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Encyclopedia > Namestnik of Kingdom of Poland

Namestnik of the Kingdom of Poland (Polish: Namiestnik Królestwa Polskiego) was the title of the official representatives of the king of Poland (i.e. tsar of Russia, who used that title in that period) in Congress Poland, which existed from 1815 to 1874. Between 1874 and 1914, as Congress Poland became the Vistulan Country, the title of namestnik was replaced by the title of Governor-General of Warsaw (Polish: Generał-gubernator warszawski).[1] A title is a prefix or suffix added to a persons name to signify either veneration, an official position or a professional or academic qualification. ... Poland was ruled by dukes (c. ... Tsar, (Bulgarian цар�, Russian царь; often spelled Czar or Tzar in English), was the title used for the autocratic rulers of the First and Second Bulgarian Empires since 913, in Serbia in the middle of the 14th century, and in Russia from 1547 to 1917. ... Map of Congress Poland. ... Vistulan Country (Russian Привислинский Край, Privislinskiy Kray) was an informal name of the Polish lands incorporated into Imperial Russia after the fall of the November Uprising. ... Namestnik (Russian: ) was an office position in the history of Russia. ...


The office was introduced by the Constitution of Congress Poland in 1815 and described in Chapter 3 (On the Namestnik and Council of State). The namestnik was chosen by the tsar from among the noble citizens of the Russian Empire or the Kingdom of Poland, excluding naturalized citizens. The namestnik supervised the entire public administration, and in the absence of the monarch, chaired the Council of State, as well as the Administrative Council. He had the right to veto the council's decisions; other than that his decisions had to be countersigned by the appopriate minister. He had wide legislative rights: he could propose candidates for most senior official positions (ministers, senators, judges of the High Tribunal, councilors of the state, referandaries, as well as bishops and archbishops). Naturalization is the act whereby a person voluntarily and actively acquires a nationality which is not his or her nationality at birth. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Public administration can be broadly described as the study and implementation of policy. ... Superscript text This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Countersign is a military term for a sign, word, or any other signal previously agreed upon and required to be exchanged between a sentry or guard and anybody approaching his or her post. ... A minister can mean several things: A government minister is a politician who heads a government ministry A minister of religion is a member of the clergy A minister is the rank of diplomat directly below ambassador This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages... A senate is a deliberative body, often the upper house or chamber of a legislature. ... This article is about a title or office in religious bodies. ... In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated bishop. ...


The namestnik had no competences in the realm of finances and foreign policy; his military competences varied.[2] In case the namestnik was unable to hold his office due to resignation or death, his function was temporarily held by the president of the Council of State.


The office of namestnik was never abolished; however, after the January Uprising it disappeared along with the Congress Kingdom. The last namestnik was Fyodor Berg, who served from 1863 to 1874. No namestnik was nominated to replace him after his death in 1874;[3] however, the role of the namestniks - viceroys in the former Congress Kingdom, now the Vistulan Country - passed to the Governors-General of Warsaw[4] – or to be more specific, of the Warsaw Military District (Polish: Warszawski Okręg Wojskowy, Russian: Варшавский Военный Округ). Polonia (Poland), 1863, by Jan Matejko, 1864, oil on canvas, 156 × 232 cm, National Museum, Kraków. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... A viceroy is a royal official who governs a country or province in the name of and as representative of the monarch. ... Vistulan Country (Russian Привислинский Край, Privislinskiy Kray) was an informal name of the Polish lands incorporated into Imperial Russia after the fall of the November Uprising. ... Governor-General (or Governor General) is a term used both historically and currently to designate the appointed representative of a head of state or their government for a particular territory, historically in a colonial context, but no longer necessarily in that form. ... Motto: Contemnit procellas (It defies the storms) Semper invicta (Always invincible) Coordinates: Country Poland Voivodeship Masovian Voivodeship Powiat (County) Gmina (Commune) Warszawa Districts 18 boroughs City Rights turn of the 13th century Government  - Mayor Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz Area  - City 516. ...


The governors-general were directly subordinate to the tsar and had much wider powers compared to the namestniks. In particular, they had control over all of the military forces in the region, and were the overseers of the juridical systems (they could pronounce death sentences without trials). They could also issue "declarations with the force of statutes", which could change existing laws. Capital punishment, also referred to as the death penalty, is the judicially ordered execution of a prisoner as a punishment for a serious crime, often called a capital offense or a capital crime. ... A declaration is a form of statement, which expresses (or declares) some idea; declarations attempt to argue that something is true. ... The Statute of Grand Duchy of Lithuania A statute is a formal, written law of a country or state, written and enacted by its legislative authority, perhaps to then be ratified by the highest executive in the government, and finally published. ...

Contents

Namestniks of the Kingdom of Poland

Prince Józef Zajączek (1752-1826) was a Polish general and the commander of the Kościuszko Uprising in 1794 after Tadeusz Kościuszko was imprisoned. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... The oldest surviving photograph, Nicéphore Niépce, circa 1826 1826 (MDCCCXXVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Administrative Council (Polish: ) was a part of Council of State of the Congress Poland. ... Portrait by George Dawe from the Military Gallery Ivan Fyodorovich Paskevich (Russian: ) (18 August [O.S. 5 August] 1782 – 1 February [O.S. 20 January] 1856) was a Ukrainian-born military leader in the Russian service. ... 1855 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Prince Mikhail Dmitrievich Gorchakov (1792 – 18 May [O.S. 30 May] 1861, Warsaw) was a Russian general of artillery and a Namestnik of Kingdom of Poland from 1856 until his death. ... May 3 is the 123rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (124th in leap years). ... 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar) // January 1 - Benito Juárez captures Mexico City January 2 - Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia dies and is succeeded by... May 16 is the 136th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (137th in leap years). ... August 1 is the 213th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (214th in leap years), with 152 days remaining. ... October 11 is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... October 22 is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 70 days remaining. ... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Grand Duke Konstantin of Russia. ... October 31 is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 61 days remaining. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Count Fredrik Wilhelm Rembert Berg (Russian: ) (Fyodor Fyodorovich Graf Berg) (1793-1874) was a Russian Field Marshal and Governor-General of Finland from 1855 to 1861. ... Year 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...

Governor-Generals of Warsaw

Year 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Field Marshal Joseph Gourko Count Joseph Vladimirovich Romeyko-Gourko (the first name is also sometimes transliterated Ossip) (16/28 July 1828, Mogilev region - 15/28 January 1901, near Tver) was a Russian Field Marshal prominent during the Russo-Turkish War, 1877-78. ... 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ... Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ... Year 1900 (MCM) was an exceptional common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar, but a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. ... Year 1900 (MCM) was an exceptional common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar, but a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ...

Notes

  1. ^ The literature refers to that office using several names. Namestnik is also sometimes translated as viceroy, regent or lord lieutenant, and sometimes even prince of Poland or Prince of Warsaw; Governors-General of Warsaw are sometimes referred to as Governors-General of the Kingdom of Poland or Governors-General of Poland, and some sources erroneously use the term namestnik for after 1874, or governor-general for the preceding period.
  2. ^ Sources are contradictory on whether the namestnik had or did not have competences in the military realm. Certainly from 1815 to 1831 the military of the Congress Kingdom was controlled by Grand Duke Constantine Pavlovich of Russia, who de facto had more power then the namestnik, Józef Zajączek. Zajączek died in 1826, and was not replaced until 1831, when the November Uprising saw Ivan Paskevich assuming the post of namestnik - and also command of the Russian military forces in the region, as he was tasked with defeating the uprising. The issue of who controlled the military after Paskevich's death is unclear, but again the last namestnik, Fyodor Berg, was tasked with crushing another Polish uprising - the January Uprising - and had command over the military.
  3. ^ Hugo Stumm, Russia's advance eastward, 1874, Google Print: p.140, note 1
  4. ^ Thomas Mitchell, Handbook for Travellers in Russia, Poland, and Finland, 1888, Google Print, p.460

Namestnik (Russian: ) was an office position in the history of Russia. ... A viceroy is a royal official who governs a country or province in the name of and as representative of the monarch. ... Regent, from the Latin, a person selected to administer a state because the ruler is a minor or is not present or debilitated. ... Flag of a Lord-Lieutenant The title Lord-Lieutenant is given to the British monarchs personal representatives around the United Kingdom. ... The term prince, from the Latin root princeps, is used for the member of the highest aristocracy. ... Constantine was known for his repugnant physical features which resembled those of his father, Emperor Paul. ... Prince Józef Zajączek (1752-1826) was a Polish general and the commander of the Kościuszko Uprising in 1794 after Tadeusz Kościuszko was imprisoned. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Portrait by George Dawe from the Military Gallery Ivan Fyodorovich Paskevich (Russian: ) (18 August [O.S. 5 August] 1782 – 1 February [O.S. 20 January] 1856) was a Ukrainian-born military leader in the Russian service. ... Polonia (Poland), 1863, by Jan Matejko, 1864, oil on canvas, 156 × 232 cm, National Museum, Kraków. ...

References

  • This article incorporates text translated from the corresponding Polish Wikipedia article as of 8 January 2006.

See also


 
 

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