the next several years on Corsica, where a complex three-way struggle was played out among royalists, revolutionaries, and Corsican nationalists. Bonaparte supported the Jacobin faction, and gained the position of lieutenant-colonel of a regiment of volunteers. After coming into conflict with the increasingly conservative nationalist leader, Pasquale Paoli, Bonaparte and his family were forced to flee to France in June 1793. Valence is a scientific term in chemistry to describe electrons in the outermost orbital. ... Auxonne is a town in the département of Côte dOr in France, over the Saône river. ... 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... In the context of the French Revolution, a Jacobin originally meant a member of the Jacobin Club (1789-1794). ... Pasquale Paoli (1725 - February 5, 1807), was a Corsican patriot and military leader. ... 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


He soon was appointed as artillery commander in the French forces beseiging Toulon, which had risen in revolt against the Terror and was occupied by British troops. He formulated a successful plan for assaulting the British positions, leading to the recapture of the city and a promotion to brigadier-general. His actions brought him to the attention of the Committee of Public Safety, and he became a close associate of Augustin Robespierre, younger brother of the Revolutionary leader Maximilien Robespierre. As a result, he was briefly imprisoned following the fall of the elder Robespierre in 1794, but was released within two weeks. Location within France Coat of Arms of Toulon Toulon (Tolon in Provençal) is a city in southern France and a large military harbor on the Mediterranean coast, with a major French naval base. ... The Reign of Terror (June 1793 - July 1794) was a period in the French Revolution characterized by brutal repression. ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and a member of the British Commonwealth and European Union. ... The Committee of Public Safety (French: le Haut Comit de la sant publique), set up by the National Convention on April 6, 1793, formed the de facto executive government of France during the Reign of Terror (1793 - 1794) of the French Revolution. ... Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre, (May 6, 1758–July 28, 1794), known also to his contemporaries as the Incorruptible, is one of the best known of the leaders of the French Revolution. ... Events February 11 - 1st session of the United States Senate is open to the public. ...


The Victorious General

The "Whiff of Grapeshot"

In 1795, Bonaparte was serving in Paris when royalists and counter-revolutionaries organized an armed protest against the National Convention on October 3. Bonaparte was given command of the improvised forces defending the Convention in the Tuileries Palace. He seized artillery pieces (with the aid of a young cavalry officer, Joachim Murat, who would later become his brother-in-law) and used them the following day to repel the attackers. He later boasted that he had cleared the streets with a "whiff of grapeshot." This triumph gained him sudden fame, wealth, and the patronage of the new Directory, particularly that of its leading member, Barras. Within weeks he was romantically attached to Barras' former mistress, Josephine de Beauharnais, whom he married in 1796. Events January 16 - French occupy Utrecht, Netherlands. ... The Eiffel Tower has become the symbol of Paris throughout the world. ... This article is about a legislative body and constitutional convention during the French Revolution. ... 3rd October Organization is also the name of a Marxist terrorist group . ... Up to 1871 the Tuileries Palace was a palace in Paris, France, on the right bank of the River Seine. ... Joachim Murat, (March 25, 1767 - October 13, 1815), a marshal of France, was King of Naples from 1808 to 1815. ... This article is about the computing term. ... Joséphine de Beauharnais, Empress Joséphine Joséphine de Beauharnais (June 23, 1763 - May 29, 1814) was the first wife of Napoléon Bonaparte, and became Empress of France. ... 1796 was a leap year starting on Friday. ...


The Italian Campaign of 1796–97

Just days after his marriage, Bonaparte took command of the French "Army of Italy" and led it on a successful invasion of Italy. At the Lodi, he gained the nickname of "The Little Corporal" (le petit caporal), a term reflecting his camaraderie with the ordinary soldiers. He drove the Austrian forces out of Lombardy and defeated the army of the Papal States, but ignored the Directory's order to march on Rome and dethrone the Pope. In early 1797, he led his army into Austria and forced that power to sue for peace. The resulting Treaty of Campo Formio gave France control of most of northern Italy, along with the Low Countries and Rhineland, but a secret clause promised Venice to Austria. Bonaparte then marched on Venice and forced its surrender, ending over 1,000 years of independence. Later in 1797, Bonaparte organized many of the French-dominated territories in Italy into the Cisalpine Republic. The French Revolutionary Wars continued from 1795, with the French in an increasingly strong position as members of the First Coalition made separate peaces. ... The Battle of Lodi took place at Lodi, Lombardy, Italy on May 10, 1796. ... The Republic of Austria ( German: Republik Österreich) is a landlocked country in Central Europe. ... Lombardy (It. ... The Papal States (Gli Stati della Chiesa or Stati Pontificii, States of the Church) is one of the historical states of Italy before its unity under the crown of Savoy and comprised those territories over which the Pope was the ruler in a civil as well as a spiritual sense... The Roman Colosseum Rome (Italian and Latin Roma) is the capital city of Italy, and of its Lazio region. ... Pope John Paul II has reigned since 22 Oct 1978. ... 1797 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The French Revolutionary Wars continued from 1796, with France fighting the First Coalition including Austria and Great Britain. ... The Treaty of Campo Formio was signed on October 17, 1797 (26 Vendémiaire, Year VI of the French Republic) by Napoleon Bonaparte and Count Ludwig von Cobenzl as representatives of France and Austria. ... The Low Countries are the countries on low-lying land around the delta of the Rhine and Meuse rivers— usually used in modern context to mean the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg (an alternate modern term, more often used today, is Benelux). ... The Rhineland (Rheinland in German) is the general name for the land on both sides of the river Rhine in the west of Germany. ... The Republic of Venice was a city-state in Venetia in Northeastern Italy, based around the city of Venice. ... 1797 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The flag of the Cisalpine Republic was the Transpadane Republic vertical Italian tricolour, with the square shape of the Cispadane Republic The Cisalpine Republic (Italian: Repubblica Cisalpina) was a French client republic in Northern Italy that lasted from 1797 to 1802. ...


Bonaparte was a brilliant military strategist, able to absorb the substantial body of military knowledge of his time and to apply it to the real-world circumstances of his era. Though he was known for his creative use of artillery in a mobile role, he owed much of his great success not to innovation, but rather to his encyclopedic knowledge and superior application of conventional military thought; as he put it himself, "I have fought sixty battles and I have learned nothing which I did not know at the beginning." An artillery officer by training, he devised new tactics and employed his artillery as a mobile force to support infantry attacks, and benefited from France's technological advantage in this branch of arms. He was an aggressive commander who enjoyed the loyalty of highly motivated soliders. Contemporary paintings of his headquarters during the Italian campaign show that he used the world's first telecommunications system, the Chappe semaphore line, first implemented in 1792. He was also a master of both intelligence and deception, using spies to gather information about opposing forces while seeking to conceal his own deployments, and often won battles by concentrating his forces on an unsuspecting enemy. Historically, artillery refers to any engine used for the discharge of projectiles during war. ... Infantry in the First World War Infantry (or Infantrymen) are soldiers who fight primarily on foot, using personal weapons. ... Telecommunication is the extension of communication over a distance. ... Claude Chappe (December 25, 1763 _ January 23, 1805) was a French inventor who in 1792 demonstrated a practical semaphore system that eventually spanned all of France. ... The semaphore line was a signalling system invented by the Chappe brothers in France. ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Spy and secret agent redirect here; for alternate use, see Spy (disambiguation) and Secret agent (disambiguation). ...


While campaigning in Italy, Bonaparte became increasingly influential in French politics. He published two newspapers, ostensibly for the troops in his army, but widely circulated within France as well. In May 1797 he founded a third newspaper, published in Paris, entitled Le Journal de Bonaparte et des hommes vertueux. Elections in mid-1797 gave the royalist party increased power, alarming Barras and his allies on the Directory. The royalists, in turn, began attacking Bonaparte for looting Italy and overstepping his authority in dealings with the Austrians (not without justification on both counts). Bonaparte soon sent General Augereau to Paris to lead a coup d'etat and purge the royalists on 4 September (18 Fructidor). This left Barras and his Republican allies in firm control again, but dependent on Bonaparte's "sword" to stay there. Bonaparte himself proceeded to the peace negotiations with Austria, then returned to Paris in December as the conquering hero and the dominant force in government, far more popular than any of the Directors. 1797 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... September 4 is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years). ... The Directory (in French Directoire) held executive power in France from October 1795 until November 1799 - from the end of the Convention to the beginning of the Consulate. ...


The Egyptian Expedition of 1798–99

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Napoleon visiting the plague victims of Jaffa

In March 1798, Bonaparte proposed an expedition to colonize Egypt, then a province of the Ottoman Empire, seeking to protect French trade interests and undermine Britain's access to India. The Directory, although troubled by the scope and cost of the enterprise, readily agreed to the plan in order to remove the popular general from the center of power. Events February-October - Irish Rebellion of 1798 April 7 - The Georgia and South Carolina and is later twice expanded to include disputed territory claimed by both the U.S. and Spain April 26 - France annexes Geneva May 24 - Irish nationalists rebel against British occupation forces believing that French troops were... 1798 was a relatively quiet period in the French Revolutionary Wars. ... The Arab Republic of Egypt, commonly known as Egypt, (in Arabic: مصر, romanized Mişr or Maşr, in Egyptian dialect) is a republic mostly located in northeastern Africa. ... The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto El Muzaffer Daima The Ever Victorious (as written in tugra) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital İstanbul ( Constantinople/Asitane/Konstantiniyye ) Sovereigns Sultans of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million Area 12+ million km² Establishment 1299 Dissolution October 29, 1923... The Republic of India is the second most populous country in the world, with a population of more than one billion, and is the seventh largest country by geographical area. ...


An unusual aspect of the Egyptian expedition was the inclusion of a large group of scientists along with the invading force: among the other discoveries that resulted, the Rosetta Stone was found. This deployment of intellectual resources is considered by some an indication of Bonaparte's devotion to the principles of the Enlightenment, and by others a masterstroke of propaganda obfuscating the true imperialist motives of the invasion. In a largely unsuccessful effort to gain the support of the Egyptian populace, Bonaparte also issued proclamations casting himself as a liberator of the people from Ottoman oppression, and praising the precepts of Islam. The Rosetta Stone solved a particularly difficult linguistic problem. ... The Age of Enlightenment (or The Enlightenment for short) was an intellectual movement in 18th-century Europe. ... This article is about the type of communication. ... Imperialism is the policy of extending the control or authority over foreign entities as a means of acquisition and/or maintenance of empires, either through direct territorial or through indirect methods of exerting control on the politics and/or economy of other countries. ... The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto El Muzaffer Daima The Ever Victorious (as written in tugra) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital İstanbul ( Constantinople/Asitane/Konstantiniyye ) Sovereigns Sultans of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million Area 12+ million km² Establishment 1299 Dissolution October 29, 1923... Islam ( Arabic al-islām الإسلام,  listen?) the submission to God is a monotheistic faith and the worlds second-largest religion. ...


Bonaparte’s expedition seized Malta on June 9 and then landed successfully at Alexandria on July 1, eluding (temporarily) pursuit by the Royal Navy. Although Bonaparte had massive success against the native Mamluk army (his 25,000 strong invading force defeated a 100,000 army), his fleet was largely destroyed by Nelson at The Battle of the Nile, so that Bonaparte became land-bound. His goal of strengthening the French position in the Mediterranean Sea was thus frustrated, but his army nonetheless succeeded in consolidating power in Egypt, although it faced repeated nationalist uprisings. This article is about the European nation. ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... Antiquity and modernity stand cheek-by-jowl in Egypts chief Mediterranean seaport Located on the Mediterranean Sea coast, Alexandria (in Arabic, الإسكندرية — al-Iskandariyah) is the chief seaport in Egypt, and that countrys second largest city, and the capital of the Al Iskandariyah governate. ... July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 183 days remaining. ... Royal Navy Ensign The Royal Navy is the navy of the United Kingdom. ... An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (or Mameluks) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim Caliphs and the Ottoman Empire, and who on more than one occasion seized power for themselves. ... Lord Nelson Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson (September 29, 1758 – October 21, 1805) was a British admiral who won fame as a leading naval commander. ... Battle of the Nile Conflict French Revolutionary Wars Date August 1, 1798 – August 2, 1798 Place Aboukir Bay, Egypt Result Decisive British victory The Battle of the Nile, also known as the Battle of Aboukir Bay, was an important naval battle of the French Revolutionary Wars between a British fleet... -1...


In early 1799 he led the army into the Ottoman province of Syria, now modern Israel, and defeated numerically superior Ottoman forces in several battles, but his army was weakened by disease and poor supplies. He was unable to reduce the fortress of Acre, and was forced to retreat to Egypt in May. On July 25, he defeated an Ottoman amphibious invasion at Abukir. 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The Syrian Arab Republic is a country in the Middle East, bordering (from south to north) on Lebanon, Israel, Jordan, Iraq and Turkey. ... The State of Israel (Hebrew: מדינת ישראל, translit. ... The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto El Muzaffer Daima The Ever Victorious (as written in tugra) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital İstanbul ( Constantinople/Asitane/Konstantiniyye ) Sovereigns Sultans of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million Area 12+ million km² Establishment 1299 Dissolution October 29, 1923... Akko (Hebrew עכו; Arabic عكّا ʿAkkā; also, Acre, Accho, Acco, and St. ... July 25 is the 206th day (207th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 159 days remaining. ...


Ruler of France

The Coup of 18 Brumaire

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Portrait by Jacques-Louis David

While in Egypt, Bonaparte had kept a close eye on European affairs, relying largely on newspapers and dispatches that arrived only irregularly. On August 23, he abruptly set sail for France, taking advantage of a temporary departure of blockading British ships. Self portrait Jacques-Louis David (August 30, 1748 - December 29, 1825), most usually known as David (pronounced Dah-veed rather than Day-vid), was a French painter. ... August 23 is the 235th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (236th in leap years), with 130 days remaining. ...


Although he was later accused by political opponents of abandoning his troops, his departure actually had been authorized by the Directory, which had suffered a series of military defeats to the forces of the Second Coalition, and feared an invasion. This article is about the computing term. ... By 1799, the French Revolutionary Wars had resumed after a period of relative peace in 1798. ... The name Second Coalition (1798 - 1800) designates the second major concerted effort of multiple European powers to contain revolutionary France. ...


By the time he arrived back in Paris in October, the military situation had improved thanks to several French victories. The Republic, however, was bankrupt, and the corrupt and inefficient Directory was no more popular than ever. October is the tenth month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ...


Bonaparte was approached by one of the Directors, Sieyès, seeking his support for a coup to overthrow the constitution. The plot included Bonaparte's brother Lucien, then serving as speaker of the Council of Five Hundred, Roger Ducos, another Director, and Talleyrand. On November 9, or 18 Brumaire, and the following day, troops led by Bonaparte seized control and dispersed the legislative councils, leaving a rump to name Bonaparte, Sieyès, and Ducos as provisional Consuls to administer the government. Although Sieyès expected to dominate the new regime, he was outmaneuvered by Bonaparte, who drafted the Constitution of the Year VIII and secured his own election as First Consul. This made him the most powerful person in France, a power that was increased by the Constitution of the Year X, which made him First Consul for life. Emmanuel Joseph Sieyes, 1817, by Jacques-Louis David Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès ( May 3, 1748 - June 20, 1836) was a French abbé and statesman, one of the chief theorists of the revolutionary and Napoleonic era. ... The Constitution of 1795, Constitution of 22 August 1795, Constitution of the Year III, or Constitution of 5 Fructidor was a national constitution of France ratified by the National Convention on August 22, 1795 (5 Fructidor of the Year III under the French Revolutionary Calendar) during the French Revolution. ... Lucien Bonaparte, Prince of Canino (May 21, 1775 - June 29, 1840) was the second of the brothers to Emperor Napoleon I of France. ... The Council of Five Hundred (Conseil des Cinq-Cent), or simply the Five Hundred was the lower house of the Directory (Directoire), the legislature of France from August 22, 1795 until November 9, 1799, roughly the second half of the period generally referred to as the French Revolution. ... Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord (February 2, 1754 - May 17, French diplomat. ... November 9 is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 52 days remaining. ... 18 Brumaire, the coup of 18 Brumaire or sometimes simply Brumaire refers to the coup détat by which General Napoleon Bonaparte overthrew the government of the Directory to replace it by the Consulate. ... The Constitution of the Year VIII, was a national constitution of France adopted December 24, 1799 (during the Year VIII of the French Revolutionary Calendar) established a form of government known as the Consulate. ... Originally, three equal Consuls made up the government established by Napoleon Bonaparte after the coup of 18 Brumaire (November 9, 1799), which established the Consulate in France (1799-1804). ... The Constitution of the Year X was a national constitution of France adopted during the Year X of the French Revolutionary Calendar. ...


The First Consul

Bonaparte instituted several lasting reforms including centralized admnistration of the départments, higher education, a tax system, a central bank, law codes, and road and sewer systems. He negotiated the Concordat of 1801 with the Catholic Church, seeking to reconcile the mostly Catholic population with his regime. His set of civil laws, the Napoleonic Code or Civil Code, has importance to this day in many countries. The Code was prepared by committees of legal experts under the supervision of Jean Jacques Régis de Cambacérès, who held the office Second Consul from 1799 to 1804; Bonaparte, however, participated actively in the sessions of the Council of State that revised the drafts. Other codes were commissioned by Bonaparte to deal with criminal and commerce law; in 1808, a Code of Criminal Instruction was published, which laid precise rules of operations for courts and, though it may seem somewhat biased in favor of the prosecution by today's standards, sought to preserve personal freedoms and remedy the abuses commonplace in the European courts of the day. Although Bonaparte was an authoritarian ruler, the same was true of all the European monarchs of the time, with the sole exception of Britain. Bonaparte sought to restore law and order after the excesses of the Revolution, and reform the administration of the State. After successfully committing a coup détat against the French Directory in 1799, and then one month later declaring himself First Consul with the support of a popular vote, Napoleon Bonaparte was convinced that coming to terms with the Catholic Church would be crucial to the success of his ventures. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... The original Napoleonic Code, or Code Napoléon (originally called the Code civil des francais, or civil code of the French), was the French civil code, established at the behest of Napoléon. ... Jean-Jacques-Régis de Cambacérès Jean-Jacques-Régis de Cambacérès, Duke of Parma, ( 18 October 1753 - 8 March 1824), French lawyer and statesman, is best remembered as the author of the Code Napoléon, which still forms the basis of French law. ... Originally, three equal Consuls made up the government established by Napoleon Bonaparte after the coup of 18 Brumaire (November 9, 1799), which established the Consulate in France (1799-1804). ... 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1804 is a leap year starting on Sunday. ... In France, the Conseil dÉtat ( English: Council of State and sometimes Counsel of State) is an organ of the French national government. ... Events January 1 - Importation of slaves into the United States is banned February 11 - Russia issues an ultimatum to France, Finland. ... The term authoritarian is used to describe an organization or a state which enforces strong and sometimes oppressive measures against the population, generally without attempts at gaining the consent of the population. ... Union Flag (1606-1800 The united Kingdom of Great Britain, also sometimes known as the United Kingdom of Great Britain, was created by the merger of the Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of England under the 1707 Act of Union to create a single kingdom encompassing the whole of...


An Interlude of Peace

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Napoléon crossing the Alps, by Jacques-Louis David

In 1800, Bonaparte returned to Italy, which the Austrians had re-conquered during his absence in Egypt. He and his troops crossed the Alps in spring (although he actually rode a mule, not the white charger on which David famously depicted him). Although the campaign began badly, the Austrians were routed in June at Marengo, leading to an armistice. Napoleon's brother Joseph, who was leading the peace negotiations in Lunéville, reported that due to British backing for Austria, Austria would not recognize France's newly gained territory. As negotiations became more and more fractious, Bonaparte gave orders to his general Moreau to strike Austria once more. Moreau led France to victory at Hohenlinden. As a result the Treaty of Lunéville was signed in February 1801, under which the French gains of the Treaty of Campo Formio were reaffirmed and increased; the British also committed themselves to sign a peace treaty and finally signed the Treaty of Amiens in March 1802, under which Malta was to be handed over to France. Self portrait Jacques-Louis David (August 30, 1748 - December 29, 1825), most usually known as David (pronounced Dah-veed rather than Day-vid), was a French painter. ... 1800 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Battle of Marengo was fought in Italy on June 14, 1800 as the decisive battle of the war of the Second Coalition. ... Joseph Bonaparte (January 7, 1768—July 28, 1844) was the eldest brother of the French Emperor Napoleon I, who made him King of Naples (1806–1808) and Spain (1808–1813). ... Jean Victor Marie Moreau (February 4, 1763 - September 2, 1813), French general, was born at Morlaix in Brittany. ... The Battle of Hohenlinden near Munich was fought on December 3, 1800, during the French victory under General Moreau against the Austrians under Archduke Karl, forcing him to sign an armistice. ... February is the second month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events January 1 - Legislative union of Ireland completed under the Act of Union 1800, bringing about the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... The Treaty of Campo Formio was signed on October 17, 1797 (26 Vendémiaire, Year VI of the French Republic) by Napoleon Bonaparte and Count Ludwig von Cobenzl as representatives of France and Austria. ... The Treaty of Amiens was signed on March 25, 1802 (Germinal 4, year X in the French Revolutionary Calendar) by Joseph Bonaparte and the Marquis Cornwallis as a Definitive Treaty of Peace between France and Britain. ... For alternative meanings, see March (disambiguation). ... Events March 16 - West Point is established. ... This article is about the European nation. ...


The peace between France and Britain was uneasy at best. The "legitimate" monarchies of Europe were reluctant to recognize a republic, fearing that the ideas of the revolution might be exported to them. In Britain, the brother of Louis XVI was welcomed as a state guest although officially Britain recognized France as a republic. Britain failed to evacuate Malta and Egypt as promised, and protested against France's annexation of Piedmont, and Napoleon's Act of Mediation in Switzerland (although neither of these areas was covered by the Treaty of Amiens). Louis XVIII (November 17, 1755 - September 16, 1824) was King of France from 1814 (although he declared that he considered his reign to have begun in 1795) until his death in 1824. ... Annexation is the legal merging of some territory into another body. ... Piedmont is a region of northwestern Italy. ... The Swiss Confederation or Switzerland is a landlocked federal state in Europe, with neighbours Germany, France, Italy, Austria and Liechtenstein. ...


In 1803, Bonaparte faced a major setback when an army he sent to reconquer Santo Domingo and establish a base was destroyed by a combination of yellow fever and fierce resistance led by Toussaint L'Ouverture. Recognizing that the French possessions on the mainland of North America would now be indefensible, and facing imminent war with Britain, he sold them to the United States—the Louisiana Purchase—for less than three cents per acre ($7.40/km²). The dispute over Malta provided the pretext for Britain to declare war on France in 1803 to support French royalists. Events January 30 - Monroe and Livingston sail for Paris to discuss, and possibly buy, New Orleans. ... Santo Domingo, population 2,061,200 (2003), is the capital of the Dominican Republic. ... Yellow fever (also called black vomit or sometimes The American Plague) is an acute viral disease. ... World map showing location of North America A satellite composite image of North America North America is the third largest continent in area and in population after Eurasia and Africa. ... The United States of America — also referred to as the United States, the U.S.A., the U.S., America¹, the States, or (archaically) Columbia — is a federal republic of 50 states located primarily in central North America (with the exception of two states: Alaska and Hawaii). ... From Frank Bond, Louisiana and the Louisiana Purchase. ... A two cent euro coin In currency, the cent is a monetary unit that equals th of the basic unit of value. ... An acre is a measure of land area in Imperial units or U.S. customary units. ... This article is about the European nation. ... Events January 30 - Monroe and Livingston sail for Paris to discuss, and possibly buy, New Orleans. ...


Emperor of the French

Main article: First French Empire The First French Empire, commonly known as the French Empire, the Napoleonic Empire or simply as The Empire, covers the period of the domination of France and of much of continental Europe by Napoleon I of France. ...


In January 1804, Bonaparte's police uncovered an assassination plot against him, supposedly sponsored by the Bourbons. In retaliation, Bonaparte ordered the arrest of the Duc d'Enghien, in a violation of the sovereignty of Baden. After a hurried secret trial, the Duke was executed on 21 March. Bonaparte then used this incident to justify the re-creation of a hereditary monarchy in France, with himself as Emperor, on the theory that a Bourbon restoration would be impossible once the Bonapartist succession was entrenched in the constitution. 1804 is a leap year starting on Sunday. ... Bourbon may refer to: Bourbon whiskey House of Bourbon Île Bourbon was the name of Réunion from 1642 until the French Revolution Places in the United States of America: Bourbon, Indiana Bourbon, Missouri Bourbon County, Kentucky Bourbon Street in the French Quarter of New Orleans, Lousiana Bourbon-lArchambault is... Louis-Antoine-Henri de Bourbon-Condé, duc dEnghien (August 22, 1772 – March 21, 1804) was a relative of the Bourbon monarchs of France, and is more famous for his death than his life. ... For other uses, see Baden (disambiguation). ... March 21 is the 80th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (81st in leap years). ... Emperor is also a Norwegian black metal band; see Emperor (band). ... Bourbon may refer to: Bourbon whiskey House of Bourbon Île Bourbon was the name of Réunion from 1642 until the French Revolution Places in the United States of America: Bourbon, Indiana Bourbon, Missouri Bourbon County, Kentucky Bourbon Street in the French Quarter of New Orleans, Lousiana Bourbon-lArchambault is...

Coronation of Napoleon, memorialized by Jacques-Louis David

Napoleon crowned himself Emperor on 2 December 1804 (illustration, right) at Notre-Dame Cathedral. Claims that he seized the crown out of the hands of Pope Pius VII during the ceremony in order to avoid subjecting himself to the authority of the pontiff are apocryphal; in fact, the coronation procedure had been agreed upon in advance. After the Imperial regalia had been blessed by the Pope, Napoleon crowned himself before crowning his wife Joséphine as Empress. Then at Milan's cathedral on 26 May 1805, Napoleon was crowned King of Italy, with the Iron Crown of Lombardy. Coronation of Napoleon, by Jacques-Louis David. ... Coronation of Napoleon, by Jacques-Louis David. ... Self portrait Jacques-Louis David (August 30, 1748 - December 29, 1825), most usually known as David (pronounced Dah-veed rather than Day-vid), was a French painter. ... Emperor is also a Norwegian black metal band; see Emperor (band). ... December 2 is the 336th day (337th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1804 is a leap year starting on Sunday. ... This article is about the Notre-Dame cathedral in Paris. ... Pius VII, né Giorgio Barnaba Luigi Chiaramonti, (August 14, 1740 - August 20, 1823) was Pope from March 14, 1800 to August 20, 1823. ... In Judeo-Christian theologies, apocrypha refers to religious Sacred text that have questionable authenticity or are otherwise disputed. ... Joséphine de Beauharnais, Empress Joséphine Joséphine de Beauharnais (June 23, 1763 - May 29, 1814) was the first wife of Napoléon Bonaparte, and became Empress of France. ... This is about the Italian city of Milan. ... May 26 is the 146th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (147th in leap years). ... Events January 11 - Michigan Territory is created. ... The title King of Italy was assumed by Napoleon Bonaparte, who was crowned with the Iron Crown of Lombardy in the Cathedral of Milan, May 26, 1805. ... The Iron Crown of Lombardy is both a reliquary and one of the most ancient royal insignia of Europe. ...


By 1805 the Third Coalition against Napoleon had formed in Europe. A plan by the French, along with the Spanish, to defeat the Royal Navy failed dramatically at the Battle of Trafalgar (21 October 1805), and Britain gained lasting control of the seas. Napoleon then finally abandoned all hope of invading Britain, and turned his attention once again to his Continental rivals. He secured a major victory against Austria and Russia at Austerlitz (2 December), forcing Austria yet again to sue for peace; and, in the following year, humbled Prussia at the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt (14 October 1806). Napoleon marched on through Poland but was attacked by the Russians at the bloody battle of Eylau on 6 February 1807. After a major victory at Friedland he signed a treaty at Tilsit in East Prussia with the Russian tsar Alexander I, dividing Europe between the two powers. He placed puppet rulers on the thrones of German states, including his brother Jerome as King of the new state of Westphalia. In the French part of Poland, he established the Duchy of Warsaw with the Saxonian King as ruler. Events January 11 - Michigan Territory is created. ... In the Napoleonic Wars, the Third Coalition against Napoléon emerged in 1805, and consisted of an alliance of Britain, Austria, Russia, Naples, and Sweden against France. ... The Kingdom of Spain or Spain ( Spanish: Reino de España or España; Catalan: Regne dEspanya; Basque: Espainiako Erresuma; Galician: Reino da España) is a country located in the southwest of Europe. ... Royal Navy Ensign The Royal Navy is the navy of the United Kingdom. ... Battle of Trafalgar Conflict Napoleonic Wars Date 21 October 1805 Place Cape Trafalgar Result Decisive British victory The Battle of Trafalgar, fought on 21 October 1805, was the most significant naval engagement of the Napoleonic Wars and the pivotal naval battle of the 19th century. ... October 21 is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 71 days remaining. ... Events January 11 - Michigan Territory is created. ... The Royal Navy is the navy of the United Kingdom. ... The Republic of Austria ( German: Republik Österreich) is a landlocked country in Central Europe. ... The Russian Federation ( Russian: Росси́йская Федера́ция, transliteration: Rossiyskaya Federatsiya or Rossijskaja Federacija), or Russia (Russian: Росси́я, transliteration: Rossiya or Rossija), is a country that stretches over a vast expanse of eastern Europe and northern Asia. ... At the Battle of Austerlitz (December 2, 1805), during the Napoleonic War of the Third Coalition, a French force of approximately 73,000 under Napoleon decisively defeated a joint Russo_Austrian force of over 89,000, commanded by Russian General Kutuzov with General von Weyrother commanding the Austrian contingent. ... December 2 is the 336th day (337th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The coat of arms of the Kingdom of Prussia, 1701-1918 The word Prussia ( German: Preußen or Preussen, Polish: Prusy, Lithuanian: Prūsai, Latin: Borussia) has had various (often contradictory) meanings: The land of the Baltic Prussians (in what is now parts of southern Lithuania, the Kaliningrad exclave of Russia and... The Battle of Jena was fought on October 14, 1806, in Jena, in todays Germany, and resulted in a French victory under Napoleon Bonaparte against the Prussians under General Hohenlohe. ... October 14 is the 287th day of the year (288th in Leap years). ... Events January 8 - Cape Colony becomes a British colony January 10 - Dutch in Cape Town surrender to the British January 19 - The United Kingdom occupies the Cape of Good Hope February 6 - Royal Navy victory off Santo Domingo - see:Action of 6 February 1806 March 23 - After traveling through the... The Republic of Poland, a democratic country with a population of 38,626,349 and area of 312,685 km², is located in Central Europe, between Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south, Ukraine and Belarus to the east, and the Baltic Sea, Lithuania and... Battle of Eylau Conflict Napoleonic Wars Date February 7, 1807 – February 8, 1807 Place Eylau, Poland Result Inconclusive The Battle of Eylau, fought on February 7–8, 1807, was a bloody and inconclusive contest between the forces of Napoléon and a mostly Russian army under General Benigssen. ... February 6 is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1807 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Friedland is the name of several locations the city Friedland in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany the city Friedland in Brandenburg, Germany the municipality Friedland in Lower Saxony, Germany the old German name of the city Pravdinsk in former East Prussia (now Kaliningrad Oblast) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational... The Treaties of Tilsit were two agreements signed by Napoleon I of France in the town of Tilsit in July, 1807. ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... Aleksandr Pavlovich Romanov or Tsar Alexander I (The Blessed), (Александр I Павлович) (December 23, 1777–December 1, 1825), Russia (reigned March 23, 1801–December 1, 1825), son of the Grand Duke Paul Petrovich, afterwards Paul I of Russia, and Maria Fedorovna, daughter of Frederick Eugene of Würtemberg. ... In the context of international relations and diplomacy, power (sometimes clarified as international power, national power, or state power) is the ability of one state to influence or control other states. ... Jérôme Bonaparte (November 15, 1784 - June 24, 1860) was the youngest brother of Emperor Napoleon I of France. ... Westphalia (in German, Westfalen) is a (historic) region in Germany, centred on the cities of Dortmund, Münster, Bielefeld, and Osnabrück and now included in the Bundesland of North Rhine-Westphalia (and the (south-)west of Lower Saxony). ... Location Official languages Polish Established church Roman Catholic Capital Warsaw Largest City Warsaw Head of state Duke of Warsaw Area about 158,000 km² Population about 3 million Existed 1807 - 1814 The Duchy of Warsaw (Polish: Księstwo Warszawskie, Latin: Ducatus Varsoviae, French: Duche de Varsovie) was a Polish state established... With an area of 18,400 sq. ...


The Peninsula War and the War of the Fifth Coalition

Since he failed at conquering the British militarily, he decided to try to conquer them economically, by banning all merchandise and ships from continental Europe. Napoleon attempted to enforce a Europe-wide commercial boycott of Britain called the "Continental System". The English economy did suffer to an extent from this - but no more so than the French Empire's economy and neither nation was in a position to challenge the other. The Continental System was a foreign-policy cornerstone of Napoleon I of France in his struggle against the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ...


Portugal did not comply with this Continental System and in 1807 Napoleon sought Spain's support in an invasion of Portugal. When Spain refused Napoleon sent forces into Spain as well. After mixed results were encountered by his generals Napoleon himself intervened and defeated the Spanish army, retook Madrid and then defeated a British army sent to support the Spanish, driving it to the coast and ignoble withdrawal from Iberia (in which its commander, Sir John Moore, was killed). He installed the King of Naples, his brother Joseph Bonaparte, as king of Spain (making one of his marshals and brother-in-law, Joachim Murat King of Naples). The Republic of Portugal (República Portuguesa), or Portugal, is a democratic republic located on the west and southwest parts of the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe; it is the westernmost country in continental Europe. ... 1807 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The Kingdom of Spain or Spain ( Spanish: Reino de España or España; Catalan: Regne dEspanya; Basque: Espainiako Erresuma; Galician: Reino da España) is a country located in the southwest of Europe. ... Iberia can mean: The Iberian peninsula of southwest Europe; That part of it inhabited by the Iberians, speaking the Iberian language. ... Sir John Moore (November 13, 1761 - January 16, 1809) was a British soldier and General. ... Alternate uses: See Naples (disambiguation) Naples (Italian Napoli, Neapolitan Napule, from Greek Νέα-Πόλις, latinised in Neapolis) is the largest town in southern Italy, capital of Campania region. ... Joseph Bonaparte (January 7, 1768—July 28, 1844) was the eldest brother of the French Emperor Napoleon I, who made him King of Naples (1806–1808) and Spain (1808–1813). ... Joachim Murat, (March 25, 1767 - October 13, 1815), a marshal of France, was King of Naples from 1808 to 1815. ...


The Spanish, inspired by nationalist and Catholic opposition to the French, rose in revolt. However at this time Austria broke its alliance with France without warning and Napoleon was forced to assume command of forces on the Danube and German fronts. A bloody draw at Aspern-Essling (May 21-22, 1809) near Vienna was the closest Napoleon ever came to a defeat in a battle with more or less equal numbers on each side. After both sides had licked their wounds for two months the principal French and Austrian armies engaged again near Vienna resulting in a French victory at Battle of Wagram (6 July). Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... The Roman Catholic Church believes its founding was based on Jesus appointment of Saint Peter as the primary church leader, later Bishop of Rome. ... The Battle of Aspern-Essling (May 22, 1809), was fought between the French and their allies under Napoleon and the Austrians commanded by the archduke Charles. ... May 21 is the 141st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (142nd in leap years). ... May 22 is the 142nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (143rd in leap years). ... 1809 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the city and federal state in Austria. ... The Battle of Wagram, around the isle of Lobau on the Danube and on the plain of the Marchfeld around the village of Wagram 15 km north east of Vienna, Austria, took place on July 5 and 6, 1809 and resulted in the decisive victory of French forces under Napoleon... July 6 is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 178 days remaining. ...


Following this a new peace was signed between Austria and France and in the following year the Austrian Archduchess Marie-Louise married Napoleon, following his divorce of Josephine.


The War of the Sixth Coalition (Russia, the Battle of Nations & the Invasion of France)

Although the Congress of Erfurt had sought to preserve the Russo-French alliance, by 1811 tensions were again increasing between the two nations. Despite being an avid admirer of Napoleon since first meeting him in 1807, Alexander had been under strong pressure from the Russian aristocracy to break off the alliance with France, as they considered it an insult to Russian pride. The Congress of Erfurt was the meeting between Emperor Napoleon I of France and Tsar Alexander I of Russia in 1808 intended to reaffirm the alliance concluded the previous year with the Treaty of Tilsit which followed the end of the War of the Fourth Coalition. ... 1811 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


The first signs that the alliance was deteriorating was the easing of the application of the Continental System in Russia. This enraged Napoleon, who it seems had genuinely liked Alexander since their meeting and thus felt betrayed. By 1812, advisors to Alexander suggested that a vast revolution was brewing across Germany and that the time was right for an invasion of the French Empire (and the recapture of Poland). Events January 1 - the Allgemeines Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch, the Austrian civil code enters into force in the Austrian Empire February 2 - Russia establishes a fur trading colony at Fort Ross, California February 7 - The strongest in a series of massive earthquakes near New Madrid, Missouri, est. ...


Large numbers of troops were deployed to the Polish borders (reaching over 300,000 out of the total Russian army strength of 410,000). However Napoleon anticipated this and after the initial reports of Russian war preparations he began expanding his Grande Armée to a massive force of over 600,000 men (despite already having over 300,000 men deployed in Iberia). Napoleon ignored repeated advice against an invasion of the vast Russian heartland, and prepared his forces for an offensive campaign.


On June 23, 1812, Napoleon's invasion of Russia commenced. June 23 is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 191 days remaining. ... Events January 1 - the Allgemeines Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch, the Austrian civil code enters into force in the Austrian Empire February 2 - Russia establishes a fur trading colony at Fort Ross, California February 7 - The strongest in a series of massive earthquakes near New Madrid, Missouri, est. ... Napoleons invasion of Russia in 1812 was a critical turning point in the Napoleonic wars, proving disastrous for France and its allies. ...


Victor Hugo would write in his poem, "Russia 1812" (1873): Victor Hugo Victor Hugo (February 26, 1802 - May 22, 1885) was a French author, the most important of the Romantic authors in the French language. ...

The snow fell, and its power was multiplied.
For the First time the Eagle bowed its head - dark days!
Slowly the Emperor returned - behind him Moscow!
Its onion domes still burned.

Napoleon, in an attempt to gain increased support from Polish nationalists, termed the war the "Second Polish War" (the first Polish war being the liberation of Poland from Russia, Prussia and Austria). Polish nationalists wanted all of Russian Poland to be incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Warsaw and a new Kingdom of Poland created. For political reasons this was unlikely to happen (principally because it would bring Prussia and Austria into the war against France). Napoleon also rejected requests to free the Russian serfs, fearing this might provoke a conservative reaction in his rear. Location Official languages Polish Established church Roman Catholic Capital Warsaw Largest City Warsaw Head of state Duke of Warsaw Area about 158,000 km² Population about 3 million Existed 1807 - 1814 The Duchy of Warsaw (Polish: Księstwo Warszawskie, Latin: Ducatus Varsoviae, French: Duche de Varsovie) was a Polish state established... Costumes of Slaves or Serfs, from the Sixth to the Twelfth Centuries, collected by H. de Vielcastel, from original Documents in the great Libraries of Europe. ...


The Russians under Mikhail Bogdanovich Barclay de Tolly were unable to successfully defeat Napoleon's huge, well-organized army and retreated instead. A brief attempt at resistance was offered at Smolensk (August 16-17), but the Russians were defeated in a series of battles in the area and Napoleon resumed the advance. The Russians then repeatedly avoided battle with the Grand Armée, although in a few cases only because Napoleon uncharacteristically hesitated to attack when the opportunity presented itself. Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly, called by the Russians Mikhail Bogdanovich, Prince Barclay de Tolly (Михаил Богданович Барклай-де-Толли) (1761 - 1818), Russian field marshal, was born in Livonia, a descendant of a Scottish family which had settled in Russia in the 17th century. ... Several battles at or around the town of Smolensk in Russia are known as the Battle of Smolensk. ... August 16 is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... August 17 is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ...


Criticized over his tentative strategy of continual retreat, Barclay was replaced by Kutuzov. Realising the reality of the situation, Kutuzov continued Barclay's strategy. Kutuzov also soon came under criticism for this and finally offered battle. It appeared both Barclay and Kutuzov had been correct in their assessments of the situation for, outside Moscow on 7 September, the Russian army was defeated after what may have been the bloodiest day of battle in history - the Battle of Borodino (see article for comparisons to the first day of the Battle of the Somme). Prince Mikhail Illarionovich Golenishchev-Kutuzov (September 16, 1745 – April 28, 1813 (n. ... Saint Basils Cathedral Moscow  listen? ( Russian/Cyrillic: Москва́, pronunciation: Moskva), capital of Russia, located on the river Moskva, and encompassing 1097. ... September 7 is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years). ... The Battle of Borodino ( September 7, 1812 ( August 26 in the Old Style Russian calendar)), also called the Battle of the Moskova, was the largest single-day battle of the Napoleonic Wars and arguably the greatest battle in human history up to that date, involving nearly quarter a million soldiers. ... See Battle of the Somme (disambiguation) for other battles and meanings Battle of the Somme Conflict First World War Date 1 July 1916 – 18 November 1916 Place Somme, Picardy, France Result Stalemate The 1916 Battle of the Somme was one of the largest battles of the First World War, with...


The Russians retreated and Napoleon was able to enter Moscow, assuming that Alexander I would negotiate peace. Moscow began to burn in accordance with orders of the city's military governor and commander-in-chief, Feodor Rostopchin. Within the month, fearing loss of control in France, Napoleon left Moscow. The French suffered greatly in the course of a ruinous retreat; the Army had begun as over 650,000 frontline troops, but in the end fewer than 40,000 crossed the Berezina River (November 1812) to escape. In total French losses in the campaign were 570,000 against about 400,000 Russian casualties and several hundred thousand civilian deaths. Categories: Rivers of Belarus | Belarus-related stubs ...


Napoleon was determined not to lose hold of Germany and there was a lull in fighting over the winter of 181213 whilst both the Russians and the French recovered from their massive losses of around half a million soldiers each. A small Russian army harassed the French in Poland and eventually 30,000 French troops there withdrew to Germany to rejoin the expanding force there - numbering 130,000 with the reinforcements from Poland. This force continued to expand, with Napoleon aiming for a force of 400,000 French troops supported by a quarter of a million German troops. Events January 1 - the Allgemeines Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch, the Austrian civil code enters into force in the Austrian Empire February 2 - Russia establishes a fur trading colony at Fort Ross, California February 7 - The strongest in a series of massive earthquakes near New Madrid, Missouri, est. ... 1813 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Heartened by Napoleon's losses in Russia, Prussia soon rejoined the Coalition that now included Russia, the United Kingdom, Spain, and Portugal. Napoleon assumed command in Germany and soon inflicted a series of defeats on the Allies culminating in the Battle of Dresden on August 26-27, 1813 causing almost 100,000 casualties to the Coalition forces (the French sustaining only around 30,000). It appeared the Napoleon of old was back and that the Coalition might be forced to conclude a peace treaty if this run continued. The Battle of Dresden was fought on August 26_27, 1813, and resulted in a French victory under Austrians, Russians and Prussians under General Schwartzenberg. ... August 26 is the 238th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (239th in leap years). ... August 27 is the 239th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (240th in leap years), with 126 days remaining. ... 1813 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ...


However, the numbers continued to mount against Napoleon as Sweden and Austria joined the Coalition. Eventually the French army was caught by a force twice its size at the Battle of Nations (October 16-19) at Leipzig. Some of the German states switched sides in the midst of the battle, further undermining the French position. This was by far the largest battle of the Napoleonic Wars and cost both sides a combined total of over 120,000 casualties. The Kingdom of Sweden ( Swedish: Konungariket Sverige  listen?) is a Nordic country in Scandinavia, in Northern Europe. ... The Republic of Austria ( German: Republik Österreich) is a landlocked country in Central Europe. ... Map of battle by 18 October 1813, from Meyers Encyclopaedia The Battle of Leipzig (October 16-19, 1813), also called the Battle of the Nations, was the largest conflict in the Napoleonic Wars and one of the worst defeats suffered by Napoleon Bonaparte. ... October 16 is the 289th day of the year (290th in Leap years). ... October 19 is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Map of Germany showing Leipzig Leipzig [ˈlaiptsɪç] (Sorbian/Lusatian: Lipsk) is the largest city in the federal state (Bundesland) of Saxony in Germany. ...


After this Napoléon withdrew in an orderly fashion back into France, but his army was now reduced to less than 100,000 against more than half a million Allied troops. Although some historians consider the defensive campaigns of late 1813 and early 1814 to be among Napoleon's most brilliant, the French were now surrounded (with British armies pressing from the south in addition to the Coalition forces moving in from Germany) and vastly outnumbered. The French armies could only delay, not prevent, inevitable defeat.


Exile in Elba, return and Waterloo

Paris was occupied on March 31, 1814. His marshals asked Napoléon to abdicate, and he did so on 6 April in favour of his son. The Allies, however, demanded unconditional surrender and Napoléon abdicated again, unconditionally, on 11 April. In the Treaty of Fontainebleau the victors exiled the Corsican to Elba, a small island in the Mediterranean 20 km off the coast of Italy. They let him keep the title of "Emperor" but restricted his empire to that tiny island. March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (91st in Leap years). ... 1814 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The title of marshal of France (maréchal de France) was derived from the office of marescallus Franciae created by Philippe Auguste for Albéric Clément (circa 1190). ... April 6 is the 96th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (97th in leap years). ... In general, allies are people or groups that have joined an alliance and are working together to achieve some common purpose. ... Unconditional Surrender refers to a surrender without conditions, except for those provided by International Law conditional surrender. ... April 11 is the 101st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (102nd in leap years). ... See Village of Elba, New York and Town of Elba, New York for the locations in the United States. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... The Italian Republic or Italy ( Italian: Repubblica Italiana or Italia) is a country in southern Europe. ... For alternative meanings, see Empire (disambiguation) An empire (also known technically, abstractly or disparagingly as an imperium, and with powers known among Romans as imperium) comprises a set of regions locally ruled by governors, viceroys or client kings in the name of an emperor. ...


Napoléon tried to poison himself and failed; on the voyage to Elba he was almost assassinated. In France, the royalists had taken over and restored King Louis XVIII to power. On Elba, Napoléon became concerned about his wife and, more especially, his son, in the hands of the Austrians. The French government refused to pay the allowance guaranteed to him by the Treaty of Fountainebleau, and he heard rumours that he was about to be banished to a remote island in the Atlantic. Napoléon escaped from Elba on 26 February 1815 and returned to the mainland on 1 March 1815. When he returned to the mainland, King Louis XVIII sent the Fifth Regiment to meet him at Grenoble. Napoléon approached the regiment alone, dismounted his horse, and confidently walked up to the line of soldiers. When he was within earshot of the men, he threw open his coat and shouted "Soldiers of the Fifth, you recognize me. If any man would shoot his emperor, he may do so now". Following a brief silence, the soldiers erupted into shouts of "Vive L'Empereur!" The soldiers sent to stop the former emperor instead joined the ranks behind him and marched with Napoléon to Paris. He arrived on 20 March, quickly raising a regular army of 140,000 and a volunteer force of around 200,000 and governed for a Hundred Days. Louis XVIII (November 17, 1755 - September 16, 1824) was King of France from 1814 (although he declared that he considered his reign to have begun in 1795) until his death in 1824. ... The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one-fifth of its surface. ... February 26 is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1815 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... March 1 is the 60th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (61st in leap years). ... 1815 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Louis XVIII (November 17, 1755 - September 16, 1824) was King of France from 1814 (although he declared that he considered his reign to have begun in 1795) until his death in 1824. ... The Eiffel Tower has become the symbol of Paris throughout the world. ... March 20 is the 79th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (80th in Leap years). ... For information about the legislative programs of Franklin D. Roosevelt, see New Deal. ...


Napoléon's final defeat came at the hands of the Duke of Wellington and Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher at the Battle of Waterloo in present-day Belgium on 18 June 1815. Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington (1 May 1769–14 September 1852) was an Anglo-Irish soldier and statesman, widely considered one of the leading military and political figures of the 19th century. ... Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher ( December 16, 1742 in Rostock ( Mecklenburg) - September 12, 1819) in Krieblowitz ( Silesia), count, later elevated Prince of Wahlstatt, was a Prussian general who led his army against Napoleon Bonaparte at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. ... Battle of Waterloo Conflict Napoleonic Wars Date June 18, 1815 Place Waterloo, Belgium Result Decisive Allied victory Map of the Waterloo campaign The Battle of Waterloo, fought on June 18, 1815, was Napoleon Bonapartes last battle. ... The Kingdom of Belgium ( Dutch: Koninkrijk België, French: Royaume de Belgique, German: Königreich Belgien) is a country in Western Europe, bordered by the Netherlands, Germany, Luxembourg, France, and the North Sea. ... June 18 is the 169th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (170th in leap years), with 196 days remaining. ... 1815 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


Off the port of Rochefort, Napoléon made his formal surrender while on board HMS Bellerophon on 15 July 1815. Napoleon Bonaparte on board the Bellerophon in Plymouth Sound by Sir Charles Lock Eastlake, painted 1815. ... July 15 is the 196th day (197th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 169 days remaining. ... 1815 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


Exile in Saint Helena and death

Napoléon on the Bellerophon at Plymouth, before his exile to Saint Helena.

Napoléon was imprisoned and then exiled by the British to the island of Saint Helena (2,800 km off the Bight of Guinea) from 15 October 1815. There, with a small cadre of followers, he dictated his memoirs and criticized his captors. In the last half of April 1821, he wrote out his own will and several codicils (a total of 40-odd pages). When he died, on 5 May 1821, his last words were: "France, the Army, head of the Army, Joséphine." Download high resolution version (700x1010, 94 KB)Napoleon Bonaparte on board the Bellerophon in Plymouth Sound by Sir Charles Locke Eastlake, 1815 The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of... Download high resolution version (700x1010, 94 KB)Napoleon Bonaparte on board the Bellerophon in Plymouth Sound by Sir Charles Locke Eastlake, 1815 The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of... Napoleon Bonaparte on board the Bellerophon in Plymouth Sound by Sir Charles Lock Eastlake, painted 1815. ... Smeatons tower on the Plymouth Hoe Plymouth is a city in the Westcountry of England, situated at the mouths of the rivers Plym and Tamar in the traditional county of Devon. ... For alternate uses, see Saint Helena (disambiguation). ... For alternate uses, see Saint Helena (disambiguation). ... October 15 is the 288th day of the year (289th in Leap years). ... 1815 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Codicil can refer to: An addition made to a will Any addition or appendix, such as a corollary to a theorem A poem by Derek Walcott This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... May 5 is the 125th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (126th in leap years). ... Events February 23 - The Philadelphia College of Apothecaries founds the first pharmacy college. ...


In 1955 the diaries of Louis Marchand, Napoléon's valet, appeared in print. He describes Napoléon in the months leading up to his death, and led many, most notably Sten Forshufvud and Ben Weider, to conclude that he had been killed by arsenic poisoning. Arsenic was at the time sometimes used as a poison as it was undetectable when administered over a long period of time. In 2001 Pascal Kintz, of the Strasbourg Forensic Institute in France, added credence to this claim with a study of arsenic levels found in a lock of Napoléon's hair preserved after his death: they were seven to thirty-eight times higher than normal. Sten Forshufvud was a Swedish dentist and expert on poisons who formulated and supported the theory that Napoleon was assassinated by a member of his entourage while in exile. ... Ben Weider (born February 1, Canadian businessman from sports and Napoleonic history. ... General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15 (VA), 4, p Density, Hardness 5727 kg/m3, 3. ...


Cutting up hairs into short segments and analysing each segment individually provides a histogram of arsenic concentration in the body. This analysis on hair from Napoléon suggests that large but non-lethal doses were absorbed at random intervals. The arsenic severely weakened Napoléon and remained in his system. There, it could have reacted with calomel- and mercury-based compounds—common medicines at the time—and thus been the immediate cause of his death. Calomel (chemical formula Hg2Cl2) is a mild chloride of mercury, a heavy, white or yellowish white substance, insoluble and tasteless, much used in medicine as a mercurial and purgative; mercurous chloride. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Mercury, Hg, 80 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12 (IIB), 6 , d Density, Hardness liquid 13. ...


More recent analysis on behalf of the magazine Science et Vie showed that similar concentrations of arsenic can be found in Napoléon's hair in samples taken from 1805, 1814 and 1821. The lead investigator, Ivan Ricordel (head of toxicology for the Paris Police), stated that if arsenic had been the cause, Napoléon would have died years earlier. Arsenic was also used in some wallpaper, as a green pigment, and even in some patent medicines, and the group suggested that the most likely source in this case was a hair tonic. Prior to the discovery of antibiotics, arsenic was also a widely used, but ineffective, treatment for syphilis. (This has led to speculation that Napoléon might have suffered from syphilis.) Controversy remains as the Science et Vie analysis has not addressed all points of the arsenic poisoning theory. An antibiotic is a drug that kills or slows the growth of bacteria. ... Depression-era U.S. poster advocating early syphilis treatment Syphilis (historically called lues) is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) that is caused by a spirochaete bacterium, Treponema pallidum. ... Depression-era U.S. poster advocating early syphilis treatment Syphilis (historically called lues) is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) that is caused by a spirochaete bacterium, Treponema pallidum. ...


Marriages and children

Napoléon was twice married:

Joséphine de Beauharnais Empress Joséphine

Napoléon also had at least two illegitimate children who both had descendants: emplress josephine of france, painted by francois gerard This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... emplress josephine of france, painted by francois gerard This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... March 9 is the 68th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (69th in Leap years). ... 1796 was a leap year starting on Friday. ... Joséphine de Beauharnais, Empress Joséphine Joséphine de Beauharnais (June 23, 1763 _ May 29, 1814) was the first wife of Napoléon Bonaparte, and became Empress of France. ... Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the ending of a marriage, which can be contrasted with an annulment which is a declaration that a marriage is void, though the effects of marriage may be recognized in such unions, such as spousal support, child custody and distribution of property. ... March 11 is the 70th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (71st in Leap year). ... 1810 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The word proxy can mean more than one thing: a person authorized to act for another person, or upon request by another person (see eg. ... Marie Louise (December 12, 1791 _ December 17, 1847) was the second wife of Napoleon Bonaparte and Empress of The French. ... March 20 is the 79th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (80th in Leap years). ... 1811 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... July 22 is the 203rd day (204th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 162 days remaining. ... Events February 12 - Ecuador annexes the Galapagos Islands February 12 – serious cholera epidemic begins in London from the East London. ... Napoleon Francis Joseph Charles Bonaparte (March 20, 1811 -July 22, 1832), Duke of Reichstadt, was the son of Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte and his second wife, Archduchess Marie Louise of Austria. ...

Other information points to Napoléons's having had further illegitimate children: Charles, Count Léon (1806 _ 1881) was the illegitimate son of Emperor Napoleon I of France and Catherine Eléonore Denuelle de la Plaigne (1787 _ 1868). ... Events January 8 - Cape Colony becomes a British colony January 10 - Dutch in Cape Town surrender to the British January 19 - The United Kingdom occupies the Cape of Good Hope February 6 - Royal Navy victory off Santo Domingo - see:Action of 6 February 1806 March 23 - After traveling through the... Events January - April January 16-24 ? Siege of Geok Tepe ? Russian troops under general Skobeleff defeat Turkomans January 25 - Thomas Edison and Alexander Graham Bell form the Oriental Telephone Company February 5 - Phoenix, Arizona is incorporated. ... 1787 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1868 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Alexandre Florian Joseph Colonna, Comte Walewski (May 4, 1810 - October 27, 1868), French politician and diplomat, was born at Walewice near Warsaw, the son of Napoleon I and his mistress Marie, Countess Walewski. ... May 4 is the 124th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (125th in leap years). ... 1810 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... October 27 is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 65 days remaining. ... 1868 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Marie, Countess Walewski (or Walewska) born Laczinska (1789 - 1817) wife of Count Athenasius Walewski, mistress of Napoleon I Bonaparte and mother of Alexandre Joseph Colonna, Count Walewski. ... 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Events March 4 - James Monroe succeeds James Madison as the President of the United States of America April – Earthquake in Palermo, Italy April 3 – Princess Caraboo appears in Almondsbury in Gloucestershire, England May - The General Convention of the Episcopal Church founded General Theological Seminary while meeting in New York City. ...

  • Émilie Louise Marie Françoise Joséphine Pellapra, daughter by Françoise-Marie LeRoy.
  • Karl Eugin von Mühlfeld, son by Victoria Kraus.
  • Hélène Napoleone Bonaparte, daughter by Countess Montholon.
  • Barthélemy St Hilaire (August 19, 1805 - November 24, 1895) whose mother remains unknown.

Napoleon had also adopted Stephanie de Beauharnais around the year 1806. August 19 is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events January 11 - Michigan Territory is created. ... November 24 is the 328th day (329th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1895 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Stephanie Louise Adrienne de Beauharnais (August 28, 1789 - January 29, 1860) was the consort of Karl Ludwig Friedrich, Grand Duke of Baden. ... Events January 8 - Cape Colony becomes a British colony January 10 - Dutch in Cape Town surrender to the British January 19 - The United Kingdom occupies the Cape of Good Hope February 6 - Royal Navy victory off Santo Domingo - see:Action of 6 February 1806 March 23 - After traveling through the...


Burial

Napoléon had asked in his will to be buried on the banks of the Seine, but when he died in 1821 he was buried on Saint Helena. This final wish was not executed until 1840, when his remains were taken to France in the frigate Belle-Poule and entombed in Les Invalides, Paris. Hundreds of millions have visited his tomb since that date. This article is about the river in France; it should not be confused with the Senne, a much smaller river that flows through Brussels. ... The church at the Invalides, with its dome Les Invalides in Paris, France consists of a complex of buildings in the 7th arrondissement, now containing museums and monuments, all relating to Frances military history, as well as a hospital and a retirement home for war veterans, the buildings...


Legacy

Napoleon is credited with introducing the concept of the modern professional conscript army to Europe, an innovation which other states were forced to follow. The term Conscript may refer to people enlisted in the armed forces through conscription. ...


In France, Napoleon is also seen as having preserved the Revolution by creating and perpetuating its myth. He ended the lawlessness and disorder spawned by the Revolution; in modern terms, he was a "law and order" ruler. Furthermore, the Napoleonic Wars also exported the Revolution to the rest of Europe, and it is believed that the movements of national unification and the rise of the nation state, notably in Italy and Germany, were rooted in and precipitated—if not caused—by the Napoleonic rule of those areas. France - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... The Napoleonic Wars lasted from 1804 until 1815. ... The period of the French Revolution in the history of France covers the years between 1789 and 1799, in which democrats and republicans overthrew the absolute monarchy and the Roman Catholic Church was forced to undergo radical restructuring. ... -1... The Italian Republic or Italy ( Italian: Repubblica Italiana or Italia) is a country in southern Europe. ... The Federal Republic of Germany ( German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is one of the worlds leading industrialised countries, located in the heart of Europe. ...


In Britain he is remembered as a despot, the prototypical dictator, on which Hitler modelled himself. This difference in anglo-french perception reflects a deeper divide in outlook. He is remembered in song (e.g. 'Boney was a warrior') and poem, and as the grand enemy threatening the gates. The word Britain is used to refer to the United Kingdom (UK) the island of Great Britain, which consists of the countries of England, Scotland, and Wales sometimes the Roman province called Britain or Britannia The word British generally means belonging to or associated with Britain in either of the... Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945, standard German pronunciation in the IPA) was the Führer (leader) of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) and of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. ...


The Code Napoléon was adopted throughout much of Europe and remained after Napoleon's defeat. Professor Dieter Langewiesche of the University of Tübingen describes the code as a "revolutionary project" which spurred the development of bourgeois society in Germany by expanding the right to own property and breaking the back of feudalism. Langewiesche also credits Napoleon with reorganizing what had been the Holy Roman Empire made up of more than 1,000 entities into a more streamlined network of 40 states providing the basis for the German Confederation and the future unification of Germany under the Second Reich in 1871. The original Napoleonic Code, or Code Napoléon (originally called the Code civil des francais, or civil code of the French), was the French civil code, established at the behest of Napoléon. ... Bourgeois at the end of the thirteenth century. ... The Federal Republic of Germany ( German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is one of the worlds leading industrialised countries, located in the heart of Europe. ... Feudalism comes from the Late Latin word feudum, itself borrowed from a Germanic root *fehu, a commonly used term in the Middle Ages which means fief, or land held under certain obligations by feodati. ... The Holy Roman Empire ( German: Heiliges Römisches Reich) ( Italian: Sacro Romano Impero) ( Latin: Sacrum Romanum Imperium) ( Czech: Svatá říše římská) ( French: Saint Empire Romain Germanique) ( Polish: Święte Cesarstwo Rzymskie Narodu Niemieckiego) ( Dutch: Heilige Roomse Rijk) was a political conglomeration of lands in Central Europe in the Middle Ages and the... The German Confederation (German Deutscher Bund) was a loose association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ... The unification of Germany can refer to: the 1871 formation of the German Empire under Otto von Bismarck. ... This article or section should include material from German Monarchy The term German Empire (the translation from German of Deutsches Reich) commonly refers to Germany, from its consolidation as a unified nation-state on January 18, 1871, until the abdication of Kaiser (Emperor) Wilhelm II on November 9, 1918. ... 1871 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


Height misconception

Contrary to what is widely believed, Napoleon was not particularly short. After he died in 1821, his height was recorded as 5 foot 2 inches in French feet. This corresponds to 5 foot 6.5 inches in English feet, and actually makes him slightly taller than the average Frenchman of the 1800s.


In addition to this miscalculation, his nickname le petit caporal adds to the confusion, as non-French speakers mistakenly take petit as meaning small, while it is in fact an affectionate term reflecting on his camaraderie with the ordinary soldiers.


See also

The original Napoleonic Code, or Code Napoléon (originally called the Code civil des francais, or civil code of the French), was the French civil code, established at the behest of Napoléon. ... The Napoleonic Era is a period in the History of France. ... Napoleon I of France celebrated his accomplishments with an extensive set of commemorative medals struck by the Paris Medal Mint. ... The Napoleonic Wars lasted from 1804 until 1815. ... The title of marshal of France (maréchal de France) was derived from the office of marescallus Franciae created by Philippe Auguste for Albéric Clément (circa 1190). ... Napoleon and the Jews. ... Napoléon Bonaparte, emperor of France, has become a worldwide cultural icon symbolizing strength, genius, and political solidity. ...

References

  • "Bonaparte (Napoléon Ier) (http://www.insecula.com/contact/A003985.html/)." Insecula: L'encyclopedie des artes et de l'architecture. Accessed on 25 September 2003.
  • "Napoleon (http://www.napoleonseries.org/index.cfm)." Napoleon Series. Accessed on 10 February 2004.
  • "Napoleon I of France (http://www.france.com/docs/364.html)." France.com. Accessed on 20 February 2005.
  • Asprey, Robert (2000). The Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-04879-X.
  • Cronin, Vincent (1994). Napoleon. London: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-00-637521-9.
  • Durant, will and Durant, Ariel (1975). The Age of Napoleon. New York: Simon and Schuster. ISBN 0-671-21988-X (PT. 11).
  • McLynn, Frank (1998). Napoleon. London: Pimlico. ISBN 0-7126-6247-2.
  • Pope, Stephen (1999). The Cassel Dictionary of the Napoleonic Wars. Cassel. ISBN 0-304-35229-2.
  • Schom, Alan (1998). Napoleon Bonaparte: A Life. Perennial. ISBN 0-06-092958-8.
  • Zamoyski, Adam (2004). 1812: Napoleon's Fatal March on Moscow. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-00-718489-1.
  • Full texts of

September 25 is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years). ... 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, and also: The International Year of Freshwater The European Disability Year Events January January 1 - Luíz Inácio Lula Da Silva becomes the 37th President of Brazil. ... February 10 is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... February 20 is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations by or about:
Wikimedia Commons has more media related to:
    • Free eBook of Memoirs of Napoleon (http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/3567) at Project Gutenberg
    • Free eBook of The Life of Napoleon I (http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/14300) at Project Gutenberg
  • "The Strange Story of Napoleon's Wallpaper" (http://www.grand-illusions.com/napoleon/napol1.htm) - discussing the possibility of arsenic poisoning
  • Napoleon - Portraits and Paintings (http://www.geocities.com/superstorelink/napoleon.html)


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Preceded by:
French Directory
First Consul of France
November 11, 1799May 22, 1804
Succeeded by:
became Emperor
Preceded by:
Consulate
Emperor of the French
May 22, 1804April 6, 1814
Succeeded by:
Louis XVIII
(King of France)
Preceded by:
Louis XVIII
(King of France)
Emperor of the French
March 20 - June 22, 1815
Succeeded by:
Napoleon II
(Emperor of the French)


The Directory (in French Directoire) held executive power in France from October 1795 until November 1799 - from the end of the Convention to the beginning of the Consulate. ... The term Consulate can refer to: the office or the period in office of a consul a diplomatic consulate the French Consulate which governed between 1799 and 1804 a brand of menthol cigarettes Consulate This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share... November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... May 22 is the 142nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (143rd in leap years). ... 1804 is a leap year starting on Sunday. ... The term Consulate can refer to: the office or the period in office of a consul a diplomatic consulate the French Consulate which governed between 1799 and 1804 a brand of menthol cigarettes Consulate This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share... Kings ruled in France from the Middle Ages to 1848. ... May 22 is the 142nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (143rd in leap years). ... 1804 is a leap year starting on Sunday. ... April 6 is the 96th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (97th in leap years). ... 1814 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Louis XVIII (November 17, 1755 - September 16, 1824) was King of France from 1814 (although he declared that he considered his reign to have begun in 1795) until his death in 1824. ... Louis XVIII (November 17, 1755 - September 16, 1824) was King of France from 1814 (although he declared that he considered his reign to have begun in 1795) until his death in 1824. ... Kings ruled in France from the Middle Ages to 1848. ... March 20 is the 79th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (80th in Leap years). ... June 22 is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 192 days remaining. ... 1815 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Napoleon Francis Joseph Charles Bonaparte (March 20, 1811 -July 22, 1832), Duke of Reichstadt, was the son of Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte and his second wife, Archduchess Marie Louise of Austria. ...


 
 

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