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Encyclopedia > Naphtha

Naphtha (CAS No.: 8032-32-4, 8030-30-6, 8002-05-9; aka petroleum ether, white spirit (though in the UK white spirit is something different entirely), Ligroin; VM&P Naphtha; Varnish Makers and Painter's Naphtha [1]; Benzin; Petroleum Naphtha, Naphtha ASTM, Petroleum Spirits, shellite, ronsonol; not to be confused with Naphthalene) is a group of various liquid hydrocarbon intermediate refined products of varying boiling point ranges from 20 to 75 ºC (68 to 167 ºF), which may be derived from oil or from coal tar, and perhaps other primary sources. Naphthalene (not to be confused with naphtha) (also known as naphthalin, naphthaline, tar camphor, white tar, albocarbon, or naphthene), is a crystalline, aromatic, white, solid hydrocarbon, best known as the primary ingredient of mothballs. ... Oil refineries are key to obtaining hydrocarbons; crude oil is processed through several stages to form desirable hydrocarbons, used in fuel and other commercial products. ...


Naphtha is used primarily as feedstocks for producing a high octane gasoline component via the catalytic reforming process. Naphtha is also used in the petrochemical industry for producing olefins in steam crackers and in the chemical industry for solvent (cleaning) applications. This does not cite any references or sources. ... Gasoline or petrol is a petroleum-derived liquid mixture consisting mostly of hydrocarbons and enhanced with benzene or iso-octane to increase octane ratings, used as fuel in internal combustion engines. ... Catalytic reforming is a chemical process used to convert petroleum refinery naphthas, typically having low octane ratings, into high-octane liquid products called reformates which are components of high-octane gasoline (also known as petrol). ... Petrochemicals are chemical products made from raw materials of petroleum (hydrocarbon) origin. ... A synonym for the more widely accepted term, alkene. ... Steam cracking is a petrochemical process in which saturated hydrocarbons are broken down into smaller, often unsaturated, hydrocarbons. ... A solvent is a liquid that dissolves a solid, liquid, or gaseous solute, resulting in a solution. ...

Contents

Health and safety considerations

Forms of naphtha may be carcinogenic, and frequently products sold as naphtha contain some impurities, which may also have deleterious properties of their own. [2] [3] Like many hydrocarbon products, because they are products of a refractory process where a complex soup of chemicals is broken into another range of chemicals, which are then graded and isolated mainly by their specific gravity and volatility, there are a range of distinct chemicals included in each product. This makes rigorous comparisons and identification of specific carcinogens difficult, especially in our modern environment where exposure to a great number of such products occurs on a daily basis, and is further complicated by exposure to a significant range of other known and potential carcinogens (eg see [4]). The hazard symbol for carcinogenic chemicals in the Globally Harmonized System. ... Oil refineries are key to obtaining hydrocarbons; crude oil is processed through several stages to form desirable hydrocarbons, used in fuel and other commercial products. ... The term refractory can refer to multiple things: A refractory clergyman is one who refused to swear an oath to the French Revolution-era French state under the Civil Constitution of the Clergy. ... Relative density (also known as specific gravity) is a measure of the density of a material. ... Volatility most frequently refers to the standard deviation of the change in value of a financial instrument with a specific time horizon. ...


Below are linked some Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) specifications for different "naphtha" products, which contain varying degrees of naphtha, as well as various other chemicals. As well as giving health guidelines, these are one of the few ways to determine what a given product contains.

  • JT Baker VM&P Naphtha MSDS.
  • Diggers Shellite MSDS
  • Links to more MSDS for various camping-stove fuels including several that include naphtha

Benzene in particular is a known high-risk carcinogen, and so benzene content is typically specified in the MSDS. But more specific breakdown of particular forms of hydrocarbon is not as common. Benzene is an organic chemical compound with the formula C6H6. ...

  • Properties of Naphtha’s
    • Health Hazards

“Light naphtha, a mixture consisting mainly of straight-chained and cyclic aliphatic hydrocarbons having from five to nine carbon atoms per molecule. Heavy naphtha, a mixture consisting mainly of straight-chained and cyclic aliphatic hydrocarbons having from seven to nine carbons per molecule.”<“Chemistry of Hazardous Materials, Third Edition”, Meyer, E., Prentice Hall, 1998, page 458.> “Almost all volatile, lipid-soluble organic chemicals cause general, nonspecific depression of the central nervous system or general anesthesia.” <“Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Third Edition”, LaDou, J. , MS., MD. Lange Medical Books, McGraw Hill, 2004, page 508.> The OSHA PEL TWA = 100 parts-per-million (ppm); Health Hazards/Target Organs = eyes, skin, RS, CNS, liver kidney. Symptoms of acute exposure are dizziness and narcosis with loss of consciousness. The World Health Organization categorizes health effects into three groups: reversible symptoms (Type 1), mild chronic encephalopathy (Type 2) and severe chronic toxic encephalopathy (Type 3).

    • Physical Properties

Molecular weight is 100-215; specific gravity is 0.75- 0.85; boiling point is 320-430 F; vapor pressure is < 5 mm HG. Naphtha’s are insoluble in water; colorless (kerosene odor) or red-brown (aromatic odor) liquid; incompatible with strong oxidizers.


Production of naphtha in refineries and uses

Naphtha is obtained in petroleum refineries as one of the intermediate products from the distillation of crude oil. It is a liquid intermediate between the light gases in the crude oil and the heavier liquid kerosene. Naphthas are volatile, flammable and have a specific gravity of about 0.7. The generic name naphtha describes a range of different refinery intermediate products used in different applications. To further complicate the matter, similar naphtha types are often referred to by different names. Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... Continuous distillation is a distillation process, which does not require interruption for adding raw material. ... Kerosene or paraffin oil (British English, not to be confused with the waxy solid also called paraffin wax or just paraffin) is a flammable hydrocarbon liquid. ... Relative density (also known as specific gravity) is a measure of the density of a material. ...


The different naphthas are distinguished by:

  • density (g/ml or specific gravity)
  • PONA, PIONA or PIANO analysis, which measures (usually in volume percent but can also be in weight percent):

Paraffin is a common name for a group of alkane hydrocarbons with the general formula CnH2n+2, where n is greater than about 20, discovered by Carl Reichenbach. ... An alkane in organic chemistry is a type of hydrocarbon in which the molecule has the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms and so has no double bonds (they are saturated). ... A synonym for the more widely accepted term, alkene. ... Cycloalkanes are chemical compounds with a one or more rings of carbons to which hydrogens are attached according to the formula CnH2n. ... In chemistry, an aromatic molecule is one in which electrons are free to cycle around circular arrangements of atoms, which are alternately singly and doubly bonded to one another. ...

Paraffinic naphthas

Generally speaking, less dense ("lighter") naphthas will have a higher paraffin content. These are therefore also referred to as paraffinic naphtha. The main application for these naphthas is as a feedstock in the petrochemical production of olefins. This is also the reason they are sometimes referred to as "light distillate feedstock" or LDF (these naphtha types can also be called "straight run gasoline"/SRG or "light virgin naphtha"/LVN). Paraffin is a common name for a group of alkane hydrocarbons with the general formula CnH2n+2, where n is greater than about 20, discovered by Carl Reichenbach. ... A feedstock is a petrochemical used as a raw material to be fed into a machine or processing plant. ... A synonym for the more widely accepted term, alkene. ...


When used as feedstock in petrochemical steam crackers, the naphtha is heated in the presence of water vapour and the absence of oxygen or air until the hydrocarbon molecules fall apart. The primary products of the cracking process are olefins (ethylene / ethene, propylene / propene and butadiene) and aromatics (benzene and toluene). These are used as feedstocks for derivative units that produce plastics (polyethylene and polypropylene for example), synthetic fiber precursors (acrylonitrile), industrial chemicals (glycols for instance). Ethylene (or IUPAC name ethene) is the chemical compound with the formula C2H4. ... Ethylene or ethene is the simplest alkene hydrocarbon, consisting of two carbon atoms and four hydrogens. ... Propylene, also known by its IUPAC name propene, is an organic compound having the chemical formula C3H6. ... Propylene, also known as propene, is a colorless flammable gas with chemical formula C3H6 having a garlic odor. ... Butadiene can refer to either one of two hydrocarbon chemical compounds which are alkenes that are isomers of each other. ... Benzene is an organic chemical compound with the formula C6H6. ... Toluene, also known as methylbenzene or phenylmethane is a clear, water-insoluble liquid with the typical smell of paint thinners, redolent of the sweet smell of the related compound benzene. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Polypropylene lid of a Tic Tacs box, with a living hinge and the resin identification code under its flap Micrograph of polypropylene Polypropylene or polypropene (PP) is a thermoplastic polymer, made by the chemical industry and used in a wide variety of applications, including food packaging, ropes, textiles, plastic parts... Synthetic fibers are the result of extensive research by scientists to increase and improve upon the supply of naturally occurring animal and plant fibers that have been used in making cloth and rope. ... Acrylonitrile (CH2=CH-C≡N), is a pungent smelling, extremely flammable organic liquid. ... Ethylene glycol (IUPAC name:ethane-1,2-diol) is a chemical compound widely used as an automotive antifreeze (coolant). ...


Heavy naphthas

Coleman Camp Fuel, also known as white gas is a common naphtha fuel used in many lanterns and torches

The "heavier" or rather denser types are usually richer in naphthenes and aromatics and therefore also referred to as N&A's. These can also be used in the petrochemical industry but more often are used as a feedstock for refinery catalytic reformers where they convert the lower octane naphtha to a higher octane product called reformate. Alternative names for these types are Straight Run Benzene (SRB) or Heavy Virgin Naphtha (HVN). Image File history File links Size of this preview: 457 × 600 pixels Full resolution (640 × 840 pixel, file size: 76 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Author: Vaughan Weather Coleman Campfuel Date: October 6th 2006 Location: Walmart Canada Vaughan Superstore (Concord/Woodbridge Area) I, the creator of this work, hereby release... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 457 × 600 pixels Full resolution (640 × 840 pixel, file size: 76 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Author: Vaughan Weather Coleman Campfuel Date: October 6th 2006 Location: Walmart Canada Vaughan Superstore (Concord/Woodbridge Area) I, the creator of this work, hereby release... Naphtha is a group of various volatile flammable liquid hydrocarbon mixtures used chiefly as solvents. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Reformate is the hydrocarbon mixture output of a catalytic reformer unit on a crude oil refinery. ...


Other applications / descriptions

Naphthas are also used in other applications such as:

  • (as an unprocessed component - in contrast to reforming above) in the production of petrol/motor gasoline.
  • industrial solvents and cleaning fluids
  • an oil painting medium
  • the sole ingredient in the home cleaning fluid Energine, which has been discontinued. You can purchase this type of naphtha at any hardware store.
  • an ingredient in shoe polish
  • an ingredient in some lighter fluids for wick type lighters such as Zippo lighters.
  • an adulterant to petrol
  • a fuel for portable stoves and lanterns, sold in North America as white gas or Coleman fuel.
  • historically, as a probable ingredient in Greek fire (together with grease, oil, sulfur, and naturally occurring saltpeter from the desert)
  • a fuel for fire spinning, fire juggling, or other fire performance equipment which creates a brighter and cleaner yet shorter burn.
  • to lightly wear the finish off guitars when preparing "relic" instruments.

Gasoline, as it is known in North America, or petrol, in many Commonwealth countries (sometimes also called motor spirit) is a petroleum-derived liquid mixture consisting primarily of hydrocarbons, used as fuel in internal combustion engines. ... Gasoline or petrol is a petroleum-derived liquid mixture consisting mostly of hydrocarbons and enhanced with benzene or iso-octane to increase octane ratings, used as fuel in internal combustion engines. ... A substance is soluble in a fluid if it dissolves in the fluid. ... An open can of Kiwi shoe polish with a side-mounted opening mechanism visible at the top of the photo. ... A lighter is a portable device used to create a flame. ... A lit 1968 slim model Zippo An open full-size Navy Zippo A closed black crackle Zippo A Zippo dismantled for fueling 133ml Zippo Lighter Fluid A Zippo lighter is a refillable, metal lighter manufactured by Zippo Manufacturing Company. ... Adulterants are chemical impurities or substances that by law do not belong in a food or pesticide. ... A small portable stove and its container MSR WindPro with skillet, heat reflector, wind shield and isobutane/propane canister A portable stove is a stove specially designed to be portable and lightweight, as for camping. ... Stone lantern in a Chinese Garden A chōchin invites customers into an okonomiyaki restaurant in Japan A lantern is a portable lighting device used to illuminate broad areas. ... Coleman Company, Inc. ... Greek fire was a burning-liquid weapon used by the Byzantine Greeks, typically in naval battles to great effect as it could continue burning even on water. ... Made of Porn and sex things Inhalation respiratory irritation Skin May cause irritation. ... This article is about arid terrain. ... A fire twirler with staff A firedancer with poi A fire dancer with staff A firedancer with poi A fire dancer juggling torches in a cascade pattern Fire dancing (also known as, fire twirling, fire spinning, or fire manipulation) is a group of circus-art disciplines that involve manipulation of... Juggling is a form of skillful, often artful, object manipulation. ...

Examples

Shellite (Australia), also known as white gas (North America), white spirit or Coleman fuel, is a water white liquid with a hydrocarbon odour. Shellite has a flashpoint less than -30 degrees Celsius, and a boiling point of 47 degrees Celsius. The composition of shellite is 95% paraffins and naphthenes, less than 5% aromatic hydrocarbons and less than 0.5% benzene. It is highly flammable and due to its low flashpoint is used in many low pressure camping stoves. Shellite is also a fast drying solvent used for cleaning metal, hard plastic and painted surfaces. Ronsonol is a brand name used in North America, and is marketed principally as a refill fluid for cigarette lighters. North America North America is a continent [1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Coleman Company, Inc. ... The flashpoint of a fuel is the lowest temperature at which it can form an ignitable mix with air. ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which it can change its state from a liquid to a gas throughout the bulk of the liquid at a given pressure. ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... Paraffin is a common name for a group of alkane hydrocarbons with the general formula CnH2n+2, where n is greater than about 20, discovered by Carl Reichenbach. ... Benzene is an organic chemical compound with the formula C6H6. ... The flashpoint of a fuel is the lowest temperature at which it can form an ignitable mix with air. ... A metal naphtha lighter A lighter is a device used to create fire with the intent to ignite another substance such as a cigarette, smoking pipe, or charcoal in a grill. ...


Etymology

The origin of the word Naphtha is unclear. It is an Ancient Greek word which was used to refer to any sort of petroleum or pitch. The Greeks themselves borrowed the word from the Old Persian words nafata, naft or neft, which were used to describe bubbling oil. Naphtha may also have been derived from the name of the Vedic Hindu and Avestic god Apam Napat, a form of Agni, or fire god. Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... The pitch drop experiment. ... See Aryan Language or Old Persian For more information visit: *[Ancient Iranian Languages & Literature The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies (CAIS) ... The Vedas are part of the Hindu Shruti; these religious scriptures form part of the core of the Brahminical and Vedic traditions within Hinduism and are the inspirational, metaphysical and mythological foundation for later Vedanta, Yoga, Tantra and even Bhakti forms of Hinduism. ... A Hindu ( , Devanagari: हिन्दु), as per modern definition, is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, and the religious, philosophical and cultural system that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... See Avesta Municipality for the Swedish town Yasna 28. ... In Hinduism, Apam Napat is the god of fresh water, such as in rivers and lakes. ... Chinese Wood (木) | Fire (火) Earth (土) | Metal (金) | Water (水) Japanese Earth (地) | Water (水) | Fire (火) | Air / Wind (風) | Void / Sky / Heaven (空) Hinduism and Buddhism Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni / Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water Agni is a Hindu and Vedic deity. ...


Naphtha is the root of the words naphthalene and napalm, which is derived from naphtha by mixing under controlled conditions with aluminium salts of palmitic acid (a type of soap). Naphthalene (not to be confused with naphtha) (also known as naphthalin, naphthaline, tar camphor, white tar, albocarbon, or naphthene), is a crystalline, aromatic, white, solid hydrocarbon, best known as the primary ingredient of mothballs. ... A simulated Napalm explosion during a 2003 air show. ...


Air Sampling for Naphthas

Air sampling is conducted to identify and evaluate employee or source exposures of potentially hazardous gas, vapor or particulates; assess compliance; and evaluate process or reformulation changes.


Active and passive air sampling methods for naphtha vapors are covered in this process review. Direct reading instruments and dusts and particulates are not discussed in this review.

  • Air Sampling Categories: Direct Reading versus Sample Collection

Two categories of air sampling equipment exist, they are: direct reading and sample collection. Direct reading equipment provides immediate measurement of exposure concentration. Sample collection includes samples of air collected over a period of time and weighed and analyzed in the laboratory. Sample collection involves active and passive air monitoring methods. Air sampling instruments will be discussed during this air sampling process review; Direct reading air monitor instruments and methods will not be discussed at this time.

  • Sampling Methods: Active versus Passive Sampling
    • Active Sampling

Active sampling relies on sampling pumps to draw air and chemicals vapors or gases to adsorbent filter materials.

    • Passive Sampling

Passive monitors rely on collection of gases and vapors through passive diffusion (Ficks Law) to allow personal sampling without use of pumps. Diffusion is the movement or passage of chemical molecules through a semi-permeable barrier from the source of higher concentration gradient to a lower concentration.

  • Sampling Types: Personal, Area, Grab and Integrated Sampling
    • Personal Sampling

Personal sampling is used to evaluate employee exposure to naphtha. The employee wears the sampling device that collects an air sample representative of air exposure for a specific period of time. The quantity of chemical sampled is collected on the sorbent or filter and then calculated against the total volume employee air exposure.

    • Area Sampling

Area Sampling is used to evaluate background exposure to leaks and implement control measures.

    • Grab Sampling

Grab sampling is used to monitor extremely toxic environments over a short period of time or to determine if additional air monitoring is required for over-exposure.

    • Integrated Sampling

Integrated exposure sampling is used to determine the 8-hour time weighted average exposure because various exposure concentrations are integrated during the sampling period.

  • Absorption versus Adsorption
    • Absorption

Gas or vapor is removed from the air stream as it passes through the absorption liquid used in impingers (gas washing bottles), fritted bubblers and midget impingers. Collection liquid can be reactive or non-reactive. Gas or vapor is separated and analyzed under laboratory conditions.

    • Adsorption

“Air sampling for insoluble or non-reactive gaseous substances is commonly conducted with tubes filled with granular sorbent such as charcoal (non- polar properties) and silica gel (polar properties).” <“Fundamentals of Industrial Hygiene”, Plog, B. A., MPH, CIH, CSP, National Safety Council, 2007, page 486.> Activated charcoal is used primarily for organic vapors and has a surface area > 1000 m2/g. Charcoal tubes are composed of coconut shell or petroleum based charcoal. Tubes vary in length and width. First section contains 100 mg of charcoal and the second section contains a number of mg of charcoal. The second section contains generally one-half the volume of the first. Breakthrough is where > 10% of mass in front section breaks through to second section and indicates that the contaminant may not have been collected properly and invalidates the results.

  • Breathing Zone Air Sampling Procedures
    • Sampling Train

Active air sampling devices consist of five sections starting at the suction pump: • “Air inlet orifice is the opening where air enters the inlet. • Collection devices retains chemical on the collection media as air and chemical mixture travel through collection device. • Flow rate control valve controls the flow rate traveling through the meter. • Air flow meter records the air flow rate traveling through the meter. • Suction pump moves air through the collection device.” <“Fundamentals of Industrial Hygiene”, Plog, B. A., MPH, CIH, CSP, National Safety Council, 2007, page 486.>



Break both ends of sorbent tube using sorbent tube breaker. Insert sorbent tube into the rubber sleeve of the adjustable low flow holder or tube holder. The arrow on the sorbent tube indicates air flow towards the pump. In the absence of an arrow insert the end of the tube with the smallest sorbent section into the tube holder. Connect the loose end of the flexible tubing into the pump inlet

  • Active Air Sampling Method for Naphthas – 34 Steps
    • Preparation & Calibration

1 Prepare and calibrate the sampling equipment by charging batteries of the active sampler. 2 Verify that sufficient varieties and quantities of detector tubes are available for air sampling. 3 Determine the sampling technique (NIOSH, OSHA). 4 Follow published air procedure/method NIOSH 1550 or OSHA 1500 for naphtha related solvents. 5 Calibrate the sampler pump, sampling device, sorbent tube and with a standard rotameter. 6 Set air pump sampling rate at .01 L and .2 L/min for OSHA or NIOSH. 7 Record the pump rotameter reading. 8 Calibrate pump rate specified in the method.

    • Communication

9 Select the employees to be monitored. 10 Discuss the sampling purpose and process with the employee. 11 Let the employee know the sampling period length. 12 Instruct the employee not to tamper with air monitoring equipment. 13 Employee should notify Industrial Hygienist if they have question about equipment or equipment needs to be removed. 14 Employee should document unusual production or exposure events during the course of monitoring.

    • Adsorbent Tube Orientation

15 Attach the air pump on the employee’s belt. 16 The sorbent tube with more charcoal should be facing away from the pump. Place the inlet in a downward vertical position to avoid contamination 17 Break open the ends of the filter or charcoal tube (with tube breaker and safety glasses) before sampling begins. 18 Attach the collection device (charcoal tube or passive sampler) to the shirt collar or as close as possible to the breathing zone (in a 12 inch sphere from around the head). 19 Attach the sorbent tube holder clip on the protective cover near the breathing zone. 20 Place and secure (duct tape) the monitoring equipment on the employee so it does not interfere with the employees work (excess tubing should be taped out of the way as well). 21 “Record location of sample, employee name and identification number, title, chemicals sampled for, starting/ending times, flow rate starting/ending flow rates, temperature, humidity, barometric pressure, active/passive sampling, sampling media, job activity.” < Burton Field Guide for Industrial Hygiene 2007 AIHA Press, page 8.>

    • Active Air Sampler Rate Verification

22 Turn the air pump on and document the time start. 23 Record the data by sampling protocol, sampling integrity. 24 Check the air monitoring pump, hose, rate and filtering devices during the air monitoring event. Record pump rotameter reading. 25 Sample at the target sample rate. 26 Take digital pictures, document conditions, emission sources, work practices, activities. 27 Prepare blanks during the sample period (Minimum 20 % of samples). Field blanks should be subjected to same handling as the samples except that no air is drawn through them. 28 Prior to pump removal verify pump rate with rotameter within the local sampling atmosphere location to account for humidity and temperature. 29 Record pump rotameter reading 30 “Turn off pump and record ending time.” < Burton Field Guide for Industrial Hygiene 2007 AIHA Press, page 8.> 31 Remove the sorbent tube, seal the ends and document any pertinent sampling information. 32 Prepare the chain of custody and the samples for delivery to the lab for analysis 33 Pack samples for shipment (Different methods may require preservative for shipment). 34 Ship samples to AIHA accredited lab.

  • Secondary Calibration Rotameter

Rotameter consists of a float ball moving vertically in a tapered tube. Force of air flow volume pumped through the air tube counteracts gravity. Air sampling pump is calibrated against the soap bubble meter attached to sampling train. Calibration will represent the current sampling air temperatures and pressures accurate to plus or minus 5 %.

  • Minimum Sampling Volumes

Determine the minimum sampling volume required for analysis by calculating the Limit of Detection of the analytical method. Determine how much air sample must be drawn through the sample collector for sufficient capacity of analysis, prevent chemical interference and not exceed sampler capacity.

    • Limit of Detection Formula for Analytical Method and Example:

Example Problem: The limit of detection for an analytical method is .01 mg. It is desired to be able to detect 0.02 mg/M3. How much air must be drawn through the sample collector? Formula TC = LOD / LOQ


Definitions TC = Target Concentration LOD = Limit of Detection for Analytical Method - OSHA 1500 & NIOSH 1550 LOQ = Exposure Limit of Quantification in Mg/M3


OSHA/ NIOSH Naphtha Method: Given Values for Example LOD = 0.01 mg 1000 L = 1 M3 LOQ = 0.2 mg/M3


Calculations .01 mg/M3 x 1000L /.2 L/min = 50 Liters

  • Complications with Air Sampling

Air sampling complications can be interference with chemicals (alcohols, ketones, ethers, and halogenated hydrocarbons), vapors, sampling media, humidity, temperature, barometric pressure, atmospheric dust, water vapor and container.

  • Adsorbent Tube Advantages and Disadvantages

Break through occurs from the following: sampling too fast; chemical adsorption migration greater than 10% into the second stage of the sorbent tube; and/or sampling at high analyte levels. Sorbent tubes are usually accurate to plus or minus 25% at the PEL. “Air sampling devices have unique capacities for each analyte sampled. When this capacity is exceeded; analyte breakthrough occurs. An analyte of interest can be can be displaced by an analyte more strongly adsorbed by the adsorbent.” <Supelco, Bulletin 769G, 1997, page 7.>


“High humidity can severely reduce the breakthrough volumes of adsorbents like charcoal and silica gel.” <“The Occupational Environment: It’s Evaluation, Control and Management, Second Edition, Di Nardi, S, A Publication of the American Industrial Hygiene Association, Fairfax, Virginia, 2003, page 182.>

  • Sorbent Tube Desorption

Naphtha’s sorbent tube is desorbed of collected chemical by carbon disulfide for 30 minutes. XIII Advantages and Disadvantages of Passive Sampling


Passive monitoring (badge or tube) is cheaper and easier for occupational hygienist to use and require less technical training. Diffusion sampling is less cumbersome for the wearer. Passive sampling is not impacted by pressure and temperature variations like active sampling.


Passive sampling disadvantages are that some chemicals are not easily retained on to diffusion sorbent. Stagnant and high face velocities do not allow for accurate diffusion onto passive diffusion samplers.

  • Analyzing Method

Naphtha’s analysis method is gas chromatography – flame ionization detector (GC – FID).

    • Results versus Standards

Any sample result that is less than the OEL is usually considered to be in compliance with the law at the 95% confidence level. Exposures over the PEL and LCL may result in citations and fines. If the PEL for a chemical is 50 ppm and an employee had a TWA of 60 ppm for a 6-hour shift. This may look like an overexposure however upon recalculation for a full work shift (8-hours) the TWA comes out to be: Chemical exposures may result in frequent or higher excursions during the work shift and may or may not meet the regulatory guidelines. Pregnant women, the very young and very old are more susceptible to chemical exposures. Preferred controls remove or drastically reduce the overall exposure to an acceptable exposure level.


The Industrial Hygiene Code of Ethics requires placing employee health first in all considerations. If the PEL’s are not available, animal studies or toxicology data may provide guidance.


Limitations or disadvantages of United States PEL’s are the following: PEL’s are limited only to inhalation exposures, PEL’s apply to health guidelines established in 1989, PEL’s do not consider chronic toxicity data or sensitizers or skin notations, PEL’s considers a health exposure risk of 1:1000 risk for cancer versus environmental risks of 1:1,000,000, PEL’s fail to account for multiple exposures, and PEL’s are listed on only 10% of the chemicals used in the work place.


The minimum standard of care in many industries is the maintenance of airborne chemical concentrations below all existing standards, guidelines and internally generated standards.

  • Air Sampling PPE

Industrial hygienist (IH) conducting air sampling are required to wear all Federal, State and Local, customer, industry specific and company required (PPE) personal protective equipment but not limited to: steel toe boots, work trousers, work shirt, (nomex coveralls if required), nitrile gloves, hard hat minimum Type C, safety glasses, etc.

  • Health Assessment, Interviews and Evaluation

Conduct opening conference to discuss the reasons that you are there: Assist management in proactive evaluation of current health conditions; control of any current or potential health issues and anticipate potential safety and health considerations.


Review historical conditions by reviewing OSHA 300 log and historical/current health surveillance programs. Surveillance programs should contain biological monitoring for biomarkers (biological markers of blood or urine) or metabolites (by-products) of exposure to various chemicals. “ACGIH, biological monitoring should be complimentary to air monitoring.” < American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) TLV’s and BEI’s(R) Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents, Biological Exposure Indices. Cincinnati, Ohio: ACGIH, 2003.>


Evaluate current conditions by photographing, videotaping and documenting work processes where potential health problems may occur. Security clearances and work site guide are recommended prior to tours and evaluation. Proprietary, health exposure and ignition considerations should be addressed prior to walk-through.


Employee health complaints, symptoms, odors, interviews, etc.; all lead to an air monitoring strategies. Air sampling processes follow with sample analysis and comparison against health standards lead to employee/management exposure communications.


Exposure information allows management to understand work place health exposures and then implement health prevention strategies to control and prevent chemical exposures. Health exposure assessment, communications, awareness, training, engineering, administrative and personal protective strategies address reduction and elimination of potential or real naphtha exposures. Individual historical and community health considerations are also taken into account.

  • Toxicity

Toxicity dose response exposures may be impacted (either decreased or increased) by the following factors. Chemical factors impact toxicity such as: concentration or quantity (harm in dose) times duration, hormesis (low dose stimulation), additivity, competition, synergism, antagonism, dispersability, water solubility, heavier or lighter than air, media exposure (liquid, gas, vapor, aerosol), molecule or particle size, toxicity of dose, toxicodynamics (what the chemical does to the body), progressive, permanent and reversible effects, bioavailability (binding or interference with the chemical), persistence, psychological impact, metals in different oxidative state, mechanism of action, sub cellular level, nanotechnology, receptors, and free radicals.


Individual biological factors such as stress, respiratory rate, gender, age, race, sweating, individual susceptibility, route of entry (injection, dermal, ingestion, inhalation, ocular), perfusion, affinity (binding, lipophilicity, storage) toxicokinetics (what body does to chemical), rate of uptake, detoxification excretion, elimination, transport, metabolism or biotransformation, water solubility, absorption, digestion or adsorption, systemic impact or local impact on body systems. Environmental factors impact chemical and particulate exposures such as: heat, cold, precipitation, inversions versus clear days and air pressure.

  • Exposure Control

Primary health prevention methods focus on chemical exposures prior to occurrence. Engineering prevention controls would be substitution, automation, enclosure, elimination, isolation and change of process. Ventilation controls would be local exhaust ventilation and vacuum operations. Administrative prevention controls would be work practice change, education, training, job rotation, job reduction, work schedules, substitution, job reassignment, wet work methods, maintenance and housekeeping. Secondary health prevention methods focus on early identification and treatment of chemical exposures for cure and treatment. Personal protective equipment could be air-purifying cartridge and powered air-purifying cartridge and supplied (air hose, self contained or re-breather) respirators; gloves (PVA, viton, neoprene). Tertiary health prevention methods are treatment and rehabilitation of employees exposed to chemical overexposure in the work place.


See also

Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... Naphthalene (not to be confused with naphtha) (also known as naphthalin, naphthaline, tar camphor, white tar, albocarbon, or naphthene), is a crystalline, aromatic, white, solid hydrocarbon, best known as the primary ingredient of mothballs. ... A synonym for the more widely accepted term, alkene. ... View of Shell Oil Refinery in Martinez, California. ... Benzene is an organic chemical compound with the formula C6H6. ... R-phrases , , , , , , S-phrases , , , , , , , Flash point −23. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Naphtha - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (563 words)
Naphtha is a group of various volatile flammable liquid hydrocarbon mixtures used primarily as feedstocks in refineries for the reforming process and in the petrochemical industry for the production of olefins in steam crackers.
Naphtha is obtained from [petroleum]] refineries as a portion of the distillation (also referred to as a cut).
When used as feedstock in petrochemical steam crackers, the naphtha is heated in the presence of water vapour and the absence of oxygen or air until the hydrocarbon molecules fall apart.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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