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Encyclopedia > Names of the Greeks
Note: This article contains special characters.

This article is part of the series on: Image File history File links COA_of_Greece. ...


History of Greece This article covers the Greek civilization. ...

Prehistory of Greece
Helladic Civilization
Cycladic Civilization
Minoan Civilization
Mycenaean Civilization
Greek Dark Ages
Ancient Greece
Archaic Greece
Classical Greece
Hellenistic Greece
Roman Greece
Medieval Greece
Byzantine Empire
Ottoman Greece
Modern Greece
Greek War of Independence
Kingdom of Greece
Axis Occupation of Greece
Greek Civil War
Military Junta
The Hellenic Republic
Topical History
Economic history of Greece
Military history of Greece
Constitutional history of Greece
Names of the Greeks
History of Greek art
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Since the time of Homer, the Greeks have called themselves Hellenes (Έλληνες), though they have been known by a number of different names throughout history. The soldiers that fell at Thermopylae did so as the last protectors of Hellas. Homer, Herodotus and the later Greek authors locate the first usages of the word "Hellenes" as an ethnic name-umbrella under which the Achaians and the rest of the Greek allies sailed for the city state of Troy under Agamemnon's leadership, although up to that point "Hellas" (Greek: Eλλάς) and "Hellenes" was the name of the tribe (also called "Myrmidones") settled in Thessalic Phthia having Achilles as their leader. Aegean civilization is a general term for the Bronze Age civilizations of Greece and the Aegean. ... The Helladic is a modern term to identify a sequence of periods characterizing the culture of mainland ancient Greece during the Bronze Age. ... Cycladic civilization (also known as Cycladic culture or The Cycladic period) is an Early Bronze Age culture of the Cyclades in the Aegean Sea, spanning the period from approximately 3000 BC-2000 BC. // Cycladic marble figurine of the Keros Culture type The significant Late Neolithic and Early Bronze Age Cycladic... The Minoan civilization was a bronze age civilization which arose on Crete, an island in the Aegean Sea. ... Mycenaean Greece, the last phase of the Bronze Age in ancient Greece, is the historical setting of the epics of Homer and much other Greek mythology. ... The Greek Dark Ages (ca. ... The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... The archaic period in Greece is the period during which the ancient Greek city-states developed, and is normally taken to cover roughly the 9th century to the 6th century BCE. The Archaic period followed the dark ages, and saw significant advancements in political theory, and the rise of democracy... Parthenon This article is on the term Classical Greece itself. ... The Hellenistic period of Greek history was the period between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the annexation of the Greek peninsula and islands by Rome in 146 BC. Although the establishment of Roman rule did not break the continuity of Hellenistic society and culture, which... Roman Greece is the period of Greek history following the Roman victory over the Corinthians at the Battle of Corinth in 146 BC until the reestablishment of the city of Byzantium and the naming of the city by Emperor Constantine I as the capital of the Roman Empire (as Nova... Roman Greece The Greek peninsula became a Roman protectorate in 146 BC, and the Aegean islands were added to this territory in 133. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... Greece was part of the Ottoman Empire from the 14th century until its declaration of independence in 1821. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Greek revolutionaries United Kingdom France Russian Empire  Ottoman Empire Egyptian Khedivate Commanders Theodoros Kolokotronis Alexander Ypsilanti Georgios Karaiskakis Omer Vryonis Mahmud Dramali Pasha ReÅŸid Mehmed Pasha Ibrahim Pasha. ... Capital Athens Language(s) Greek Religion Greek Orthodox Government Constitutional Monarchy King  - 1832-1862 Otto  - 1863-1913 George I  - 1913-1917 Constantine I  - 1917-1920 Alexander  - 1920-1922 Constantine I  - 1922-1924 George II Historical era Enlightenment Era  - London Protocol August 30, 1832  - Military junta April 21, 1967 The Kingdom... German soldiers raising the Reich War Flag over the Acropolis. ... Combatants Hellenic Army, Royalist forces, Republicans United Kingdom Communist Party of Greece (ELAS, DSE) Commanders Alexander Papagos, Thrasyvoulos Tsakalotos, James Van Fleet Markos Vafiadis Strength 150,000 men 50,000 men and women Casualties 15,000 killed 32,000+ killed or captured The Greek Civil War (Ελληνικός εμφύλιος πόλεμος [ellinikos emfilios polemos]) was... The Greek military junta of 1967-1974, alternatively The Regime of the Colonels (Greek: ), or in Greece The Junta (Greek: ) and The Seven Years (Greek: ) are terms used to refer to a series of right-wing military governments that ruled Greece from 1967 to 1974. ... The history of the Hellenic Republic constitutes three discreet periods in Greek History: 1827 - 1832, 1924 - 1935 and 1974 - present. ... The economic history of the Greek World spans several millennia and encompasses many modern day nation states. ... The military history of Greece is the history of the wars and battles of the Greek people in Greece, the Balkans and the Greek colonies in the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea since classical antiquity. ... In the modern history of Greece, starting from the Greek War of Independence, the Constitution of 1975/1986/2001 is the last in a series of democratically adopted Constitutions (with the exception of the Constitutions of 1968 and 1973 imposed by a dictatorship). ... Greece has a rich and varied artistic history, spanning some 5000 years and beginning in the Cycladic and Minoan prehistorical civilization, giving birth to Western classical art in the ancient period (further developing this during the Hellenistic Period), to taking in the influences of Eastern civilizations and the new religion... For other uses, see Homer (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Battle of Thermopylae (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Homer (disambiguation). ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: HÄ“rodotos Halikarnāsseus) was a Greek historian from Ionia who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... This article is about a character in Greek mythology. ... For other uses, see Greece (disambiguation). ... The Myrmidons (or Myrmidones Μυρμιδόνες) were an ancient nation of Greek mythology. ... Map showing Thessaly periphery in Greece Thessaly (Θεσσαλια; modern Greek Thessalía; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is one of the 13 peripheries of Greece, and is further sub-divided into 4 prefectures. ... Phthia (Greek: Φθίη transliterations:, modern: Fthii, ancient: PhthiÄ“) is an ancient region of Greece, at the southern part of Magnesia, on the both sides of Othrys mountain. ... For other uses, see Achilles (disambiguation). ...


Alexander the Great is the first commander who officially uses the terms Hellas and Panhellenic League (league of all Greek tribes except for the Lacedaemonians) when he declares the beginning of his military campaign against the Persian ruler of the Greek city-states of Asia Minor (Ionia) in order to take revenge on behalf of their ancestors. Within the sphere of influence in the territories conquered by Alexander the Great and subsequently hellenized as well as in Hellenistic Judea a Greek was anyone who had a proper Greek education, i.e. culture; the Books of the Maccabees so refer to Jews who had adopted Greek culture. In the scriptures of the New Testament Hellenes is used as a term representative of all the non-Jewish peoples (cf. Galatians 3:28). By Late Antiquity, the Greeks referred to themselves as "Romaioi" (Greek: Ρωμαίοι) or "Romioi" (Greek: Ρωμιοί), i.e. Romans since after AD 212 virtually all Greeks were Roman citizens and therefore considered by name to have the right to be free and own property. While Constantine the Great favored Christianity, moved the capital of the Roman Empire to Constantinople and after the official conversion of the Byzantine Empire into Christianity by Theodosios, "Hellene" came to imply pagan due to the characterization of all classical philosophy as idolatric. Western Europeans used the term Greeks and the Persians and the Turks used the term Yunans, i.e. Ionians. An interesting and unique form is used in Georgian: the Greeks are called ბერძენი berdzeni, deriving from the Georgian word for "wise," a name commonly attributed to the notion that philosophy was born in Greece.[1][2][3][4] For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... The League of Corinth was a federation of Greek states created by Philip II of Macedon during the winter of 338 BC/337 BC to facilitate his use of Greek military forces in his war against Persia. ... Lacedaemon, or Lakedaimon, Grk. ... Location of Ionia Ionia (Greek Ιωνία; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was an ancient region of southwestern coastal Anatolia (in present-day Turkey, the region nearest Ä°zmir,) on the Aegean Sea. ... The term Hellenistic (derived from HéllÄ“n, the Greeks traditional self-described ethnic name) was established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen to refer to the spreading of Greek culture over the non-Greek people that were conquered by Alexander the Great. ... The term Hellenistic (derived from HéllÄ“n, the Greeks traditional self-described ethnic name) was established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen to refer to the spreading of Greek culture over the non-Greek people that were conquered by Alexander the Great. ... Map of the southern Levant, c. ... The Books of the Maccabees are deuterocanonical books giving the history of the Maccabees, a Jewish family who rebelled against the Seleucid dynasty and founded the Hasmonean Kingdom in Israel in the 2nd and 1st century BC: 1 Maccabees 2 Maccabees 3 Maccabees 4 Maccabees Category: ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... Late Antiquity is a rough periodization (c. ... Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[2] (27 February c. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Byzantine redirects here. ... Theodosius (from greek friend of God) is a common name to three emperors of ancient Rome and Byzantium: Theodosius I (379-395) Theodosius II (408-450) Theodosius III (715-717) Categories: Disambiguation | Late Antiquity ... Greek religion encompasses the collection of beliefs and rituals practiced in Ancient Greece in form of cult practices, thus the practical counterpart of Greek mythology. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... The Adoration of the Golden Calf by Nicolas Poussin Idolatry is a major sin in the Abrahamic religions regarding image. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... The Ionians were one of the three main ancient Greek ethno-linguistic groups, linked by their use of the Ionic dialect of the Greek language. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ...


Many Greek cities were established after the first wave of colonization in Magna Graecia in the 8th century BC. It is from contact with these settlers, possibly Graeci of Doric descent, that the Greek name became established in the West. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Colonialism. ... Magna Graecia around 280 b. ... [[Im Category: ...


The onset of every historical era was accompanied by a new national name: either entirely new or formerly old and sidelined, extracted from tradition or adopted from foreigners. Each was significant in its own time, and all can be used interchangeably. The Greeks are a polyonymous people.

Contents

General names of Greece

In most European languages and languages that have borrowed the name from one of these, the name of Greece has a common "gr" initial. The root of all of these was Graecus in Latin, and was also the ancient name that the Romans used for the Greeks: Graecus (or Græcus in Greek ) was, according to Hesiods (probably) Eoiae (Greek : Ηοίαι) or Catalogue of Women[1] on the origin of the Greeks, the son of Pandora and Zeus and brother of Magnetas and Macedon. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ...

In Middle Eastern and Eastern languages, the common root is "yun" or "ywn". The term probably gained widespread usage in the Semitic languages through the Table of Nations in Genesis 10.1-32; it lists the descendants of Noah and the nations they founded and the Greeks appear under the name "Yavan," who is a son of Yaphet. Yavan is parallel with the Greek word, "Ionia", the Greek region of Asia Minor: [2] Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia, and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of Sardinia. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The West Frisian language (Frysk) is a language spoken mostly in the province of Fryslân in the north of the Netherlands. ... Afrikaans is a West Germanic language mainly spoken in South Africa and Namibia. ... For the Cornish-English dialect, see West Country dialects. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... Basque (native name: euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France. ... In linguistics and ethnology, Semitic (from the Biblical Shem, Hebrew: שם, translated as name, Arabic: سام) was first used to refer to a language family of largely Middle Eastern origin, now called the Semitic languages. ... This T and O map, which abstracts that societys known world to a cross inscribed within an orb, remakes geography in the service of Christian iconography and identifies the three known continents as populated by descendents of Shem (Sem), Ham (Cham) and Japheth (Iafeth) The Table of Nations is... Location of Ionia Ionia (Greek Ιωνία; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was an ancient region of southwestern coastal Anatolia (in present-day Turkey, the region nearest İzmir,) on the Aegean Sea. ...

  • Arabic: يونان (Yūnān)
  • Aramaic: ܝܘܢ or יון (Yawān, Yawon)
  • Armenian: Հունաստան (Hounastan)
  • Azeri: Yunanıstan
  • Hindi: यूनान (Yūnān)

The third root is "hl", used by a few languages around the world, including Greek: Arabic redirects here. ... Aramaic is a group of Semitic languages with a 3,000-year history. ... The Azerbaijani language, also called Azeri, Azari, Azeri Turkish, or Azerbaijani Turkish, is the official language of the Republic of Azerbaijan. ... Hindi (हिन्दी) is a language spoken mainly in North and Central India. ... Categories: Language stubs | Judaism-related stubs | Canaanite languages | Hebrew language ... Hebrew redirects here. ... This page is about the version of the Bible; for the Harvey Danger album, see King James Version (album). ... The Kurdish language (Kurdish: Kurdî or کوردی) is the language spoken by Kurds. ... Farsi redirects here. ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Tajik or Tadjik (тоҷикӣ, تاجیکی, tojikí) is a descendant of the Persian language spoken in Central Asia. ...

  • In the Georgian language, the root for "Greek" is "-berdz-", so "Greece" is "Saberdzneti"

It has been suggested that Diacritics (Greek alphabet) be merged into this article or section. ... Monotonic orthography is the simplified way for spelling modern Greek introduced in 1982. ... Georgian (, kartuli ena) is the official language of Georgia, a country in the Caucasus. ...

Achaeans (Αχαιοί)

Main article: Achaeans

In Homer's Iliad, the Greek allied forces are described under three different names, often used interchangeably: Argives (in Greek: Argeioi (Αργείοι)) (used 29 times in the Iliad), Danaans (Δαναοί) (used 138 times) and Achaeans (Αχαιοί) (used 598 times).[5] The Achaeans (in Greek , Achaioi) is the collective name given to the Greek forces in Homers Iliad (used 598 times). ... For other uses, see Homer (disambiguation). ... title page of the Rihel edition of ca. ... This is a list of traditional Greek place names. ... Argos (Greek: Άργος, Árgos) is a city in Greece in the Peloponnesus near Nafplio, which was its historic harbor, named for Nauplius. ... This article is about the ancient people of the Achaeans. ... The Achaeans (in Greek , Achaioi) is the collective name given to the Greek forces in Homers Iliad (used 598 times). ...


Argives is a political annotation drawn from the original capital of the Achaeans, Argos. It is derived from the root arg- meaning shining or bright, akin to argyros (άργυρος meaning silver), argos (αργός meaning shining[6]) or Latin argentum. Danaans is the name attributed to the tribe first dominating the Peloponnese and the area near Argos. Achaeans is the name of the tribe that, reinforced by the Aeolians, first dominated Greek territories, centering itself around its capital in Mycenae. This article is about the city in Greece. ... Greece and the Peloponnese The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus (Greek: Πελοπόννησος Peloponnesos; see also List of Greek place names) is a large peninsula in southern Greece, forming the part of the country south of the Gulf of Corinth. ... The Aeolians were one of the ancient Greek tribes. ... A clay tablet with writing in Linear B from Mycenae. ...


Hellenes (Έλληνες)

Etymology and the origin of the term "Hellenes"

During the era of the Trojan War, the Hellenes were a relatively small but vigorous tribe settled in Thessalic Phthia, centralized along the settlements of Alos, Alope, Trachis, and Pelasgian Argos.[7] Various etymologies have been proposed for the word Hellene, with the most researched being the one that deconstructs the word "(H)el-las" (Greek: Ελλάς) to e- or es- (ours or our own) and -laos (Greek: λαός) (people, nation) or laas (Greek: λάας) (stone), giving the meanings "our people", "our nation" or "our people of stones" linked semantically with the Greek deluge myth, after which Deukalion and Pyrrha as instucted by Zeus were throwing stones on the ground from where people appear. Some others include sal (to pray), ell (mountainous) and sel (illuminate). A more recent study traces the name to a city named Hellas next to the river Spercheus, still named that today.[8] Based on texts by Aristotle it has been argued that the Selli (Σελλοί), the high priests of Dodona in Epirus could also have given their name to the Hellenic race. Homer writes of Achilles praying to Dodonian Zeus as the ancestral god: "King Zeus, he cried, lord of Dodona, god of the Pelasgi, who dwellest afar, you who hold wintry Dodona in your sway, where your prophets the Selli dwell around you with their feet unwashed and their couches made upon the ground."[9] The fall of Troy, by Johann Georg Trautmann (1713–1769). ... Map showing Thessaly periphery in Greece Thessaly (Θεσσαλια; modern Greek Thessalía; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is one of the 13 peripheries of Greece, and is further sub-divided into 4 prefectures. ... Phthia (Greek: Φθίη transliterations:, modern: Fthii, ancient: PhthiÄ“) is an ancient region of Greece, at the southern part of Magnesia, on the both sides of Othrys mountain. ... Alos can be: An ancient city in Greece. ... In Greek mythology, Alop was a mortal woman, daughter of Cercyon. ... Trachis was a landscape in ancient Greece. ... This article is about the city in Greece. ... Look up deluge in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In Greek mythology, Deucalion, or Deukálion (new-wine sailor) was the son of Prometheus and Clymene or Celaeno. ... Deucalion and Pyrrha throwing rocks that become babies. ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology, Spercheus (also Sperchius, Spercheius, Spercheios, Sperkheios) was the name of and the god of a river in Thessaly. ... For other uses, see Dodona (disambiguation). ... Epirus, spanning Greece and Albania. ... For other uses, see Greek (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Achilles (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... The name Pelasgians (Ancient Greek: Πελασγοί - Pelasgoí, s. ...


Ptolemy calls Epirus "primordial Hellas",[10] and Aristotle reports that an ancient cataclysm was most severe "in ancient Hellas, in between Dodona and the Achelous river […], the land occupied by Seli and Graeci, who later came to be known as Hellenes".[11] The prospect, therefore, that the Selloi were a tribe from Epirus (North Greece) that later migrated southward to Phthia in Thessaly and adopted the name Hellenes as their own is also a valid one. The extension of a particular cult of Zeus in Dodona (a tendency among the Greeks to form ever-larger communities and amphictionies) and the increasing popularity of the Delphic cult caused the name to further extend to the rest of the peninsula, later cross the Aegean Sea into Asia Minor, and eventually westwards again to Sicily and southern Italy, collectively known as Magna Graecia. This article is about the geographer, mathematician and astronomer Ptolemy. ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... Achelous was often reduced to a bearded mask, an inspiration for the medieval Green Man. ... Graecus (or Græcus in Greek ) was, according to Hesiods (probably) Eoiae (Greek : Ηοίαι) or Catalogue of Women[1] on the origin of the Greeks, the son of Pandora and Zeus and brother of Magnetas and Macedon. ... For other uses, see Greece (disambiguation). ... The Amphictyonic League (Amphictyony) was a form of Greek Hellenic religious organization that was formed to support specific temple or sacred place. ... For other uses, see Delphi (disambiguation). ... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Magna Graecia around 280 b. ...


Spread of the use of the term "Hellenes"

Hellenes in the wider meaning of the word appears in writing for the first time in an inscription by Echembrotus, dedicated to Heracles for his victory in the Amphictyonic Games,[12] and refers to the 48th Olympiad (584 BC). It appears to have been introduced in the 8th century BC with the Olympic Games, and permanently established itself by the 5th century BC. After the Greco-Persian Wars an inscription was written in Delphi celebrating victory over the Persians and praising Pausanias as the leading general of the Hellenes.[13] Awareness of a pan-Hellenic unity was promoted by religious festivals, most significantly in the Eleusinian Mysteries, in which prospective initiates had to speak Greek, and almost as importantly through participation in the four Panhellenic Games—including the Olympic Games—in which participants were recognized by tribal affiliation. Neither women nor non-Greeks were allowed to participate; the occasional exception in later times, such as that made for Emperor Nero, was a sure sign of Roman political hegemony. Echembrotus was an ancient Arcadian Greek lyricist and poet. ... Alcides redirects here. ... Ruins of the training grounds at Olympia The Ancient Olympic Games, originally referred to as simply the Olympic Games (Greek: ; Olympiakoi Agones) were a series of athletic competitions held between various city-states of Ancient Greece. ... Ruins of the training grounds at Olympia The Ancient Olympic Games, originally referred to as simply the Olympic Games (Greek: ; Olympiakoi Agones) were a series of athletic competitions held between various city-states of Ancient Greece. ... Persian Wars redirects here. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... Pausanias (Greek = Παυσανίας) was a Spartan general of the 5th century BCE. He was the nephew of Leonidas I and served as regent after his uncles death, as Leonidas son, Pleistarchus was still under-age. ... The Eleusinian Mysteries (Greek: Ἐλευσίνια Μυστήρια) were initiation ceremonies held every year for the cult of Demeter and Persephone based at Eleusis in ancient Greece. ... Panhellenic Games is the collective term for four separate sports festivals held in ancient Greece. ... For other uses, see Nero (disambiguation). ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ...


The tribal societies of the north

The development of mythological genealogies of descent from eponymous founder-figures, long after the actual southward migration of the four tribal groups recognized by the Greeks, affected how the identity of northern tribes was perceived. According to the most prevailing legend, Hellen, son of Deucalion and Pyrrha, received from the nymph Orseis three sons, Aeolus, Dorus, and Xuthus, each of whom founded a primary tribe of Hellas—the Aeolians, Dorians, Achaeans and Ionians. An eponym is the name of a person, whether real or fictitious, who has (or is thought to have) given rise to the name of a particular place, tribe, discovery, or other item. ... Note: Hellen was not the same person as Helen of Troy, or Helenus, son of King Priam of Troy. ... Deucalion In Greek mythology, Deucalion, or Deukálion (new-wine sailor) was the name of at least two figures: a son of Prometheus, and a son of Minos. ... Deucalion and Pyrrha throwing rocks that become babies. ... In Greek mythology, Orseis, (Greek: ) was the water-nymph (Naiad) of a spring in Thessalia, Greece, and the mythical ancestor of the Greeks. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In Greek mythology, Dorus is the name of several individuals: Dorus was a son of Hellen and founder of the Dorian nation. ... In Greek mythology, Xuthus (Classical Greek ) was a son of Hellen and Orseis and founder (through his sons) of the Achaean and Ionian nations. ... The Aeolians were one of the ancient Greek tribes. ... [[Im Category: ... The Achaeans (in Greek , Achaioi) is the collective name given to the Greek forces in Homers Iliad (used 598 times). ... The Ionians were one of the three main ancient Greek ethno-linguistic groups, linked by their use of the Ionic dialect of the Greek language. ...


At the time of the Trojan War, the Epirotes (Molossians, Thesprotians and Chaonians) were not considered Hellenes, for the people so named were then limited to a small tribe in Thessaly of which Achilles was a member. After the name was extended to all peoples south of Mount Olympus, however, it still left out those of common origin living in the north. One factor contributing to this was their non-participation in the Persian Wars,[14] which were considered a vital affair for all Hellenes; subsequent to the Persian Wars, representatives of these tribes were accepted in the Olympic Games and competed alongside other Hellenes.[15] The fact that each of these northern peoples at this time continued to live as an ethnos, or collection of tribes, under an archaic monarchial political system - as opposed to the democratic or oligarchic polis (city state) of the south - also contributed to this view of them as "barbaric".[16] For the micronation of Molossia, see Republic of Molossia Map of Chaonia, Molossis & Thesprotia The Molossians (Molossoi) were an ancient Greek[1] tribe that settled Epirus during Mycenaean times. ... Map of Chaonia, Molossis & Thesprotia The Thesprotians (Gk. ... The Chaonians (Χάονες, Χαόνων, in Greek), were an ancient tribe of Chaonia, which covered the northwestern portion of Epirus. ... This article is about the Greek mountain. ... Persian Wars redirects here. ... An ethnic group is a group of people who identify with one another, or are so identified by others, on the basis of a boundary that distinguishes them from other groups. ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... Democracy is a form of government under which the power to alter the laws and structures of government lies, ultimately, with the citizenry. ... Oligarchy is a form of government where most political power effectively rests with a small segment of society (typically the most powerful, whether by wealth, military strength, ruthlessness, or political influence). ... A polis (πόλις, pronunciation pol-is) plural: poleis (πόλεις) is a city, a city-state and also citizenship and body of citizens. ...


Thucydides calls the Acarnanians, Aetolians,[17] Epirotes[18] and Upper Macedonians[19] barbarians, but does so in a strictly linguistic sense - these peoples were considered barbarophone to the extent that their dialects were sufficiently different and archaic so as to sound crude and barely understandable to a southern Attic speaker such as Thucydides.[20] Similarly, when the Athenian orator Demosthenes called the Macedonians worse than barbarians in his Third Philippic directed at Philip II of Macedon, he did so with respect to the culture they demonstrated as foreigners not adhering to proper Hellenic standards, and did not raise the issue of their origin: "not only no Greek, nor related to the Greeks, but not even a barbarian from any place that can be named with honors, but a pestilent knave from Macedonia, whence it was never yet possible to buy a decent slave." Polybius, on the other hand, regards the tribes of western Hellas, Epirus, and Macedonia as Hellenic in every respect.[21] Bust of Thucydides residing in the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto. ... Acarnania was a region of ancient central western Greece that lay along the Ionian Sea, west of Aetolia, with the Achelous River for a boundary, and north of the gulf of Calydon, which is the entrance to the Gulf of Corinth. ... The ancient Region of Aetolia, Greece Aetolia is a mountainous region of Greece on the north coast of the Gulf of Corinth, forming the eastern part of the modern prefecture of Aetolia-Acarnania. ... For other uses, see Barbarian (disambiguation). ... Attic Greek is the ancient dialect of the Greek language that was spoken in Attica, which includes Athens. ... Demosthenes (384–322 BC, Greek: Δημοσθένης, Dēmosthénēs) was a prominent Greek statesman and orator of ancient Athens. ... A philippic is a fiery, damning speech delivered to condemn a particular political actor. ... Philip II of Macedon: victory medal (niketerion) struck in Tarsus, 2nd c. ... A journeyman is a tradesman or craftsman who may well have completed an apprenticeship but is not yet able to set up their own workshop as a master. ... Polybius (c. ... Categories: Greece geography stubs ...


Hellenes and barbarians

In the following centuries, Hellene gained a broader meaning, coming to signify civilized people in general, and typically contrasted with barbarian, representing the uncivilized. For other uses, see Barbarian (disambiguation). ...


The Greek tribes quickly noticed that they did not speak the same tongue as their neighbours, and used the term "βάρβαρος" ("barbarian") for them, with the meaning "speaker of a foreign language". The term βάρβαρος is thought to be onomatopoeic in origin: "bar-bar"—i.e. stammering—may have been how the speech of foreign peoples sounded to Greek speakers.[22] This is also true for the Egyptians, who, according to Herodotus "named barbarians all those who spoke a different tongue",[23] and in later years for the Slavs, who gave the Germans the name nemec, which means "mute" while calling themselves slověnski or "people of the word".[24] In his play The Birds, Aristophanes calls the illiterate supervisor a "barbarian" who nevertheless taught the birds how to talk.[25] The term eventually picked up a derogatory use and was extended to indicate the entire lifestyle of foreigners, and finally coming to mean "illiterate" or "uncivilized" in general. Thus "an illiterate man is also a barbarian".[26] According to Dionysius of Halicarnassus, a Hellene differed from a barbarian in four ways: refined language, education, religion, and the rule of law.[27] Greek education became identified with noble upbringing. Paul of Tarsus considered it his obligation to preach the Gospel to all men, "Hellenes and barbarians, both wise and foolish".[28] For the supervillain, see Onomatopoeia (comics). ... “Stutter” redirects here. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: HÄ“rodotos Halikarnāsseus) was a Greek historian from Ionia who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... The Birds (Ornithes) is a comedy written by the Ancient Greek playwright Aristophanes in 414 BC, and performed that year for the Festival of Dionysus. ... This article is about the 5-4th century BC dramatist. ... Dionysius Halicarnassensis (of Halicarnassus), Greek historian and teacher of rhetoric, flourished during the reign of Augustus. ... Paul of Tarsus (b. ... Gospel, from the Old English good tidings is a calque of Greek () used in the New Testament (see Etymology below). ...


Discrimination between Hellenes and barbarians lasted until the 4th century BC. Euripides thought it plausible that Hellenes should rule over barbarians, because the first were destined for freedom and the other for slavery.[29] Aristotle came to the conclusion that "the nature of a barbarian and a slave is one and the same".[30] Racial differentiation faded away through the teachings of Stoics, who distinguished between nature and convention and taught that all men have equal claim before God and thus by nature cannot be unequal to each other. In time, Hellene, to use the words of Isocrates, became a trait of intellect, not race. The 4th century BC started the first day of 400 BC and ended the last day of 301 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period. ... A statue of Euripides. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Slave redirects here. ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... Stoicism is a school of philosophy commonly associated with such Greek philosophers as Zeno of Citium, Cleanthes, or Chrysippus and with such later Romans as Cicero, Seneca, Marcus Aurelius, and Epictetus. ... Isocrates (436–338 BC), Greek rhetorician. ...


Alexander the Great's conquests consolidated Greek influence in the East by exporting Greek culture into Asia and permanently transformed education and society in the region. Isocrates declared in his speech Panegyricus: "So far has Athens left the rest of mankind behind in thought and expression that her pupils have become the teachers of the world, and she has made the name of Hellas distinctive no longer of race but of intellect, and the title of Hellene a badge of education rather than of common descent."[31] With a small reformation, the Hellenistic civilization is the evolution of classical Greek civilization into a civilization with global proportions, this time open to everybody. Similarly, "Hellene" evolved from a national name signifying an ethnic Greek to a cultural term signifying anybody who conducted his life according to Greek mores. For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Isocrates (436–338 BC), Greek rhetorician. ... The term Hellenistic (derived from HéllÄ“n, the Greeks traditional self-described ethnic name) was established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen to refer to the spreading of Greek culture over the non-Greek people that were conquered by Alexander the Great. ... An ethnic group is a group of people who identify with one another, or are so identified by others, on the basis of a boundary that distinguishes them from other groups. ... Mores are strongly held norms or customs. ...


Greeks (Γραικοί)

Soleto is one of the nine Greek-speaking towns in the province of Apulia, Italy. Their inhabitants are descendants of the first wave of Greek settlers in Italy and Sicily in the 8th century BC. The dialect they speak is derived from the Doric Greek of the original settlers, but evolved separately from Hellenistic Greek. The people of these towns call themselves Grekos, from the Latin Graecus, and consider themselves Hellenes.
Soleto is one of the nine Greek-speaking towns in the province of Apulia, Italy. Their inhabitants are descendants of the first wave of Greek settlers in Italy and Sicily in the 8th century BC. The dialect they speak is derived from the Doric Greek of the original settlers, but evolved separately from Hellenistic Greek. The people of these towns call themselves Grekos, from the Latin Graecus, and consider themselves Hellenes.

The modern English adaptation of Greek is derived from the Latin Graecus, which in turn originates from Greek Γραικός (Graikos), the name of a Boeotian tribe that migrated to Italy in the 8th century BC, and it is by that name the Hellenes were known in the West. Homer, while reciting the Boeotian forces in the Iliad's Catalogue of Ships, provides the first known reference to a Boeotian city named Graea,[32] and Pausanias mentions that Graea was the name of the ancient city of Tanagra.[33] Cumae, a city lying to the west of Neapolis (now Naples) and south of Rome, was founded by Cymaeans and Chalkideans as well as Graeans who by coming into contact with Romans may very well be responsible for naming all Hellenic speaking tribes Graeci. The modern Italian city of Grai was also founded in antiquity by Graeans. Image File history File links Soleto. ... Image File history File links Soleto. ... Soleto is a small Greek-speaking city located in the province of Lecce in Apulia, Italy. ... This article is bad because of the Italian region. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Distribution of Greek dialects, ca. ... Koine redirects here. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Greek (disambiguation). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Graecus (or Græcus in Greek ) was, according to Hesiods (probably) Eoiae (Greek : Ηοίαι) or Catalogue of Women[1] on the origin of the Greeks, the son of Pandora and Zeus and brother of Magnetas and Macedon. ... Graecians (Graeki, Graii, Graeci; Gk. ... Boeotia or Beotia (//, (Greek Βοιωτια; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was the central area of ancient Greece. ... Occident redirects here. ... For other uses, see Homer (disambiguation). ... Map of Homeric Greece The famous Catalogue of Ships (νεων κατολογος) is recorded as a part of Book II (verses 494–760, PP Il. ... Pausanias (Greek: ) was a Greek traveller and geographer of the 2nd century A.D., who lived in the times of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. ... Tanagra (Greek: Τανάγρα) is a community north of Athens in Boeotia, not far from Thebes, that was noted in antiquity for its mass-produced mold-cast and fired terracotta figurines. ... Cumae (Cuma, in Italian) is an ancient Greek settlement lying to the northwest of Naples in the Italian region of Campania. ... Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... The name Cymaeans may refer to the citizens of any of three homonymous ancient Greek cities named Cyme (Greek Κύμη, also spelled Cuma or Cumae): Cyme in Euboea, Cyme in Aeolis (Asia Minor), and Cumae in Italy. ... Coordinates 38°28′ N 23°36′ E Country Greece Periphery Central Greece Prefecture Euboea Population 53,584 source (2001) Area 30. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Griko, sometimes spelled Grico, is a Modern Greek dialect which is spoken by people in the Magna Graecia region in southern Italy and Sicily, and it is otherwise known as the Grecanic language. ...


Aristotle, our oldest source mentioning the word, states that a natural cataclysm swept across central Epirus, a land where its inhabitants used to be called γραικοί (Graecoi) and were later named Hellenes (Έλληνες).[34] In mythology, Graecus is a cousin of Latinus, and the word seems to be related with γηραιός (geraius, anile), which was the title given to the priests of Dodona. They were also named Σελλοί (Selloi)—which shows the relation between the two basic names of the Greeks. The dominant theory on the colonization of Italy has it that part of the people living in Epirus crossed Dodona and migrated to Phthia, becoming infamous as Hellenes the tribe Achilles led to Troy. The remaining part merged with other tribes that arrived later, without losing its name. From there they traveled westwards to Italy, before the first wave of colonists in the 8th century BC arrived at Sicily and southern Italy. For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... Graecus (or Græcus in Greek ) was, according to Hesiods (probably) Eoiae (Greek : Ηοίαι) or Catalogue of Women[1] on the origin of the Greeks, the son of Pandora and Zeus and brother of Magnetas and Macedon. ... Latinus or Latinos in Greek mythology, in Hesiods Theogony, was the son of Odysseus and Circe who ruled the Tyrsenoi, that is the Etruscans, with his brothers Agrius and Telegonus. ... For other uses, see Dodona (disambiguation). ... Phthia (Greek: Φθίη transliterations:, modern: Fthii, ancient: PhthiÄ“) is an ancient region of Greece, at the southern part of Magnesia, on the both sides of Othrys mountain. ... For other uses, see Achilles (disambiguation). ... For other uses of Troy or Ilion, see Troy (disambiguation) and Ilion (disambiguation). ...


As the Romans strove to dominate all spheres of public life - in their own right, the term 'Greek' took on a derogatory connotation. Horace used it admiringly, Graecia capta ferum victorem cepit et artes intulit agresti Latio (The defeated Greece conquered the victor and civilised the peasant Latins). But Virgil coined the expression, Timeo Danaos et dona ferentes, which became known as 'fear the Greeks who bring presents'. Cicero gave the coup de grace by coining the truly derogatory term, Graeculi. Horace, as imagined by Anton von Werner Quintus Horatius Flaccus, (December 8, 65 BC - November 27, 8 BC), known in the English-speaking world as Horace, was the leading Roman lyric poet during the time of Augustus. ... For other uses, see Virgil (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cicero (disambiguation). ...


Yunani (Ίωνες), and Yavan (יָוָן)

Main article: Yona

A wholly different term came to establish itself in the East. The ancient people of the Middle East referred to the Hellenes as Yunan, deriving from Persian Yauna, itself a loan of Greek Ιωνία (Ionia), the western coast of Asia Minor. It is by affiliation with the Ionian tribe the Persians conquered in the late 6th century BC that their name extended to all Hellenes. All peoples under Persian influence adopted the term, and it is from this root that Sanskrit Yavana derives, which one encounters in ancient Sanskrit sources, first attested in Panini's grammar, and later referring, together with Pali Yona, Yonaka to the Indo-Greeks. The term Yunan is used in current Persian, Arabic (يوناني), Azeri, Turkish, Hindi (यूनान), Indonesian and Malay. The related name, Yavan or Javan (יָוָן), was used to refer to the Greek nation in the Eastern Mediterranean in early Biblical times. There was an eponymous character Javan mentioned in Genesis 10:2. For the village on Guam, see Yona Yona is a Pali word used in ancient India to designate Greek speakers. ... The term Eastern world refers very broadly to the various cultures, social structures and philosophical systems of the East, namely Asia (including China, India, Japan, and surrounding regions). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Sketch of the first column of the Behistun Inscription Old Persian is the oldest attested Persid language. ... Location of Ionia Ionia (Greek Ιωνία; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was an ancient region of southwestern coastal Anatolia (in present-day Turkey, the region nearest Ä°zmir,) on the Aegean Sea. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... For the village on Guam, see Yona Yona is a Pali word used in ancient India to designate Greek speakers. ... Indian postage stamp depicting (2004), with the implication that he used (IPA ) was an ancient Gandharan grammarian (approximately 5th century BC, but estimates range from the 7th to the 3rd centuries) who is most famous for formulating the 3,959 rules of Sanskrit morphology known as the . ... Pāli is a Middle Indo-Aryan dialect or prakrit. ... For the village on Guam, see Yona Yona is a Pali word used in ancient India to designate Greek speakers. ... The Indo-Greek Kingdom (or sometimes Graeco-Indian Kingdom[2]) covered various parts of the northwest and northern Indian subcontinent from 180 BCE to around 10 CE, and was ruled by a succession of more than thirty Hellenic and Hellenistic kings,[3] often in conflict with each other. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Arabic redirects here. ... The Azerbaijani language, also called Azeri, Azari, Azeri Turkish, or Azerbaijani Turkish, is the official language of the Republic of Azerbaijan. ... Hindi (DevanāgarÄ«: or , IAST: , IPA:  ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is used, along with English, for central government administrative purposes. ... Not to be confused with the Malayalam language, spoken in India. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... The Bible (From Greek βιβλια—biblia, meaning books, which in turn is derived from βυβλος—byblos meaning papyrus, from the ancient Phoenician city of Byblos which exported papyrus) is the sacred scripture of Christianity. ... The Biblical character Javan (Hebrew יָוָן, Standard Hebrew Yavan, Tiberian Hebrew Yāwān) was the fourth son of Noahs son Japheth. ... For other uses, see Genesis (disambiguation). ...


Although the contemporary Chinese term for Greece (希臘 Xīlà) is based on Hellas, Chinese previously used what was likely a version of the Yunan or Yona root when referring to the Dàyuān (大宛). The Dàyuān were probably the descendants of the Greek colonies that were established by Alexander the Great and prospered within the Hellenistic realm of the Seleucids and Greco-Bactrians, until they were isolated by the migrations of the Yueh-Chih around 160 BC. It has been suggested that the name Yuan was simply a transliteration of the words Yunan, Yona, or Ionians, so that Dàyuān (literally "Great Yuan") would mean "Great Yunans" or "Great Ionians." The Ta-Yuan (in Ferghana) was one of the three advanced civilizations of Central Asia around 130 BCE, together with Parthia and Greco-Bactria (Han Shu, Former Han Chinese Chronicles). ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Seleucus I Nicator (Nicator, the Victor) (around 358–281 BC) was one of Alexander the Greats generals who, after Alexanders death in 323 BC, founded the Seleucid Empire. ... Approximate extent of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom circa 220 BCE. The Greco-Bactrians were a dynasty of Greek kings who controlled Bactria and Sogdiana, an area comprising todays northern Afghanistan and parts of Central Asia, the easternmost area of the Hellenistic world, from 250 to 125 BCE. Their expansion... The migrations of the Yueh-Chih. ...


Hellene comes to mean "pagan"

The name Hellene came to mean "pagan" with the institutionalisation of Christianity in the first centuries and it retained that meaning until the end of the millennium, during which the early Christian church played an instrumental role in accelerating the transition. It is believed that contact with Christian Jews led some Christians to use Hellene as a means of religious differentiation. Jews, like Greeks, distinguished themselves from foreigners, but unlike Greeks, did so according to religious rather than cultural standards. For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ...


Rome's domination of the Greeks enhanced the prestige of the religious institutions that remained intact. Early Christians adopted the religious differentiation of humankind, and so the meaning of the word Hellene as a cultural attribute became marginalized by its religious element, which eventually supplanted the older meaning entirely. Eventually, Christians came to refer to all pagans as Hellenes.


Saint Paul in his Epistles uses Hellene, almost always in association with Hebrew, possibly with the aim of representing the sum of those two religious communities.[35] Hellene is used in a religious meaning for the first time in the New Testament. In the Gospel of Mark 7:26, a woman arrives before Jesus kneeling before him: "The woman was a Hellene, a Syrophenician by nation; and she besought him that he would cast forth the devil out of her daughter."[36] Since the nationality or ethnicity of the woman was Syrophenician, "Greek" (translated as such into the English of the King James Version, but as haiþno "heathen" in Ulfilas' Gothic; Wycliffe and Coverdale likewise have heathen) must therefore signify her religion. The development towards a purely religious meaning was slow and completed at approximately the 2nd or 3rd century AD. Athenian statesman Aristeides picked out the Hellenes as one of the representative pagan peoples of the world along with the Egyptians and the Chaldaeans.[37] Later, Clement of Alexandria reports an unknown Christian writer who named all of the above Hellenes and spoke of two old nations and one new: the Christian nation.[38] Paul of Tarsus (b. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... The Gospel of Mark, anonymous[1] but traditionally ascribed to Mark the Evangelist, is a synoptic gospel of the New Testament. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... This page is about the version of the Bible; for the Harvey Danger album, see King James Version (album). ... Heathen is a term used both to describe a person who does not follow an organized religion, and also a modern practitioner of Heathenry. ... Ulfilas or Wulfila (meaning little wolf)[1] (ca. ... Gothic is an extinct Germanic language that was spoken by the Goths. ... Insert non-formatted text here Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity... Myles Coverdale (also Miles Coverdale) (c1488 - January 20, 1568) was a 16th-century Bible translator who produced the first complete printed translation of the Bible into English. ... The Apology of Aristides was written by the early Christian writer Aristides (fl. ... For other uses, see Chaldean. ... Clement of Alexandria (Titus Flavius Clemens), was the first member of the Church of Alexandria to be more than a name, and one of its most distinguished teachers. ...


Several books written at this time demonstrate quite clearly the semantic shift. Perhaps the first was Tatian's Address to the Greeks, completed in 170 AD, where Tatian criticizes pagan beliefs in order to defend Christian ones. Most important of the later works was Athanasius' Against Hellenes, originally titled Against Pagans according to older manuscripts. It was changed by a future writer at a time when Hellene had lost its ancient meaning entirely. Henceforth, Hellene no longer signified an ethnic Greek or those adhered to Greek culture, but pagans in general, regardless of race. Emperor Julian's attempt to restore paganism to the forefront of society failed, and according to Pope Gregory I, "matters moved in favor of Christianity and the position of the Hellenes was severely aggravated".[39] Half a century later Christians protest against the Eparch of Alexandria, whom they accused of being a Hellene.[40] Theodosius I initiated the first legal steps against paganism, but it was Justinian's legal reforms that triggered pagan persecutions on a massive scale. The Corpus Juris Civilis contained two statutes which decreed the total destruction of Hellenism, even in civic life, and were zealously enforced even of men in high position. The official suppression of paganism made non-Christians a public threat which further derogated the meaning of Hellene. Paradoxically, Tribonian, Justinian's own legal commissioner, according to the Suda dictionary, was a Hellene (pagan).[41] In general, semantics (from the Greek semantikos, or significant meaning, derived from sema, sign) is the study of meaning, in some sense of that term. ... Tatian was an early Assyrian[1] Christian writer and theologian of the second century. ... For other uses, see number 170. ... Athanasius of Alexandria (also spelled Athanasios) was a Christian bishop of Alexandria in the fourth century. ... Flavius Claudius Iulianus (331–June 26, 363), was a Roman Emperor (361–363) of the Constantinian dynasty. ... “Saint Gregory” redirects here. ... Eparchy is an anglicized Greek word, authentically latinized as eparchia and loosely translating as rule over something, but has the following specific meanings, both in political history and in the hierarchy of eastern churches. ... This article is about the city in Egypt. ... An engraving depicting what Theodosius may have looked like, ca. ... This article is about the Roman emperor. ... Justinian I depicted on a mosaic in the church of San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy The Corpus Juris Civilis (Body of Civil Law) is the modern name[1] for a collection of fundamental works in jurisprudence, issued from 529 to 534 by order of Justinian I, Byzantine Emperor. ... Tribonian (c. ... Suda (Σουδα or alternatively Suidas) is a massive 10th century Byzantine Greek historical encyclopædia of the ancient Mediterranean world. ...


The name Hellene meaning Pagan has managed to persist into modern times. Many groups advocating a revival or reconstruction of the worship of the Olympian Gods, call themselves Hellenic Polytheists or Hellenists and the religion Hellenismos. Such groups, outside of Greece, are careful not to imply, that by calling themselves Hellenes they consider themselves Greek nationals. Hellenic Polytheism is an umbrella term for a wide variety of polytheistic religious movements which are ideologically related by their reverence for the ancient Greek pantheon and/or their adoption of ancient Greek religious practices. ...


Romans (Ρωμαίοι) and Romioi (Ρωμιοί)

Hieronymus Wolf was a 16th century German historian. After coming into contact with the works of Laonicos Chalcondyles, he also went ahead with identifying Byzantine historiography for the purpose of distinguishing medieval Greek from ancient Roman history.
Hieronymus Wolf was a 16th century German historian. After coming into contact with the works of Laonicos Chalcondyles, he also went ahead with identifying Byzantine historiography for the purpose of distinguishing medieval Greek from ancient Roman history.

Romans is the political name by which the Greeks were known during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages. The name originally signified the inhabitants of the city of Rome in Italy, but with the elevation of the Greeks in the Roman Empire, it soon lost its connection with the Latins. In 212 AD, Emperor Caracalla's Constitutio Antoniniana granted all free people in all Roman provinces citizenship. However, the Greeks transmogrified their newly acquired political title (Romans) and began to refer to themselves as Romioi (Romios/Ρωμιός for singular). The new term was created in order to establish a dualistic identity that represented the Greeks' Roman citizenship, as well as their Hellenic ancestry, culture, and language. Moreover, the new term represented the Greeks' religious affiliation toward Orthodox Christendom signifying that the Christianization of the Roman Empire led to only the religious vitiation of the name Hellene. Overall, the word Romios came to represent the Greek inhabitants of the Byzantine Empire. It is even used today (albeit extremely rarely), being the most popular national name after Hellene. Image File history File links Hieronymus_wolf2. ... Image File history File links Hieronymus_wolf2. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Laonicus (Laonikos) Chalcondyles (or Chalcocondylas) was an Athenian Byzantine writer. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Latins were an ancient Italic people who migrated to central Italy, (Latium Vetus - Old Latium), in the 2nd millennium B.C., maybe from the Adriatic East Coast and Balkanic Area, perhaps from pressures by Illyrian peoples. ... The Constitutio Antoniniana (Latin: Constitution [or Edict] of Antoninus) was an edict issued in 212, by the Roman Emperor Caracalla. ... St Francis Xavier converting the Paravas: a 19th-century image of the docile heathen The historical phenomenon of Christianization, the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire peoples at once, also includes the practice of converting pagan practices, pagan religious imagery, pagan sites and the pagan calendar... For other uses, see Greek (disambiguation). ...


Overall, the foreign borrowed name (Romans) initially had a more political than national meaning, which went hand in hand with the universalizing ideology of Rome that aspired to encompass all nations of the world under one true God. Up until the early 7th century, when the Empire still extended over large areas and many peoples, the use of the name Roman always indicated citizenship and never descent. Various ethnicities could apply their own ethnonyms or toponyms to disambiguate citizenship from genealogy, which is why the historian Procopius prefers to call the Byzantines Hellenized Romans,[42] while other authors use Romhellenes and Graecoromans,[43] aiming to indicate descent and citizenship simultaneously. The Lombard and Arab invasions in the same century resulted in the loss of most of the provinces including Italy and all of Asia, save for Anatolia. The areas that did remain were mostly Greek, thereby turning the empire into a much more cohesive unit that eventually developed a fairly self-conscious identity. Unlike in the previous centuries, there is a clear sense of nationalism reflected in Byzantine documents towards the end of the 1st millennium. “Citizen” redirects here. ... An ethnonym (Gk. ... In geography and cartography, a toponym is a place name, a geographical name, a proper name of locality, region, or some other part of Earths surface or its natural or artificial feature. ... Procopius of Caesarea (in Greek Προκόπιος, c. ... The Greeks have been known by a number of different names throughout history. ... The Lombards (Latin Langobardi, whence comes the alternative name Longobards found in older English texts), were a Germanic people originally from Northern Europe that entered the late Roman Empire. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... In the Gregorian calendar, the 1st millennium is the period of one thousand years that commenced with the year 1 Anno Domini. ...


The Byzantines' failure to protect the Pope from the Lombards forced the Pope to search for help elsewhere. The man who answered his call was Pepin II of Aquitaine, whom he had named "Patrician", a title that caused a serious conflict. In 772, Rome ceased commemorating the emperor that first ruled from Constantinople, and in 800 Charlemagne was crowned Roman emperor by the Pope himself, officially rejecting the Eastern Roman Empire as true Romans. According to the Frankish interpretation of events, the papacy appropriately "transferred Roman imperial authority from the Greeks to the Germans, in the name of His Greatness, Charles".[44] From then on, a war of names about the New Rome revolved around Roman imperial rights. Unable to deny that an emperor did exist in Constantinople, they sufficed in renouncing him as a successor of Roman heritage on the grounds that Greeks have nothing to do with the Roman legacy. Pope Nicholas I wrote to Emperor Michael III, "You ceased to be called 'Emperor of the Romans', since the Romans whom you claim to be Emperor of, are in fact according to you barbarians."[45] Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (from Latin... The Lombards (Latin Langobardi, whence comes the alternative name Longobards found in older English texts), were a Germanic people originally from Northern Europe that entered the late Roman Empire. ... Pippin of Herstal ( Pépin), also known as Pippin the Younger, (b. ... (Region flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Regional President Departments Dordogne Gironde Landes Lot-et-Garonne Pyrénées-Atlantiques Arrondissements 18 Cantons 235 Communes 2,296 Statistics Land area1 41,308 km² Population (Ranked 6th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... Events December 25, Rome, coronation of Charles the Great (Charlemagne) as emperor by Pope Leo III. Celtic monks begin work on the Book of Kells on the Island of Iona. ... Charlemagne (left) and Pippin the Hunchback. ... Statue of Charlemagne (also called Karl der Große, Charles the Great) in Frankfurt, Germany. ... The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. ... New Rome has been used for: It was a common name applied to Constantinople, the city founded by emperor Constantine I the Great in 324 (known as Byzantium before that date; renamed Istanbul in modern times). ... Nicholas I,(Rome c. ... An emperorrefers to Nick Herringshaw, a title, empress may only indicate the wife of an emperor (empress consort. ... This coin struck during the regency of Theodora shows how Michael was less prominent than his mother, who is represented as ruler alone on the obverse, and even than his sister Thecla, who is depicted together with the young Michael on the reverse of this coin. ...


Henceforth, the emperor in the East was known and referred to in the West as Emperor of the Greeks and their land as Greek Empire, reserving both "Roman" titles for the Frankish king. The interests of both sides were nominal rather than actual. No land areas were ever claimed, but the insult the Byzantines took on the accusation demonstrates how close at heart the Roman name (ρωμαίος) had become to them. In fact, Bishop Liutprand of Cremona, a delegate of the Frankish court, was briefly imprisoned in Constantinople for not referring to the Roman emperor by his appropriate title.[46] and in reprisal for his king, Otto I, claiming the "Roman" title by styling himself as Holy Roman Emperor. Liutprand (Liudprand, Luitprand) (c. ... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ...


See Rüm and Rumeli for Arabic and Islamic changes of meaning. Rüm, also Roum or Rhum (in Arabic ar-Rum), is a very indefinite term used at different times in the Islamic world for Europeans generally and for the Byzantine Empire in particular, for the Seljuk Sultanate of Rüm in Asia Minor, and for Greeks inhabiting Ottoman territory. ... Map of Rumelia as of 1801 Rumelia (or Roumelia) (in Turkish Rumeli, the East Roman or Byzantine Empire), a name commonly used, from the 15th century onwards, to denote the part of the Balkan Peninsula subject to the Ottoman Empire. ...


Revival in the meaning of "Hellene"

The Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople, by Eugène Delacroix, 1840. The sack of Constantinople in 1204 by the Crusaders acerbated Greek nationalism and created disdain for the Latins which is well illustrated in the documents of the era. Nicetas Choniates portrays an especially lively account of the sack and its aftermath.
The Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople, by Eugène Delacroix, 1840. The sack of Constantinople in 1204 by the Crusaders acerbated Greek nationalism and created disdain for the Latins which is well illustrated in the documents of the era. Nicetas Choniates portrays an especially lively account of the sack and its aftermath.

The secular use of Hellene revived in the 9th century, after paganism had been eclipsed and was no longer a threat to Christianity's dominance. The revival followed the same track as its disappearance. The name had originally declined from a national term in antiquity, to a cultural term in the Hellenistic years, to a religious term in the early Christian years. With the demise of paganism and the revival of learning in the Byzantine Empire it had regained its cultural meaning, and finally, by the 11th century it had returned to its ancient national form of an "ethnic Greek", synonymous at the time to "Roman". Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3176x2612, 930 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Names of the Greeks ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3176x2612, 930 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Names of the Greeks ... The Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople (Eugène Delacroix, 1840). ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix (April 26, 1798 – August 13, 1863) was one of the most important of the French Romantic painters. ... The Latins were an ancient Italic people who migrated to central Italy, (Latium Vetus - Old Latium), in the 2nd millennium B.C., maybe from the Adriatic East Coast and Balkanic Area, perhaps from pressures by Illyrian peoples. ... Nicetas Choniates (c. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Byzantine redirects here. ...


Accounts from the 11th century onward (from Anna Komnena, Michael Psellos, John III Vatatzes, George Pletho Gemistos and several others) prove that the revival of the term Hellene (as a potential replacement for ethnic terms like Graekos and Romios) did occur. For example, Anna Komnena writes of her contemporaries as Hellenes, but does not use the word as a synonym for a pagan worshipper. Moreover, Anna boasts about her Hellenic classical education, and she speaks as a native Greek and not as an outsider/foreigner who learned Greek. As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ...


The refounding of the University of Constantinople in the palaces of Magnaura promoted an interest in learning, particularly in Greek studies. Patriarch Photius was irritated because "Hellenic studies are preferred over spiritual works". Michael Psellus thought it a compliment when Emperor Romanus III praised him for being raised "in the Hellenic way" and a weakness for Emperor Michael IV for being completely devoid of a Hellenic education,[47] while Anna Comnena claimed that she had "carried the study of Hellenic to the highest pitch".[48] Also, commenting on the orphanage her father founded, she stated that "there could be seen a Latin being trained, and a Scythian studying Hellenic, and a Roman handling Hellenic texts and an illiterate Hellene speaking Hellenic correctly".[49] In this case we reach a point where the Byzantines are Romans on the political level but Hellenic by descent. Eustathius of Thessalonike disambiguates the distinction in his account of the fall of Constantintople in 1204 by referring to the invaders with the generic term "Latins", encompassing all adherents to the Roman Catholic Church, and the "Hellenes" as the dominant population of the empire.[50] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Photius (b. ... Michael Psellus is the name of two writers of the Byzantine Empire: Michael Psellus the Elder, a theologian Michael Psellus the Younger, a historian. ... Romanus III (Argyrus), (in Greek Romanos Argyros, written Ρωμανός Αργυρός, lived 968 - April 11, 1034) was a Byzantine emperor(November 15, 1028 to April 11, 1034). ... Michael IV, the Paphlagonian, (1010 - December 10, 1041) (in Greek Μιχαήλ Παφλαγών, meaning from the province of Paphlagonia) was Byzantine emperor (April 11, 1034 to December 10, 1041). ... Anna Comnena or better Komnene (Greek: Άννα Κομνηνή, Anna KomnÄ“nÄ“) (December 1, 1083 – 1153). ... Scythia was an area in Eurasia inhabited in ancient times by an Indo-Aryans known as the Scythians. ... Eustathius(or Eumathius) surnamed Macrembolites (living near the long bazaar), the last of the Greek romance writers, flourished in the second half of the 12th century AD. His title Protonobilissimus shows him to have been a person of distinction, and if he is also correctly described in the manuscripts, as... Catholic Church redirects here. ...


After the fall of Constantinople to the Crusaders, Greek nationalism accentuated. Nicetas Choniates insisted on using the name "Hellenes", stressing the outrages of the "Latins" against the "Hellenes" in the Peloponessus and how the Alfeios River might carry the news to the barbarians in Sicily, the Normans.[51] Nicephorus Blemmydes referred to the Byzantine emperors as Hellenes,[52] and Theodore Alanias wrote in a letter to his brother that "the homeland may have been captured, but Hellas still exists within every wise man".[53] The second Emperor of Nicaea, John III Ducas Vatatzes, wrote in a letter to Pope Gregory IX about the wisdom that "rains upon the Hellenic nation". He maintained that the transfer of the imperial authority from Rome to Constantinople was national and not geographic, and therefore did not belong to the Latins occupying Constantinople: Constantine's heritage was passed on to the Hellenes, so he argued, and they alone were its inheritors and successors.[54] His son, Theodore II Lascaris, was eager to project the name of the Greeks with true nationalistic zeal. He made it a point that "the Hellenic race looms over all other languages" and that "every kind of philosophy and form of knowledge is a discovery of Hellenes... What do you, O Italian, have to display?"[55] The Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople (Eugène Delacroix, 1840). ... Nicetas Choniates (c. ... Peloponnesos (Greek: Πελοπόννησος, sometime Latinized as Peloponnesus or Anglicized as The Peloponnese) is a large peninsula in Greece, forming the part of the country south of the Isthmus of Corinth. ... The Alfeiós (Greek: Αλφειός, also Alfiós) is a river in Peloponnese, Greece. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Norman conquests in red. ... Nicephorus Blemmydes became a well-esteemed 13th century Byzantine literary figure. ... This is a list of Byzantine Emperors. ... John III Ducas Vatatzes (1193 - November 3, 1254) was Byzantine Emperor, in exile in the Empire of Nicaea, from 1222 to 1254. ... Pope Gregory IX, born Ugolino dei Conti, was pope from 1227 to August 22, 1241. ... The Latins were an ancient Italic people who migrated to central Italy, (Latium Vetus - Old Latium), in the 2nd millennium B.C., maybe from the Adriatic East Coast and Balkanic Area, perhaps from pressures by Illyrian peoples. ... Constantine. ... Theodore II Lascaris (died August 1258) was Byzantine emperor, in exile in the Empire of Nicaea, from 1254 to 1258. ...


The evolution of the name was slow and never did replace the "Roman" name completely. Nicephorus Gregoras named his historical work Roman History.[56] Emperor John VI Cantacuzenus, a big supporter of Greek education, in his own memoirs always refers to the Byzantines as "Romans",[57] yet, in a letter sent by the sultan of Egypt, Nasser Hassan Ben Mohamed, referred to him as "Emperor of the Hellenes, Bulgars, Sassanians, Vlachs, Russians, Alanians" but not of the "Romans".[58] Over the next century, George Gemistus Plethon pointed out to Constantine Palaeologus that the people he leads are "Hellenes, as their race and language and education testifies",[59] while Laonicus Chalcondyles was a proponent of completely substituting "Roman" terminology for "Greek" terminology.[60] Constantine Palaeologus himself in the end proclaimed Constantinople the "refuge for Christians, hope and delight of all Hellenes".[61] On the other hand, the same Emperor in his final speech before the Empire's demise called upon his audience to rally to the defenses by characteristically referring to them as "descendants of Hellenes and Romans", most possibly as an attempt to combine Greek national sentiment with the Roman tradition of the Byzantine crown and Empire, both highly respected elements in his subjects' psyche at that moment. Nicephorus Gregoras (c. ... John VI Cantacuzenus (c. ... For other uses, see Sultan (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Bulgarians. ... Head of king Shapur II (Sasanian dynasty A.D. 4th century). ... Vlachs (also called Vallachians, Wallachians, Wlachs, Wallachs, Olahs or Ulahs, Macedonian: Власи Vlasi, Greek: , Albanian: Vllehë, Turkish: , Ukrainian: , Polish: ) is a blanket term covering several modern Latin peoples (linguistic) descending from the Latinised population in Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe. ... The Alans, Alani, Alauni or Halani were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people, warlike nomadic pastoralists of varied backgrounds, who spoke an Iranian language and to a large extent shared a common culture. ... Georgius Gemistos Plethon (or Pletho), (c. ... Constantine XI: The last Byzantine emperor is considered a saint by the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... Laonicus Chalcondyles (or Chalcocondylas) was the only Athenian Byzantine writer. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ...


Byzantines (Βυζαντινοί)

By the time of the Fall of Rome most easterners had come to think of themselves as Christians, and, more than ever before, had some idea that they were Romans. Although they may not have liked their government any more than they had previously, the Greeks among them could no longer consider it foreign, run by Latins from Italy. The word Hellene itself had already began to mean a pagan rather than a person of Greek race or culture. Instead the usual word for an eastern Greek had begun to be Roman, with the modern rendering of Byzantine.[62] The History of The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, a major literary achievement of Eighteenth Century, was written by the English historian, Edward Gibbon. ...


The term "Byzantine Empire" was introduced in 1557, about a century after the Fall of Constantinople by German historian Hieronymus Wolf, who introduced a system of Byzantine historiography in his work Corpus Historiae Byzantinae in order to distinguish ancient Roman from medieval Greek history without drawing attention to their ancient predecessors. Several authors adopted his terminology thereafter but remained relatively unknown. When interest did arise, English historians preferred to use Roman terminology (Edward Gibbon used it in a particularly belittling manner); while French historians preferred to call it Greek.[63] The term reappeared in the mid-19th century and has since dominated completely in historiography, even in Greece despite objections by Constantine Paparregopoulos (Gibbon's influential Greek counterpart) that the empire should be called Greek. Few Greek scholars did adopt the terminology at that time, but only became popular in the second half of the 20th century.[64] Events Spain is effectively bankrupt. ... Combatants  Byzantine Empire Ottoman Sultanate Commanders Constantine XI †, Loukas Notaras, Giovanni Giustiniani †[1] Mehmed II, ZaÄŸanos Pasha Strength 80,000[2] 80,000[1]-200,000[1][3] Casualties 4,000 dead[4] [5][6] unknown The Fall of Constantinople refers to the capture of the Byzantine Empires... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Historiography studies the processes by which historical knowledge is obtained and transmitted. ... Edward Gibbon (1737–1794). ... Constantine Paparregopoulus (1815-1891) was a nineteenth century Greek historian greatly influential in Greece and abroad for his original reasearch in Byzantine history as well as in other fields of Greek studies. ...


Hellenic continuity and Byzantine consciousness

Main article: Byzantine Greeks
The first printed Charter of the Greek Community of Trieste, Italy 1787 - Archives of the Community of Trieste.
The first printed Charter of the Greek Community of Trieste, Italy 1787 - Archives of the Community of Trieste.

The "Byzantines" did not only refer to themselves as Romioi in order to retain both their Roman citizenship and their ancient Hellenic heritage. In fact, the overwhelming majority of the "Byzantines" themselves were very conscious of their uninterrupted continuity with the ancient Greeks. Even though the ancient Greeks were not Christians, the "Byzantines" still regarded them as their ancestors. A common substitute for the term Hellene other than Romios was the term Graekos (Γραικός). This term was used often by the "Byzantines" (along with Romios) for ethnic self-identification. Evidence of the use of the term "Graekos" can be found in the works of Priscus, a historian of the 5th century AD. The historian stated in one of his accounts that while unofficially on an embassy to Attila the Hun, he had met at Attila's court someone who dressed like a Scythian yet spoke Greek. When Priskos asked the person where he had learned the language, the man smiled and said that he was a Graekos by birth. Many other "Byzantine" authors speak of the Empire's natives as Greeks [Graekoi] or Hellenes such as Constantine Porphyrogennitos of the 10th century. His accounts discuss about the revolt of a Slavic tribe in the district of Patras in the Peloponnesos. Constantine states that the Slavs who revolted first proceeded to sack the dwellings of their neighbors, the Greeks (ton Graikon), and next they moved against the inhabitants of the city of Patras. Overall, ancient Hellenic continuity was evident all throughout the history of the Eastern Roman Empire. The "Byzantines" were not merely a general Orthodox Christian populace that referred to themselves as merely "Romans." Though they used the term for legal and administrative purposes, other terms were in fact used to ethnically distinguish themselves. In short, the Greek inhabitants of the Eastern Roman Empire were very conscious of their ancient Hellenic heritage and were able to preserve their identity while adapting to the changes the world was undergoing at the time.[65] Byzantine Greeks or Byzantines, is a conventional term used by modern historians to refer to the medieval Greek or Hellenized citizens of the Byzantine Empire, centered mainly in Constantinople, southern Balkans, the Greek islands, the coasts of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) and the large urban centres of Near East and... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (751x1128, 119 KB) Summary The first printed Charter of the Greek Community of Trieste, 1787 - Stipulations and Orders of the Genre and the Fraternity of the Greeks. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (751x1128, 119 KB) Summary The first printed Charter of the Greek Community of Trieste, 1787 - Stipulations and Orders of the Genre and the Fraternity of the Greeks. ... For other uses, see first. ... Printing is an industrial process for reproducing copies of texts and images, typically with ink on paper using a printing press. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... For other uses, see Trieste (disambiguation). ... Priscus (left) with the Roman embassy at the court of Attila, holding his ΙΣΤΟΡΙΑ (History, which the painter has incorrectly spelled ΙΣΤΩΡΙΑ). (Detail from Mór Thans Feast of Attila. ... Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Scythia was an area in Eurasia inhabited in ancient times by an Indo-Aryans known as the Scythians. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ...


Contest between the names Hellene, Roman, and Greek

After the fall of the Byzantine Empire and during the Ottoman occupation a fierce ideological battle ensued regarding the three rival national names of the Greeks. This struggle may have settled down after the Greek War of Independence but was permanently resolved only recently in the 20th century after the loss of Asia Minor to the Turks. Byzantine redirects here. ... Greece was part of the Ottoman Empire from the 14th century until its declaration of independence in 1821. ... Combatants Greek revolutionaries United Kingdom France Russian Empire  Ottoman Empire Egyptian Khedivate Commanders Theodoros Kolokotronis Alexander Ypsilanti Georgios Karaiskakis Omer Vryonis Mahmud Dramali Pasha ReÅŸid Mehmed Pasha Ibrahim Pasha. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to...


The struggle reflected the diverging view of history between classicists and medievalists (katharevousa and demotic) in their attempt to define Greek nationality at a time without a Byzantine state to foster the movement. The concept of Hellene for a person of Greek origin was already well established since the late Middle Ages. However, for the majority of the population, especially those in rural areas away from urban centers, the dominant perception was still that of a Roman/Romios, a descendant of the Byzantine Empire. Scholar Rigas Feraios called "Bulgars and Arvanites, Armenians and Romans" to rise in arms against the Ottomans.[66] General Makrygiannis recalled a friend asking him: "What say you, is the Roman far away from coming? Are we to sleep with the Turks and awaken with the Romans?"[67] Classicism, in the arts, refers generally to a high regard for classical antiquity as setting standards for taste which the classicist seeks to emulate. ... A medievalist is a person who specializes in medieval studies. ... Katharevousa (Greek Καθαρεύουσα, IPA: ) is a form of the Greek language, created during the early 19th century by Adamantios Korais (1748-1833). ... Look up Demotic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In English usage, nationality is the legal relationship between a person and a country. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Rigas Feraios Rigas Feraios or Rigas Velestinlis (Greek: Ρήγας Βελεστινλής-Φεραίος, born Αντώνιος Κυριαζής, Antonios Kyriazis; also known as Κωνσταντίνος Ρήγας, Konstantinos or Constantine Rhigas; Serbian: Рига од Фере, Riga od Fere; 1757—June 13, 1798) was a Greek revolutionary and poet, remembered as a Greek national hero, the forerunner and first victim of the uprising against the Ottoman Empire... Arvanites (Greek: Αρβανίτες, see also below about names) are a population group in Greece who traditionally speak Arvanitika, a form of Albanian. ... General Ioannis Makrygiannis (1797-1864) was a Greek officer. ...


Greek (Γραικός) was the least popular of the three terms, but interestingly enough received by scholars disproportionately larger attention compared to its popular use. Adamantios Korais, a renowned Greek classicist, justified his preference in A Dialogue between Two Greeks: "Our ancestors used to call themselves Greeks but adopted afterwards the name Hellenes by a Greek who called himself Hellene. One of the above two, therefore, is our true name. I approved 'Greece' because that is what all the enlightened nations of Europe call us."[68] Hellenes for Korais are the pre-Christian inhabitants of Greece. Adamantios Korais (April 27, 1748 - April 6, 1833) was a graduate of the University of Montpellier in 1788 and he spent most of his life as an expatriate in Paris. ... Pre-Christian - The time before Christianity. ...


The absence of a Byzantine state gradually led to the marginalization of the Roman name and allowed Hellene (Έλλην) to resurface as the primary national name. Dionysius Pyrrus requests the exclusive use of Hellene in his Cheiragogy: "Never desire to call yourselves Romans, but Hellenes, for the Romans from ancient Rome enslaved and destroyed Hellas".[69] The anonymous author of The Hellenic Realm of Law, published in 1806 in Pavia, Italy, speaks of Hellenes: "The time has come, O Hellenes, to liberate our home".[70] The leader of the Greek War of Independence began his Declaration with a phrase similar to the above: "The time has come, O men, Hellenes".[71] After the name was accepted by the spiritual and political leadership of the land, it rapidly spread to the population, especially with the onset of the Greek War of Independence where many naïve leaders and war figures distinguished between idle Romans and rebellious Hellenes.[72] General Theodoros Kolokotronis in particular made a point of always addressing his revolutionary troops as Hellenes and invariably wore a helmet of ancient Greek style. For the municipality in the Philippines, see Pavia, Iloilo. ... Combatants Greek revolutionaries United Kingdom France Russian Empire  Ottoman Empire Egyptian Khedivate Commanders Theodoros Kolokotronis Alexander Ypsilanti Georgios Karaiskakis Omer Vryonis Mahmud Dramali Pasha ReÅŸid Mehmed Pasha Ibrahim Pasha. ... Monument of Theodoros Kolokotronis in Athens. ... A person wearing a helmet. ...


General Makrygiannis tells of a priest who performed his duty in front of the "Romans" (civilians) but secretly spied on the "Hellenes" (fighters). "Roman" almost came to be associated with passiveness and enslavement, and "Hellene" brought back the memory of ancient glories and the fight for freedom. Eyewitness historian Ambrosius Phrantzes writes that while the Turkish authorities and colonists in Xylokastro had surrendered to the advancing Greek army, reportedly, shouts of defiance were made that led to their massacre by the mob: "They spoke to the petty and small Hellenes as 'Romans'. It was as if they called them 'slaves'! The Hellenes not bearing to hear the word, for it reminded of their situation and the outcome of tyranny..."[73] General Ioannis Makrygiannis (Greek: Ιωάννης Μακρυγιάννης) (1797-1864) was a Greek merchant, military officer, politician and author. ... Xylokastro (Greek:, Modern: Ξυλόκαστρο, Ancient: Xylokastron, Ξυλόκαστρον Greek word meaning wooden castle) is a city that is 40 km W of Corinth via GR-8, which is also E65. ...


The citizens of the newly independent state were called "Hellenes" making the connection with ancient Greece all the more clear. That in turn also fostered a fixation on antiquity and negligence for the other periods of history, especially the Byzantine Empire, for an age that bore different names and was a devisor to different, and in many ways more important legacies. The classicist trend was soon balanced by the Greek Great Idea that sought to recover Constantinople and reestablish the Byzantine Empire for all Greeks. As the Minister of Foreign Affairs proclaimed in front of Parliament in 1844, "The Kingdom of Greece is not Greece; it is only part of it, a small and poor part of Greece... There are two great centers of Hellenism. Athens is the capital of the Kingdom. Constantinople is the great capital, the City, dream and hope of all Greeks."[74] The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... The Megali Idea (Greek: Μεγάλη Ιδέα, lit. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Capital Athens Language(s) Greek Religion Greek Orthodox Government Constitutional Monarchy King  - 1832-1862 Otto  - 1863-1913 George I  - 1913-1917 Constantine I  - 1917-1920 Alexander  - 1920-1922 Constantine I  - 1922-1924 George II Historical era Enlightenment Era  - London Protocol August 30, 1832  - Military junta April 21, 1967 The Kingdom... Hellenism, from Greek Έλληνισμός (Hellenismos), imitation of the Greeks; German Hellenizein, to speak Greek. ...


See also

  • Gringo, a Spanish derivation of griego that came to mean "North American" and related concepts.

An American woman reads the Gringo Gazette in Cabo San Lucas. ...

References

  1. ^ Websters thesaurus. Greece. Retrieved on October 14, 2006.
  2. ^ Eastmond, A. (2004). Art and Identity in Thirteenth-Century Byzantium: Hagia Sophia and the Empire of Trebizond. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., p.137. 
  3. ^ Rapp SH, J. (Oct. - Dec., 2000). Sumbat Davitis-dze and the Vocabulary of Political Authority in the Era of Georgian Unification. Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 120, No. 4, pp. 570–576. 
  4. ^ Medieval Georgians customarily applied these names to Byzantium and Byzantines (ibid)
  5. ^ Excluding his Catalogue of Ships
  6. ^ Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, 1940, A Greek-English Lexicon, ISBN 0-19-864226-1, online version at the Perseus Project
  7. ^ Homer, "Iliad", book 2, 681–685
  8. ^ Antonis Hatzis, "Helle, Hellas, Hellene", pg.128–161, Athens, 1935
  9. ^ Homer, "Iliad", book 16, 233–235
  10. ^ Claudius Ptolemy, "Geographica", 3, 15
  11. ^ Aristotle, "Meteorologica, I, 352b"
  12. ^ Pausanias, "Description of Greece", 10, 7, 3
  13. ^ Thucydides, "Histories", I, 132
  14. ^ The Macedonians were Persian subjects at this time but their King, Alexander I, secretly pursued a pro-Hellenic policy - see Herodotus, "The Histories", Book IX, 45.
  15. ^ In respect to the kingdom of Macedon, participation was originally limited to the Argead kings such as Alexander I, Archelaus I and Philip II. From the age of Alexander the Great onwards, participation of ordinary Macedonians in the Olympic Games became common.
  16. ^ NGL Hammond, "A History of Greece to 322BC", Oxford University Press, 3rd edition, 1986
  17. ^ Thucydides, "History", II, 68, 5 and III, 97, 5
  18. ^ Thucydides, "History", II, 68, 9 and II, 80, 5 and I, 47, 3
  19. ^ Thucydides, "History", II, 80, 5
  20. ^ See discussion in Chapter 5 of Jonathan Hall, "Hellenicity: Between Ethnicity and Culture", University of Chicago Press, 2002
  21. ^ J. Juthner, "Hellenen and Barbaren", Leipzig, 1928, pp.4
  22. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd Edition, 1989, "barbarous" (entry)
  23. ^ Polybius, "History", 9, 38, 5; see also Strabo, "Geographica", 7, 7, 4; see also Herodotus, "Histories", book I, 56 and book VI, 127 and book VIII, 43
  24. ^ Herodotus, "Histories", book II, 158
  25. ^ Aristophanes, "The Birds", 199
  26. ^ Aristophanes, "The Clouds", 492
  27. ^ Dionysius of Halicarnassus, "Roman Archaeology", 1, 89, 4
  28. ^ Saint Paul, "Epistle to the Romans", 1, 14
  29. ^ Euripides, "Iphigeneia at Aulis", 1400
  30. ^ Aristotle, "Republic", I, 5
  31. ^ Isocrates, "Panegyricus", 50
  32. ^ Homer, "Iliad", II, 498
  33. ^ Pausanias, "Boeotics and Phocaeic, book 5, pp. 136
  34. ^ Aristotle, "Meteorologica, I, 352a"
  35. ^ Saint Paul, Acts of the Apostles, 13, 48 & 15, 3 & 7, 12
  36. ^ New Testament, Gospel of Mark, 7, 26
  37. ^ Aristides, Apology
  38. ^ Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies, 6, 5, 41
  39. ^ Pope Gregory, Against Julian, 1, 88
  40. ^ Suda dictionary, entry τ (t)
  41. ^ Socrates, "Ecclesiastical History", 7, 14
  42. ^ Procopius, Gothic war, 3, 1 & Vandal war, 1, 21
  43. ^ Lambru, Palaeologeia and Peloponnesiaka, 3, 152
  44. ^ Pope Innocent, Decretalium, Romanourm imperium in persona magnifici Caroli a Grecis transtuli in Germanos.
  45. ^ Epistola 86, of year 865, PL 119, 926
  46. ^ Liutprand, Antapodosis
  47. ^ Romanus III, "Towards the son of Romanus himself", p.49
  48. ^ Anna Comnena, "Alexiad", prologue 1
  49. ^ Anna Comnena, "Alexiad", 15, 7
  50. ^ Espugnazione di Thessalonica, pp.32, Palermo 1961
  51. ^ Nicetas Choniates, "The Sack of Constantinople", 9 ’¦Å, Bonn, pp.806
  52. ^ Nicephorus Blemmydes, "Pertial narration", 1, 4
  53. ^ Theodore Alanias, "PG 140, 414"
  54. ^ John Vatatzes, "Unpublished Letters of Emperor John Vatatzes", Athens I, pp.369–378, (1872)
  55. ^ Theodore Lascaris, "Christian Theology", 7,7 & 8
  56. ^ Nicephorus Gregoras, "Roman History"
  57. ^ John Catacuzenus, "History", 4, 14
  58. ^ Similar texts were composited by the scribes of the Kings in the north, e.g. of Russia, Poland, Lithuania...
  59. ^ George Gemistus Plethon, "Paleologeia and Peloponessiaka", pp.247
  60. ^ Laonicus Chalcondyles, "History I", 6 ’¦Å’¦Å
  61. ^ George Phrantzes, "History", 3,6
  62. ^ Warren Treadgold, "History of the Byzantine State and Society", pp.136, 1997, Stanford
  63. ^ Edward Gibbon "Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire", Alexandre Rambeau, "L'empire Grecque au Xe siecle"
  64. ^ Ρωμαίος (Roman) remained a massively popular name for a Greek in Greece even after the foundation of the modern Greek state in 1829. Argyris Eftaliotis, published his history of Greece series in 1901 under the title "History of Romanity", reflecting how well rooted Roman heritage was in Greeks, as late as the 20th century.
  65. ^ Constantelos, Demetrios J. "Christian Hellenism and How the Byzantines Saw Themselves." The National Herald. 12 September 2004. [1]
  66. ^ Rigas Feraios, "Thurius", line 45
  67. ^ Strategus Makrygiannis, "Memoirs", book 1, pp.117, Athens, 1849
  68. ^ Adamantios Korais, "Dialogue between two Greeks", pp.37, Venice, 1805
  69. ^ Dionysius Pyrrhus, "Cheiragogy", Venice, 1810
  70. ^ Hellenic Prefecture, pp. 191, Athens, 1948
  71. ^ Ioannou Philemonus, "Essay", book 2, pp.79
  72. ^ Ioannis Kakrides, "Ancient Greeks and Greeks of 1821", Thessalonike, 1956
  73. ^ Ambrosius Phrantzes, "Abridged history of a revived Greece", pp.398, Athens, 1839
  74. ^ Markezines, "Political History of Modern Greece", book A, pp.208, Athens

Map of Homeric Greece The famous Catalogue of Ships (νεων κατολογος) is recorded as a part of Book II (verses 494–760, PP Il. ... The Perseus Project is a digital library project of Tufts University that assembles digital collections of humanities resources. ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 1829 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...

Bibliography

In English

  • John Romanides, "Romanity, Romania, Rum", Thessalonike, 1974
  • Steven Runciman, "Byzantine and Hellene in the 14th century"

In other languages

  • Panagiotis Christou, "The Adventures of the National Names of the Greeks", Thessalonike, 1964
  • Antonios Hatzis, "Elle, Hellas, Hellene", Athens, 1935–1936
  • J. Juthner, "Hellenen und Barbaren", Leipzig, 1923
  • Basso Mustakidou, "The words Hellene, Greek, Roman, Byzantine, Ottoman, Turk", Tybigge, 1920
  • Ioannis Kakrides, "Ancient Greeks and Greeks of 1821", Athens, 1956
  • A. Rambeau, "L'empire Grecque au X' siecle"

External links

Non-English external links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Names of the Greeks - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5890 words)
The modern English adaptation of Greek is derived from the Latin Graecus, which in turn originates from Greek Γραικός (Graikos), the name of a Boeotian tribe that migrated to Italy in the 8th century BC, and it is by that name the Hellenes were known in the West.
The name Hellene came to mean "pagan" with the institutionalisation of Christianity in the first centuries and it retained that meaning until the end of the millennium, during which the early Christian church played an instrumental role in accelerating the transition.
After the name was accepted by the spiritual and political leadership of the land, it rapidly spread to the population, especially with the onset of the Greek War of Independence where many naïve leaders and war figures distinguished between idle Romans and rebellious Hellenes.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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