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Encyclopedia > Nama language
Nama
Khoekhoegowab
Spoken in: Namibia, Botswana and South Africa 
Region: Orange River, Great Namaland
Total speakers: 250,000

Namibia: approx. 176,000
plus 16,000 Hai‖om
Botswana: 200 to 1,000
South Africa: approx. 56,000
The Orange River is the major river in South Africa. ... Namaqualand is an arid region of south-western Africa, extending along the west coast over 600 miles and covering a total area of 170,000 square miles/440,000 sq km. ... Hai//om is a Khoisan language of Namibia. ...

Language family: Khoisan
 Khoe
  Khoekhoe
   North Khoekhoe
    Nama 
Official status
Official language of: National language in Namibia
Regulated by: no official regulation
Language codes
ISO 639-1: none
ISO 639-2: khi
ISO/DIS 639-3: variously:
hgm — Hai‖om
kqz — Korana
naq — Nama (Namibia)
xii — Xiri 
The distribution of the Nama language in Namibia.
Enlarge
The distribution of the Nama language in Namibia.
 

Nàmá, previously called Hottentot, is the most populous and widespread of the Khoisan languages. It belongs to the Khoe language family, and is spoken in Namibia, Botswana, and South Africa by the Namaqua, Damara, and Hai‖om, as well as smaller ethnic groups such as the ‡Khomani. The name for Nama speakers, Khoekhoen, is from the Nama word kxòe "person", with reduplication and the suffix -n to indicate the plural. According to Ethnologue, there were 250,000 speakers as of 1998. Current distribution of Human Language Families Most languages are known to belong to language families. ... Map showing the distribution of the Khoi-San languages. ... This is a list of Khoisan languages, which are indigenous to southern Africa. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2:1998 Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 2: Alpha-3 code Twenty-two of the languages have two three-letter codes: a code for bibliographic use (ISO 639-2/B) a code for terminological use (ISO 639-2/T). ... ISO 639-3 is in process of development as an international standard for language codes. ... Hai//om is a Khoisan language of Namibia. ... Korana is an endangered or even extinct Khoisan language of South Africa. ... Image File history File links Nama-Damara_taalkaartje_NL.png Verspreiding Nama/Damara in Namibie. ... Image File history File links Nama-Damara_taalkaartje_NL.png Verspreiding Nama/Damara in Namibie. ... The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation devised by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) used in spoken human language. ... Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone = sound/voice) is the study of sounds (voice). ... Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... This is a concise version of the International Phonetic Alphabet for English sounds. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Khoikhoi (men of men) or Khoi are a division of the Khoisan ethnic group of south-western Africa, closely related to the Bushmen (San). ... Map showing the distribution of the Khoi-San languages. ... This is a list of Khoisan languages, which are indigenous to southern Africa. ... Namaqua are a pastoral people of South Africa, Namibia and Botswana; one of the principal branches of the Khoikhoi race, and inhabiting Great Namaqualand. ... The Damara are a people who live in Namibia. ... The Hai//om are a Khoisan people of Namibia numbering 16,000. ... N/u is a Khoisan language spoken by the Khomani people in South Africa. ... An 18th century drawing of Khoikhoi worshipping the moon The Khoikhoi (real people) or Khoi are a historical division of the Khoisan ethnic group of south-western Africa, closely related to the Bushmen (or San, as the Khoikhoi called them). ... Reduplication, in linguistics, is a morphological process in which the root or stem of a word, or only part of it, is repeated. ... Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics), a Christian linguistic service organization which studies lesser-known languages primarily to provide the speakers with native language biblical texts. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ...

Contents


Classification

Nama is in the Khoe family, which is part of a hypothetical Khoisan phylum. This is a list of Khoisan languages, which are indigenous to southern Africa. ... Map showing the distribution of the Khoi-San languages. ...


Geographic distribution

Nama has 250,000 speakers in Namibia, South Africa, and (a few in) Botswana.


Dialects

The Damara are a people who live in Namibia. ... This article does not give much verifiable information about the subject. ... This article does not give much verifiable information about the subject. ... Hai//om is a Khoisan language of Namibia. ...

Sounds

Vowels

There are 5 vowel qualities, found as oral /i e a o u/ and nasal /ĩ ã ũ/. These may be long or short, and there are several sequences or diphthongs: [əi ae əu ao ui oa oe] and nasal [ə̃ĩ ə̃ũ ũĩ õã]. ([ə] is phonemically /a/.) A nasal vowel is a vowel that is produced with a lowering of the velum so that air escapes both through the mouth and the nose. ... In phonetics, a diphthong (Greek and ending tongue positions. ... In human language, a phoneme is a set of phones (speech sounds or sign elements) that are cognitively equivalent. ...


Tones

Nama has three tones, /á, ā, à/, which may occur on vowels and nasal stops. The mid tone is not written. It has been suggested that Tonal language be merged into this article or section. ... A nasal stop is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ...


Consonants

Nama has 31 consonants: 20 clicks and a simple set of 11 non-clicks.


Non-clicks

bilabial alveolar velar glottal
stop p ~ β t ~ ɾ k ʔ
affricate ts kx
fricative s x h
nasal m n

Between vowels, /p/ is pronounced [β] and /t/ is pronounced [ɾ]. In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips. ... Alveolars are consonants articulated with the tip of the tongue against the alveolar ridge, the internal side of the upper gums (known as the alveoles of the upper teeth). ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... The vocal cords, also known as vocal folds, are composed of twin infoldings of mucous membrane stretched horizontally across the human larynx. ... A stop, plosive, or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... An affricate is a consonant that begins like a stop (most often an alveovelar, such as [t] or [d]) and that doesnt have a release of its own, but opens directly into a fricative (or, in one language, into a trill). ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... A nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ...


Clicks

The clicks are doubly articulated consonants, consisting of four "releases" or "influxes" (forward articulations) and five "accompaniments" or "effluxes" (rearward articulations), for twenty combinations. Clicks are stops produced with two articulatory closures in the oral cavity. ... Doubly articulated consonants are consonants with two simultaneous primary places of articulation of the same manner (both plosive, or both nasal, etc. ...


The aspirated clicks are often pronounced as affricates. That is, /kǀˣ/ may be pronounced anywhere from [kǃʰ] to [kǃx].


The voiceless nasal accompaniment is difficult to hear when not between vowels, so to foreign ears it may sound like a longer but less raspy version of the aspirated accompaniment.


There have been several orthographies used for Nama, with sometimes conflicting differences in the representation of the clicks.

accompaniment affricated clicks 'sharp' clicks spelling
(with "!")
dental
clicks
lateral
clicks
alveolar
clicks
palatal
clicks
Tenuis <!> or <!g>
Aspirated kǀˣ kǁˣ kǃˣ kǂˣ <!x> or <!k>
Nasal ŋǀ ŋǁ ŋǃ ŋǂ <n!> or <!n>
Voiceless nasal with
delayed aspiration
ŋ̊ǀʰ ŋ̊ǁʰ ŋ̊ǃʰ ŋ̊ǂʰ <!h>
Tenuis with glottal stop kǀʔ kǁʔ kǃʔ kǂʔ <!’> or <!>

The dental click is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The lateral alveolar click is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The postalveolar click is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The palatal click is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... A tenuis consonant is one which is unvoiced and unaspirated. ... See: Aspiration (phonetics) Aspiration (medicine) Aspiration (long-term hope) - see for example, Robert Goddards response to the ridicule by the New York Times, 1920: Every vision is a joke until the first man accomplishes it; once realized, it becomes commonplace. ...

Grammar

Nama has a Subject Object Verb word order. In linguistic typology, Subject Object Verb (SOV) is the type of languages in which the subject, object, and verb of a sentence appear (usually) in that order. ...


Example

Xam-i ke ’a ǀúrún hòán tì kàó’ao káísep ’a ǀaísa, ǀóm ̊ǁxáí, xápú kxáó, tsií !háése ra !xóés !’áróma.


Tsií maátsekám ̊ǁóakas hòásàp ke ǂxam xam-à !árop !naa ǂ’oá tsií ̊ǁ’iip tì ǀaísìpà síí kèrè ǀnoóku náú ǀúrún ǀxáa. Tsií maá tsèes hòásàp ke ̊ǁ’iipà kèrè ’óa-ǀxií tàn’aose. Tsií nee ǂhòas ke ǀúrún !húùp hòárákap !naa kè ̊ǁnàúhè tsií ǂ’ánhè ’ií xam-i ’a ǀúrún tì kàó’ao !xáisà. Tsií maá tsèes híí’ap kèrè ’óa-ǀxií tàn tsiís kxáó!áa ’oos ke ̊ǁ’iip tì ̊ǁuusà kèrè koápi "tíí ’óátse! ǀóm !nórótse! xápú kxáótse! ǀóm ̊ǁxáítse! ’áore kxòetse!" tí.


Xapes ke ǀúí tsekám ̊ǁóaka kxàí-máá tsiíp ke ǂxam xam-à kàrósn ’oo !xóóǀxáapi "ǀóm ̊ǁxáítse! ǀóm !nórótse! xam ̊ǁ’oatse! xápú kxáótse!" tí, !xóóǀxáapi tóá tsií kè míí "am’aseta ke ra ǂóm saáts maá ǀúrún hòán xaa ’a ǀaísa !xáisà. Maá tsèes hòásàts ke saátsà ǂ’oá !árop !naa tsií ’óa-ǀxií tsií ra ̊ǁaute ’am’asets saátsà ’a ǀúrún tì kàó’ao !xáisà. Xape, tíí ’óátse! ǀúí tsèets ke nìí ǂ’oá !árop !naa. Tsií ǂ’oá tsiíts !árop !naa ra !uumaa híí’ats ke ǂxarí xuuróp ǂhanúse ra !úu !xoótì !naa ǂnùa tànásepà nìí mùu. Tsií, tíí ’óátse! ǀóm ̊ǁxáítse! ǀóm !nórótse! xápú kxáótse! ̊ǁnaá ǂxarí xuuróp ǀxáats kàrà ǀhaó’ú tsèes ̊ǁnaás ’áís ke sóresà nìí ǂaa ’óa-ǀxií tamats hàa híí’a. ̊ǁnaá xuuróp tì ǀ’òns ke "kxòep" tí ra ǂaíhè.


English Translation

The lion is king of all the beasts because he is very strong, thick of chest, slim of waist, and runs fast.


Every morning, the young lion would go out into the forest and compare his strength with the other beasts. And every day he would return the victor. This news was heard and known throughout the animal world: that the lion was king of the beasts. Every day that he would return victorious, his mother would praise him, "Son of mine! Thick of neck! Thick of chest! He-man!"


But one morning, when having got up the young lion was stretching, she praised him, "Thick of chest! Thick of neck! Lion-armed! Slim of waist!," finished praising him and said, "I truly believe that you are strongest of all the beasts. Every day you go out into the forest and return, and show me that you are truly king of the beasts. But, my son, one day you will go out into the forest. And while you are out walking around in the forest, you will see a little thing which walks straight, its head sitting on its shoulders. And, Son of mine! Thick of chest! Thick of neck! Slim of waist!, the day you meet that little thing, on that day the sun will set while you have not returned. The name of that little thing is called 'man'.


Trivia

A national language is a language (or language variant, i. ... The University of Namibia is a university located in Windhoek, Namibia. ... A dictionary is a list of words with their definitions, a list of characters with their glyphs, or a list of words with corresponding words in other languages. ...

Bibliography

  • Haacke, Wilfrid H.G. & Eiseb, Eliphas (2002) A Khoekhoegowab dictionary with an English-Khoekhoegowab index. Windhoek : Gamsberg Macmillan. ISBN 9991604014

External links

  • Nama Swadesh Word List from Rosetta Project
  • The Ethnologue report for Nama
  • The Ethnologue report for Hai‖’om

Khoisan languages  (classification) Map showing the distribution of the Khoi-San languages. ... This is a list of Khoisan languages, which are indigenous to southern Africa. ...

‖Ani | G‖ana | G/wi | Hadza | ‡Hõã | Ju/’hoan | Korana | !Kung (!Xũũ) | Kwadi | ‡Kx’au‖’ein | Kxoe |

Nama | Naro | N/u | Sandawe | Seroa | Shua | Tsoa | /Xam | ‖Xegwi | Xiri | !Xóõ ‖Ani or /Anda is a Khoisan language of Botswana with about 1,000 speakers. ... G‖ana (also spelled Gxana, Dxana) is a Khoisan language of Botswana with about 2000 speakers (2004 Cook). ... G/wi or GÇ€ui (sometimes spelled Dcui) is a Khoisan language of Botswana with 2,500 speakers (2004 Cook). ... Hadza is a language of Tanzania. ... ‡Hõã or ‡Hoan, a variant of the ethnonym ‡Qhôã, is an unclassified Khoisan language of Botswana. ... Ju|’hoan (also called Zu|’hõasi, Dzu’oasi, Zû-|hoa) is a Khoisan language spoken in the Northwest District of Botswana by about 5,000 people (2002) and by perhaps a comparable number across the border in Namibia. ... Korana is an endangered or even extinct Khoisan language of South Africa. ... !Kung or !’O!Kung is a group of northern dialects of the Ju dialect continuum, which is generally classified as part of the Khoisan language family. ... Kwadi is an extinct Khoisan language of Angola. ... ‡Kx’au‖’ein is a group of mostly southwestern dialects of the Ju dialect continuum of Botswana and Namibia with about 4000 speakers (2004 Cook). ... Kxoe is a Khoisan language of Namibia, Angola, Botswana, South Africa, and Zambia. ... Naro is a Khoisan language of Botswana and Namibia. ... N/u is a Khoisan language spoken by the Khomani people in South Africa. ... Sandawe is a tonal language spoken in the Dodoma region of Tanzania. ... Seroa is an extinct Khoisan language of South Africa and Lesotho. ... Shua is a Khoisan language of Botswana. ... Tsoa is a Khoisan language of Botswana and Zimbabwe spoken by about 9300 speakers (Cook 2004). ... /Xam is an extinct Khoisan language of South Africa, part of the !Kwi language group. ... ‖Xegwi is an extinct !Kwi language of South Africa, near the Swazi border. ... Xiri is a Khoisan language of South Africa, originally spoken by a small group of Coloureds. ... !Xóõ is a Khoisan language with a very large number of phonemes, the most of any known language. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Nama - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (184 words)
Nama (plant), a genus of plants in the family Hydrophyllaceae.
Nama (Slovenian emporium), one of the main emporiums in Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia.
Nama language, the language spoken by the Namaqua.
Nama language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (783 words)
It belongs to the Khoe language family, and is spoken in Namibia, Botswana, and South Africa by the Namaqua, Damara, and Hai‖om, as well as smaller ethnic groups such as the ‡Khomani.
Nama is in the Khoe family, which is part of a hypothetical Khoisan phylum.
Nama is a national language in Namibia, and doctorates in the study of the language can be earned at the University of Namibia.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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