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Encyclopedia > Nanking Massacre
The Nanking Massacre

The Rape of Nanking: The Forgotten Holocaust of World War II (ISBN 0-465-06835-9) is a 1997 book by the late Iris Chang which presents a history of the 1937-1938 Nanjing Massacre. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Japanese soldiers entering Nanjing
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese:
Simplified Chinese:
Japanese name
Kanji:

The Nanking Massacre, commonly known as the Rape of Nanking, was an infamous war crime committed by the Japanese military in Nanjing (Nanking), then the capital of the Republic of China, after it fell to the Imperial Japanese Army on December 13, 1937. The duration of the massacre is not clearly defined, although the violence lasted well into the next six weeks, until early February 1938. Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... Map of eastern China and Taiwan, showing the historic distribution of Mandarin Chinese in light brown. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji   ) are the Chinese characters that are used in the modern Japanese logographic writing system along with hiragana (平仮名), katakana (片仮名), and the Arabic numerals. ... Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji The Hepburn romanization system ) is named after James Curtis Hepburn, who used it to transcribe the sounds of the Japanese language into the Latin alphabet in the third edition of his Japanese–English dictionary, published... Execution of Russian civilians by a shot in the back of the head. ... Japanese war crimes occurred during the period of Japanese imperialism. ... Japans honor guard often marches to greet the arrival of foreign dignitaries. ... For other uses, see Nanjing (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... ‹ The template below (History of China - BC) is being considered for deletion. ... The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) (KyÅ«jitai: 大日本帝國陸軍, Shinjitai: , Romaji: Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun), or more officially Army of the Greater Japanese Empire was the official ground based armed force of Imperial Japan from 1867 to 1945. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


During the occupation of Nanking, the Japanese army committed numerous atrocities, such as rape, looting, arson and the execution of prisoners of war and civilians. Although the executions began under the pretext of eliminating Chinese soldiers disguised as civilians, it is claimed that a large number of innocent men were intentionally misidentified as enemy combatants and executed as the massacre gathered momentum. A large number of women and children were also killed, as rape and murder became more widespread. Looting (which derives via the Hindi lut from Sanskrit lung, to rob), sacking, plundering, or pillaging is the indiscriminate taking of goods by force as part of a military or political victory, or during a catastrophe or riot, such as during war,[1] natural disaster,[2] or rioting. ... The Skyline Parkway Motel in Afton, Virginia after an arson fire on July 9, 2004. ... Execution is a synonym for the actioning of something, of putting something into effect. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... A civilian is a person who is not a member of a military. ...


According to the International Military Tribunal for the Far East, estimates made at a later date indicate that the total number of civilians and prisoners of war murdered in Nanking and its vicinity during the first six weeks of the Japanese occupation was over 200,000. That these estimates are not exaggerated is borne out by the fact that burial societies and other organizations counted more than 155,000 buried bodies. Most were bound with their hands tied behind their backs. These figures do not take into account those persons whose bodies were destroyed by burning, by throwing them into the Yangtze River, or otherwise disposed of by the Japanese.[1] The extent of the atrocities is debated between China and Japan, with numbers[2] ranging from some Japanese claims of several hundred,[3] to the Chinese claim of a non-combatant death toll of 300,000[4]. A number of Japanese researchers consider 100,000 – 200,000 to be an approximate value.[5] Other nations usually believe the death toll to be between 150,000–300,000.[6] This number was first promulgated in January of 1938 by Harold Timperley, a journalist in China during the Japanese invasion, based on reports from contemporary eyewitnesses. Other sources, including Iris Chang's The Rape of Nanking, also conclude that the death toll reached 300,000. In December 2007, newly declassified U.S. government documents revealed an additional toll of around 500,000 in the area surrounding Nanking before it was occupied.[7] The International Military Tribunal for the Far East (IMTFE), also known as the Tokyo Trials, the Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal or simply as the Tribunal, was convened to try the leaders of the Empire of Japan for three types of crimes: Class A (crimes against peace), Class B (war crimes... The Yangtze River or Chang Jiang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), or Drichu in Tibetan (Tibetan: འབ; Wylie: bri chu) is the longest river in Asia and the third longest in the world, after the Nile in Africa, and the Amazon in South America. ... Harold John Timperley was an Australian journalist, known for his reporting from China in the 1930s, and the book What War Means (1938) based on it. ... Iris Chang This is a Chinese name; the family name is Zhang Iris Shun-Ru Chang (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: Zhāng Chúnrú; March 28, 1968 – November 9, 2004) was a Chinese American freelance historian and journalist. ... The Rape of Nanking: The Forgotten Holocaust of World War II (ISBN 0-465-06835-9) is a 1997 book by the late Iris Chang which presents a history of the 1937-1938 Nanjing Massacre. ... ...


In addition to the number of victims, some Japanese nationalists have even disputed whether the atrocity ever happened.[8] While the Japanese government has acknowledged the incident did occur,[9] some Japanese nationalists have argued, partly using the Imperial Japanese Army's claims at the International Military Tribunal for the Far East, that the death toll was military in nature and that no such civilian atrocities ever occurred. This claim has been criticised by various figures, citing statements of non-Chinese at the Tribunal, other eyewitnesses and by photographic and archaeological evidence that civilian deaths did occur. There is still dispute as to whether Japan is a constitutional monarchy or a republic. ...


Condemnation of the massacre is a major focal point of Chinese nationalism. In Japan, however, public opinion over the severity of the massacre remains widely divided — this is evidenced by the fact that whereas some Japanese commentators refer to it as the 'Nanking massacre' (南京大虐殺 Nankin daigyakusatsu?), others use the more ambivalent term 'Nanking Incident' (南京事件 Nankin jiken?). However, this term can also refer to a separate Nanjing Incident that occurred during the 1927 Nationalist seizure of the city as a part of the Northern Expedition, in which foreigners in the city were attacked. The 1937 massacre and the extent of its coverage in school textbooks continues to be a point of contention and controversy in Sino-Japanese relations. The May Fourth Movement in 1919 marked a turning point in the history of Chinese nationalism. ... The Nanking Massacre (Chinese: 南京大屠殺, pinyin: Nánjīng Dàtúshā; Japanese: 南京大虐殺, Nankin Daigyakusatsu), also known as the Rape of Nanking and sometimes in Japan as the Nanking Incident (南京事件, Nankin Jiken), refers to what many historians recognize as widespread atrocities committed by the Japanese army in and around Nanking (now Nanjing... China and Japan have had a long official and non-official relationship. ...

Contents

Historical background

Invasion of China

By August of 1937, in the midst of the Second Sino-Japanese War, the Imperial Japanese Army encountered strong resistance from the Kuomintang (traditional Chinese: 國民黨; simplified Chinese: 国民党) army in the Battle of Shanghai. The battle caused high casualties on both sides as they were worn down by attrition in hand-to-hand combat. On August 6, 1937, Hirohito personally ratified his army's proposition to remove the constraints of international law on the treatment of Chinese prisoners. This directive also advised staff officers to stop using the term "prisoner of war".[10] Belligerents China United States1 Empire of Japan Collaborationist Chinese Army2 Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren, Xue Yue, Bai Chongxi, Peng Dehuai, Joseph Stilwell, Claire Chennault, Albert Wedemeyer Hirohito, Fumimaro Konoe, Hideki Tojo, Kotohito Kanin, Matsui Iwane, Hajime Sugiyama, Shunroku Hata, Toshizo Nishio... The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) (KyÅ«jitai: 大日本帝國陸軍, Shinjitai: , Romaji: Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun), or more officially Army of the Greater Japanese Empire was the official ground based armed force of Imperial Japan from 1867 to 1945. ... The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China (ROC), now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in terms of seats in the Legislative Yuan, and the oldest political party in the... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... Combatants National Revolutionary Army, Republic of China Imperial Japanese Army, Empire of Japan Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng Heisuke Yanagawa, Iwane Matsui, Hasegawa Kiyoshi Strength 600,000 troops in 75 divisions and 9 brigades, 200 airplanes 300,000 troops in 8 divisions and 6 brigades, 500 airplanes, 300 tanks... Episode no. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Emperor Shōwa ) (April 29, 1901 – January 7, 1989) was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order reigning from December 25, 1926 until his death in 1989. ...


On the way from Shanghai to Nanjing, Japanese soldiers committed numerous atrocities, showing that the Nanking Massacre was not an isolated incident.[11] The most infamous event was the "contest to kill 100 people using a sword" .[12] By mid-November, the Japanese had captured Shanghai with the help of naval and aerial bombardment. The General Staff Headquarters in Tokyo decided not to expand the war, due to the high casualties incurred and the low morale of the troops. For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nanjing (disambiguation). ... The contest to kill 100 people using a sword ) was a contest in China just prior to the Nanking Massacre. ...


Approach towards Nanking

As the Japanese army drew closer to Nanking, Chinese civilians fled the city in droves, and the Chinese military put into effect a scorched earth campaign,[13] aimed at destroying anything that might be of value to the invading Japanese army. Targets within and outside of the city walls—such as military barracks, private homes, the Chinese Ministry of Communication, forests and even entire villages—were burnt to cinders, at an estimated value of 20 to 30 million (1937) US dollars.[14][15][16] For the computer game, see Scorched Earth (computer game). ...


On December 2, Emperor Showa nominated one of his uncles, Prince Asaka, as commander of the invasion. It is difficult to establish if, as a member of the imperial family, Asaka had a superior status to general Iwane Matsui, who was officially the commander in chief, but it is clear that, as the top ranking officer, he had authority over division commanders, lieutenant-generals Kesago Nakajima and Heisuke Yanagawa. Hirohito (裕仁), the Shōwa Emperor (昭和天皇), (April 29, 1901 - January 7, 1989) reigned over Japan from 1926 to 1989. ... Prince Asaka Yasuhiko, circa 1937 His Imperial Highness Prince Asaka (Yasuhiko) of Japan (jp: 朝香鳩彦 Asaka Yasuhiko, 2 October 1887 - 13 April 1981), Prince Asaka-no-miya (朝香宮) of Japan, was a member of the Japanese imperial family and a career army officer. ... General Iwane Matsui , July 27, 1878 - December 23, 1948) was a general of the Japanese Imperial Army and the commander of the expeditionary forces sent to China. ... Kesago Nakajima Lieutenant-General Kesago Nakajima was the direct operation commander in the December 1937 Nanking Operation resulting in the Nanjing massacre. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Nanking Safety Zone

Main article: Nanking Safety Zone

Many westerners were living in the city at that time, conducting trade or on missionary trips. As the Japanese army began to launch bombing raids over Nanjing, all of them except 22 people fled to their respective countries.[citation needed] Siemens businessman John Rabe stayed behind and formed a committee, called the International Committee for the Nanking Safety Zone. Rabe was elected as its leader, in part because of his status as a Nazi and the existence of the German-Japanese bilateral Anti-Comintern Pact. This committee established the Nanking Safety Zone in the western quarter of the city. The Japanese government had agreed not to attack parts of the city that did not contain Chinese military, and the members of the International Committee for the Nanking Safety Zone managed to persuade the Chinese government to move all their troops out of the area. It is said Rabe rescued 200,000 - 250,000 Chinese people.[17] [18] The Nanking Safety Zone (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Japanese: 南京安全区 Nankin Anzenku, 南京安全地帯, Nankin Anzenchitai) was a demilitarised zone for Chinese civilians set up on the Eve of the Japanese breakthrough in the Battle of Nanking (November 22, 1937). ... Siemens redirects here. ... John Rabe John Rabe (November 23, 1882 – January 5, 1950) was a German businessman who sought to rescue more than 250,000 Chinese from slaughter during the Nanjing Massacre. ... The International Committee was established in order to protect and reinstate the Nanjing Safety Zone. ... The Anti-Comintern Pact was concluded between Nazi Germany and Japan on November 25, 1936. ... The Nanking Safety Zone (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Japanese: 南京安全区 Nankin Anzenku, 南京安全地帯, Nankin Anzenchitai) was a demilitarised zone for Chinese civilians set up on the Eve of the Japanese breakthrough in the Battle of Nanking (November 22, 1937). ...


The Japanese did respect the Zone to an extent; no shells entered that part of the city leading up to the Japanese occupation except a few stray shots. During the chaos following the attack of the city, some were killed in the Safety Zone, but the atrocities in the rest of the city were far greater by all accounts.


Siege of the city

Iwane Matsui enters Nanjing

On December 7, the Japanese army issued a command to all troops, advising that because occupying a foreign capital was an unprecedented event for the Japanese military, those soldiers who "[commit] any illegal acts", "dishonor the Japanese Army", "loot", or "cause a fire to break out, even because of their carelessness" would be severely punished.[19] The Japanese military continued to march forward, breaching the last lines of Chinese resistance, and arriving outside the walled city of Nanjing on December 9. At noon, the military dropped leaflets into the city, urging the surrender of Nanjing within 24 hours:[20] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

"The Japanese Army, one million strong, has already conquered Changshu. We have surrounded the city of Nanking… The Japanese Army shall show no mercy toward those who offer resistance, treating them with extreme severity, but shall harm neither innocent civilians nor Chinese military [personnel] who manifest no hostility. It is our earnest desire to preserve the East Asian culture. If your troops continue to fight, war in Nanking is inevitable. The culture that has endured for a millennium will be reduced to ashes, and the government that has lasted for a decade will vanish into thin air. This commander-in-chief issues [b]ills to your troops on behalf of the Japanese Army. Open the gates to Nanking in a peaceful manner, and obey the [f]ollowing instructions."[19] Changshu (Simplified Chinese: 常熟; Traditional Chinese: 常熟; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chang-shu; lit. ...

The Japanese awaited an answer. When no Chinese envoy had arrived by 1:00 p.m. the following day, General Matsui Iwane issued the command to take Nanjing by force. On December 12, after two days of Japanese attack, under heavy artillery fire and aerial bombardment, General Tang Sheng-chi ordered his men to retreat. What followed was nothing short of chaos. Some Chinese soldiers stripped civilians of their clothing in a desperate attempt to blend in, and many others were shot in the back by their own comrades as they tried to flee.[14] Those who actually made it outside the city walls fled north to the Yangtze, only to find that there were no vessels remaining to take them. Some then jumped into the wintry waters and drowned. Gen. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Japanese entered the walled city of Nanjing on December 13 and faced little military resistance. is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Atrocities begin

Chinese civilians to be buried alive.
Chinese civilians to be buried alive.[21]

Eyewitness accounts from the period state that over the course of six weeks following the fall of Nanjing, Japanese troops engaged in rape, murder, theft, and arson. The most reliable accounts came from foreigners who opted to stay behind in order to protect Chinese civilians from certain harm, including the diaries of John Rabe and Minnie Vautrin. Others include first-person testimonies of the Nanjing Massacre survivors. Still more were gathered from eyewitness reports of journalists, both Western and Japanese, as well as the field diaries of certain military personnel. An American missionary, John Magee, stayed behind to provide a 16mm film documentary and first-hand photographs of the Nanjing Massacre. This film is called the Magee Film. It is often quoted as an important evidence of the Nanjing Massacre. In addition, although few Japanese veterans have admitted to having participated in atrocities in Nanjing, some—most notably Shiro Azuma—have admitted to criminal behavior. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... John Rabe John Rabe (November 23, 1882 – January 5, 1950) was a German businessman who sought to rescue more than 250,000 Chinese from slaughter during the Nanjing Massacre. ... Wilhelmina (Minnie) Vautrin (September 27, 1887 – May 16, 1941) was an American missionary renowned for saving the lives of many women at the Ginling Girls College in Nanking, China during the Nanjing Massacre. ... The Reverend John Magee (1884 – 1953) was an American Episcopalian priest who was responsible for filming abuses of Japanese soldiers during the Nanking Massacre, in December 1937. ... This article is about motion pictures. ... Documentary film is a broad category of visual expression that is based on the attempt, in one fashion or another, to document reality. ... Shiro Azuma (東 史郎 Azuma Shiro, 1912-2006) is a Japanese former soldier who admits his participation in warcrimes against Chinese in the Second World War, including the Nanjing Massacre. ...


Immediately after the city's fall, a group of foreign expatriates headed by John Rabe formed the 15-man International Committee on November 22 and drew up the Nanking Safety Zone in order to safeguard the lives of civilians in the city, where the population ran from 200,000 to 250,000. It is likely that the civilian death toll would have been higher had this safe haven not been created. Rabe and American missionary Lewis S. C. Smythe, the secretary of the International Committee, who was also a professor of sociology at the University of Nanking, recorded atrocities of the Japanese troops and filed reports of complaints to the Japanese embassy. is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Nanking Safety Zone (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Japanese: 南京安全区 Nankin Anzenku, 南京安全地帯, Nankin Anzenchitai) was a demilitarised zone for Chinese civilians set up on the Eve of the Japanese breakthrough in the Battle of Nanking (November 22, 1937). ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge [1]) is the scientific or systematic study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture[2]. Areas studied in sociology can range from the analysis of brief contacts between anonymous... The University of Nanking (金陵大学) was a Christian university founded in 1888 in Nanjing, China. ...


Rape

It is a horrible story to relate; I know not where to begin nor to end. Never have I heard or read of such brutality. Rape: We estimate at least 1,000 cases a night and many by day. In case of resistance or anything that seems like disapproval there is a bayonet stab or a bullet.

James McCallum, letter to his family, 19 December 1937

There probably is no crime that has not been committed in this city today. Thirty girls were taken from the language school last night, and today I have heard scores of heartbreaking stories of girls who were taken from their homes last night—one of the girls was but 12 years old… Tonight a truck passed in which there were eight or ten girls, and as it passed they called out "Jiu ming! Jiu ming!"—save our lives. is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

The International Military Tribunal for the Far East stated that 20,000 women were raped, including infants and the elderly.[22] Rapes were often performed in public during the day, sometimes in front of spouses or family members that were tied up and forced to watch.[citation needed] A large number of them were systematized in a process where soldiers would search door-to-door for young girls, with many women taken captive and gang raped.[23] The women were then killed immediately after the rape, often through mutilation, including breasts being cut off;[24] or stabbing by bamboo (usually very long sticks)[25], bayonet[citation needed], butcher's knife[citation needed] and other objects into the vagina. According to some testimonies, other women were forced into military prostitution as comfort women. There are even stories of Japanese troops forcing families to commit acts of incest.[26] Sons were forced to rape their mothers, fathers were forced to rape daughters. One pregnant woman who was gang-raped by Japanese soldiers gave birth only a few hours later; the baby was perfectly healthy (Robert B. Edgerton, Warriors of the Rising Sun). Monks who had declared a life of celibacy were forced to rape women for the amusement of the Japanese.[26] Chinese men were forced into intercourse with corpses and infants; some were forced to have their penises cut off by bayonets for "humorous" reasons as detailed by some Japanese soldiers.[citation needed] Testicles were also cut off - with some men being forced to eat them.[citation needed] Farmers were forced to commit zoophiliac acts with their livestock.[citation needed] Men were tied up by Japanese soldiers and hit in the crotch area with bamboo sticks.[citation needed] Any resistance would be met with summary executions. While the rape peaked immediately following the fall of the city, it continued for the duration of the Japanese occupation. Wilhelmina (Minnie) Vautrin (September 27, 1887 – May 16, 1941) was an American missionary renowned for saving the lives of many women at the Ginling Girls College in Nanking, China during the Nanjing Massacre. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The International Military Tribunal for the Far East (IMTFE), also known as the Tokyo Trials, the Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal or simply as the Tribunal, was convened to try the leaders of the Empire of Japan for three types of crimes: Class A (crimes against peace), Class B (war crimes... For the domesticated crop plant called rape, see rapeseed. ... Mutilation or maiming is an act or physical injury that degrades the appearance or function of the (human) body, usually causing death. ... Whore redirects here. ... Alternate Japanese name Chinese name Korean name Alternate Korean name Comfort women is a euphemism for women forced into prostitution and sexual slavery for Japanese military brothels during World War II.[1][2] Around 50,000 - 200,000 are estimated to have been procured, but there is still some disagreement... Incest is defined as sexual relations between closely related persons (often within the immediate family) such that it is either illegal or socially taboo. ... Celibacy refers either to being unmarried or to sexual abstinence. ... The penis (plural penises or penes) or phallus is the external male copulatory organ, and, in mammals, the external male organ of urination. ... Human male anatomy The testicles, known medically as testes (singular testis), are the male generative glands in animals. ... This article is about the anatomy concept. ...


Murder

Massacred Chinese civilians at ditch in Xuzhou
Massacred Chinese civilians at ditch in Xuzhou[27]

Various foreign residents in Nanking at the time recorded their experiences with what was going on in the city: This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Xuzhou (Chinese: 徐州; Hanyu Pinyin: ), known as Pengcheng (Chinese: 彭城; Hanyu Pinyin: ) in ancient times, is a prefecture-level city in northwestern Jiangsu province, Peoples Republic of China. ...


Robert Wilson in his letter to his family: The slaughter of civilians is appalling. I could go on for pages telling of cases of rape and brutality almost beyond belief. Two bayoneted corpses are the only survivors of seven street cleaners who were sitting in their headquarters when Japanese soldiers came in without warning or reason and killed five of their number and wounded the two that found their way to the hospital.[28]

John Magee in his letter to his wife: They not only killed every prisoner they could find but also a vast number of ordinary citizens of all ages.... Just the day before yesterday we saw a poor wretch killed very near the house where we are living.[29]
Robert Wilson in another letter to his family: They [Japanese soldiers] bayoneted one little boy, killing him, and I spent an hour and a half this morning patching up another little boy of eight who had five bayonet wounds including one that penetrated his stomach, a portion of omentum was outside the abdomen.[30]

Immediately after the fall of the city, Japanese troops embarked on a determined search for former soldiers, in which thousands of young men were captured. Many were taken to the Yangtze River, where they were machine-gunned so their bodies would be carried down to Shanghai. The Japanese troops gathered 1,300 Chinese soldiers and civilians at Taiping Gate and killed them. The victims were blown up with landmines, then doused with petrol before being set on fire. Those that were left alive afterwards were killed with bayonets.[31] Some people were beaten to death. The Japanese also summarily executed many pedestrians on the streets, usually under the pretext that they might be soldiers disguised in civilian clothing. John Magee (1884 – 1953) was an American Episcopalian priest who served as a missionary in China. ... In higher vertebrates, the peritoneum is the membrane that forms the lining of the abdominal cavity - it covers most of the intra-abdominal organs. ... The Yangtze River or Chang Jiang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), or Drichu in Tibetan (Tibetan: འབ; Wylie: bri chu) is the longest river in Asia and the third longest in the world, after the Nile in Africa, and the Amazon in South America. ... For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ...


Thousands were led away and mass-executed in an excavation known as the "Ten-Thousand-Corpse Ditch", a trench measuring about 300m long and 5m wide. Since records were not kept, estimates regarding the number of victims buried in the ditch range from 4,000 to 20,000. However, most scholars and historians consider the number to be more than 12,000 victims.[32]


Women and children were not spared from the horrors of the massacres. Often, Japanese soldiers cut off the breasts, impaled them with bayonets until the blade protruded out of the back, disemboweled them, or in the case of pregnant women, cut open the uterus, removed the fetus. Witnesses recall Japanese soldiers throwing babies into the air and catching them with their bayonets. Pregnant women were often the target of murder, as they would often be bayoneted in the belly, sometimes after rape.[33] Many women were first brutally raped then killed. The actual scene of this massacre is introduced in detail in the documentary film of the movie "The Battle of China". The US Marine Corps OKC-3S bayonet A bayonet (from French baïonnette) is a knife- or dagger-shaped weapon designed to fit on or over the muzzle of a rifle or similar weapon. ... The Battle of China was the sixth film of Frank Capras Why We Fight propaganda film series. ...


The Konoe government was well aware of the atrocities. On 17 January, Foreign minister Koki Hirota received a telegram written by Manchester Guardian correspondent H.J. Timperley intercepted by the occupation government in Shanghai. In this telegram, Timperley wrote: Fumimaro Konoe Prince Fumimaro Konoe (近衞{衛 in Shinjitai} 文麿 Konoe Fumimaro) (sometimes Konoye, October 12, 1891–December 16, 1945) was a Japanese politician and the 34th (June 4, 1937–January 5, 1939), 38th (July 22, 1940–July 18, 1941) and 39th (July 18, 1941–October 18, 1941) Prime Minister of Japan. ... Koki Hirota Koki Hirota (広田 弘毅 Hirota Kōki, February 14, 1878–December 23, 1948) was a Japanese politician and the 32nd Prime Minister of Japan from March 9, 1936 to February 2, 1937. ... For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ...

Since return [to] Shanghai [a] few days ago I investigated reported atrocities committed by Japanese Army in Nanking and elsewhere. Verbal accounts [of] reliable eye-witnesses and letters from individuals whose credibility [is] beyond question afford convincing proof [that] Japanese Army behaved and [is] continuing [to] behave in [a] fashion reminiscent [of] Attila [and] his Huns. [Not] less than three hundred thousand Chinese civilians slaughtered, many cases [in] cold blood.[citation needed]

Manchester Guardian correspondent H.J. Timperley wrote this telegram, which was stopped by Japanese censors in Shanghai and was forwarded to the Japanese Embassy in Washington, D.C. on January 17th, 1938, by Japanese foreign minister Kōki Hirota, where the transmission was intercepted and decoded by the Americans.

Image File history File links Hirota. ... Image File history File links Hirota. ... Koki Hirota (広田 弘毅 Hirota Kōki, February 14, 1878–December 23, 1948) was a Japanese politician and the 32nd Prime Minister of Japan from March 9, 1936 to February 2, 1937. ...

Theft and arson

One-third of the city was destroyed as a result of arson. According to reports, Japanese troops torched newly-built government buildings as well as the homes of many civilians. There was considerable destruction to areas outside the city walls. Soldiers pillaged from the poor and the wealthy alike. The lack of resistance from Chinese troops and civilians in Nanjing meant that the Japanese soldiers were free to divide up the city's valuables as they saw fit. This resulted in the widespread looting and burglary.[34]


Death toll estimates

There is great debate as to the extent of the war atrocities in Nanking, especially regarding estimates of the death toll. The issues involved in calculating the number of victims are largely based on the debatees' definitions of the geographical range and the duration of the event, as well as their definition of the victims. Japanese war crimes occurred during the period of Japanese imperialism. ...


Range and duration

The most conservative viewpoint is that the geographical area of the incident should be limited to the few km2 of the city known as the Safety Zone, where the civilians gathered after the invasion. Many Japanese historians seized upon the fact that during the Japanese invasion there were only 200,000–250,000 citizens in Nanking as reported by John Rabe, to argue that the PRC's estimate of 300,000 deaths is a vast exaggeration.


However, many historians include a much larger area around the city. Including the Xiaguan district (the suburbs north of Nanjing city, about 31 km2 in size) and other areas on the outskirts of the city, the population of greater Nanjing was running between 535,000 and 635,000 civilians and soldiers just prior to the Japanese occupation.[35] Some historians also include six counties around Nanjing, known as the Nanjing Special Municipality. Illustration of the backyards of a surburban neighbourhood Suburbs are inhabited districts located either on the outer rim of a city or outside the official limits of a city (the term varies from country to country), or the outer elements of a conurbation. ...


The duration of the incident is naturally defined by its geography: the earlier the Japanese entered the area, the longer the duration. The Battle of Nanking ended on December 13, when the divisions of the Japanese Army entered the walled city of Nanking. The Tokyo War Crime Tribunal defined the period of the massacre to the ensuing six weeks. More conservative estimates say the massacre started on December 14, when the troops entered the Safety Zone, and that it lasted for 6 weeks. Historians who define the Nanking Massacre as having started from the time the Japanese Army entered Jiangsu province push the beginning of the massacre to around mid-November to early December (Suzhou fell on November 19), and stretch the end of the massacre to late March 1938. Naturally, the number of victims proposed by these historians is much greater than more conservative estimates. Combatants China, National Revolutionary Army Japan, Central China Theater Army Commanders Tang Shengzhi Matsui Iwane Strength 100,000 men 8 divisions Casualties ~50,000 military personnel, ~300,000 civilians minimal The Battle of Nanjing (Traditional Chinese: 南京保衛戰; Simplified Chinese: 南京保卫战; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Nan-ching Pao-wei Chan) began after the... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...   (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chiang-su; Postal map spelling: Kiangsu) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located along the east coast of the country. ... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Various estimates

The International Military Tribunal for the Far East estimated in two (seemingly conflicting) reports that "over 200,000" civilians and prisoners of war were murdered during the first six weeks of the occupation. That number was based on burial records submitted by charitable organizations—including the Red Swastika Society and the Chung Shan Tang (Tsung Shan Tong)—the research done by Smythe, and some estimates given by survivors. The International Military Tribunal for the Far East (IMTFE), also known as the Tokyo Trials, the Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal or simply as the Tribunal, was convened to try the leaders of the Empire of Japan for three types of crimes: Class A (crimes against peace), Class B (war crimes... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... The Red Swastika Society (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a voluntary association founded in China in 1922 by Qian Neng-kun (錢能訓), Du Bing-yin (杜秉寅) and Li Jia-bo (李佳白) as the philanthropic branch of the Daodeshe (道德社) Society of Dao and Virtue, a syncretist Daoist school, which changed at the same...


In 1947, at the Nanjing War Crimes Tribunal, the verdict for Lieutenant General Hisao Tani—the commander of the 6th Division—quoted a figure of more than 300,000 dead. This estimate was made from burial records and eyewitness accounts. It concluded that some 190,000 were illegally executed at various execution sites and 150,000 were killed one-by-one. The death toll of 300,000 is the official estimate engraved on the stone wall at the entrance of the "Memorial Hall for Compatriot Victims of the Japanese Military's Nanking Massacre" in Nanjing. Hisao Tani, è°· 寿夫 , (1882 – 1947) Lieutenant-General in the Japanese Imperial Army during the Second Sino-Japanese War and World War Two. ...


Japanese historians, depending on their definition of the geographical and time duration of the killings, give wide-ranging estimates for the number of massacred civilians, from several thousand to upwards of 200,000.[36] Chinese language sources tend to place the figure of massacred civilians upwards of 200,000.[36]


A 42-part ROC documentary produced in 1995, entitled "An Inch of Blood For An Inch of Land"[37] (一寸河山一寸血), asserts that 340,000 Chinese civilians died in Nanking City as a result of the Japanese invasion, 150,000 through bombing and crossfire in the 5-day battle, and 190,000 in the massacre, based on the evidence presented at the Tokyo Trials. For the Chinese civilization, see China. ...


The judgments

Among the evidence presented at the Tokyo trial was the "Magee film", documentary footage included in the American movie "The Battle of China", as well as the oral and written testimonies of people residing in the international zone. The Battle of China was the sixth film of Frank Capras Why We Fight propaganda film series. ...


Based on evidence of mass atrocities, General Iwane Matsui was tried by the Tokyo tribunal for "crimes against humanity". At trial he went out of his way to protect Prince Asaka by shifting blame to lower ranking division commanders. [38] Matsui was convicted, sentenced to death, and executed in 1948. Generals Hisao Tani and Rensuke Isogai were sentenced to death by the Nanjing War Crimes Tribunal. [39] General Iwane Matsui , July 27, 1878 - December 23, 1948) was a general of the Japanese Imperial Army and the commander of the expeditionary forces sent to China. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Prince Asaka Yasuhiko, circa 1937 His Imperial Highness Prince Asaka (Yasuhiko) of Japan (jp: 朝香鳩彦 Asaka Yasuhiko, 2 October 1887 - 13 April 1981), Prince Asaka-no-miya (朝香宮) of Japan, was a member of the Japanese imperial family and a career army officer. ... Hisao Tani, 谷 寿夫 , (1882 – 1947) Lieutenant-General in the Japanese Imperial Army during the Second Sino-Japanese War and World War Two. ... Rensuke Isogai Rensuke Isogai (Japanese: 磯谷廉介) (1886 - 1967) was a General of the Japanese Army in the World War II period. ...


Under the pact concluded between General MacArthur and Hirohito, the Emperor himself and all the members of the imperial family were not prosecuted. Prince Asaka, who was the ranking officer in the city at the height of the atrocities, made only a deposition to the International Prosecution Section of the Tokyo tribunal on 1 May 1946. Asaka denied any massacre of Chinese and claimed never to have received complaints about the conduct of his troops.[40] Prince Kan'in, who was chief of staff of the Army during the massacre, had died before the end of the war, in May 1945. This article is about the American general; for the municipality in the Philippines, see General MacArthur, Eastern Samar. ... Emperor Shōwa ) (April 29, 1901 – January 7, 1989) was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order reigning from December 25, 1926 until his death in 1989. ... Prince Asaka Yasuhiko, circa 1937 His Imperial Highness Prince Asaka (Yasuhiko) of Japan (jp: 朝香鳩彦 Asaka Yasuhiko, 2 October 1887 - 13 April 1981), Prince Asaka-no-miya (朝香宮) of Japan, was a member of the Japanese imperial family and a career army officer. ... His Imperial Highness Prince Kanin (Kotohito) of Japan (Kanin-no-miya Kotohito Shinnō) (10 November 1865 - 21 May 1945), was a member of the Japanese imperial family and a career army officer who served as chief of staff of the Imperial Japanese Army from 1931 to 1940. ...


Historiography and modern treatment

China and Japan have both acknowledged the occurrence of wartime atrocities. Disputes over the historical portrayal of these events continue to cause tensions between China and Japan.


The widespread atrocities committed by the Japanese in Nanjing were first reported to the world by the Westerners residing in the Nanjing Safety Zone. For instance, on January 11, 1938, a correspondent for the Manchester Guardian, Harold Timperley, tried to cable his estimate of "not less than 300,000 Chinese civilians" killed in cold blood in "Nanjing and elsewhere". His message was relayed from Shanghai to Tokyo by Kōki Hirota, to be sent out to the Japanese embassies in Europe and the United States. Dramatic reports of Japanese brutality against Chinese civilians by American journalists, as well as the Panay incident, which occurred just before the occupation of Nanjing, helped turn American public opinion against Japan. These, in part, led to a series of events which culminated in the American declaration of war on Japan after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Harold John Timperley was an Australian journalist, known for his reporting from China in the 1930s, and the book What War Means (1938) based on it. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... Koki Hirota (広田 弘毅 Hirota Kōki, February 14, 1878–December 23, 1948) was a Japanese politician and the 32nd Prime Minister of Japan from March 9, 1936 to February 2, 1937. ... USS Panay underway during the standardization trial off Woosung, China on August 30, 1928. ... This article is about the actual attack. ...

Two Japanese officers, Toshiaki Mukai and Tsuyoshi Noda competing to see who could kill (with a sword) one hundred people first. The bold headline reads, "'Incredible Record' (in the Contest to) Cut Down 100 People—Mukai 106 – 105 Noda—Both 2nd Lieutenants Go Into Extra Innings"
Two Japanese officers, Toshiaki Mukai and Tsuyoshi Noda competing to see who could kill (with a sword) one hundred people first. The bold headline reads, "'Incredible Record' (in the Contest to) Cut Down 100 People—Mukai 106 – 105 Noda—Both 2nd Lieutenants Go Into Extra Innings"

Image File history File links Slayers. ... Image File history File links Slayers. ... In 1937 the Osaka Mainichi Shimbun and the Tokyo Nichi Nichi Shimbun covered a contest between two Japanese soldiers, Toshiaki Mukai and Tuyoshi Noda, in which the two men vied to be the first to decapitate 100 Chinese. ...

Post-1972 Japanese interest

Interest in the Nanking Massacre waned into near obscurity until 1972, the year China and Japan normalized diplomatic relationships. In China, to foster the newly found friendship to Japan, the People's Republic of China under Mao Zedong ostensibly suppressed the mention of the Nanking Massacre from public discourse and the media, which the Communist Party directly controlled. Therefore, the entire debate on the Nanking Massacre during the 1970s took place in Japan.[citation needed] In commemoration of the normalization, one major Japanese newspaper, Asahi Shimbun, ran a series of articles entitled "Travels in China" (中国の旅 chūgoku no tabi?), written by journalist Katsuichi Honda. The articles detailed the atrocities of the Japanese Army within China, including the Nanking Massacre. In the series, Honda mentioned an episode in which two officers competed to slay 100 people with their swords. The truth of this incident is hotly disputed and critics seized on the opportunity to imply that the episode, as well as the Nanking Massacre and all its accompanying articles, were largely falsified. This is regarded as the start of the Nanking Massacre controversy in Japan.[citation needed] Mao redirects here. ... Asahi-OSAKA office Asahi is a common name in Japan, for other uses see Asahi. ... Katsuichi Honda (本多勝一, Honda Katsuichi) is a Japanese journalist who is well known for his coverage of the Nanking Massacre. ...


The debate concerning the actual occurrence of killings and rapes took place mainly in the 1970s. The Chinese government's statements about the event came under attack during this time, because they were said to rely too heavily on personal testimonies and anecdotal evidence. Also coming under attack were the burial records and photographs presented in the Tokyo War Crime Court, which were said to be fabrications by the Chinese government, artificially manipulated or incorrectly attributed to the Nanking Massacre. For an example of modern Japanese thinking and scholarship on these issues, see "THE NANKING MASSACRE: Fact Versus Fiction". Retrieved on 2008-05-06. 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Japanese distributor of The Last Emperor (1987) edited out the stock footage of the Rape of Nanking from the film.[41] For the rapper, see Last Emperor. ... Stock footage, also termed archive footage, library pictures and file footage is film or video footage that is reused in a film. ...


The Ienaga textbook incident

Controversy flared up again in 1982, when it was reported that the Japanese Ministry of Education censored any mention of the Nanking Massacre in a high school textbook.[42] Later, it became clear in Japan that the report was based on an erroneous report by commercial television network NTV (Nippon Television). [42] The Japanese history textbook controversies are about government-approved history textbooks used in the secondary education (junior high schools and high schools) of Japan. ... ... Nippon Television Tower (headquarters) in Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan Nippon Television Network Corporation ) (TYO: 9404 ) is a television network in Shiodome area of Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan owned by the Yomiuri Shimbun. ...


The Ministry of Education was taking a stance that the Nanking Massacre was not a well-established historical event. On June 12, 1965, an author of the school textbook, Professor Saburō Ienaga, sued the Ministry of Education.[43] He claimed that he suffered through his experience that the government's allegedly unconstitutional system of textbook authorization made him correct the contents of his draft textbook against his will and violated his right to freedom of expression. This case resulted in Ienaga's winning his case in 1997.[43] is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... Ienaga Saburo Ienaga Saburo (家永 三郎: September 3, 1913 - November 29, 2002) was a Japanese historian. ... Ienaga Saburo Ienaga Saburo (家永 三郎: September 3, 1913 - November 29, 2002) was a Japanese historian. ...


A number of Japanese cabinet ministers, as well as some high-ranking politicians, have made comments denying the atrocities committed by the Japanese Army in World War II. Tokyo Governor Shintaro Ishihara has claimed "People say that the Japanese made a holocaust but that is not true. It is a story made up by the Chinese. It has tarnished the image of Japan, but it is a lie."[44] Some subsequently resigned after protests from China and South Korea. In response to these and similar incidents, a number of Japanese journalists and historians formed the Nankin Jiken Chōsa Kenkyūkai (Nanjing Incident Research Group). The research group has collected large quantities of archival materials as well as testimonies from both Chinese and Japanese sources. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Shintaro Ishihara , born September 30, 1932) is a Japanese author, politician and the governor of Tokyo since 1999. ...


The nationalist members of the government cabinet feel that the extent of crimes committed has been exaggerated as a pretext to surging Chinese nationalism. Such conservative forces have been accused of attempting to gradually reduce the number of casualties by manipulating data. The Cabinet ) is the executive branch of the government of Japan. ... The May Fourth Movement in 1919 marked a turning point in the history of Chinese nationalism. ...


In the media

Books

This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Rape of Nanking: The Forgotten Holocaust of World War II (ISBN 0-465-06835-9) is a 1997 book by the late Iris Chang which presents a history of the 1937-1938 Nanjing Massacre. ... Iris Chang This is a Chinese name; the family name is Zhang Iris Shun-Ru Chang (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: Zhāng Chúnrú; March 28, 1968 – November 9, 2004) was a Chinese American freelance historian and journalist. ...

Films

  • Black Sun: The Nanking Massacre (1995), by Chinese director Mou Tun Fei, recreates the events of the Nanking Massacre and includes original footage of the massacre from the "Magee film".
  • Don't Cry, Nanking aka (Nanjing 1937) (1995) directed by Wu Ziniu is an historical fiction centering around a Chinese doctor, his Japanese wife, and their children, as they experience the siege, fall, and atrocities of Nanking.
  • Nanking (2007) another documentary film, directed by Bill Guttentag and Dan Sturman, makes use of letters and diaries from the era as well as archive footage and interviews with surviving victims and perpetrators of the massacre.
  • a Sino-German co-production about the life of John Rabe will be released in 2008, featuring Ulrich Tukur in the title role.[45]

The Battle of China was the sixth film of Frank Capras Why We Fight propaganda film series. ... Documentary film is a broad category of visual expression that is based on the attempt, in one fashion or another, to document reality. ... For other persons named Frank Capra, see Frank Capra (disambiguation). ... The International Military Tribunal for the Far East (IMTFE), also known as the Tokyo Trials, the Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal or simply as the Tribunal, was convened to try the leaders of the Empire of Japan for three types of crimes: Class A (crimes against peace), Class B (war crimes... Nanking (Chinese: 南京) is a 2007 documentary film about the 1937 Nanking Massacre in China. ... The Truth about Nanjing (Japanese: 南京の真実, Nanking No Shinjitsu) is a proposed film by Japanese filmmaker Satoru Mizushima (水島 総) about the 1937 Nanking Massacre committed by the Imperial Japanese Army in Nanjing, China. ... The Children of Huang Shi is an upcoming film which is scheduled for release in December of 2007. ... John Rabe John Rabe (November 23, 1882 – January 5, 1950) was a German businessman who sought to rescue more than 250,000 Chinese from slaughter during the Nanjing Massacre. ... Ulrich Tukur (2006) Ulrich Tukur (born Ulrich Scheurlen, July 29, 1957 in Viernheim) is a German actor and musician. ...

Records

In December 2007, the Chinese government published the names of 13,000 people who it says were killed by Japanese troops in the Nanking Massacre. According to Xinhua News Agency, it is the most complete record to date.[46] The report consists of eight volumes and was released to mark the 70th anniversary of the start of the massacre. It also lists the Japanese army units that were responsible for each of the deaths and states the way in which the victims were killed. Zhang Xianwen, editor-in-chief of the report, states that the information collected was based on "a combination of Chinese, Japanese and Western raw materials, which is objective and just and is able to stand the trial of history."[46] This report will form part of a 28-volume series about the massacre.[46] Front gate of the main building of Xinhua News Agency in Beijing For other uses, see Xinhua (disambiguation). ...


Gallery

Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 546 pixelsFull resolution (862 × 588 pixel, file size: 77 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This pic was taken in 2001, fall. ... This image comes from http://www. ...

See also

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References

  1. ^ HyperWar: International Military Tribunal for the Far East (Chapter 8) (Paragraph 2, p. 1015, Judgment International Military Tribunal for the Far East). Retrieved on 2007 December 16.
  2. ^ A more complete account of what numbers are claimed by who, can be found in self described "moderate" article by historian Ikuhiko Hata The Nanking Atrocities: Fact and Fable
  3. ^ Masaaki Tanakaclaims that very few citizens were killed, and that the massacre is in fact a fabrication in his book “Nankin gyakusatsu” no kyokÙ (The "Nanking Massacre" as Fabrication).
  4. ^ "Why the past still separates China and Japan" Robert Marquand (August 20, 2001) Christian Science Monitor. States an estimate of 300,000 dead
  5. ^ Historian Tokushi Kasahara states "more than 100,000 and close to 200,000, or maybe more", referring to his own book Nankin jiken Iwanami shinsho (FUJIWARA Akira (editor) Nankin jiken o dou miruka 1998 Aoki shoten, ISBN 4-250-98016-2, p. 18). This estimation includes the surrounding area outside of the city of Nanking, which is objected by a Chinese researcher (the same book, p. 146). Hiroshi Yoshida concludes "more than 200,000" in his book (Nankin jiken o dou miruka p. 123, YOSHIDA Hiroshi Tennou no guntai to Nankin jiken 1998 Aoki shoten, ISBN 4-250-98019-7, p. 160). Tomio Hora writes 50,000–100,000 (TANAKA Masaaki What Really Happened in Nanking 2000 Sekai Shuppan, Inc. ISBN 4-916079-07-8, p. 5).
  6. ^ Based on the Nanking war crimes trial verdict (incl. 190,000 mass slaughter deaths and 150,000 individual killings) March 10, 1947
  7. ^ U.S. archives reveal war massacre of 500,000 Chinese by Japanese army.
  8. ^ Nationalists fight ‘lie’ of Rape of Nanking - Times Online
  9. ^ "I'm Sorry?". NewsHour with Jim Lehrer. 1998-12-01.
  10. ^ Fujiwara, Akira (1995). "Nitchû Sensô ni Okeru Horyotoshido Gyakusatsu". Kikan Sensô Sekinin Kenkyû 9: 22. 
  11. ^ Honda, Katsuichi (1998). The Nanjing Massacre. The Pacific Basin Institute. 
  12. ^ Wakabayashi, Bob Tadashi (Summer 2000). "The Nanking 100-Man Killing Contest Debate: War Guilt Amid Fabricated Illusions, 1971–75". The Journal of Japanese Studies 26 (2): 307. 
  13. ^ "The Nanking Incident". Retrieved on 2006-04-19.
  14. ^ a b "Five Western Journalists in the Doomed City". Retrieved on 2006-04-19.
  15. ^ "Chinese Fight Foe Outside Nanking; See Seeks's Stand". Retrieved on 2006-04-19.
  16. ^ "Japan Lays Gain to Massing of Foe". Retrieved on 2006-04-19.
  17. ^ John Rabe, moreorless
  18. ^ "John Rabe's letter to Hitler, from Rabe's diary", Population of Nanking, Jiyuu-shikan.org
  19. ^ a b "The Alleged 'Nanking Massacre', Japan's rebuttal to China's forged claims". Retrieved on 2006-04-19.
  20. ^ "Battle of Shanghai". Retrieved on 2006-04-19.
  21. ^ [1]
  22. ^ Paragraph 2, p. 1012, Judgment International Military Tribunal for the Far East.
  23. ^ Japanese Imperialism and the Massacre in Nanjing: Chapter X: Widespread Incidents of Rape
  24. ^ "A Debt of Blood: An Eyewitness Account of the Barbarous Acts of the Japanese Invaders in Nanjing," 7 February 1938, Dagong Daily, Wuhan edition[2]
  25. ^ Military Commission of the Kuomintang, Political Department: "A True Record of the Atrocities Committed by the Invading Japanese Army," compiled July 1938[3]
  26. ^ a b P. 95, The Rape of Nanking, Iris Chang, Penguin Books, 1997.
  27. ^ http://www.princeton.edu/~nanking/html/main.html
  28. ^ Robert Wilson, letter to his family, Dec. 15
  29. ^ John Magee, letter to his wife, Dec. 19
  30. ^ Robert Wilson, letter to his family, Dec. 18
  31. ^ "Nanjing remembers massacre victims". BBC News (2007-12-13). Retrieved on 2007-12-13.
  32. ^ The Memorial Hall for the Victims of the Nanjing Massacre: Rhetoric in the Face of TragedyPDF (310 KiB) Celia Yang (2006) Author refers to source as Yin, James. (1996) The Rape of Nanking: An Undeniable History in Photographs. Chicago: Innovative Publishing Group. page 103
  33. ^ The Memorial Hall for the Victims of the Nanjing Massacre: Rhetoric in the Face of TragedyPDF (310 KiB) Celia Yang (2006)
  34. ^ P. 162, The Rape of Nanking, Iris Chang, Penguin Books, 1997.
  35. ^ "Data Challenges Japanese Theory on Nanjing Population Size". Retrieved on 2006-04-19.
  36. ^ a b ejcjs - The Nanjing Incident: Recent Research and Trends
  37. ^ 一寸河山一寸血――42集电视纪录片
  38. ^ H. Bix, Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan, Perennial, 2001, p.734
  39. ^ Bix, ibid., p.614
  40. ^ Awaya Kentarô, Yoshida Yutaka, Kokusai kensatsukyoku jinmonchôsho, dai 8 kan, Nihon Tosho Centâ, 1993., Case 44, pp. 358-66.
  41. ^ NMZCR02
  42. ^ a b Japan's History Textbook Controversy, ejcjs! - electronic journal of contemporary japanese studies
  43. ^ a b Supreme Court backs Ienaga in textbook suit The Japan Times
  44. ^ Playboy, Vol. 37, No. 10, p 63
  45. ^ http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2007-12/11/content_7231106.htm, http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/ff20071206r1.html
  46. ^ a b c "Nanjing massacre victims named". BBC News (2007-12-04). Retrieved on 2007-12-04.

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Further reading

  • Askew, David. "The International Committee for the Nanking Safety Zone: An Introduction" Sino-Japanese Studies Vol. 14, April 2002 (Article outlining membership and their reports of the events that transpired during the massacre)
  • Askew, David, "The Nanjing Incident: An Examination of the Civilian Population" Sino-Japanese Studies Vol. 13, March 2001 (Article analyzes a wide variety of figures on the population of Nanjing before, during, and after the massacre)
  • Bergamini, David, "Japan's Imperial Conspiracy," William Morrow, New York; 1971.
  • Brook, Timothy, ed. Documents on the Rape of Nanjing, Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, 1999. ISBN 0-472-11134-5 (Does not include the Rabe diaries but a reprint of "Hsu Shuhsi, Documents of the Nanking Safety Zone, Kelly and Walsh, 1939".)
  • Chang, Iris, The Rape of Nanking: The Forgotten Holocaust of World War II, Foreword by William C. Kirby; Penguin USA (Paper), 1998. ISBN 0-14-027744-7
  • Hua-ling Hu, American Goddess at the Rape of Nanking: The Courage of Minnie Vautrin, Foreword by Paul Simon; March 2000, ISBN 0-8093-2303-6
  • Fogel, Joshua, ed. The Nanjing Massacre in History and Historiography, Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000. ISBN 0-520-22007-2
  • Fujiwara, Akira "The Nanking Atrocity: An Interpretive Overview" Japan Focus October 23, 2007.
  • Galbraith, Douglas, A Winter in China, London, 2006. ISBN 0-099-46597-3. A novel focussing on the western residents of Nanking during the massacre.
  • Higashinakano, Shudo, The Nanking Massacre: Fact Versus Fiction: A Historian's Quest for the Truth, Tokyo: Sekai Shuppan, 2005. ISBN 4-916079-12-4
  • Higashinakano, Kobayashi and Fukunaga, Analyzing The 'Photographic Evidence' of The Nanking Massacre, Tokyo: Soshisha, 2005. ISBN 4-7942-1381-6
  • Honda, Katsuichi, Sandness, Karen trans. The Nanjing Massacre: A Japanese Journalist Confronts Japan's National Shame, London: M.E. Sharpe, 1999. ISBN 0-7656-0335-7
  • Kajimoto, Masato "Mistranslations in Honda Katsuichi's the Nanjing Massacre" Sino-Japanese Studies, 13. 2 (March 2001) pp. 32–44
  • Lu, Suping, They Were in Nanjing: The Nanjing Massacre Witnessed by American and British Nationals, Hong Kong University Press, 2004.
  • Murase, Moriyasu,Watashino Jyugun Cyugoku-sensen(My China Front), Nippon Kikanshi Syuppan Center, 1987 (revised in 2005).(includes disturbing photos, 149 page photogravure) ISBN 4-88900-836-5 (村瀬守保,私の従軍中国戦線)
  • Qi, Shouhua. "When the Purple Mountain Burns: A Novel" San Francisco: Long River Press, 2005. ISBN 1-59265-041-4
  • Rabe, John, The Good Man of Nanking: The Diaries of John Rabe, Vintage (Paper), 2000. ISBN 0-375-70197-4
  • Robert Sabella, Fei Fei Li and David Liu, eds. Nanking 1937: Memory and Healing (Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 2002). ISBN 0-7656-0817-0.
  • Takemoto, Tadao and Ohara, Yasuo The Alleged "Nanking Massacre": Japan's rebuttal to China's forged claims, Meisei-sha, Inc., 2000, (Tokyo Trial revisited) ISBN 4-944219-05-9
  • Tanaka, Masaaki, What Really Happened in Nanking: The Refutation of a Common Myth, Tokyo: Sekai Shuppan, 2000. ISBN 4-916079-07-8
  • Wakabayashi, Bob Tadashi "The Nanking 100-Man Killing Contest Debate: War Guilt Amid Fabricated Illusions, 1971–75",The Journal of Japanese Studies, Vol.26 No.2 Summer 2000.
  • Wakabayashi, Bob Tadashi The Nanking Atrocity, 1937-1938: Complicating the Picture, Berghahn Books, 2007, ISBN 1-845451-80-5
  • Yamamoto, Masahiro Nanking: Anatomy of an Atrocity, Praeger Publishers, 2000, ISBN 0-275-96904-5
  • Yang, Daqing. "Convergence or Divergence? Recent Historical Writings on the Rape of Nanjing" American Historical Review 104, 3 (June 1999)., 842-865.
  • Yoshida, Takeshi "A Japanese Historiography of the Nanjing Massacre", Columbia East Asian Review, Fall 1999. (A much longer and more detailed version of this article is in above in the work edited by Joshua Fogel)
  • Young, Shi; Yin, James. "Rape of Nanking: Undeniable history in photographs" Chicago: Innovative Publishing Group, 1997.
  • Zhang, Kaiyuan, ed. Eyewitnesses to Massacre, An East Gate Book, 2001 (includes documentation of American missionaries M.S. Bates, G.A. Fitch, E.H. Foster, J.G. Magee, J.H. MaCallum, W.P. Mills, L.S.C. Smyth, A.N. Steward, Minnie Vautrin and R.O. Wilson.) ISBN 0-7656-0684-4

The Nanking Safety Zone (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Japanese: 南京安全区 Nankin Anzenku, 南京安全地帯, Nankin Anzenchitai) was a demilitarised zone for Chinese civilians set up on the Eve of the Japanese breakthrough in the Battle of Nanking (November 22, 1937). ... Iris Chang This is a Chinese name; the family name is Zhang Iris Shun-Ru Chang (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: Zhāng Chúnrú; March 28, 1968 – November 9, 2004) was a Chinese American freelance historian and journalist. ... The Rape of Nanking: The Forgotten Holocaust of World War II (ISBN 0-465-06835-9) is a 1997 book by the late Iris Chang which presents a history of the 1937-1938 Nanjing Massacre. ... The Good Man of Nanking: The Diaries of John Rabe is a collection of the personal journals of John Rabe, a German businessman who lived in Nanjing at the time of the Nanking Massacre in 1937–1938. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Black Sun: The Nanking Massacre (726 words)
The total destruction of Nanking was seen by the Japanese government as being crucial in breaking the spirit of China's population.
The policy of starving Nanking's population into submission is carried out by soldiers who regularly bathe their faces in bowls of fresh egg yolk whilst bragging about their "kills" for the day.
Nanking soon becomes a charnel house of a city which at night is illuminated by flame and inhabited by cannibals and killers.
Nanking Massacre - 20th Century Genocides (1238 words)
The six weeks of carnage would become known as the Rape of Nanking and represented the single worst atrocity during the World War II era in either the European or Pacific theaters of war.
The actual military invasion of Nanking was preceded by a tough battle at Shanghai that began in the summer of 1937.
Those who were not killed on the spot were taken to the outskirts of the city and forced to dig their own graves, large rectangular pits that would be filled with decapitated corpses resulting from killing contests the Japanese held among themselves.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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