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Encyclopedia > Naming the American Civil War

There have been numerous alternative names for the American Civil War that reflect the historical, political, and cultural sensitivities of different groups and regions.[1] Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total...

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Naming the war

The following names have been, or are, used to describe the conflict itself, listed roughly by frequency of use. The first two names have seen enduring usage; the remaining names have been more isolated.


Enduring names

Civil War

In the United States Civil War is the most common term for the conflict; it has been used by the overwhelming majority of reference books, scholarly journals, dictionaries, encyclopedias, popular histories, and mass media in the United States since the early 20th century.[2] The National Park Service, the government organization entrusted by the United States Congress to preserve the battlefields of the war, uses this term.[3] It is also the oldest term for the war. Writings of prominent men such as Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee, Ulysses S. Grant, William Tecumseh Sherman, P.G.T. Beauregard, Nathan Bedford Forrest, and Judah P. Benjamin used the term "Civil War" both before and during the conflict. Abraham Lincoln used it on multiple occasions.[4][5][6] The National Park Service (NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... For other uses, see Jefferson Davis (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Robert E. Lee (disambiguation). ... Ulysses S. Grant,[2] born Hiram Ulysses Grant (April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885), was an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869–1877). ... General Sherman redirects here. ... Pierre Gustave Toutant de Beauregard Pierre Gustave Toutant de Beauregard (BO-rih-gahrd) (May 28, 1818 – February 20, 1893), best known as a general for the Confederate Army during the American Civil War, was also a writer, civil servant, and inventor. ... For the World War II general, see Nathan Bedford Forrest III. Nathaniel Bedford Forrest (July 13, 1821–October 29, 1877) was a Confederate Army general during the American Civil War. ... Judah Philip Benjamin (August 6, 1811 – May 6, 1884) was an American politician and lawyer. ... This article is about the definition of the specific type of war. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ...


English-speaking historians outside the United States usually refer to the conflict as the "American Civil War" or, less often, "U.S. Civil War".[citation needed] These variations are also used in the United States in cases in which the war might otherwise be confused with another historical event (such as the English Civil War). The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... For other uses, see English Civil War (disambiguation). ...


War Between the States

The term War Between the States was rarely used during the war but became common afterwards in the South.

  • The Confederate government avoided the term "civil war" and referred in official documents to the "War between the Confederate States of America and the United States of America."[7] There are a handful of known references during the war to "the war between the states."[8]
  • European diplomacy produced a similar formula for avoiding the phrase "civil war." Queen Victoria's proclamation of British neutrality referred to "hostilities ... between the Government of the United States of America and certain States styling themselves the Confederate States of America".[7]
  • Efforts to convince the United States Congress to adopt the term, beginning in 1913, were unsuccessful. Congress has never adopted an official name for the war.
  • Franklin Delano Roosevelt referred to the Civil War as "the four-year War Between the States." In his eyes, this was the only crisis that had "ever threatened our national unity." These lines were spoken in the opening paragraphs of his 1941 Annual Message to Congress on January 6th, 1941.[9]
  • References to the "War Between the States" turn up in federal and state court documents from time to time.[10]
  • The names "Civil War" and "War Between the States" have been used jointly in some formal contexts. For example, the war's centenary in the 1960s created the "Georgia Civil War Centennial Commission Commemorating the War Between the States".
  • In 1994, the U.S. Postal Service issued commemorative stamps entitled "The Civil War / The War Between the States".
  • The official war records of the United States refer to this war as "The War of the Rebellion".

The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[1]) is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial)  States that seceded under CSA control  States and territories claimed by CSA without formal secession and/or control Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... Historic Southern United States. ... Queen Victoria redirects here. ... Joseph E. Johnston Joseph Eggleston Johnston (February 3, 1807 – March 21, 1891) was a career U.S. Army officer and one of the most senior generals in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ... Raphael Semmes (September 27, 1809 – August 30, 1877) was an officer in the United States Navy from 1826 to 1860 and the Confederate States Navy from 1860 to 1865. ... This is an article about the Confederate Vice President. ... The United Confederate Veterans, also known as the UCV, was a veterans organization for former Confederate soldiers of the American Civil War, and was equivalent to the Grand Army of the Republic (GAR) which was the organization for Union veterans. ... The United Daughters of the Confederacy (UDC) is a sororal association dedicated to honoring the memory of those who served and died in service to the Confederate States of America (CSA). ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... The Marine Corps War Memorial is a military memorial statue located near the Arlington National Cemetery in Rosslyn, Virginia, United States. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Lemuel Cornick Shepherd, Jr. ... The Commandant of the United States Marine Corps is the highest ranking officer of the United States Marine Corps and a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, reporting to the Secretary of the Navy but not to the Chief of Naval Operations. ... USPS and Usps redirect here. ...

Other historical terms

War of the Rebellion

During and immediately after the war, U.S. officials and pro-Union writers often referred to Confederates as "Rebels" and to the war itself as "the Rebellion." "War of the Rebellion" is the name found on many war monuments in the North. In modern usage, however, the term "War of the Rebellion" usually refers only to the collection of documents compiled and published by the U.S. War Department as The War of the Rebellion: a Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1880–1901, usually referred to as the Official Records. This 70-volume collection is the chief source of historical documentation for those interested in Civil War research. The Official Records of the American Civil War or often more simply the Official Records or ORs, constitute a unique, authentic, and comprehensive collection of first-hand accounts, orders, reports, and correspondence drawn from War and Navy Department records of both Confederate and Union governments during the American Civil War. ...


War for Southern Independence

The "War for Southern Independence" is a name used by many Southerners in reference to the war.[11] While popular on the Confederate side during the war, the term's popularity fell in the immediate aftermath of the South's failure to gain independence. The term resurfaced in the late 20th century. To Southerners, the terminology parallels usage of the term "American War for Independence", as demonstrated by the popular poem published in the early stages of the hostilities under the title South Carolina; the prologue of which unambiguously refers to the war as the "Third War for Independence" (specifically naming the War of 1812 as the Second such War)[12] C.f. "The tea has been thrown overboard. The Revolution of 1860 has been initiated." -- 8th Nov. 1860, Charleston Mercury (regarding post-election 'fall-out').[13] The Second American Revolution was coined by historian Charles Beard in the 1920s to emphasize the completeness of the northern victory (and still used by the Sons of Confederate Veterans organization, though with a quite different meaning).[14] The name is also used in Ward Moore's alternate history novella Bring the Jubilee. This article is about military actions only. ... This article is about the U.S.–U.K. war. ... Charles Austin Beard (November 27, 1874 _ September 1, 1948) was an American historian, author with James Harvey Robinson of The Development of Modern Europe (1907). ... Sons of Confederate Veterans logo Sons of Confederate Veterans (SCV) is an organization of male descendants of soldiers who served the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War. ... Ward Moore (August 10, 1903 - January 28, 1978) was the working name of American author Joseph Ward Moore. ... Bring the Jubilee, by Ward Moore is a 1953 alternate history novel set in a United States in which the Confederacy won the American Civil War (in the novel referred to as The War of Southern Independence). ...


War of Northern Aggression

The War of Northern Aggression is a name which emphasizes the opinion that the Southern states had the right to secede from the union and that the North was unjust in making war against the South. This term is consistent with the belief of the partisans of the Lost Cause that the North unjustly invaded the South. George Washington Custis Lee, 1832-1913, on horseback, with staff reviewing Confederate Reunion Parade in Richmond, Virginia, June 3, 1907, in front of monument to Jefferson Davis. ...


Other terms

Other terms for the war have seen even less frequent usage, particularly in modern times.


In the South: War in Defense of Virginia, Mr. Lincoln's War , and War of Secession. (War of Secession is the common way of referring to the war in Spanish, French, Italian, Portuguese, German, Romanian and Polish.) Romanian (limba română, IPA: ) is a Romance language spoken by around 24 to 28 million people[1], primarily in Romania and Moldova. ...


In the North: War of the Insurrection, Slaveholders War, Great Rebellion, War to Save the Union.


Later writers invented terms such as War for Abolition, War of Southern Reaction, War to Prevent Southern Independence, and Second American Revolution which were rarely used in print.


Immediately after the war, the following expressions were common in the South: The War, The Late Unpleasantness, and The Lost Cause. George Washington Custis Lee, 1832-1913, on horseback, with staff reviewing Confederate Reunion Parade in Richmond, Virginia, June 3, 1907, in front of monument to Jefferson Davis. ...


Naming the combatants

Animated map of secession, Civil War and re-admission:  States of the Union  Territories of the Union (including occupied territory)  States of the Confederacy  Territories claimed by Confederacy During the American Civil War, the Union was a name used to refer to the twenty-three states of the United States... United States Government redirects here. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... For the Major League Baseball team, see New York Yankees. ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial)  States that seceded under CSA control  States and territories claimed by CSA without formal secession and/or control Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia... Historic Southern United States. ... A rebellion is, in the most general sense, a refusal to accept authority. ... For other uses, see Dixie (disambiguation). ... Johnny Rebel or Johnny Reb was the slang term for any Confederate soldier, or the Confederate army as a whole, during the American Civil War. ... Billy Yank is the personification of the Northern states of the United States of America. ...

Naming the battles and armies

Civil War Battle Names
Date Southern name Northern name
July 21, 1861 First Manassas First Bull Run
August 10, 1861 Oak Hills Wilson's Creek
October 21, 1861 Leesburg Ball's Bluff
January 19, 1862 Mill Springs Logan's Cross Roads
March 7March 8, 1862 Elkhorn Tavern Pea Ridge
April 6April 7, 1862 Shiloh Pittsburg Landing
May 31June 1, 1862 Seven Pines Fair Oaks
June 27, 1862 Gaines's Mill Chickahominy River
August 29
August 30, 1862
Second Manassas Second Bull Run
September 1, 1862 Ox Hill Chantilly
September 14, 1862 Boonsboro South Mountain
September 17, 1862 Sharpsburg Antietam
October 8, 1862 Perryville Chaplin Hills
December 31, 1862
January 2, 1863
Murfreesboro Stones River
April 8, 1864 Mansfield Sabine Cross Roads
September 19, 1864 Winchester Opequon

There is a disparity between the sides in naming some of the battles of the war. The Union forces frequently named battles for bodies of water that were prominent on or near the battlefield; Confederates most often used the name of the nearest town. Because of this, many battles actually have two widely used names. However, not all of the disparities are based on this land-versus-water conflict. Many modern accounts of Civil War battles use the names established by the North. However, for some battles, the Southern name has become the standard. The National Park Service occasionally uses the Southern names for their battlefield parks located in the South, such as Manassas and Shiloh. Some examples of battles with dual names are shown in the table. is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Irvin McDowell Joseph E. Johnston P.G.T. Beauregard Strength 35,000 32,500 Casualties 2,896 (460 killed, 1,124 wounded, 1,312 captured/missing)[1] 1,982 (387 killed, 1,582 wounded, 13 missing)[1] For other uses... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants United States of America State of Missouri Confederate States of America Commanders Nathaniel Lyon Samuel D. Sturgis Franz Sigel Sterling Price Ben McCulloch Strength Army of the West Missouri State Guard and McCulloch’s Brigade Casualties 1,235 1,095 The Battle of Wilsons Creek, also known as... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Battle of Balls Bluff, also known as the Battle of Harrison’s Landing or the Battle of Leesburg, took place on October 21, 1861, in Loudoun County, Virginia, as part of Major General George B. McClellans operations in northern Virginia during the American Civil War. ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George H. Thomas George B. Crittenden Strength 4,400 (four brigades) 5,900 (two brigades) Casualties 232 439 The Battle of Mill Springs, also known as the Battle of Fishing Creek in Confederate terminology, and the Battle of Logans... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Samuel R. Curtis Earl Van Dorn Strength Army of the Southwest,≈10,500 men Army of the West, ≈16,000 men Casualties 1,349 (mostly killed and wounded) 4,600 (mostly captured) The Battle of Pea Ridge (also known as... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... This article is about 1862 . ... Belligerents United States (Union) CSA (Confederacy) Commanders Ulysses S. Grant, Don Carlos Buell Albert Sidney Johnston â€ , P.G.T. Beauregard Strength Army of West Tennessee (48,894), Army of the Ohio (17,918)[1] Army of Mississippi (44,699)[1] Casualties and losses 13,047: 1,754 killed, 8,408... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George B. McClellan Joseph E. Johnston G. W. Smith Strength 41,797 41,816 Casualties 5,031 (790 killed, 3,594 wounded, 647 captured/missing) 6,134 (980 killed, 4,749 wounded, 405 captured/missing) The Battle of Seven Pines... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ... Battle of Gaines Mill Conflict American Civil War Date June 27, 1862 Place Hanover County, Virginia Result Confederate victory The Battle of Gaines Mill, also known as the First Battle of Cold Harbor or the Battle of Chickahominy River, took place on June 27, 1862, in Hanover County, Virginia, as... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ... For other uses, see Bull Run (disambiguation). ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ... The Battle of Chantilly or Ox Hill took place on September 1, 1862, in Fairfax County, Virginia, as the concluding battle of the Northern Virginia Campaign of the American Civil War. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George B. McClellan Ambrose Burnside William B. Franklin Robert E. Lee Strength 28,000 18,000 Casualties 2,325 (443 killed, 1,807 wounded, 75 missing) 2,685 (325 killed, 1560 wounded, 800 missing) The Battle of South Mountain (known... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George B. McClellan Robert E. Lee Strength 87,000 45,000 Casualties 12,401 (2,108 killed, 9,540 wounded, 753 captured/missing) 10,316 (1,546 killed, 7,752 wounded, 1,018 captured/missing) The Battle of Antietam (also... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Don Carlos Buell Braxton Bragg Strength Army of the Ohio Army of Mississippi Casualties 4,211 3,196 The Battle of Perryville, also known as Battle at Perryville and Battle of Chaplin Hills, was an important but largely neglected encounter... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders William S. Rosecrans Braxton Bragg Strength 43,400 37,712 Casualties 13,249 (1,730 killed, 7,802 wounded, 3,717 captured/missing) 10,266 (1,294 killed, 7,945 wounded, 1,027 captured/missing) The Battle of Stones River... is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... The Battle of Mansfield, also known as the Battle of Sabine Cross-Roads or Pleasant Grove, on April 9, 1864 in De Soto Parish, Louisiana, was the first major clash of the Unions Red River campaign. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... The Battle of Opequon, also known as the Third Battle of Winchester, was a decisive victory for the Union army during the Valley Campaigns of 1864 in the American Civil War. ...


Historian Shelby Foote explains that most Northerners were urban and regarded bodies of water as noteworthy; most Southerners were rural and regarded towns as noteworthy.[15] Shelby Dade Foote, Jr. ...


Civil War armies were also named in a manner reminiscent of the battlefields: Northern armies were frequently named for major rivers (Army of the Potomac, Army of the Tennessee, Army of the Mississippi), Southern armies for states or geographic regions (Army of Northern Virginia, Army of Tennessee, Army of Mississippi). Generals Burnside, Hancock, Couch, Ferro, Patrick, Wilcox, Cochrane, Buford and others. ... The Army of the Tennessee was a Union army in the American Civil War, named for the Tennessee River. ... Army of the Mississippi was the name given to two Union armies, both with short existences, during the Civil War. ... The Army of Northern Virginia was the primary military force of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War in the eastern theater. ... The Army of Tennessee was formed in November 1862. ... There were three organizations known as the Army of Mississippi in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ...


Units smaller than armies were named differently in many cases. Corps were usually written out (First Army Corps or more simply, First Corps), although a post-war convention developed to designate Union corps using Roman numerals (XI Corps). Often, particularly with Southern armies, corps were more commonly known by the name of the leader (Hardee's Corps, Polk's Corps). This article is about a military unit. ... The XI Corps (Eleventh Corps) was a corps of the Union Army during the American Civil War, best remembered for its humiliating defeats at the battles of Chancellorsville and Gettysburg in 1863. ...


Union brigades were given numeric designations (1st, 2nd, ...), whereas Confederate brigades were frequently named after their commanding general (Hood's Brigade, Gordon's Brigade, ...). Confederate brigades so-named retained the name of the original commander even when commanded temporarily by another man; for example, at the Battle of Gettysburg, Hoke's Brigade was commanded by Isaac Avery and Nicholl's Brigade by Jesse Williams. Nicknames were common in both armies, such as the Iron Brigade and the Stonewall Brigade. Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America Commanders George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 93,921[1] 71,699[2] Casualties 23,055 (3,155 killed, 14,531 wounded, 5,369 captured/missing)[1] 23,231 (4,708 killed, 12,693 wounded, 5,830 captured/missing... Isaac Erwin Avery (December 20, 1828 – July 3, 1863) was a colonel in the Confederate States Army who perished at the Battle of Gettysburg during the American Civil War. ... The Iron Brigade was an infantry brigade in the Union Army during the American Civil War, consisting primarily of Western regiments, that was noted for its ability to withstand almost any fire, and its regiments combined took the highest casualty percentage of the war. ... The Stonewall Brigade of the Confederate Army during the American Civil War, was one of the most famous combat units in United States history. ...


Union artillery batteries were generally named numerically; Confederate batteries by the name of the town or county in which they were recruited (Fluvanna Artillery). Again, they were often simply referred to by their commander's name (Moody's Battery, Parker's Battery).
The Fluvanna Artillery was an artillery battery formed from citizens of Fluvanna County, Virginia during the American Civil War. ...


In other languages

Name of the Civil War in other Languages
Language Name
Arabic الحرب الأهلية الأمريكية
al-Ḥarb al-'Ahlīyah al-Amrīkīyah
Translation: American Civil War
Basque Ameriketako Estatu Batuetako Gerra Zibilan
Catalan Guerra civil dels Estats Units
Guerra civil americana

Guerra de Secessió

Chinese Simplified: 南北战争
Traditional: 南北戰爭
Pinyin: Nán Běi Zhànzhèng
Translation: North-South War
Czech Americká občanská válka
Danish amerikanske borgerkrig
Dutch Amerikaanse Burgeroorlog
Esperanto Usona Enlanda Milito
Estonian Ameerika Ühendriikide kodusõda
setsessioonisõda
Farsi جنگ داخلی امریک
Finnish Yhdysvaltain sisällissota
French Guerre de Sécession
Gaelic/Irish Cogadh Cathara Ameireaganach
Galego Guerra Civil Americana
Guerra de Secesión
German Sezessionskrieg
Amerikanischer Bürgerkrieg
Hebrew מלחמת האזרחים האמריקנית
Hindi अमरीकी गृहयुद्ध
Icelandic Þrælastríðið
Interlingua Guerra Civil American
Italian guerra di secessione americana
guerra civile americana
Japanese 南北戦争 (なんぼくせんそう)
Korean 남북 전쟁 or 남북전쟁
Latvian (Lettish) Amerikas pilsoņu karš
Polish Wojna secesyjna
Portuguese Guerra Civil Americana
Guerra da Secessão
Romanian Războiul Civil American
Russian Гражданская война в США
Slovak Americká občianska vojna
vojna Severu proti Juhu
Slovenian Ameriška državljanska vojna
Spanish Guerra Civil Estadounidense
Guerra de Secesión
Swedish Amerikanska inbördeskriget
Turkish Amerikan İç Savaşı
Vietnamese Nội chiến Hoa Kỳ
Welsh Rhyfel Cartref America

In Chinese, Japanese and Korean, the term War between the North and the South (literally, "North-South War") is widely used for the American Civil War. Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ...


In French, German, Italian and Polish the war is most often referred to as the "(American) War of Secession."


Notes

  1. ^ Political scientists use two criteria to define a civil war: (1) The warring groups must be from the same country and fighting for control of the political center, control over a separatist state or to force a major change in policy. (2) At least 1,000 people must have been killed in total, with at least 100 from each side. See Edward Wong, "A Matter of Definition: What Makes a Civil War, and Who Declares It So?" New York Times November 26, 2006 online at [1]
  2. ^ See titles listed in Oscar Handlin et al, Harvard Guide to American History (1954) pp 385-98.
  3. ^ The Civil War
  4. ^ Proclamation, August 12, 1861.
  5. ^ Message to the Senate, May 26, 1862
  6. ^ Gettysburg Address, November 19, 1863.
  7. ^ a b c The Brig Amy Warwick, et al., 67 U.S. 635, *636, 673 (1862)
  8. ^ Jefferson Davis’ Memorandum
  9. ^ "My Fellow Americans" by Michael Waldman, former White House Chief Scriptwriter. Page 111, also, Disc 1 Track 19
  10. ^ For example: Dairyland Greyhound Park, Inc. v. Doyle, 719 N.W.2d 408, *449 (Wis., 2006)(“Prior to the War Between the States all but three states had barred lotteries”).
  11. ^ "Davis, Burke, The Civil War: Strange and Fascinating Facts, New York: The Fairfax Press, 1982. ISBN 0-517-37151-0, pp. 79-80.
  12. ^ War Songs and Poems of the Southern Confederacy 1861-1865, H. M. Wharton, compiler and editor, Edison, NJ: Castle Books, 2000, ISBN 0-7858-1273-3, pp. 69.
  13. ^ The Civil War: A Film by Ken Burns. Dir. Ken Burns, Narr. David McCullough, Writ. and prod. Ken Burns. PBS DVD Gold edition, Warner Home Video, 2002, ISBN 0-7806-3887-5.
  14. ^ SCV website.
  15. ^ The Civil War, Geoffrey Ward, with Ric Burns and Ken Burns.1990. "Interview with Shelby Foote."

The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political Science is the field concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behaviour. ... This article is about the definition of the specific type of war. ...

Further reading

  • Catton, Bruce, The Coming Fury: The Centennial History of the Civil War, Volume 1, Doubleday, 1961, ISBN 0-641-68525-4
  • Coski, John M., "The War between the Names," North and South magazine, vol. 8, no. 7., January 2006.
  • U.S. War Department, The War of the Rebellion: a Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1880–1901.
  • Wittichen, Mrs. Murray Forbes, "Let's Say 'War Between the States'," Florida Division, United Daughters of the Confederacy, 1954.

Bruce Catton (October 9, 1899 — August 28, 1978) was a journalist and a notable historian of the American Civil War. ... The Official Records of the American Civil War or often more simply the Official Records or ORs, constitute a unique, authentic, and comprehensive collection of first-hand accounts, orders, reports, and correspondence drawn from War and Navy Department records of both Confederate and Union governments during the American Civil War. ... The United Daughters of the Confederacy (UDC) is a sororal association dedicated to honoring the memory of those who served and died in service to the Confederate States of America (CSA). ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Naming the American Civil War - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2085 words)
The primary motivation for the use of this name is the belief that the term "Civil War" is misleading and inexact.
In the North, battles were frequently named for rivers or creeks that were prominent on or near the battlefield; in the South, the nearest town was used.
Civil War armies were also named in a manner reminiscent of the battlefields: Northern armies were frequently named for major rivers (Army of the Potomac, Army of the Tennessee, Army of the Mississippi, etc.), Southern armies for states or geographic regions (Army of Northern Virginia, Army of Tennessee, Army of Mississippi).
American Civil War - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (10601 words)
The American Civil War (1861–1865) was a sectional conflict in the United States between the federal government (the "Union") and 11 Southern slave states that declared their secession and formed the Confederate States of America, led by President Jefferson Davis.
The causes of the war, the reasons for the outcome, and even the name of the war itself, are subjects of lingering controversy, even today.
As James McPherson observed "The profound irony of the Civil War was that Confederate and Union soldiers...
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