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Encyclopedia > Nalanda
The stupa of Sariputta at Nalanda.
The stupa of Sariputta at Nalanda.

Nālānda is the name of an ancient university in India. Nalanda can refer to: Nalanda University, an ancient seat of Buddhist learning in India. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 569 pixelsFull resolution (2209 × 1571 pixel, file size: 790 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 569 pixelsFull resolution (2209 × 1571 pixel, file size: 790 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Great Stupa at Sanchi. ... Śāriputra (Pali: Sariputta; Chinese: 舍利弗) was the one of the disciples of the Buddha, an arhat who was renowned for his wisdom. ... Representation of a university class, 1350s. ...


The name is a Sanskrit word that means giver of knowledge, (possibly from nalam, lotus, a symbol of knowledge and da, to give).[1] The Chinese pilgrim-monk Xuanzang[2] gives several explanations of the name Nālandā. One is that it was named after the Nāga who lived in a tank in the middle of the mango grove. Another - and accepted by him - is that the Bodhisatta once had his capital here and gave "alms without intermission," hence the name. The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... A portrait of Xuanzang Xuanzang (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsüan-tsang; CantoneseIPA: jyn4tsɔŋ1; CantoneseJyutping: jyun4zong1) was a famous Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, traveler and translator that brought up the interaction between China and India in the early Tang period. ... The word Naga can refer to several different things. ... Lands Bhutan â€¢ China â€¢ Korea Japan â€¢ Tibet â€¢ Vietnam Taiwan â€¢ Mongolia Doctrine Bodhisattva â€¢ Bodhicitta Karuna â€¢ Prajna Sunyata â€¢ Buddha Nature Trikaya â€¢ Eternal Buddha Scriptures Prajnaparamita Sutra Avatamsaka Sutra Lotus Sutra Nirvana Sutra VimalakÄ«rti Sutra Lankavatara Sutra History 4th Buddhist Council Silk Road â€¢ Nagarjuna Asanga â€¢ Vasubandhu Bodhidharma      A statue of a Bodhisattva, Akasagarbha. ...


It is located about 55 miles south east of Patna, and was a Buddhist center of learning from 427 CE to 1197 CE partly under the Pala Empire.[3][4] It has been called "one of the first great universities in recorded history."[4] Nalanda is located at 25.135766° N 85.444923° ECoordinates: 25.135766° N 85.444923° E. Nālanda was identified by Alexander Cunningham with the village of Baragaon[5]. , Paá¹­nā   (Hindi: पटना) is the capital of the Indian state of Bihar, and one of the oldest continuously inhabited places in the world. ... A silhouette of a Buddha statue at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ... Buddha and Bodhisattvas, 11th century, Pala Empire. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Sir Alexander Cunningham (23 January 1814–28 November 1893) was an English archaeologist and army engineer, known as the father of the Archaeological Survey of India. ...

Contents

Nalanda in the time of the Buddha (500 BC)

The Buddha is mentioned as having several times stayed at Nalanda. When he visited Nalanda he would usually reside in Pāvārika's mango grove, and while there he had discussions with Upāli-Gahapati and Dīghatapassī[6], with Kevatta[7], and also several conversations with Asibandhakaputta[8].


The Buddha visited Nālandā during his last tour through Magadha, and it was there that Sariputta uttered his "lion's roar," affirming his faith in the Buddha, shortly before his death[9]. The road from Rājagaha to Nālandā passed through Ambalatthikā[10], and from Nālandā it went on to Pātaligāma[11]. Between Rājagaha and Nālandā was situated the Bahuputta cetiya[12]. Magadha was an ancient kingdom of India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. ... Śāriputra (Pali: Sariputta; Chinese: 舍利弗) was the one of the disciples of the Buddha, an arhat who was renowned for his wisdom. ... , Rajgir is a city and a notified area in Nalanda district in the Indian state of Bihar. ... , Paá¹­nā   (Hindi: पटना) is the capital of the Indian state of Bihar, and one of the oldest continuously inhabited places in the world. ...


According to the Kevatta Sutta[13], in the Buddha's time Nālandā was already an influential and prosperous town, thickly populated, though it was not till later that it became the centre of learning for which it afterwards became famous. There is a record in the Samyutta Nikaya[14], of the town having been the victim of a severe famine during the Buddha's time. Sāriputta, the right hand disciple of the Buddha, was born and died in Nālandā.[3] The Kevatta Sutta (or Kevaddha) is a Buddhist scripture, one of the texts in the Digha Nikaya (long discourses collection)of the Pali Canon. ... The Samyutta Nikaya, the third Nikaya (division) of the Sutta Pitaka of the Tipitaka, contains 2,889 suttas grouped into five sections (vaggas). ... Śāriputra (Sanskrit) or Sāriputta (Pāli); Chinese: 舍利弗 Shelifu was one of two principal disciples of the Buddha. ...


Nālandā was the residence of Sonnadinnā[15]. Mahavira is several times mentioned as staying at Nālandā, which was evidently a centre of activity of the Jains. Mahavira is believed to have attained Moksha at Pavapuri, which is located in Nalanda (also according to one sect of Jainism he was born in the nearby village called Kundalpur).[citation needed] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article is under construction. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Moksha - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Pawapuri is located 38 kilometers from Rajgir and 90 kilometers from Patna, India. ...


King Asoka (250 BC) is said to have built a temple there[3]. According to Tibetan sources, Nagarjuna taught there[16]. This article is about Ashoka, the emperor. ... A statue depicting Nagarjuna at the Samye Ling Monastery, Dumfriesshire, Scotland Nāgārjuna (నాగార్జున in Telugu, 龍樹 in Chinese) (c. ...


Arising and establishment of Nalanda University

Historical studies indicate that the University of Nalanda was established 450 CE under the patronage of the Gupta emperors, notablyKumaragupta.[3] Silver coin of King Kumaragupta (414-455 CE). ...


Description of Nalanda University

Pilgrimage to
Buddha's
Holy Sites
The Four Main Sites
Lumbini · Bodh Gaya
Sarnath · Kushinagar
Four Additional Sites
Sravasti · Rajgir
Sankissa · Vaishali
Other Sites
Patna · Bodh Gaya
 Kausambi · Mathura
Kapilavastu · Devadaha
Kesariya · Pava
Nalanda · Varanasi
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Nalanda was one of the world's first residential universities, i.e., it had dormitories for students. In its heyday it accommodated over 10,000 students and 2,000 teachers. The university was considered an architectural masterpiece, and was marked by a lofty wall and one gate. Nalanda had eight separate compounds and ten temples, along with many other meditation halls and classrooms. On the grounds were lakes and parks. The library was located in a nine storied building where meticulous copies of texts were produced. The subjects taught at Nalanda University covered every field of learning, and it attracted pupils and scholars from Korea, Japan, China, Tibet, Indonesia, Persia and Turkey.[4] The Tang Dynasty Chinese pilgrim Xuanzang left detailed accounts of the university in the 7th century. The most important places of pilgrimage in Buddhism are located in Northern India and Southern Nepal, in the area between New Delhi and Calcutta. ... Image File history File links Dharma_wheel. ... Lumbini (Sanskrit for the lovely) is a Buddhist pilgrimage site located in Rupandehi District, Lumbini Zone of Nepal near the Indian border. ... Bodh Gaya or Bodhgaya(24° 41 60N, 84° 58 60E) is a city in Gaya district in the Indian state of Bihar. ... Sarnath (also Mrigadava, Migadāya, Rishipattana, Isipatana) is the deer park where Gautama Buddha first taught the Dharma, and where the Buddhist Sangha came into existence through the enlightenment of Kondanna. ... Kushinagar or Kusinagar (26. ... SrāvastÄ« or SāvatthÄ« (Chinese: 舍衛), a city of ancient India, was one of the largest cities during Gautama Buddha’s lifetime. ... , Rajgir is a city and a notified area in Nalanda district in the Indian state of Bihar. ... Sankassa (also Sankasia, Sankissa and Sankassya) was a city in India at the time of Gautama Buddha, thirty leagues from Savatthi[1]. Currently it has ruins of old monasteries and Buddhist monuments. ... Vaishali or Vesali (Pali) was a city, the capital of the Licchavis and the Vajjian Confederacy. ... , Paá¹­nā   (Hindi: पटना) is the capital of the Indian state of Bihar, and one of the oldest continuously inhabited places in the world. ... Bodh Gaya or Bodhgaya(24° 41 60N, 84° 58 60E) is a city in Gaya district in the Indian state of Bihar. ... Kosambi (Pali) or Kausambi (Sanskrit) was one of the greatest cities in India in the Buddhas time (500 BC). ... , Mathura   (Hindi: मथुरा, Urdu: متھرا) is a holy city in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... Kapilvastu, formerly Taulihawa (or, Kapilbastu Kapilvastu District or Tilaurakot), aprox. ... Devadaha was a township of the Sākiyans. ... Kesariya is a small city in Bihar, India. ... Pawapuri in Bihar is a holy site for Jains, located 38 kilometers from Rajgir and 90 kilometers from Patna, India. ... , VārāasÄ« ( , Hindi: , IPA: ), also known as Benares, Banaras, or Benaras ( , Hindi: , , IPA: ), or Kashi or Kasi ( , Hindi: , ), is a famous Hindu holy city situated on the banks of the river Ganges (Ganga) in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... China under the Tang Dynasty (yellow) and its sphere of influence Capital Changan (618–904) Luoyang (904-907) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 618-626 Emperor Gaozu  - 684, 705-710 Emperor Zhongzong  - 684, 710-712 Emperor Ruizong  - 904-907 Emperor Ai History  - Li Yuan... A portrait of Xuanzang Xuanzang (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsüan-tsang; CantoneseIPA: jyn4tsɔŋ1; CantoneseJyutping: jyun4zong1) was a famous Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, traveler and translator that brought up the interaction between China and India in the early Tang period. ... The 7th century is the period from 601 - 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ...

The seal of Nalanda University set in terracotta on display in the ASI Museum in Nalanda
The seal of Nalanda University set in terracotta on display in the ASI Museum in Nalanda

Image File history File linksMetadata Nalanda_seal. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Nalanda_seal. ... Terra cotta is a hard semifired waterproof ceramic clay used in pottery and building construction. ... Archaeological Survey of India is an Indian government agency under the Department of Culture that is responsible about archaeological studies and preservation of cultural monuments. ...

Influence on Buddhism

A vast amount of what is considered to be Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana) actually stems from the late (9th-12th century) Nalanda teachers and traditions. Other forms of Buddhism, like the Mahayana followed in Vietnam, China, Korea and Japan, found their genesis within the walls of the ancient university. Tibetan Buddhism is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet, the Himalayan region (including northern Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim and Ladakh), Mongolia, Buryatia, Tuva and Kalmykia (Russia), and northeastern China (Manchuria: Heilongjiang, Jilin). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Relief image of the bodhisattva Kuan Yin from Mt. ... This article is about the Korean peninsula and civilization. ...


Also Theravada Buddhism was taught at Nalanda University. But the teachings of Theravada were not developed further in Nalanda, as Nalanda was not a strong center of Theravada. Theravada (Pāli: theravāda; Sanskrit: स्थविरवाद sthaviravāda; literally, the Way of the Elders) is the oldest surviving Buddhist school, and for many centuries has been the predominant religion of Sri Lanka (about 70% of the population[1]) and most of continental Southeast Asia (Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand). ...


Decline and end

Due to the disappearance of Buddhism from India during the 12th century, the university was in decline. In 1193, the Nalanda University suffered a final blow after the complex was sacked by Muslim armies[17] under Bakhtiyar Khilji; this event is seen as a milestone in the decline of Buddhism in India. It is said that Khilji asked if there was a copy of the Koran at Nalanda before he sacked it[citation needed]. When the Tibetan translator Chag Lotsawa visited them in 1235, he found them damaged and looted, but still functioning with a small number of monks. Ahir blames the destruction of the temples, monasteries, centers of learning at Nalanda and northern India for the demise of ancient Indian scientific thought in mathematics, astronomy, alchemy, and anatomy.[18] Ling and Scott, however, point out that centres of learning were already declining, before the presence of Muslims.[17] Fortified Sena monasteries along the main route of the invasion were destroyed, and being off the main route both Nalanda and Bodh Gaya survived. Many institutions off the main route such as the Jagaddala Monastery in northern Bengal were untouched and flourishing.[citation needed] // Saladin dies, and the lands of the Kurdish Ayyubid dynasty of Egypt and Syria are split among his descendants. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The Decline of Buddhism in India, in the land of its birth occurred for a variety of reasons, and happened even as it continued to flourish beyond the frontiers of India. ... The Sena dynasty ruled Bengal through the 11th and 12th centuries. ...


Ruins

A number of ruined structures survive. Nearby is the Surya Mandir, a Hindu temple. The known and excavated ruins extend over an area of about 150,000 square metres, although if Xuanzang's account of Nalanda's extent is correlated with present excavations, almost 90% of it remains unexcavated. This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Rocky landscape with ruins, by Nicolaes Berchem, ca. ... A portrait of Xuanzang Xuanzang (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsüan-tsang; CantoneseIPA: jyn4tsɔŋ1; CantoneseJyutping: jyun4zong1) was a famous Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, traveler and translator that brought up the interaction between China and India in the early Tang period. ...


Nālandā is no longer inhabited. Today the nearest habitation is a village called Bargaon.


In 1951, a modern centre for Pali (Theravadin) Buddhist studies was founded nearby by Bhikshu Jagdish Kashyap, the Nava Nalanda Mahavihara. Presently, this institute is pursuing an ambitious program of satellite imaging of the entire region. Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Pāli is a Middle Indo-Aryan dialect or prakrit. ... Theravada (Pāli: theravāda; Sanskrit: स्थविरवाद sthaviravāda; literally, the Way of the Elders) is the oldest surviving Buddhist school, and for many centuries has been the predominant religion of Sri Lanka (about 70% of the population[1]) and most of continental Southeast Asia (Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand). ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by...


The Nalanda Museum contains a number of manuscripts, and shows many examples of the items that have been excavated.


Plans for revival

  • On December 9, 2006, the New York Times detailed a plan in the works to spend $1 billion to revive Nalanda University near the ancient site. A consortium led by Singapore and including China, India, Japan and other nations will attempt to raise $500 million to build a new university and another $500 million to develop necessary infrastructure.[4]
  • On May 28, 2007, Merinews reported that the revived university's enrollment will be 1,137 in its first year, and 4,530 by the fifth. In the 'second phase', enrolment will reach 5,812. [19]
  • On June 12, 2007, News Post India reported that the Japanese diplomat Noro Motoyasu said that "Japan will fund the setting up an international university in Nalanda in Bihar". The report goes on to say that "The proposed university will be fully residential, like the ancient seat of learning at Nalanda. In the first phase of the project, seven schools with 46 foreign faculty members and over 400 Indian academics would come up." ... "The university will impart courses in science, philosophy and spiritualism along with other subjects. A renowned international scholar will be its chancellor."[20]
Wide view of the other (back)side of Sariputta's Stupa.
Wide view of the other (back)side of Sariputta's Stupa.

is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... May 28 is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The Times of India, often abbreviated as TOI, is one of Indias leading daily newspapers, owned and managed by Bennett, Coleman & Co. ... Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam (Tamil: ) born October 15, 1931, Tamil Nadu, India, usually referred to as Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam ^) was the twelfth President of India, serving from 2002 to 2007. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 288 pixelsFull resolution (3500 × 1260 pixel, file size: 908 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 288 pixelsFull resolution (3500 × 1260 pixel, file size: 908 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

See also

There have been several cities in ancient India that had been great centers of learning. ... Benares (also known as Banaras, Kashi, Kasi and Varanasi (वाराणसी)) is a Hindu holy city on the banks of the river Ganga or Ganges in the modern north Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... I Ching (monk) or Yi Jing (Yijing, Yiqing, I-Tsing or YiChing) (義淨, 三藏法師義淨 635-713) is Tang Dynasty Buddhist monk, original name was Zhang Wen Ming (张文明). He contributed to the world the information of ancient Srivijaya (written in Chinese), large numbers of Buddhist scriptures, his adventure stories en route to Nalanda... Puspagiri University was a prominent Buddhist seat of learning that flourished until the 11th century in India. ... Taxila is an important archaelogical site in Pakistan containing the ruins of the Gandhāran city and university of Takshashila (also Takkasila or Taxila) an important Vedic/Hindu[1] and Buddhist[2] centre of learning from the 5th century BCE to the 2nd century CE. In 1980, Taxila was declared... University was one of the two most important centers of Buddhist learning in India, along with University during the Pala dynasty. ...

Picture Gallery

References

  1. ^ Tharoor, Shashi. Reconstructing Nalanda. The Hindu. Retrieved on February 5, 2007.
  2. ^ Beal: op. cit., ii.167f
  3. ^ a b c d Altekar, Anant Sadashiv (1965). Education in Ancient India, Sixth, Varanasi: Nand Kishore & Bros.
  4. ^ a b c d "Really Old School," Garten, Jeffrey E. New York Times, December 9, 2006.
  5. ^ CAGI. 537
  6. ^ S.ii.110; M.i.376ff.
  7. ^ D.i.211ff.
  8. ^ S. ii. 311 23
  9. ^ D.ii.81f.; iii.99ff.; S.v.159ff.
  10. ^ D.ii.81; Vin.ii.287
  11. ^ D.ii.84
  12. ^ S.ii.220
  13. ^ Digha Nikaya.i.211
  14. ^ S.iv.322
  15. ^ VvA.144
  16. ^ Hopkins, Jeffrey (1996). Meditation on Emptiness, Wisdom Publications.
  17. ^ a b Scott, David (May, 1995). "Buddhism and Islam: Past to Present Encounters and Interfaith Lessons". Numen 42 (2). 
  18. ^ D. C. Ahir, Buddhism Declined in India: How and Why?, Delhi: B. R. Publishing, 2005.
  19. ^ "Nalanda Int’l University: A commendable initiative", K.jha, Ashok, Merinews, May 28, 2007.
  20. ^ "Japan Eager To Invest In Nalanda University," News Post India, June 12, 2007[1].
  21. ^ "Kalam to join Nalanda University soon," The Times of India, August 15, 2007[2].

is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Digha Nikaya (Collection of Long Discourses) is the first part of the Sutta Pitaka- one of the three baskets that compose the Pali Tipitaka. ... May 28 is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...

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Nalanda

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Nalanda University (474 words)
During his reign, the Chinese pilgrim Hiuen Tsang visited Nalanda and left a vivid account of the curriculum and of the general features of the community.
Between 8th–12th cent., Nalanda flourished under the Pala dynasty as a centre of learning and the arts (stone and bronze sculpture in particular), even as Buddhism began a broad decline in India.
Nalanda was put to a brutal and decisive end by Bakhtiyar Khilji, a Turkish invader (c.
NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Nalanda (576 words)
The Nalanda copper plate inscription reflects the international character of the Sangharama and informs us about the erection of a monastery by the king of Sumatra and records the grant of five villages by the Pala kings for the maintenance of the monastery at the request of the foreign king.
Nalanda is a place in central Bihar, India, 90km south-east of the state capital of Patna.
Nalanda is also the name of the modern administrative district of Bihar in which the ancient university ruins are found.
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