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Encyclopedia > Nanotechnology

Part of a series of articles on
Nanotechnology

History
Implications
Applications
Organizations
In fiction and popular culture
List of topics Although nanotechnology is a relatively recent development in scientific research, the development of its central concepts happened over a longer period of time. ... Potential risks of nanotechnology can broadly be grouped into four areas: the risk of environmental damage from nanoparticles and nanomaterials the risk posed by molecular manufacturing (or advanced nanotechnology) societal risks health risks Nanoethics concerns the ethical and social issues associated with developments in nanotechnology, a science which encompass several... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This is a list of organizations involved in nanotechnology. ... This is a list of references and appearances of Nanotechnology in works of fiction. ... This page aims to list all topics related to the field of nanotechnology. ...

Subfields and related fields

Nanomaterials
Fullerenes
Carbon nanotubes
Nanoparticles Nanomaterials is the study of how materials behave when their dimensions are reduced to the nanoscale. ... The Icosahedral Fullerene C540 C60 and C-60 redirect here. ... // 3D model of three types of single-walled carbon nanotubes. ... Silicon nanopowder Nanodiamonds, TEM image A nanoparticle (or nanopowder or nanocluster or nanocrystal) is a small particle with at least one dimension less than 100 nm. ...

Nanomedicine
Nanotoxicology
Nanosensor
Nanomedicine is the medical application of nanotechnology. ... Research on ultrafine particles has laid the foundation for the emerging field of nanotoxicology, with the goal of studying the biokinetics of engineered nanomaterials and their potential for causing adverse effects. ... Nanosensors are a technology that may exist in the future. ...

Molecular self-assembly
Self-assembled monolayer
Supramolecular assembly
DNA nanotechnology An example of a molecular self-assembly through hydrogen bonds reported by Meijer and coworkers in Angew. ... Self assembled monolayers are surfaces consisting of a single layer of molecules on a substrate. ... A supramolecular assembly is an assembly of molecules held together by noncovalent bonds. ... DNA nanotechnology is an area of scientific research which seeks to use the unique molecular recognition properties of DNA and other nucleic acids to create novel, controllable structures out of DNA. The DNA is thus used as a structural material rather than as a carrier of biological information. ...

Nanoelectronics
Molecular electronics
Nanocircuitry
Nanolithography [[[Image: --203. ... Molecular electronics (sometimes called moletronics) is a branch of applied physics which aims at using molecules as passive (e. ... Nanocircuits are electrical circuits on the scale of nanometers. ... Nanolithography — or lithography at the nanometer scale — refers to the fabrication of nanometer-scale structures, meaning patterns with at least one lateral dimension between the size of an individual atom and approximately 100 nm. ...

Scanning probe microscopy
Atomic force microscope
Scanning tunneling microscope Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is a branch of microscopy that forms images of surfaces using a physical probe that scans the specimen. ... Topographic scan of a glass surface The atomic force microscope (AFM) is a very high-resolution type of scanning probe microscope, with demonstrated resolution of fractions of a nanometer, more than 1000 times better than the optical diffraction limit. ... Image of reconstruction on a clean Au(100) surface. ...

Molecular nanotechnology
Molecular assembler
Nanorobotics
Mechanosynthesis Molecular nanotechnology (MNT) is the concept of engineering functional mechanical systems at the molecular scale. ... A molecular assembler is a molecular machine capable of assembling other molecules given instructions, energy, and a supply of smaller building block molecules to work from. ... Nanorobotics is the technology of creating machines or robots at or close to the microscopic scale of a nanometres (10-9 metres). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with mechanochemistry. ...

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Nanotechnology refers to a field of applied science and technology whose theme is the control of matter on the atomic and molecular scale, generally 100 nanometers or smaller, and the fabrication of devices that lie within that size range. For the song by 311, see Grassroots Applied science is the exact science of applying knowledge from one or more natural scientific fields to practical problems. ... The general meaning of atomic is irreducible. That is, reduced to the smallest possible part. ... In science, a molecule is the smallest particle of a pure chemical substance that still retains its chemical composition and properties. ... A nanometre (American spelling: nanometer) is 1. ...

Contents

Overview

Nanotechnology is a highly multidisciplinary field, drawing from fields such as applied physics, materials science, interface and colloid science, device physics, supramolecular chemistry (which refers to the area of chemistry that focuses on the noncovalent bonding interactions of molecules), self-replicating machines and robotics, chemical engineering, mechanical engineering, biological engineering, and electrical engineering. Grouping of the sciences under the umbrella of "nanotechnology" has been questioned on the basis that there is little actual boundary-crossing between the sciences that operate on the nano-scale. Instrumentation is the only area of technology common to all disciplines; on the contrary, for example pharmaceutical and semiconductor industries do not "talk with each other". Corporations that call their products "nanotechnology" typically market them only to a certain industrial cluster.[1] Interdisciplinarity is the act of drawing from two or more academic disciplines and integrating their insights to work together in pursuit of a common goal. ... Cutout of the ITER project Applied physics is physics that is intended for a particular technological or practical use, as for example in engineering, as opposed to basic research. ... The Materials Science Tetrahedron, which often also includes Characterization at the center Materials science or Materials Engineering is an interdisciplinary field involving the properties of matter and its applications to various areas of science and engineering. ... Interface and Colloid Science deals with heterogeneous systems. ... Semiconductor devices are electronic components that exploit the electronic properties of semiconductor materials, principally silicon, germanium, and gallium arsenide. ... Supramolecular chemistry refers to the area of chemistry which focuses on the noncovalent bonding interactions of molecules. ... A simple form of machine self-replication A self-replicating machine is an artificial construct that is capable of autonomously manufacturing a copy of itself using simpler components or raw materials taken from its environment. ... The Shadow robot hand system holding a lightbulb. ... Chemical engineers design, construct and operate plants Chemical engineering is the branch of engineering that deals with the application of physical science (e. ... Mechanical Engineering is an engineering discipline that involves the application of principles of physics for analysis, design, manufacturing, and maintenance of mechanical systems. ... Biological engineering (a. ... Electrical Engineers design power systems. ...


Two main approaches are used in nanotechnology. In the "bottom-up" approach, materials and devices are built from molecular components which assemble themselves chemically by principles of molecular recognition. In the "top-down" approach, nano-objects are constructed from larger entities without atomic-level control. The impetus for nanotechnology comes from a renewed interest in Interface and Colloid Science, coupled with a new generation of analytical tools such as the atomic force microscope (AFM), and the scanning tunneling microscope (STM). Combined with refined processes such as electron beam lithography and molecular beam epitaxy, these instruments allow the deliberate manipulation of nanostructures, and lead to the observation of novel phenomena. 3D (left and center) and 2D (right) representations of the terpenoid molecule atisane. ... Self-assembly is the fundamental principle which generates structural organization on all scales from molecules to galaxies. ... Crystal structure of a short peptide L-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala (bacterial cell wall precursor) bound to the antibiotic vancomycin through hydrogen bonds reported by Knox and Pratt in Antimicrob. ... Interface and Colloid Science deals with heterogeneous systems. ... Topographic scan of a glass surface The atomic force microscope (AFM) is a very high-resolution type of scanning probe microscope, with demonstrated resolution of fractions of a nanometer, more than 1000 times better than the optical diffraction limit. ... Image of reconstruction on a clean Au(100) surface. ... // Conventional electron-beam lithography The practice of using a beam of electrons to generate patterns on a surface is known as Electron beam lithography. ... Molecular beam epitaxy, abbreviated MBE, is the deposition of one or more pure materials onto a single crystal wafer, one layer of atoms at a time, under ultra-high vacuum, forming a perfect crystal. ...


Examples of nanotechnology are the manufacture of polymers based on molecular structure, and the design of computer chip layouts based on surface science. Despite the promise of nanotechnologies such as quantum dots and nanotubes, real commercial applications have mainly used the advantages of colloidal nanoparticles in bulk form, such as suntan lotion, cosmetics, protective coatings, drug delivery,[2] and stain resistant clothing. An integrated circuit (IC) is a thin chip consisting of at least two interconnected semiconductor devices, mainly transistors, as well as passive components like resistors. ... A quantum dot is a potential well that confines electrons in three dimensions to a region of the order of the electrons de Broglie wavelength in size, a few nanometers in a semiconductor. ... An electronic device known as a diode can be formed by joining two nanoscale carbon tubes with different electronic properties. ... Sunscreen or sunblock (also known as suntan lotion) is a lotion that blocks ultraviolet radiation from the sun, and which reduces sunburn and other damage to the skin, leading to a lower risk of skin cancer. ... Make-up redirects here. ... An industrial coating is a paint or coating defined by its protective, rather than its aesthetic properties, although it can provide both. ... Drug delivery is a term that refers to the delivery of a pharmaceutical compound to humans or animals. ...


Origins

Buckminsterfullerene C60, also known as the buckyball, is the simplest of the carbon structures known as fullerenes. Members of the fullerene family are a major subject of research falling under the nanotechnology umbrella.
Buckminsterfullerene C60, also known as the buckyball, is the simplest of the carbon structures known as fullerenes. Members of the fullerene family are a major subject of research falling under the nanotechnology umbrella.

The first use of the concepts in 'nano-technology' (but predating use of that name) was in "There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom," a talk given by physicist Richard Feynman at an American Physical Society meeting at Caltech on December 29, 1959. Feynman described a process by which the ability to manipulate individual atoms and molecules might be developed, using one set of precise tools to build and operate another proportionally smaller set, so on down to the needed scale. In the course of this, he noted, scaling issues would arise from the changing magnitude of various physical phenomena: gravity would become less important, surface tension and Van der Waals attraction would become more important, etc. This basic idea appears plausible, and exponential assembly enhances it with parallelism to produce a useful quantity of end products. The term "nanotechnology" was defined by Tokyo Science University Professor Norio Taniguchi in a 1974 paper[3] as follows: "'Nano-technology' mainly consists of the processing of, separation, consolidation, and deformation of materials by one atom or by one molecule." In the 1980s the basic idea of this definition was explored in much more depth by Dr. K. Eric Drexler, who promoted the technological significance of nano-scale phenomena and devices through speeches and the books Engines of Creation: The Coming Era of Nanotechnology (1986) and Nanosystems: Molecular Machinery, Manufacturing, and Computation,[4] and so the term acquired its current sense. Engines of Creation: The Coming Era of Nanotechnology is considered the first book on the topic of nanotechnology. Nanotechnology and nanoscience got started in the early 1980s with two major developments; the birth of cluster science and the invention of the scanning tunneling microscope (STM). This development led to the discovery of fullerenes in 1986 and carbon nanotubes a few years later. In another development, the synthesis and properties of semiconductor nanocrystals was studied; This led to a fast increasing number of metal oxide nanoparticles of quantum dots. The atomic force microscope was invented six years after the STM was invented. In 2000, the United States National Nanotechnology Initiative was founded to coordinate Federal nanotechnology research and development. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (672x623, 147 KB)A 3D model of a C60 molecule, also called a Buckyball. Created by Michael Ströck (mstroeck) on February 6, 2006 in iMol for Mac OS X and Photoshop CS2. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (672x623, 147 KB)A 3D model of a C60 molecule, also called a Buckyball. Created by Michael Ströck (mstroeck) on February 6, 2006 in iMol for Mac OS X and Photoshop CS2. ... Eight allotropes of carbon: a) Diamond, b) Graphite, c) Lonsdaleite, d) C60 (Buckminsterfullerene or buckyball), e) C540, f) C70, g) Amorphous carbon, and h) single-walled carbon nanotube or buckytube. ... The Icosahedral Fullerene C540 C60 and C-60 redirect here. ... Although nanotechnology is a relatively recent development in scientific research, the development of its central concepts happened over a longer period of time. ... In 1959, Richard Feynman gave the first talk on nanotechnology, entitled Theres Plenty of Room at the Bottom[1]. He considered the possibility of direct manipulation of individual atoms as a more powerful form of synthetic chemistry. ... This article is about the physicist. ... The American Physical Society was founded in 1899 and is the worlds second largest organization of physicists. ... California Institute of Technology The California Institute of Technology (commonly known as Caltech) is a private, coeducational university located in Pasadena, California, in the United States. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... In chemistry, the term van der Waals force originally referred to all forms of intermolecular forces; however, in modern usage it tends to refer to intermolecular forces that deal with forces due to the polarization of molecules. ... Parallelism may refer to: Parallelism (philosophy) - in the philosophy of mind a theistic, dualist solution to the mind-body problem Parallelism in computing Parallelism in grammar or in rhetoric This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Tokyo University of Science (東京理科大学 Tokyo Rika Daigaku, formerly Tokyo Science University) is the prestigious private university of science and technology in Japan. ... Professor Norio Taniguchi of Tokyo Science University invented the term nanotechnology in 1974. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... K. Eric Drexler (born April 25, 1955) is best known for popularizing the potential of molecular nanotechnology. ... In physics, the term clusters denotes small, multiatom particles. ... Image of reconstruction on a clean Au(100) surface. ... Buckminsterfullerene (C60) Fullerenes are molecules composed entirely of carbon, taking the form of a hollow sphere, ellipsoid, or tube. ... An electronic device known as a diode can be formed by joining two nanoscale carbon tubes with different electronic properties. ... A nanocrystal is a crystalline material with dimensions measured in nanometers; a nanoparticle with a structure that is mostly crystalline. ... A quantum dot is a potential well that confines electrons in three dimensions to a region of the order of the electrons de Broglie wavelength in size, a few nanometers in a semiconductor. ... Topographic scan of a glass surface The atomic force microscope (AFM) is a very high-resolution type of scanning probe microscope, with demonstrated resolution of fractions of a nanometer, more than 1000 times better than the optical diffraction limit. ...


Fundamental concepts

One nanometer (nm) is one billionth, or 10-9 of a meter. To put that scale in context, the comparative size of a nanometer to a meter is the same as that of a marble to the size of the earth.[5] Or another way of putting it: a nanometer is the amount a man's beard grows in the time it takes him to raise the razor to his face.[5]


Typical carbon-carbon bond lengths, or the spacing between these atoms in a molecule, are in the range 0.12-0.15 nm, and a DNA double-helix has a diameter around 2 nm. On the other hand, the smallest cellular lifeforms, the bacteria of the genus Mycoplasma, are around 200 nm in length. In molecular geometry, bond length or bond distance is the distance between two bonded atoms in a molecule. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... Species M. genitalium M. hominis M. pneumoniae etc. ...


Larger to smaller: a materials perspective

Image of reconstruction on a clean Au(100) surface, as visualized using scanning tunneling microscopy. The positions of the individual atoms composing the surface are visible.
Image of reconstruction on a clean Au(100) surface, as visualized using scanning tunneling microscopy. The positions of the individual atoms composing the surface are visible.
Main article: Nanomaterials

A number of physical phenomena become pronounced as the size of the system decreases. These include statistical mechanical effects, as well as quantum mechanical effects, for example the “quantum size effect” where the electronic properties of solids are altered with great reductions in particle size. This effect does not come into play by going from macro to micro dimensions. However, it becomes dominant when the nanometer size range is reached. Additionally, a number of physical (mechanical, electrical, optical, etc.) properties change when compared to macroscopic systems. One example is the increase in surface area to volume ratio altering mechanical, thermal and catalytic properties of materials. Novel mechanical properties of nanosystems are of interest in the nanomechanics research. The catalytic activity of nanomaterials also opens potential risks in their interaction with biomaterials. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... In surface physics, surface reconstruction is the name given to the process by which the atoms at the surface of a crystal rearrange themselves to form a structure with a different periodicity and/or symmetry than that of the bulk crystal. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... Examples of directions Miller indices are a notation used to describe lattice planes and directions in a crystal. ... Image of substitutional Cr impurities (small bumps) in the Fe(001) surface. ... For other uses, see Atom (disambiguation). ... Nanomaterials is the study of how materials behave when their dimensions are reduced to the nanoscale. ... Statistical mechanics is the application of probability theory, which includes mathematical tools for dealing with large populations, to the field of mechanics, which is concerned with the motion of particles or objects when subjected to a force. ... For a generally accessible and less technical introduction to the topic, see Introduction to quantum mechanics. ... In physics, a quantum (plural: quanta) is an indivisible entity of energy. ... In surgery, a biomaterial is a synthetic or natural material used to replace part of a living system or to function in intimate contact with living tissue. ...


Materials reduced to the nanoscale can show different properties compared to what they exhibit on a macroscale, enabling unique applications. For instance, opaque substances become transparent (copper); inert materials become catalysts (platinum); stable materials turn combustible (aluminum); solids turn into liquids at room temperature (gold); insulators become conductors (silicon). A material such as gold, which is chemically inert at normal scales, can serve as a potent chemical catalyst at nanoscales. Much of the fascination with nanotechnology stems from these quantum and surface phenomena that matter exhibits at the nanoscale. GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Catalysis. ...


Simple to complex: a molecular perspective

Main article: Molecular self-assembly

Modern synthetic chemistry has reached the point where it is possible to prepare small molecules to almost any structure. These methods are used today to produce a wide variety of useful chemicals such as pharmaceuticals or commercial polymers. This ability raises the question of extending this kind of control to the next-larger level, seeking methods to assemble these single molecules into supramolecular assemblies consisting of many molecules arranged in a well defined manner. An example of a molecular self-assembly through hydrogen bonds reported by Meijer and coworkers in Angew. ... In chemistry, chemical synthesis is purposeful execution of chemical reactions in order to get a product, or several products. ... 3D (left and center) and 2D (right) representations of the terpenoid molecule atisane. ... For other uses, see Drug (disambiguation). ... A polymer (from Greek: πολυ, polu, many; and μέρος, meros, part) is a substance composed of molecules with large molecular mass composed of repeating structural units, or monomers, connected by covalent chemical bonds. ... A supramolecular assembly is an assembly of molecules held together by noncovalent bonds. ...


These approaches utilize the concepts of molecular self-assembly and/or supramolecular chemistry to automatically arrange themselves into some useful conformation through a bottom-up approach. The concept of molecular recognition is especially important: molecules can be designed so that a specific conformation or arrangement is favored due to non-covalent intermolecular forces. The Watson-Crick basepairing rules are a direct result of this, as is the specificity of an enzyme being targeted to a single substrate, or the specific folding of the protein itself. Thus, two or more components can be designed to be complementary and mutually attractive so that they make a more complex and useful whole. An example of a molecular self-assembly through hydrogen bonds reported by Meijer and coworkers in Angew. ... Supramolecular chemistry refers to the area of chemistry which focuses on the noncovalent bonding interactions of molecules. ... Top-down and Bottom-up are approaches to the software development process, and by extension to other procedures, mostly involving software. ... Crystal structure of a short peptide L-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala (bacterial cell wall precursor) bound to the antibiotic vancomycin through hydrogen bonds reported by Knox and Pratt in Antimicrob. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... In physics, chemistry, and biology, intermolecular forces are forces that act between stable molecules or between functional groups of macromolecules. ... Base pairs, of a DNA molecule. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... For other uses, see Substrate. ... Protein before and after folding. ...


Such bottom-up approaches should be able to produce devices in parallel and much cheaper than top-down methods, but could potentially be overwhelmed as the size and complexity of the desired assembly increases. Most useful structures require complex and thermodynamically unlikely arrangements of atoms. Nevertheless, there are many examples of self-assembly based on molecular recognition in biology, most notably Watson-Crick basepairing and enzyme-substrate interactions. The challenge for nanotechnology is whether these principles can be used to engineer novel constructs in addition to natural ones. For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: Βιολογία - βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... Base pairs, of a DNA molecule. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... For other uses, see Substrate. ...


Molecular nanotechnology: a long-term view

Molecular nanotechnology, sometimes called molecular manufacturing, is a term given to the concept of engineered nanosystems (nanoscale machines) operating on the molecular scale. It is especially associated with the concept of a molecular assembler, a machine that can produce a desired structure or device atom-by-atom using the principles of mechanosynthesis. Manufacturing in the context of productive nanosystems is not related to, and should be clearly distinguished from, the conventional technologies used to manufacture nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes and nanoparticles. Molecular nanotechnology (MNT) is the concept of engineering functional mechanical systems at the molecular scale. ... A molecular assembler is a molecular machine capable of assembling other molecules given instructions, energy, and a supply of smaller building block molecules to work from. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with mechanochemistry. ...


When the term "nanotechnology" was independently coined and popularized by Eric Drexler (who at the time was unaware of an earlier usage by Norio Taniguchi) it referred to a future manufacturing technology based on molecular machine systems. The premise was that molecular-scale biological analogies of traditional machine components demonstrated molecular machines were possible: by the countless examples found in biology, it is known that sophisticated, stochastically optimised biological machines can be produced. K. Eric Drexler (born April 25, 1955) is best known for popularizing the potential of molecular nanotechnology. ... Although nanotechnology is a relatively recent development in scientific research, the development of its central concepts happened over a longer period of time. ... Professor Norio Taniguchi of Tokyo Science University invented the term nanotechnology in 1974. ... ... Stochastic, from the Greek stochos or goal, means of, relating to, or characterized by conjecture; conjectural; random. ...


It is hoped that developments in nanotechnology will make possible their construction by some other means, perhaps using biomimetic principles. However, Drexler and other researchers[6] have proposed that advanced nanotechnology, although perhaps initially implemented by biomimetic means, ultimately could be based on mechanical engineering principles, namely, a manufacturing technology based on the mechanical functionality of these components (such as gears, bearings, motors, and structural members) that would enable programmable, positional assembly to atomic specification (PNAS-1981). The physics and engineering performance of exemplar designs were analyzed in Drexler's book Nanosystems. ...


But Drexler's analysis is very qualitative and does not address very pressing issues, such as the "fat fingers" and "Sticky fingers" problems. In general it is very difficult to assemble devices on the atomic scale, as all one has to position atoms are other atoms of comparable size and stickyness. Another view, put forth by Carlo Montemagno],[7] is that future nanosystems will be hybrids of silicon technology and biological molecular machines. Yet another view, put forward by the late Richard Smalley, is that mechanosynthesis is impossible due to the difficulties in mechanically manipulating individual molecules. Richard Errett Smalley Richard Errett Smalley (June 6, 1943 – October 28, 2005) was the Gene and Norman Hackerman Professor of Chemistry and a Professor of Physics and Astronomy at Rice University, in Houston, Texas. ...


This led to an exchange of letters in the ACS publication Chemical & Engineering News in 2003.[8] Though biology clearly demonstrates that molecular machine systems are possible, non-biological molecular machines are today only in their infancy. Leaders in research on non-biological molecular machines are Dr. Alex Zettl and his colleagues at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories and UC Berkeley. They have constructed at least three distinct molecular devices whose motion is controlled from the desktop with changing voltage: a nanotube nanomotor, a molecular actuator, and a nanoelectromechanical relaxation oscillator. The American Chemical Society (ACS) is a learned society (professional association) based in the United States that supports scientific inquiry in the field of chemistry. ... Chemistry & Engineering News is a weekly chemistry trade magazine published by the American Chemical Society. ... Alex Zettl is an American solid state phyicist. ... A nanomotor is a molecular device capable of converting energy into movement and forces on the order of the pico-newtons. ...


An experiment indicating that positional molecular assembly is possible was performed by Ho and Lee at Cornell University in 1999. They used a scanning tunneling microscope to move an individual carbon monoxide molecule (CO) to an individual iron atom (Fe) sitting on a flat silver crystal, and chemically bound the CO to the Fe by applying a voltage. Cornell redirects here. ...


Current research

Space-filling model of the nanocar on a surface, using fullerenes as wheels.
Graphical representation of a rotaxane, useful as a molecular switch.
Graphical representation of a rotaxane, useful as a molecular switch.
This device transfers energy from nano-thin layers of quantum wells to nanocrystals above them, causing the nanocrystals to emit visible light.
This device transfers energy from nano-thin layers of quantum wells to nanocrystals above them, causing the nanocrystals to emit visible light.[9]

Image File history File links NanoCartriangle. ... Image File history File links NanoCartriangle. ... Space-filling model of the nanocar on a surface The nanocar is a molecule designed in 2005 at Rice University in the group of Professor James Tour. ... Buckminsterfullerene (C60) Fullerenes are molecules composed entirely of carbon, taking the form of a hollow sphere, ellipsoid, or tube. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Rotaxane. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Rotaxane. ... A rotaxane is a molecular structure consisting of a dumbbell shaped molecule that is threaded through a macrocycle or ring-like molecule. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1500x2122, 266 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Quantum dot Portal:Science/Previous articles Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1500x2122, 266 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Quantum dot Portal:Science/Previous articles Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the... A quantum well is a potential well that confines particles in one dimension, forcing them to occupy a planar region. ... A nanocrystal is a crystalline material with dimensions measured in nanometers; a nanoparticle with a structure that is mostly crystalline. ...

Nanomaterials

This includes subfields which develop or study materials having unique properties arising from their nanoscale dimensions.[10]

  • Interface and Colloid Science has given rise to many materials which may be useful in nanotechnology, such as carbon nanotubes and other fullerenes, and various nanoparticles and nanorods.
  • Nanoscale materials can also be used for bulk applications; most present commercial applications of nanotechnology are of this flavor.
  • Progress has been made in using these materials for medical applications; see Nanomedicine.

Interface and Colloid Science deals with heterogeneous systems. ... // 3D model of three types of single-walled carbon nanotubes. ... The Icosahedral Fullerene C540 C60 and C-60 redirect here. ... Silicon nanopowder Nanodiamonds, TEM image A nanoparticle (or nanopowder or nanocluster or nanocrystal) is a small particle with at least one dimension less than 100 nm. ... In nanotechnology, nanorods are one morphology of nanoscale objects. ... Nanomaterials is the study of how materials behave when their dimensions are reduced to the nanoscale. ... Nanomedicine is the medical application of nanotechnology. ...

Bottom-up approaches

These seek to arrange smaller components into more complex assemblies.

  • DNA nanotechnology utilizes the specificity of Watson-Crick basepairing to construct well-defined structures out of DNA and other nucleic acids.
  • Approaches from the field of "classical" chemical synthesis also aim at designing molecules with well-defined shape (e.g. bis-peptides[11]).
  • More generally, molecular self-assembly seeks to use concepts of supramolecular chemistry, and molecular recognition in particular, to cause single-molecule components to automatically arrange themselves into some useful conformation.

DNA nanotechnology is an area of scientific research which seeks to use the unique molecular recognition properties of DNA and other nucleic acids to create novel, controllable structures out of DNA. The DNA is thus used as a structural material rather than as a carrier of biological information. ... Base pairs, of a DNA molecule. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Look up nucleic acid in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Bis-peptides are analogues of peptides, but consist of bis-amino acids, which bear two carboxyl groups and two amino groups. ... An example of a molecular self-assembly through hydrogen bonds reported by Meijer and coworkers in Angew. ... Supramolecular chemistry refers to the area of chemistry which focuses on the noncovalent bonding interactions of molecules. ... Crystal structure of a short peptide L-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala (bacterial cell wall precursor) bound to the antibiotic vancomycin through hydrogen bonds reported by Knox and Pratt in Antimicrob. ...

Top-down approaches

These seek to create smaller devices by using larger ones to direct their assembly.

for example if you want to see the apearane or ldf NASAs Glenn Research Center cleanroom. ... A microprocessor incorporates most or all of the functions of a central processing unit (CPU) on a single integrated circuit (IC). ... The Giant Magnetoresistive Effect (GMR) is a quantum mechanical effect observed in thin film structures composed of alternating ferromagnetic and nonmagnetic layers. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Dr Peter Grünberg is a German physicist and one of the discoverers of the Giant magnetoresistive effect which brought about a breakthrough in gigabyte hard disks. ... Albert Fert (b. ... Hannes Alfvén (1908–1995) accepting the Nobel Prize for his work on magnetohydrodynamics [1]. List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physics from 1901 to the present day. ... NEMS redirects here. ... A mite less than 1 mm on a MEMS device. ... Topographic scan of a glass surface The atomic force microscope (AFM) is a very high-resolution type of scanning probe microscope, with demonstrated resolution of fractions of a nanometer, more than 1000 times better than the optical diffraction limit. ... Dip pen nanolithography is a technique where an atomic force microscope tip is used to transfer molecules to a surface via a solvent meniscus. ... Nanolithography — or lithography at the nanometer scale — refers to the fabrication of nanometer-scale structures, meaning patterns with at least one lateral dimension between the size of an individual atom and approximately 100 nm. ...


Functional approaches

These seek to develop components of a desired functionality without regard to how they might be assembled.

Molecular electronics (sometimes called moletronics) is a branch of applied physics which aims at using molecules as passive (e. ... A rotaxane is a molecular structure consisting of a dumbbell shaped molecule that is threaded through a macrocycle or ring-like molecule. ... Synthetic molecular motors are nanoscale devices capable of rotation under energy input. ... Space-filling model of the nanocar on a surface The nanocar is a molecule designed in 2005 at Rice University in the group of Professor James Tour. ...

Speculative

These subfields seek to anticipate what inventions nanotechnology might yield, or attempt to propose an agenda along which inquiry might progress. These often take a big-picture view of nanotechnology, with more emphasis on its societal implications than the details of how such inventions could actually be created. Future studies reflects on how today’s changes (or the lack thereof) become tomorrow’s reality. ... Potential risks of nanotechnology can broadly be grouped into four areas: the risk of environmental damage from nanoparticles and nanomaterials the risk posed by molecular manufacturing (or advanced nanotechnology) societal risks health risks Nanoethics concerns the ethical and social issues associated with developments in nanotechnology, a science which encompass several...

  • Molecular nanotechnology is a proposed approach which involves manipulating single molecules in finely controlled, deterministic ways. This is more theoretical than the other subfields and is beyond current capabilities.
  • Nanorobotics centers on self-sufficient machines of some functionality operating at the nanoscale. There are hopes for applying nanorobots in medicine[15][16][17], but it may not be easy to do such a thing because of several drawbacks of such devices.[18] Nevertheless, progress on innovative materials and methodologies has been demonstrated with some patents granted about new nanomanufacturing devices for future commercial applications, which also progressively helps in the development towards nanorobots with the use of embedded nanobioelectronics concept.[19][20]
  • Programmable matter based on artificial atoms seeks to design materials whose properties can be easily and reversibly externally controlled.
  • Due to the popularity and media exposure of the term nanotechnology, the words picotechnology and femtotechnology have been coined in analogy to it, although these are only used rarely and informally.

Molecular nanotechnology (MNT) is the concept of engineering functional mechanical systems at the molecular scale. ... Nanorobotics is the technology of creating machines or robots at or close to the microscopic scale of a nanometres (10-9 metres). ... Programmable matter or wellstone is a science fiction neologism meaning bulk matter of which the physical or chemical properties reversibly can be changed on demand. ... Artificial atoms is a term commonly used to described object that have electronic bound states as natural atoms. ... Picotechnology is a term used by some futurists to refer to structuring of matter on a picometre scale, by analogy with nanotechnology. ... Femtotechnology is a term used by some futurists to refer to structuring of matter on a femtometre scale, by analogy with nanotechnology and picotechnology. ...

Tools and techniques

Typical AFM setup. A microfabricated cantilever with a sharp tip is deflected by features on a sample surface, much like in a phonograph but on a much smaller scale. A laser beam reflects off the backside of the cantilever into a set of photodetectors, allowing the deflection to be measured and assembled into an image of the surface.
Typical AFM setup. A microfabricated cantilever with a sharp tip is deflected by features on a sample surface, much like in a phonograph but on a much smaller scale. A laser beam reflects off the backside of the cantilever into a set of photodetectors, allowing the deflection to be measured and assembled into an image of the surface.

The first observations and size measurements of nano-particles were made during the first decade of the 20th century. They are mostly associated with the name of Zsigmondy who made detailed studies of gold sols and other nanomaterials with sizes down to 10 nm and less. He published a book in 1914.[21] He used ultramicroscope that employs a dark field method for seeing particles with sizes much less than light wavelength. Image File history File links AFMsetup. ... Image File history File links AFMsetup. ... Topographic scan of a glass surface The atomic force microscope (AFM) is a very high-resolution type of scanning probe microscope, with demonstrated resolution of fractions of a nanometer, more than 1000 times better than the optical diffraction limit. ... Microfabrication is the collective term for the technologies used to fabricate components on a micrometer-sized scale. ... A schematic image of two cantilevers. ... Tonearm redirects here. ... For other uses, see Laser (disambiguation). ... Photosensors or photodetectors appear in several varieties: Photoresistors or Light Dependant Resistors (LDR) which change resistance when illuminated Photovoltaic cells or solar cells which produce a voltage and supply an electric current when illuminated Photodiodes which can operate in photovoltaic mode or photoconductive mode Phototubes containing a photocathode which emits... The ultramicroscope is a system of illumination for extremely small objects such as colloidal particles, fog droplets, or smoke particles. ... For other uses, see Light (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wavelength (disambiguation). ...


There are traditional techniques developed during 20th century in Interface and Colloid Science for characterizing nanomaterials. These are widely used for first generation passive nanomaterials specified in the next section. Interface and Colloid Science deals with heterogeneous systems. ...


These methods include several different techniques for characterizing particle size distribution. This characterization is imperative because many materials that are expected to be nano-sized are actually aggregated in solutions. Some of methods are based on light scattering. Other apply ultrasound, such as ultrasound attenuation spectroscopy for testing concentrated nano-dispersions and microemulsions.[22] The particle size distribution[1] (PSD) of a powder or granular material is a list of values or a mathematical function that defines the relative amounts of particles present, sorted according to size. ... In particle physics, scattering is a class of phenomena by which particles are deflected by collisions with other particles. ... For other uses, see Ultrasound (disambiguation). ... Ultrasound attenuation spectroscopy is a method for characterizing properties of fluids and dispersed particles. ...


There is also a group of traditional techniques for characterizing surface charge or zeta potential of nano-particles in solutions. These information is required for proper system stabilzation, preventing its aggregation or flocculation. These methods include microelectrophoresis, electrophoretic light scattering and electroacoustics. The last one, for instance colloid vibration current method is suitable for characterizing concentrated systems. Surface charge is the electric charge present on an interface, for instance on the surface of a semiconductor material. ... The zeta potential in physical chemistry is measured by electrophoresis. ... Look up Aggregation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary The term aggregation may refer to— in economics, combining entities into a single entity which represent them, like aggregation of individual demand to total, or market, demand. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Microelectrophoresis is a method of studying electrophoresis of various dispersed particles using optical microscopy. ... Electrophoretic light scattering is based on dynamic light scattering. ... Musique concrète is the name given to a class of electronic music produced from editing together fragments of natural and industrial sounds. ... Colloid Vibration Current is an electroacoustic phenomena arises when ultrasound propagates through a fluid that contain ions and either solid particles or emulsion droplets . ...


Next group of nanotechnological techniques include those used for fabrication of nanowires, those used in semiconductor fabrication such as deep ultraviolet lithography, electron beam lithography, focused ion beam machining, nanoimprint lithography, atomic layer deposition, and molecular vapor deposition, and further including molecular self-assembly techniques such as those employing di-block copolymers. However, all of these techniques preceded the nanotech era, and are extensions in the development of scientific advancements rather than techniques which were devised with the sole purpose of creating nanotechnology and which were results of nanotechnology research. Focused ion beam, also known as FIB, is a scientific instrument that resembles a scanning electron microscope. ...


There are several important modern developments. The atomic force microscope (AFM) and the Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) are two early versions of scanning probes that launched nanotechnology. There are other types of scanning probe microscopy, all flowing from the ideas of the scanning confocal microscope developed by Marvin Minsky in 1961 and the scanning acoustic microscope (SAM) developed by Calvin Quate and coworkers in the 1970s, that made it possible to see structures at the nanoscale. The tip of a scanning probe can also be used to manipulate nanostructures (a process called positional assembly). Feature-oriented scanning-positioning methodology suggested by Rostislav Lapshin appears to be a promising way to implement these nanomanipulations in automatic mode. However, this is still a slow process because of low scanning velocity of the microscope. Various techniques of nanolithography such as dip pen nanolithography, electron beam lithography or nanoimprint lithography were also developed. Lithography is a top-down fabrication technique where a bulk material is reduced in size to nanoscale pattern. Topographic scan of a glass surface The atomic force microscope (AFM) is a very high-resolution type of scanning probe microscope, with demonstrated resolution of fractions of a nanometer, more than 1000 times better than the optical diffraction limit. ... Image of reconstruction on a clean Au(100) surface. ... Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is a branch of microscopy that forms images of surfaces using a physical probe that scans the specimen. ... Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM or LSCM) is a valuable tool for obtaining high resolution images and 3-D reconstructions. ... Marvin Lee Minsky (born August 9, 1927), sometimes affectionately known as Old Man Minsky, is an American cognitive scientist in the field of artificial intelligence (AI), co-founder of MITs AI laboratory, and author of several texts on AI and philosophy. ... Scanning Acoustic Tomography (SCAT) redirects here. ... He is one of the inventors of the Atomic Force Microscope. ... Feature-oriented scanning (FOS)[1][2] is a method intended for high-precision measurement of nanotopography as well as other surface properties and characteristics on a scanning probe microscope (SPM) using features (objects) of the surface as reference points of the microscope probe. ... Feature-oriented positioning (FOP)[1] is a method of precision movement of the scanning microscope probe across the surface under investigation. ... Nanolithography — or lithography at the nanometer scale — refers to the fabrication of nanometer-scale structures, meaning patterns with at least one lateral dimension between the size of an individual atom and approximately 100 nm. ... Dip pen nanolithography is a technique where an atomic force microscope tip is used to transfer molecules to a surface via a solvent meniscus. ... // Conventional electron-beam lithography The practice of using a beam of electrons to generate patterns on a surface is known as Electron beam lithography. ... Nanoimprint lithography is a novel method of fabricating nanometer scale patterns. ...


The top-down approach anticipates nanodevices that must be built piece by piece in stages, much as manufactured items are made. Scanning probe microscopy is an important technique both for characterization and synthesis of nanomaterials. Atomic force microscopes and scanning tunneling microscopes can be used to look at surfaces and to move atoms around. By designing different tips for these microscopes, they can be used for carving out structures on surfaces and to help guide self-assembling structures. By using, for example, feature-oriented scanning-positioning approach, atoms can be moved around on a surface with scanning probe microscopy techniques. At present, it is expensive and time-consuming for mass production but very suitable for laboratory experimentation. Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is a branch of microscopy that forms images of surfaces using a physical probe that scans the specimen. ... Topographic scan of a glass surface The atomic force microscope (AFM) is a very high-resolution type of scanning probe microscope, with demonstrated resolution of fractions of a nanometer, more than 1000 times better than the optical diffraction limit. ... Image of reconstruction on a clean Au(100) surface. ... Feature-oriented scanning (FOS)[1][2] is a method intended for high-precision measurement of nanotopography as well as other surface properties and characteristics on a scanning probe microscope (SPM) using features (objects) of the surface as reference points of the microscope probe. ... Feature-oriented positioning (FOP)[1] is a method of precision movement of the scanning microscope probe across the surface under investigation. ...


In contrast, bottom-up techniques build or grow larger structures atom by atom or molecule by molecule. These techniques include chemical synthesis, self-assembly and positional assembly. Another variation of the bottom-up approach is molecular beam epitaxy or MBE. Researchers at Bell Telephone Laboratories like John R. Arthur. Alfred Y. Cho, and Art C. Gossard developed and implemented MBE as a research tool in the late 1960s and 1970s. Samples made by MBE were key to the discovery of the fractional quantum Hall effect for which the 1998 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded. MBE allows scientists to lay down atomically-precise layers of atoms and, in the process, build up complex structures. Important for research on semiconductors, MBE is also widely used to make samples and devices for the newly emerging field of spintronics. In chemistry, chemical synthesis is purposeful execution of chemical reactions in order to get a product, or several products. ... Self-assembly is the fundamental principle which generates structural organization on all scales from molecules to galaxies. ... Molecular beam epitaxy, abbreviated MBE, is the deposition of one or more pure materials onto a single crystal wafer, one layer of atoms at a time, under ultra-high vacuum, forming a perfect crystal. ... Bell Telephone Laboratories or Bell Labs was originally the research and development arm of the United States Bell System, and was the premier corporate facility of its type, developing a range of revolutionary technologies from telephone switches to specialized coverings for telephone cables, to the transistor. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Hannes Alfvén (1908–1995) accepting the Nobel Prize for his work on magnetohydrodynamics [1]. List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physics from 1901 to the present day. ... Unsolved problems in physics: Is it possible to construct a practical electronic device that operates on the spin of the electron, rather than its charge? Spintronics (a neologism for spin-based electronics), also known as magnetoelectronics, is an emergent technology which exploits the quantum spin states of electrons as well...


Newer techniques such as Dual Polarisation Interferometry are enabling scientists to measure quantitatively the molecular interactions that take place at the nano-scale. This article, image, template or category should belong in one or more categories. ...


Applications

As of April 24, 2008 The Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies claims that over 609 nanotech products exist, with new ones hitting the market as a pace of 3-4 a week.[23] The project lists all of the products in a database. Most applications are limited to the use of "first generation" passive nanomaterials which includes titanium dioxide in sunscreen, cosmetics and some food products; silver in food packaging, clothing, disinfectants and household appliances; zinc oxide in sunscreens and cosmetics, surface coatings, paints and outdoor furniture varnishes; and cerium oxide as a fuel catalyst.[citation needed] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The National Science Foundation (a major source of funding for nanotechnology in the United States) funded researcher David Berube to study the field of nanotechnology. His findings are published in the monograph “Nano-Hype: The Truth Behind the Nanotechnology Buzz". This published study (with a foreword by Mihail Roco, Senior Advisor for Nanotechnology at the National Science Foundation) concludes that much of what is sold as “nanotechnology” is in fact a recasting of straightforward materials science, which is leading to a “nanotech industry built solely on selling nanotubes, nanowires, and the like” which will “end up with a few suppliers selling low margin products in huge volumes." Further applications which require actual manipulation or arrangement of nanoscale components await further research. Though technologies branded with the term 'nano' are sometimes little related to and fall far short of the most ambitious and transformative technological goals of the sort in molecular manufacturing proposals, the term still connotes such ideas. Thus there may be a danger that a "nano bubble" will form, or is forming already, from the use of the term by scientists and entrepreneurs to garner funding, regardless of interest in the transformative possibilities of more ambitious and far-sighted work. The logo of the National Science Foundation The National Science Foundation (NSF) is an independent United States government agency that supports fundamental research and education in all the non-medical fields of science and engineering. ...


Nanofiltration may come to be an important application, although future research must be careful to investigate possible toxicity.[24] Nanofiltration is a relatively recent membrane process used most often with low TDS waters such as surface water and fresh groundwater, with the purpose of softening (polyvalent cation removal) and removal of disinfection by-product precursors such as natural organic matter and synthetic organic matter [1] [2]. Nanofiltration is also...


In 1999, the ultimate CMOS transistor developed at the Laboratory for Economics and Information Technology in Grenoble, France, tested the limits of the principles of the MOSFET transistor with a diameter of 18 nm (approximately 70 atoms placed side by side). This was almost one tenth the size of the smallest industrial transistor in 2003 (130 nm in 2003, 90 nm in 2004 and 65 nm in 2005). It enabled the theoretical integration of seven billion junctions on a €1 coin. However, the CMOS transistor, which was created in 1999, was not a simple research experiment to study how CMOS technology functions, but rather a demonstration of how this technology functions now that we ourselves are getting ever closer to working on a molecular scale. Today it would be impossible to master the coordinated assembly of a large number of these transistors on a circuit and it would also be impossible to create this on an industrial level.[25]


Cancer

The small size of nanoparticles endows them with properties that can be very useful in oncology, particularly in imaging. Quantum dots (nanoparticles with quantum confinement properties, such as size-tunable light emission), when used in conjunction with MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), can produce exceptional images of tumor sites. These nanoparticles are much brighter than organic dyes and only need one light source for excitation. This means that the use of fluorescent quantum dots could produce a higher contrast image and at a lower cost than today's organic dyes used as contrast media. See cancer for the biology of the disease, as well as a list of malignant diseases. ... Radiocontrast agents (or simply contrast agents) are compounds used to improve the visibility of internal bodily structures in an X-ray image. ...


Another nanoproperty, high surface area to volume ratio, allows many functional groups to be attached to a nanoparticle, which can seek out and bind to certain tumor cells. Additionally, the small size of nanoparticles (10 to 100 nanometers), allows them to preferentially accumulate at tumor sites (because tumors lack an effective lymphatic drainage system). A very exciting research question is how to make these imaging nanoparticles do more things for cancer. For instance, is it possible to manufacture multifunctional nanoparticles that would detect, image, and then proceed to treat a tumor? This question is under vigorous investigation; the answer to which could shape the future of cancer treatment.[26]A promising new cancer treatment that may one day replace radiation and chemotherapy is edging closer to human trials. Kanzius RF therapy attaches microscopic nanoparticles to cancer cells and then "cooks" tumors inside the body with radio waves that heat only the nanoparticles and the adjacent (cancerous) cells. See the article about cancer for the main article about malignant tumors. ... John Kanzius (born 1944), is an American inventor, radio and TV engineer and one-time station owner from Erie, Pennsylvania, who has invented a method for cancer treatment as well as a way to produce hydrogen from water, both using his radio frequency transceiver. ...


Psychotronic (psychological) Operations and Directed Energy Torture

Small nanoscale implants can be introduced into the human body via aerial seeding of self-replicating nanotechnology into the air, water, or food supplies. See: "The Air Force Wants Your LOV: Aerial Seeding of Biological Implants into Food, Water, & Air" -- exoticwarfare.org [1]. Some activists and scientists now believe that this may actually have been happening for the last ten years in NATO countries through atmospheric, military spraying operations commonly referred to as "chemtrails." Chemical trails are not contrails (see -- HR 2977, 107th Congress for Congressional evidence that chemtrails exist). Morgellons syndrome is thought to be caused by this aerial seeding of "thinner than human hair" nanotechnology ("Hit 'Em Where It Hurts," Air Force 2025}. Please see: carnicom.com, staningerreport.com, and rense.com [2], [3], and [4]. Four of the best laboratories in the United States analysed chemtrail nano-fibers and Morgellons nano-fibers and determined that the chemtrail fibers were a less developed version of the Morgellon fibers. The laboratory report is available for viewing in the Morgellons section at rense.com [5]. These fibers are able to receive and transmit specific microwave, radio, ELF, and other electromagnetic frequencies.


Health and environmental concerns

Main article: Nanotoxicology

Some of the recently developed nanoparticle products may have unintended consequences. Researchers have discovered that silver nanoparticles used in socks to reduce foot odor are being released in the wash with possible negative consequences.[27] Silver nanoparticles, which are bacteriostatic, may then destroy beneficial bacteria which are important for breaking down organic matter in waste treatment plants or farms.[28] Research on ultrafine particles has laid the foundation for the emerging field of nanotoxicology, with the goal of studying the biokinetics of engineered nanomaterials and their potential for causing adverse effects. ... For the Law of unintended consequences, see Unintended consequence Unintended Consequences by John Ross, 1996 Unintended Consequences is a novel by author John Ross, first published in 1996 by Accurate Press. ... Bacteriostatic antibiotics hamper the growth of bacteria by interfering with bacteria protein production, interfering with bacteria DNA production interfering with bacteria cellular metabolism Bacteriostatic antibiotics inhibit growth and repoduction of the bacteria, though do not kill it, while bactericidal antibiotics kill bacteria. ...


A study at the University of Rochester found that when rats breathed in nanoparticles, the particles settled in the brain and lungs, which lead to significant increases in biomarkers for inflammation and stress response.[29] The University of Rochester (UR) is a private, coeducational and nonsectarian research university located in Rochester, New York. ...


Implications

Due to the far-ranging claims that have been made about potential applications of nanotechnology, a number of concerns have been raised about what effects these will have on our society if realized, and what action if any is appropriate to mitigate these risks. Potential risks of nanotechnology can broadly be grouped into four areas: the risk of environmental damage from nanoparticles and nanomaterials the risk posed by molecular manufacturing (or advanced nanotechnology) societal risks health risks Nanoethics concerns the ethical and social issues associated with developments in nanotechnology, a science which encompass several...


One area of concern is the effect that industrial-scale manufacturing and use of nanomaterials would have on human health and the environment, as suggested by nanotoxicology research. Groups such as the Center for Responsible Nanotechnology have advocated that nanotechnology should be specially regulated by governments for these reasons. Others counter that overregulation would stifle scientific research and the development of innovations which could greatly benefit mankind. Nanomaterials is the study of how materials behave when their dimensions are reduced to the nanoscale. ... Research on ultrafine particles has laid the foundation for the emerging field of nanotoxicology, with the goal of studying the biokinetics of engineered nanomaterials and their potential for causing adverse effects. ... The Center for Responsible Nanotechnology (CRN), founded in December, 2002, is a non-profit research and advocacy organization with a focus on molecular manufacturing and its possible effects, both positive and negative. ... Nanosocialism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Other experts, including director of the Woodrow Wilson Center's Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies David Rejeski, have testified[30] that successful commercialization depends on adequate oversight, risk research strategy, and public engagement. More recently local municipalities have passed (Berkeley, CA) or are considering (Cambridge, MA) - ordinances requiring nanomaterial manufacturers to disclose the known risks of their products. The Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies was established in 2005 as a partnership between the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars and the Pew Charitable Trusts. ...


The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health is conducting research on how nanoparticles interact with the body’s systems and how workers might be exposed to nano-sized particles in the manufacturing or industrial use of nanomaterials. NIOSH offers interim guidelines for working with nanomaterials consistent with the best scientific knowledge. [31] The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the United States federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness. ...


Longer-term concerns center on the implications that new technologies will have for society at large, and whether these could possibly lead to either a post scarcity economy, or alternatively exacerbate the wealth gap between developed and developing nations. The effects of nanotechnology on the society as a whole, on human health and the environment, on trade, on security, on food systems and even on the definition of "human", have not been characterized or politicized. Post scarcity or post-scarcity describes a hypothetical form of economy or society, often explored in science fiction, in which things such as goods, services and information are free, or practically free. ...


See also

ANSI Lumens This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: no content If you disagree with its speedy deletion, please explain why on its talk page or at Wikipedia:Speedy deletions. ... Over the past few decades, the fields of science and engineering have been seeking to develop new and improved upon types of energy technologies that have the capability of improving life all over the world. ... This is a list of emerging technologies. ... This is a list of organizations involved in nanotechnology. ... This page aims to list all topics related to the field of nanotechnology. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The backbone dihedral angles are included in the molecular model of a protein. ... Nanoengineering is the practice of engineering on the nanoscale. ... Nanobiotechnology is the branch of nanotechnology with biological and biochemical applications or uses. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... // Environmental contaminants cover U.S. grounds. ... Nanotechnology education is being offered by more and more universities around the world, especially in Australia and Europe. ... This is a list of references and appearances of Nanotechnology in works of fiction. ... Hybrids Plus plug-in hybrid Toyota Prius conversion with PHEV-30 (30 mile or 48 km all-electric range) battery packs A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) is a hybrid vehicle with batteries that can be recharged by connecting a plug to an electric power source. ... Supramolecular chemistry refers to the area of chemistry which focuses on the noncovalent bonding interactions of molecules. ...

References

  1. ^ http://www.tuta.hut.fi/units/Isib/publications/working_papers/Meyer_WP_2006_1.pdf
  2. ^ Abdelwahed W, Degobert G, Stainmesse S, Fessi H, (2006). "Freeze-drying of nanoparticles: Formulation, process and storage considerations". Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews. 58 (15): 1688-1713. 
  3. ^ N. Taniguchi, "On the Basic Concept of 'Nano-Technology'," Proc. Intl. Conf. Prod. London, Part II, British Society of Precision Engineering, 1974.
  4. ^ Nanosystems: Molecular Machinery, Manufacturing, and Computation. 2006, ISBN 0-471-57518-6
  5. ^ a b Kahn, Jennifer (2006). "Nanotechnology". National Geographic 2006 (June): 98-119. 
  6. ^ Nanotechnology: Developing Molecular Manufacturing
  7. ^ California NanoSystems Institute
  8. ^ C&En: Cover Story - Nanotechnology
  9. ^ Wireless nanocrystals efficiently radiate visible light
  10. ^ Narayan RJ, Kumta PN, Sfeir C, Lee D-H, Olton D, Choi D. (2004). "Nanostructured Ceramics in Medical Devices: Applications and Prospects.". JOM 56 (10): 38-43. 
  11. ^ Levins CG, Schafmeister CE. The synthesis of curved and linear structures from a minimal set of monomers. Journal of Organic Chemistry, 70, p. 9002, 2005. doi:10.1002/chin.200605222
  12. ^ Applications/Products. National Nanotechnology Initiative. Retrieved on 2007-10-19.
  13. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physics 2007. Nobelprize.org. Retrieved on 2007-10-19.
  14. ^ Das S, Gates AJ, Abdu HA, Rose GS, Picconatto CA, Ellenbogen JC. (2007). "Designs for Ultra-Tiny, Special-Purpose Nanoelectronic Circuits.". IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I 54 (11): 2528-2540. 
  15. ^ Ghalanbor Z, Marashi SA, Ranjbar B (2005). "Nanotechnology helps medicine: nanoscale swimmers and their future applications". Med Hypotheses 65 (1): 198-199. PMID 15893147. 
  16. ^ Kubik T, Bogunia-Kubik K, Sugisaka M. (2005). "Nanotechnology on duty in medical applications". Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 6 (1): 17-33. PMID 15727553. 
  17. ^ Leary SP, Liu CY, Apuzzo MLJ. (2006). "Toward the Emergence of Nanoneurosurgery: Part III-Nanomedicine: Targeted Nanotherapy, Nanosurgery, and Progress Toward the Realization of Nanoneurosurgery.". Neurosurgery 58 (6): 1009-1026. 
  18. ^ Shetty RC (2005). "Potential pitfalls of nanotechnology in its applications to medicine: immune incompatibility of nanodevices". Med Hypotheses 65 (5): 998-9. PMID 16023299. 
  19. ^ Cavalcanti A, Shirinzadeh B, Freitas RA Jr., Kretly LC. (2007). "Medical Nanorobot Architecture Based on Nanobioelectronics". Recent Patents on Nanotechnology. 1 (1): 1-10. 
  20. ^ Boukallel M, Gauthier M, Dauge M, Piat E, Abadie J. (2007). "Smart microrobots for mechanical cell characterization and cell convoying.". IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54 (8): 1536-40. PMID 17694877. 
  21. ^ Zsigmondy, R. "Colloids and the Ultramicroscope", J.Wiley and Sons, NY, (1914)
  22. ^ Dukhin, A.S. and Goetz, P.J. "Ultrasound for characterizing colloids", Elsevier, 2002
  23. ^ Parlini, A. (2008.) New nanotech products hitting the market at a rate of 3-4 per week.
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  28. ^ Hu, Z. (2008). Too much technology may be killing bacteria.
  29. ^ Elder, A. (2006). Tiny Inhaled Particles Take Easy Route from Nose to Brain.
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A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Fritz Allhoff and Patrick Lin (eds.), Nanotechnology & Society: Current and Emerging Ethical Issues (Dordrecht: Springer, 2008).[6]
  • Fritz Allhoff, Patrick Lin, James Moor, and John Weckert (eds.), Nanoethics: The Ethical and Societal Implications of Nanotechnology (Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, 2007).[7] [8]
  • J. Clarence Davies, EPA and Nanotechnology: Oversight for the 21st Century, Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies, PEN 9, May 2007.
  • William Sims Bainbridge: Nanoconvergence: The Unity of Nanoscience, Biotechnology, Information Technology and Cognitive Science, June 27 2007, Prentice Hall, ISBN 0-13-244643-X
  • Lynn E. Foster: Nanotechnology: Science, Innovation, and Opportunity, December 21 2005, Prentice Hall, ISBN 0-13-192756-6
  • Impact of Nanotechnology on Biomedical Sciences: Review of Current Concepts on Convergence of Nanotechnology With Biology by Herbert Ernest and Rahul Shetty, from AZojono, May 2005.
  • Hari Singh Nalwa (2004), Encyclopedia of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (10-Volume Set), American Scientific Publishers. ISBN 1-58883-001-2
  • Michael Rieth and Wolfram Schommers (2006), Handbook of Theoretical and Computational Nanotechnology (10-Volume Set), American Scientific Publishers. ISBN 1-58883-042-X
  • Akhlesh Lakhtakia (ed) (2004). The Handbook of Nanotechnology. Nanometer Structures: Theory, Modeling, and Simulation. SPIE Press, Bellingham, WA, USA. ISBN 0-8194-5186-X. 
  • Fei Wang & Akhlesh Lakhtakia (eds) (2006). Selected Papers on Nanotechnology -- Theory & Modeling (Milestone Volume 182). SPIE Press, Bellingham, WA, USA. ISBN 0-8194-6354-X. 
  • Jumana Boussey, Georges Kamarinos, Laurent Montès (editors) (2003), Towards Nanotechnology, "Nano et Micro Technologies", Hermes Sciences Publ., Paris, ISBN 2-7462-0858-X.

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Videos

  • VIDEO: Using Nanotechnology to Improve Health in Developing Countries February 27, 2007 at the Woodrow Wilson Center
  • VIDEO: Nanotechnology Discussion by the BBC and the Vega Science Trust.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Nanotechnology - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5618 words)
Nanotechnology is a sub classification of technology in colloidal science, biology, physics, chemistry and other scientific fields and involves the study of phenomena and manipulation of material at the nanoscale, in essence an extension of existing sciences into the nanoscale.
A unique aspect of nanotechnology is the vastly increased ratio of surface area to volume present in many nanoscale materials, which opens new possibilities in surface-based science, such as catalysis.
Nanotechnology and nanoscience got started in the early 1980s with two major developments; the birth of cluster science and the invention of the scanning tunneling microscope (STM).
Nanotechnology: The Size of Things to Come (792 words)
Nanotechnology deals with the creation and use of materials or devices at the level of molecules and atoms that are 1/1000th the width of a human hair--too small to be seen with a conventional laboratory microscope.
Nanotechnology allows scientists to work on the scale of molecules to create, explore, and manipulate the biological and material worlds measured in nanometers, one-billionth of a meter.
Some of the challenges anticipated by nanotechnology include the uncertain reaction of nanostructures within the body, and those devices or systems that may be so small that the body clears them too soon to be effective in detecting or imaging.
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