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Encyclopedia > Napalm
An Ecuadorian air force IAI Kfir aircraft drops napalm on a target range during the joint US and Ecuadorian Exercise "Blue Horizon".
An Ecuadorian air force IAI Kfir aircraft drops napalm on a target range during the joint US and Ecuadorian Exercise "Blue Horizon".

Napalm is the name given to any of a number of flammable liquids used in warfare, often jellied gasoline. Napalm is actually the thickener in such liquids, which when mixed with gasoline makes a sticky incendiary gel. Developed by the U.S. in World War II by a team of Harvard chemists led by Louis Fieser, its name is a combination of the names of its original ingredients, coprecipitated aluminium salts of naphthenic and palmitic acids. These were added to the flammable substance to cause it to gel.[1] Napalm is any of a number of flammable liquids used in warfare, often jellied gasoline. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3000x2003, 1596 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Napalm Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3000x2003, 1596 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Napalm Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... The Israel Aircraft Industries Kfir (Hebrew: כפיר, Lion Cub) is an Israeli-built all-weather, multi-role combat aircraft based on a modified Dassault Mirage 5 airframe, with Israeli avionics and an Israeli-made version of the General Electric J79 turbojet engine. ... Flammable or Flammability refers to the ease at which a substance will ignite, causing fire or combustion. ... For other uses, see Liquid (disambiguation). ... -1... Petrol redirects here. ... Thickening agents, or thickeners, are substances which, when added to the mixture, increase its viscosity without substantially modifying its other properties, like eg. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Harvard University is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, and a member of the Ivy League. ... Dr. Louis Fieser was a chemist and professor emeritus at Harvard University. ... In chemistry, coprecipitation (CPT) or co-precipitation is the carrying down by a precipitate of substances normally soluble under the conditions employed. ... Aluminum redirects here. ... Naphthenic acid is the name for an unspecific mixture of several cylopentyl and cyclohanexyl carboxylic acids. ... Palmitic acid, or hexadecanoic acid in IUPAC nomenclature, is one of the most common saturated fatty acids found in animals and plants. ...


One of the major problems of early incendiary fluids was that they splashed and drained too easily. The U.S. found that a gasoline gel increased both the range and effectiveness of flamethrowers, but was difficult to manufacture because it used natural rubber, which was in high demand and expensive. Napalm provided a far cheaper alternative, solving the issues involved with rubber-based incendiaries.[1]


Modern napalm is composed primarily of benzene and polystyrene, and is known as napalm-B.[1] Benzene, or Benzol (see also Benzine), is an organic chemical compound and a known carcinogen with the molecular formula C6H6. ... For other uses, see Polystyrene (disambiguation). ...


Napalm 878 was used in flamethrowers and bombs by the U.S. and Allied forces, to increase effectiveness of flammable liquids. The substance is formulated to burn at a specific rate and adhere to materials. Napalm is mixed with gasoline in various proportions to achieve this. Another useful (and dangerous) effect, primarily involving its use in bombs, was that napalm "rapidly deoxygenates the available air" as well as creating large amounts of carbon monoxide causing suffocation. Napalm bombs were also used in the Vietnam War.[1] Riverboat of the U.S. Brownwater Navy shooting ignited napalm from its mounted flamethrower during the Vietnam war. ... For other uses, see Bomb (disambiguation). ... Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000...


Though napalm was a 20th century invention, it is part of a long history of incendiary materials in warfare. However, historically, it was primarily liquids that were used (see Greek fire). An infantry-based flammable liquid fuel weapon, the flamethrower, was introduced in World War I by the Germans, variations of which were soon developed by other nations in the conflict.[1] Greek fire was a burning-liquid weapon used by the Byzantine Greeks, typically in naval battles to great effect as it could continue burning even on water. ... Riverboat of the U.S. Brownwater Navy shooting ignited napalm from its mounted flamethrower during the Vietnam war. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...

Contents

Usage in warfare

The French Aviation navale drops napalm over Viet Minh guerrilla positions during an ambush (December 1953).
The French Aviation navale drops napalm over Viet Minh guerrilla positions during an ambush (December 1953).
Riverboat of the U.S. Brownwater Navy deploying an ignited napalm mixture from a riverboat mounted flamethrower in Vietnam.
Riverboat of the U.S. Brownwater Navy deploying an ignited napalm mixture from a riverboat mounted flamethrower in Vietnam.

On July 17, 1944, napalm incendiary bombs were dropped for the first time by American P-38 pilots on a fuel depot at Coutances, near St. Lô, France.[citation needed] Howard Zinn relates how he participated in a napalm bombing of German soldiers (and French civilians) who were awaiting the end of WWII in France about two weeks before the end of the war.[2] Napalm bombs were first used in the Pacific Theatre during the Battle of Tinian by Marine aviators; however, its use was complicated by problems with mixing, fusing and the release mechanisms.[3] In World War II, The USAAF bombed cities in Japan with napalm, and used it in bombs and flamethrowers in Germany and the Japanese-held islands. It was used by the Greek National army against the Democratic Army of Greece (DSE) during the Greek Civil War, by United Nations forces in Korea, by France against the Viet Minh in the First Indochina War, by Mexico in the late 1960s against guerrilla fighters in Guerrero and by the United States during the Vietnam War. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Aviation Navale (Naval Aviation) of the French Navy includes 162 airplanes (138 of them combat-capable) and 6,800 men, both civilians and military personel. ... A U.S. riverboat deploying napalm during the Vietnam War from U.S. Naval War College Museum File links The following pages link to this file: Napalm Brown water navy Categories: U.S. Navy images ... A U.S. riverboat deploying napalm during the Vietnam War from U.S. Naval War College Museum File links The following pages link to this file: Napalm Brown water navy Categories: U.S. Navy images ... Brownwater Navy is a term in American naval speech referring to actions in near shore and riverine enviroments. ... Riverboat of the U.S. Brownwater Navy shooting ignited napalm from its mounted flamethrower during the Vietnam war. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Lockheed P-38 Lightning was one of the most important American fighters of the Second World War. ... Coutances is a commune of Normandy, France, in the Manche département, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... Saint-Lô is a city and commune of France, the préfecture (capital) of the Manche département, in Normandy. ... Howard Zinn (born August 24, 1922) is an American historian, political scientist, social critic, activist and playwright, best known as author of the bestseller[5] , A Peoples History of the United States. ... The battle of Tinian was a battle of the Pacific campaign of World War II, fought on the island of Tinian in the Mariana Islands from 24 July 1944 to 1 August 1944. ... The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States armed forces responsible for providing force projection from the sea,[1] using the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces and is one of seven uniformed services. ... The bombing of Tokyo by the United States Army Air Forces took place at several times during the Pacific campaigns of World War II and included the most destructive conventional bombing raid in all of history. ... Combatants Hellenic Army, Royalist forces, Republicans United Kingdom Communist Party of Greece (ELAS, DSE) Commanders Alexander Papagos, Thrasyvoulos Tsakalotos, James Van Fleet Markos Vafiadis Strength 150,000 men 50,000 men and women Casualties 15,000 killed 32,000+ killed or captured The Greek Civil War (Ελληνικός εμφύλιος πόλεμος [ellinikos emfilios polemos]) was... The United Nations Command (Korea) is the unified command structure for the multinational military forces supporting the Republic of Korea (South Korea or ROK) during and after the Korean War. ... Belligerents French Union France, State of Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos Viet Minh Commanders French Expeditionary Corps Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque (1945-46) Jean-Étienne Valluy (1946-8) Roger Blaizot (1948-9) Marcel-Maurice Carpentier (1949-50) Jean de Lattre de Tassigny (1950-51) Raoul Salan (1952-3) Henri Navarre (1953-4... Location within Central America Country Mexico Capital Municipalities 76 Largest City Acapulco Government  - Governor Carlos Zeferino Torreblanca Galindo (PRD)  - Federal Deputies PRD: 9  - Federal Senators PRD: 2 PRI: 1 Area Ranked 14th  - Total 64,281 km² (24,819 sq mi) Population (2005)  - Total 3,115,202(Ranked 11th) Time zone... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000...


The most well-known method of delivering napalm is from air-dropped incendiary bombs. A lesser-known method is the flame throwers used by combat infantry. Flame throwers use a thinner version of the same jellied gasoline to destroy gun emplacements, bunkers and cave hideouts. U.S. Marines fighting on Guadalcanal found them very effective against Japanese positions. The Marines used fire as both a casualty weapon as well as a psychological weapon. They found that Japanese soldiers would abandon positions in which they fought to the death against other weapons. Prisoners of war confirmed that they feared napalm more than any other weapon utilised against them. Incendiary bombs are bombs designed to start fires or destroy sensitive equipment using materials such as napalm, thermite, or white phosphorus. ... This article is about the island in the Pacific Ocean. ...


Pilots returning from the war zone often remarked they would rather have a couple of droppable gasoline tanks full of napalm than any other weapon, bombs, rockets or guns. The U.S. Air Force and Navy used napalm with great effect against all manner of targets to include troops, tanks, buildings and even railroad tunnels. The demoralizing effect napalm had on the enemy became apparent when scores of North Korean troops began to surrender to aircraft flying overhead. Pilots noted that they saw surviving enemy troops waving white flags on subsequent passes after dropping napalm. The pilots radioed to ground troops and the North Koreans were captured. [4] North Korea, officially the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (DPRK; Korean: Chosŏn Minjujuŭi Inmin Konghwaguk; Hangul: 조선민주주의인민공화국; Hanja: 朝鮮民主主義人民共和國), is a country in eastern Asia, covering the northern half of the peninsula of Korea. ...


Napalm has been used recently in wartime by or against: Morocco (1976), Iran (1980–88), Israel (1967, 1982), Nigeria (1969), India & Pakistan (1965 & 1971), Brazil (1972), Egypt (1973), Cyprus (1964, 1974), Argentina (1982), Iraq (1980–88, 1991, 2003 - present), Serbia (1994),1993 Angola, France during the First Indochina War (1946-1954) and the Algerian War (1954-1962 [5]), and the United States. Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost... Belligerents French Union France, State of Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos Viet Minh Commanders French Expeditionary Corps Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque (1945-46) Jean-Étienne Valluy (1946-8) Roger Blaizot (1948-9) Marcel-Maurice Carpentier (1949-50) Jean de Lattre de Tassigny (1950-51) Raoul Salan (1952-3) Henri Navarre (1953-4... Combatants FLN (1954-62) MNA (1954-62) France (1954-62) FAF (1960-61) OAS (1961-62) Commanders Mostefa Benboulaïd Ferhat Abbas Hocine Aït Ahmed Ahmed Ben Bella Krim Belkacem Larbi Ben MHidi Rabah Bitat Mohamed Boudiaf Messali Hadj General Jacques Massu General Maurice Challe Bachaga Said Boualam...


Napalm can kill or wound by immolation and by asphyxiation. Immolation produces rapid loss of blood pressure, unconsciousness and death in a short time. 3rd degree burns are typically not painful at the time, because only the skin nerves respond to heat and 3rd degree burns kill the nerves. Burn victims do not experience 1st degree burns due to the adhesive properties of napalm that stick to the skin. Severe 2nd degree burns, likely to be suffered by someone hit with a small splash of napalm are severely painful and produce hideous scars called keloids, which can also bring about motor disturbances.[1] Look up burn, burning, burned in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the band, see Adhesive (band). ... A keloid scar is a special case of a scar. ...

"Napalm is the most terrible pain you can imagine," said Kim Phúc, a napalm bombing survivor known from a famous Vietnam War photograph. "Water boils at 100 degrees Celsius. Napalm generates extremely high temperatures upon oxidation on the skin[6] 8 June 1972: Kim Phúc, center left, running down a road near Trang Bang after an VNAF napalm attack (© Nick Ut/Associated Press). ...

Phúc sustained third-degree burns to half her body and was not expected to live after the attack by South Vietnamese aircraft. But thanks to assistance from South Vietnamese photographer Nick Ut and American doctors, and after surviving a 14-month hospital stay and 17 operations, she became an outspoken peace activist. Taken June 8, 1972, this photograph earned Ut the Pulitzer prize, and Thi, center, a great deal of attention throughout her life. ... A peace activist is a political activist who strives for peace, and against war. ...


International law does not necessarily prohibit the use of napalm or other incendiaries against military targets,[6] but use against civilian populations was banned by the United Nations Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, (often referred to as the CCW) in 1980. Protocol III of the CCW restricts the use of incendiary weapons (not only napalm), but a number of states have not acceded to all of the protocols of the CCW. According to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), states are considered a party to the convention, which entered into force as international law in December 1983, if they ratify at least two of the five protocols. The United States, for example, is a party to the CCW but did not sign protocol III.[7] UN redirects here. ... The United Nations Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW), concluded at Geneva on October 10, 1980 and entered into force in December 1983, seeks to prohibit or restrict the use of certain conventional weapons which are considered excessively injurious or that have indiscriminate effects. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... The first two pages of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, in (left to right) German, Hungarian, Bulgarian, Ottoman Turkish and Russian A treaty is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely states and international organizations. ...


Reports by the Sydney Morning Herald suggested the usage of napalm in the Iraq War by US forces.[8] This was denied by the U.S. Department of Defense. In August 2003, the San Diego Union Tribune alleged that U.S. Marine pilots and their commanders confirmed the use of Mark 77 firebombs on Iraqi Republican Guards during the initial stages of combat. Official denials of the use of 'napalm' were, however, disingenuous, as the Mk 77 bomb that is currently in service at this time, the Mk 77 Mod 5, does not use actual napalm (for example, napalm-B). The last U.S. bomb to use actual napalm was the Mark 77 Mod 4, the last of which were destroyed in March 2001.[9] The substance used now is a different incendiary mixture, but sufficiently analogous in its effects that it is still a controversial incendiary, and can still be referred to colloquially as 'napalm.' ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... The United States Department of Defense (DOD or DoD) is the federal department charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government relating directly to national security and the military. ... A Mark 77 bomb being loaded on an F/A-18 Hornet, 1993. ... Two United States Air Force explosive ordnance technicians search for weapons and ordnance through a former Republican Guard facility near Kirkuk. ...

"We napalmed both those (bridge) approaches," said Col. Randolph Alles in a recent interview. "Unfortunately, there were people there because you could see them in the (cockpit) video." (...) "They were Iraqi soldiers there. It's no great way to die," he added. (...) The generals love napalm. ... It has a big psychological effect." - San Diego Union-Tribune, August 2003[10] The U.S. Department of Defense defines psychological warfare (PSYWAR) as: The planned use of propaganda and other psychological actions having the primary purpose of influencing the opinions, emotions, attitudes, and behavior of hostile foreign groups in such a way as to support the achievement of national objectives. ... The San Diego Union-Tribune is a daily newspaper published in San Diego, California by the Copley Press. ...

These bombs did not actually contain napalm. The napalm-B (super napalm) used in Vietnam was gasoline based. The Mk-77 firebombs used in the Gulf were kerosene based. It is, however, a napalm-like liquid in its effect.[1] For other uses, see Kerosene (disambiguation). ...


Composition

Napalm bombs explode after being dropped from a Republic of Korea Air Force F-4E Phantom II aircraft during a live-fire exercise.
Napalm bombs explode after being dropped from a Republic of Korea Air Force F-4E Phantom II aircraft during a live-fire exercise.

Napalm is usually a mixture of gasoline with suitable thickening agents. The earliest thickeners were soaps, aluminium, and magnesium palmitates and stearates. Depending on the amount of added thickener, the resulting viscosity may range between syrupy liquid and thick rubbery gel. The content of long hydrocarbon chains makes the material highly hydrophobic (resistant to wetting with water), making it more difficult to extinguish. Thickened fuel also rebounds better from surfaces, making it more useful for operations in urban terrain. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2826x1875, 4860 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Napalm Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2826x1875, 4860 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Napalm Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... The Republic of Korea Air Force (ROK Air Force, ROKAF, Hangul: 대한민국 공군, Hanja: 大韓民國 空軍) is the air force of South Korea. ... F-4 redirects here. ... The introduction of this article does not provide enough context for readers unfamiliar with the subject. ... For other uses, see Soap (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Palmitic acid. ... Stearic acid also called octadecanoic acid is one of the many useful types of saturated fatty acids that comes from many animal and vegetable fats and oils. ... For other uses, see Viscosity (disambiguation). ... In chemistry, hydrophobic or lipophilic species, or hydrophobes, tend to be electrically neutral and nonpolar, and thus prefer other neutral and nonpolar solvents or molecular environments. ...


There are two types of napalm: oil-based with aluminium soap thickener, and oil-based with polymeric thickener ("napalm-B").


The United States military uses three kinds of thickeners: M1, M2, and M4.

  • The M1 Thickener (MIL-T-589A), chemically a mixture of 25% wt. aluminium naphthenate, 25% aluminium oleate, and 50% aluminium laurate, (or, according to other sources, aluminium stearate soap) is a highly hygroscopic coarse tan-colored powder. As the water content impairs the quality of napalm, thickener from partially used open containers should not be used later. It is not maintained in the US Army inventory any more as it was replaced with M4.
  • The M2 Thickener (MIL-T-0903025B) is a whitish powder similar to M1, with added devolatilized silica and anticaking agent.
  • The M4 flame fuel thickening compound (MIL-T-50009A), hydroxyl aluminium bis(2-ethylhexanoate) with anti-caking agent, is a fine white powder. It is less hygroscopic than M1 and opened containers can be resealed and used within one day. About half the amount of M4 is needed for the same effect as of M1.

A later variant, napalm-B, also called "super napalm", is a mixture of low-octane gasoline with benzene and polystyrene. It was used in the Vietnam War. Unlike conventional napalm, which burns for only 15–30 seconds, napalm B burns for up to 10 minutes with fewer fireballs, sticks better to surfaces, and offers improved destruction effects. It is not as easy to ignite, which reduces the number of accidents caused by soldiers smoking. When it burns, it develops a characteristic smell. Oleic acid Oleic acid in 3D Oleic acid is a monounsaturated omega-9 fatty acid found in various animal and vegetable sources. ... Stearic acid also called octadecanoic acid is one of the many useful types of saturated fatty acids that comes from many animal and vegetable fats and oils. ... A hygroscopic substance is a substance that absorbs water readily from its surroundings. ... The chemical compound silicon dioxide, also known as silica, is the oxide of silicon, chemical formula SiO2. ... Anticaking agents are used in such things as table salt to keep the product from forming lumps, making it better for packaging, transport and for the consumer. ... A gas station pump offering five different octane ratings. ... Petrol redirects here. ... Benzene, or Benzol (see also Benzine), is an organic chemical compound and a known carcinogen with the molecular formula C6H6. ... For other uses, see Polystyrene (disambiguation). ...


Starting in the early 1990s, various websites including The Anarchist Cookbook advertised recipes for homemade napalm. These recipes were predominantly equal parts gasoline and styrofoam. This mixture closely resembles that of napalm-B, but lacks a percentage of benzene. The Anarchist Cookbook, first published in 1971, is a book that contains recipes and instructions for the manufacture of explosives, rudimentary telecommunications phreaking devices and other dangerous and illegal items, some with merit and some dangerous if even attempted. ... Styrofoam is a trademark name for polystyrene thermal insulation material, manufactured by Dow Chemical Company. ...


Napalm reaches burning temperatures of approximately 1,200 °C (2,200 °F). Other additives can be added, eg. powdered aluminium or magnesium, or white phosphorus. For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... Aluminum redirects here. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... White phosphorus is a flare / smoke producing incendiary weapon,[1] or smoke-screening agent, made from a common allotrope of the chemical element phosphorus. ...


In the early 1950s, Norway developed its own napalm, based on fatty acids in whale oil. The reason for this development was that the American-produced thickening agent performed rather poorly in the cold Norwegian climate. The product was known as Northick II.[11] Whale oil is the oil obtained from the blubber of various species of whales of the genus Balaena, as , Greenland or right whale (northern whale-oil), (southern whale-oil), Balaenoptera longimana, Balaenoptera borealis (Finback oil, Finner whale-oil, Humpback oil). ...


Some weapons utilize a pyrophoric variant, known as TPA (thickened pyrophoric agent). Chemically it is a triethylaluminium thickened with polyisobutylene. A pyrophoric substance is a substance that ignites spontaneously, that is, its autoignition temperature is below room temperature. ... Triethylaluminum or TEA ( (CH3CH2)3Al ) is a volatile organometallic compound which is used in various chemical processing and as an ignitor for jet and rocket engines. ... Polyisobutene is a thermoplastic polymer of the formula: -(-CH2-C(CH3)2-)n- It can be made from the monomer Isobutylene or CH2=C(CH3)2 via radical polymerization, cationic addition polymerization & anionic addition polymerization routes. ...


In popular culture

Napalm itself became well-known by the American public after its use in the Vietnam war. Since then, it has been mentioned in the media and arts on numerous occasions. In the film Apocalypse Now, Airmobile Infantry Colonel Kilgore declared "I love the smell of napalm in the morning... It smells like... victory" following a nearby napalm strike. In An Officer and a Gentleman, Sgt. Foley led a quick-step march with a cadence call that had the chorus, "Cause napalm sticks to kids!", representing a cadence call common in the U.S. military at the time. Apocalypse Now is a 1979 Academy Award and Golden Globe winning American film set during the Vietnam War. ... An Officer and a Gentleman is a 1982 film which tells the story of a United States Navy aviation Officer Candidate who comes into conflict with the Marine Corps Gunnery Sergeant who trains him. ... Louis Cameron Gossett, Jr. ... A drill sergeant drills privates in the U.S. Army. ... Napalm Sticks to Kids   is a song or a call & response running cadence used in the military. ...


See also

For other meanings, see fougasse (disambiguation). ... 8 June 1972: Kim Phúc, center left, running down a road near Trang Bang after an VNAF napalm attack (© Nick Ut/Associated Press). ... A Mark 77 bomb being loaded on an F/A-18 Hornet, 1993. ...

Notes

Look up Napalm in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
  1. ^ a b c d e f g Napalm
  2. ^ Howard Zinn: You Can't Be Neutral on a Moving Train. 2004 Documentary.[1]
  3. ^ De Chant, John A. (1947). Devilbirds. New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers, 155. 
  4. ^ Naval Aviation News (1951-05-01). Napalm Fire Bombs. Washington D.C.: Chief of Naval Operations, Navy Department, 8-11. 
  5. ^ Benjamin Stora, "Avoir 20 ans en Kabylie", in L'Histoire n°324, October 2007, pp.28-29 (French)
  6. ^ a b Elizabeth Omara-Otunnu. University of Connecticut Advance. Napalm Survivor Tells of Healing After Vietnam War. November 8, 2004.
  7. ^ Microsoft Word - YB05 771 A.rtf
  8. ^ http://fletcher.tufts.edu/multi/texts/BH790.txt
  9. ^ MK-77 - Dumb Bombs
  10. ^ SignOnSanDiego.com > News > Military - Officials confirm dropping firebombs on Iraqi troops
  11. ^ Norwaves Volume 5, Number 43, 1997

Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... LHistoire is a monthly mainstream French magazine dedicated to historical studies, recognized by peers as the most important historical popular magazine (as opposed to specifics university journals or less scientific popular historical magazines). ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

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Napalm
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  Results from FactBites:
 
Incinerating Iraqis; the napalm cover up (1094 words)
Napalm was introduced simply to terrorize the Iraqi people; to pacify through intimidation.
The US also used napalm in the siege of Falluja as was reported in the UK Mirror ("Falluja Napalmed", 11-28-04) The Mirror said, "President George Bush has sanctioned the use of napalm, a deadly cocktail of polystyrene and jet-fuel banned by the United Nations in 1980, will stun the world..
By providing the requisite cheerleading, diversions and omissions, the media has shown itself to be an invaluable asset to the men in power; perpetuating the deceptions that keep the public acquiescent during a savage colonial war.
Napalm - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1611 words)
Napalm is actually the thickener in such liquids, which when mixed with gasoline makes a sticky incendiary gel.
Modern napalm is composed primarily of benzene and polystyrene, and is known as napalm-B. Napalm was used in flamethrowers and bombs by the U.S. and Allied forces, to increase effectiveness of flammable liquids.
Napalm is usually a mixture of gasoline with suitable thickening agents.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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