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Encyclopedia > Nakhichevan
Naxçıvan Muxtar Respublikası
Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic

Flag of Nakhichevan

Location of Nakhichevan in the South Caucasus region.
Administration type Autonomous republic of Azerbaijan
Capital and largest city Nakhichevan City
Official language Azerbaijani
Parliamentary Chairman Vasif Talibov
Area
 - Total
 - % water

5,500 km² [1]
negligible
Population
 - Total

372,900 (2005 est.) [1]
Time zone
 - in summer
EET (UTC+4)
EEST (UTC+5)

The Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic (Azerbaijani: Naxçıvan Muxtar Respublikası, Armenian: Նախիջևանի Ինքնավար Հանրապետություն, Russian: Нахичеванская Автономная Республика, Persian:جمهوری خودمختار نخجوان, Turkish: Nahçıvan Özerk Cumhuriyeti), known simply as Nakhichevan, is a landlocked exclave of Azerbaijan. The 5,500 km² region borders Armenia (221 km), Turkey (9 km) and Iran (179 km). Its capital is Nakhichevan City, home to the Nakhichevan State University. Image File history File links Flag_of_Azerbaijan. ... The Flag of Nakhichevan is officially that of Azerbaijan, but there was one used in 1991 by seperatist groups in Nakhichevan during the breakup of the former Soviet Union. ... Image File history File links Azerbaijan-Nakhichevan. ... Image File history File links Nakhichevan_detail_map. ... South Caucasus: Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan South Caucasus (also referred sometimes as Transcaucasus) is a name to the transitional region between Europe and Asia extending from the Greater Caucasus to the Turkish and Iranian borders, between the Black and Caspian seas. ... Administrative division is a generic term for an administrative region within a country — on an arbitrary level below that of the sovereign state — typically with a local government encompassing multiple municipalities, counties, or provinces with a certain degree of autonomy. ... An autonomous (subnational) entity is a subnational entity that has a certain amount of autonomy. ... In politics, a capital (also called capital city or political capital — although the latter phrase has a second meaning based on an alternative sense of capital) is the principal city or town associated with a countrys government. ... Map of Azerbaijan showing Nakhichevan City. ... An official language is a language that is given a privileged legal status in a state, or other legally-defined territory. ... Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here areas between 1,000 km² and 10,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... A time zone is a region of the Earth that has adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. ... European Summer Time is the daylight saving time practised in Europe, the period during which clocks are advanced by one hour in relation to the official time observed during the rest of the year. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries not observing daylight saving Eastern European Time (EET) is one of the names of UTC+2 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... UTC redirects here. ... Eastern European Summer Time (EEST) is one of the names of UTC+3 time zone, 3 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... UTC redirects here. ... Persian (local name: FārsÄ« or PārsÄ« ) is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... A landlocked country is one that has no coastline. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here areas between 1,000 km² and 10,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... Map of Azerbaijan showing Nakhichevan City. ... Nakhchivan State University (NSU) is a public university located in Nakhchivan, Azerbaijan. ...

Contents

Etymology

Since it has been under the rule of many different kingdoms, empires, sultanates, and khanates, the name of Nakhichevan was altered many times. Variations of the name include Nakhchawan [2], Nachidsheuan [3], Nakhijevan [4], Nakhitchevan [5], Nakhjavan [6] and Nakhdjevan [7]. According to the nineteenth-century language scholar, Heinrich Hubschmann, the name "Nakhichavan" in Armenian literally means "the place of descent", a Biblical reference to the descent of Noah's Ark on the adjacent Mount Ararat. Hubschmann notes, however, that it was not known by that name in antiquity. Instead, he states the present-day name evolved to "Nakhichevan" from "Naxcavan". The prefix "Naxc" was a name and "avan" is Armenian for "town". [8] Nakhichevan was also mentioned in Ptolemy's "Geography" and by other classical writers as Naxuana.[9][10] According to other versions, the name Nakhchivan derived from Persian Nagsh-e-Jahan, i.e. "image of the world", which is a reference to the beauty of the area.[11][12] The medieval Arab chronicles referred to the area as Nashava.[13] This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library of Congress. ... A painting by the American Edward Hicks (1780–1849), showing the animals boarding Noahs Ark two by two. ... Mount Ararat,Kurdish Ciyaye Agiri/Ararat Armenian: , Kurdish: , Greek: , Persian: ‎, Russian: , Georgian: არარატის, Azeri: Ağrıdağ, Hebrew: ‎, Tiberian Hebrew: ) is the tallest peak in modern Turkey. ... A medieval artists rendition of Claudius Ptolemaeus Claudius Ptolemaeus (Greek: ; c. ...


History

Early history

According to Armenian tradition, Nakhichevan was founded by Noah, of the Abrahamic religions. [14] The oldest material culture artifacts found in the region date back to the Neolithic Age. The region was part of the states of Mannae, Urartu and Media. [15] It became part of the Satrapy of Armenia under Achaemenid Persia circa 521 BC. After Alexander the Great's death (323 BC) various Macedonian generals such as Neoptolemus tried to take control of the region but ultimately failed and a native dynasty of Orontids flourished until Armenia was conquered by Antiochus III the Great. [16] Noahs Ark, Französischer Meister (The French Master), Magyar Szépművészeti Múzeum, Budapest. ... Map showing the prevalence of Abrahamic (purple), Dharmic (dark yellow), and Taoic (light yellow) religions in each country. ... The Neolithic, (Greek neos=new, lithos=stone, or New Stone Age) is traditionally the last part of the stone age. ... The Mannaeans were an ancient people of Asia Minor, occupying the region East of Assyria and South-East of Urartu, in present-day North-West Iran. ... Urartu at its greatest extent 743 BC Urartu (Biainili in Urartian) was an ancient kingdom in the mountainous plateau between Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, and Caucasus mountains, later known as the Armenian Highland, and it centered around Lake Van (present-day eastern Turkey). ... The Orontid Dynasty was the first Armenian dynasty. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC Events 529 BC - Cambyses II succeeds his father Cyrus as ruler of Persia. ... Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1] Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC–June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), was one of the most successful military commanders in history. ... On his way from Ecbatana to Babylon, Alexander the Great fights and crushes the Cossaeans. ... Neoptolemus (in Greek Νεoπτoλεμος; died 321 BC) was a Macedonian officer of Alexander the Great. ... Silver coin of Antiochus III. The reverse shows Apollo seated on an omphalos. ...

The Nakhichevan region (highlighted in light purple) at the time of the Kingdom of Vaspurakan (908-1021).
The Nakhichevan region (highlighted in light purple) at the time of the Kingdom of Vaspurakan (908-1021).

In 189 BC, Nakhichevan was part of the new Kingdom of Armenia established by Artaxias I.[17] Within the kingdom, the region of present-day Nakhichevan was part of the Ayrarat, Vaspurakan and Syunik provinces. [18] The area's status as a major trade center allowed it to prosper, though because of this, it was coveted by many foreign powers. [2] According to historian Faustus of Byzantium (4th century), when the Sassanid Persians invaded Armenia, Sassanid King Shapur II (310-380) removed 2,000 Armenian and 16,000 Jewish families in 360-370. [19] In 428, the Armenian Arshakuni monarchy was abolished and Nakhichevan was annexed by Sassanid Persia. In 623, possession of the region passed to the Byzantine Empire. [15] From 640 on, Arabs invaded Nakhichevan and undertook many campaigns in the area crushing all resistance and attacking Armenian nobles who remained in contact with the Byzantines or who refused to pay tribute. In 705, Armenian nobles and their families were locked into a church at Nakhichevan and by order of the governor, the church was burnt with them inside. [5] Eventually, Arab rule was firmly establish and Nakhichevan became part of the autonomous Principality of Armenia under Arab control. [20] In 8th century, Nakhichevan was one of the scenes of Babak Khorramdin's uprising against the Arabs. [15] Nakhichevan was finally liberated from Arab rule in the 10th century by Bagratid King Smbat I and handed over to the princes of Syunik. [17] Image File history File links 93-vaspurakan908-1021. ... Image File history File links 93-vaspurakan908-1021. ... Vaspurakan was a province and then kingdom of Greater Armenia during the Middle Ages. ... Events Battle of Belach Mugna Births Deaths Categories: 908 ... // Events Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, sixth Fatimid Caliph of Egypt disappears on a trip to al-Muqattam hills. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC - 180s BC - 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC Years: 194 BC 193 BC 192 BC 191 BC 190 BC - 189 BC - 188 BC 187 BC... The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (sometimes referred to as Armenia Minor) was a state formed in the Middle Ages by Armenian refugees fleeing the Seljuk invasion of Armenia. ... Artaxias I (also called Artaxes or Artashes) (reigned 190 BCE-159 BCE) was one of the founders of the kingdom of Armenia and its first independent ruler. ... Ayrarat was a province of the old Armenia c. ... Vaspurakan was a province and then kingdom of Greater Armenia during the Middle Ages. ... Syunik (also called Siunik or Syunia) is one of the provinces (marz) of Armenia. ... Faustus of Byzantium an Armenian historian of the 5th century. ... The Sassanid Empire in the time of Shapur I; the conquest of Cappadocia was temporary Official language Pahlavi (Middle Persian) Dominant Religion Zoroastrianism Capital Ctesiphon Sovereigns Shahanshah of the Iran (Eranshahr) First Ruler Ardashir I Last Ruler Yazdegerd III Establishment 224 AD Dissolution 651 AD Part of the History of... Shapur II was king of Persia (310 - 379). ... Events April 10 - Nestorius is made Patriarch of Constantinople. ... Kingdom of Armenia under the Arshakuni Dynasty, 150 AD The Arsacid Dynasty (Arshakuni Dynasty) ruled the Kingdom of Armenia from AD 54 to 428. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... Babak Khorramdin by Sadıq Şərifzadə (1944) Bābak Khorramdin (Persian: بابک خرمدین; / Azeri: Babək Əl-Xürrəmi) b. ... The Bagratuni or Bagratid royal dynasty of Armenia (Armenian: Բագրատունյաց Արքայական Տոհմ or Bagratunyac Arqayakan Tohm) is a royal family whose branches formerly ruled many regional polities, including Armenian lands of Syunik, Lori, Vaspurakan, Kars, Taron, and Tayk. ... Smbat I was King of Armenia (890-913) of the Bagratuni dynasty, son of Ashot I and the father of Ashot II Yerkat and Abas I. His rule was a period of unending wars against the Arab conquerors and the rebellious Armenian nobles. ...

Flag of the Ak Koyunlu, or White Sheep Turkomans who ruled the area of Nakhichevan in the 15th century.
Flag of the Ak Koyunlu, or White Sheep Turkomans who ruled the area of Nakhichevan in the 15th century.

By the 11th century, however, it was conquered by the Seljuq Turks. [15] In 12th century, the city of Nakhichevan became the capital of the state of Atabegs of Azerbaijan, also known as Ildegizid state, which included most of Iranian Azerbaijan and significant part of South Caucasus. [21] The magnificent 12th century mausoleum of Momine khatun, the wife of Ildegizid ruler, Great Atabeg Jahan Pehlevan, is the main attraction of modern Nakhichevan. At its heydays, the Ildegizid authority in Nakhichevan and some other areas of South Caucasus was contested by the Kingdom of Georgia. The Armeno-Georgian princely house of Zacharids frequently raided the region when the Atabeg state was in decline in the early years of the 13th century. It was then plundered by invading Mongols in 1220 and Khwarezmians in 1225 and became part of Mongol Empire in 1236 when the Caucasus was invaded by Chormaqan. [15] The 14th century saw the rise of Armenian Catholicism in Nakhichevan. [2] In the 15th century, the territory of Nakhichevan became part of the states of Kara Koyunlu and Ak Koyunlu. [15] Image File history File links Flag of the Ak Koyunlu Confederacy, created by Ingoman AKA James Dahl Colours are conjectural, and it is unknown (at least to me) which colours were used, or if there even was a specific set. ... Image File history File links Flag of the Ak Koyunlu Confederacy, created by Ingoman AKA James Dahl Colours are conjectural, and it is unknown (at least to me) which colours were used, or if there even was a specific set. ... Flag of the Ak Koyunlu (Colours are speculative) The Akkoyunlu or the White Sheep Turkomans (Azeri-Turkish: AÄŸqoyunlular/Akkoyunlular) were a Turkoman tribal federation that ruled present-day Azerbaijan, eastern Anatolia, northern Iraq and western Iran from 1378 to 1508. ... The Seljuqs (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuk, sometimes also Seljuq Turks; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a dynasty that ruled parts of Central Asia and the Middle East from the 11th to 14th centuries. ... Atabeg is a title of nobility of Turkic origin, indicating a governor of a nation or province who was subordinate to a king or Emperor but senior to a Khan. ... Iranian Azerbaijan or Iranian Azarbaijan (Persian: آذربایجان ایران; Ä€zārbāijān-e Irān), (Azeri: اذربایجان, c. ... Mausoleum of Momine Khatun The Mausoleum of Momine Khatun (or Mumine Khatun) is located in Nakhichevan, the capital of the Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic in Azerbaijan. ... Motto: (Georgian) Strength is in Unity Anthem: (Freedom) Capital (and largest city)  Tbilisi Official languages Georgian (also Abkhaz within the Abkhazian Autonomous Republic) Government Unitary republic  - President Mikheil Saakashvili  - Prime Minister Zurab Noghaideli Consolidation    - Establishment of first Georgian Kingdoms of Colchis and Iberia c. ... Expansion of the Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Их Монгол Улс, meaning Greater Mongol Nation; 1206–1405) was the largest contiguous land empire in history, covering over 33 million km² [1] at its peak, with an estimated population of over 100 million people. ... Chormaqan was one of the most famous generals of the Mongol Empire under Genghis Khan and Ogedey Khan. ... After the Armenian Apostolic Church, along with the rest of Oriental Orthodoxy, formally broke off communion from the Chalcedonian churches, numerous Armenian bishops made attempts to restore communion with the Catholic Church (Rome). ... The Karakoyunlu or the Black Sheep Turkomans (Azeri-Turkish: Qaraqoyunlular/Karakoyunlular) were a Turkoman tribal federation that ruled what is today Azerbaijan, including present-day northwestern Iran and Iraq from 1375 to 1468. ... Flag of the Ak Koyunlu (Colours are speculative) The Akkoyunlu or the White Sheep Turkomans (Azeri-Turkish: AÄŸqoyunlular/Akkoyunlular) were a Turkoman tribal federation that ruled present-day Azerbaijan, eastern Anatolia, northern Iraq and western Iran from 1378 to 1508. ...


Second Persian rule

In the 16th century, control of Nakhichevan passed to the Safavid dynasty of Persia. Because of its geographic position, it frequently suffered during the wars between Persia and the Ottoman Empire in 14th – 18th centuries. In 1604, Shah Abbas I Safavi, concerned that the lands of Nakhichevan and the surrounding areas would pass into Ottoman hands, decided to institute a scorched earth policy. He forced the entire local population, Armenians, Jews and Muslims alike, to leave their homes and move to the Persian provinces south of Araks.[22] Many of the deportees were settled in a neighborhood of Isfahan that was named New Julfa since most of the residents were from the original Julfa (a predominantly Armenian town which was looted and burned). The Turkic Kangerli tribe was later permitted to move back under Shah Abbas II (1642-1666) in order to repopulate the frontier region of his realm. [23] In the 17th century, Nakhichevan was the scene of a peasant movement led by Ker-ogly against foreign invaders and "native exploiters". [15] In 1747, the Nakhichevan khanate emerged in the region after the death of Nadir Shah Afshar. [15] The Safavid Empire at its 1512 borders. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and at times extending into central and mid-east Asia. ... Motto: دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem: Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299-1326) Bursa (1326-1365) Edirne (1365-1453) Constantinople (Istanbul) (1453-1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–1922 Mehmed VI... Shah ‘Abbās I at a banquet. ... A scorched earth policy is a military tactic which involves destroying anything that might be useful to the enemy while advancing through or withdrawing from an area. ... Isfahan or Esfahān can refer to either a city or a province in Iran (Persia): Isfahan (city) Isfahan (province) Isfahan (rugs) Isfahan is the name of a song by the Jazzist Duke Ellington Ispahan a kind of rose and an older pronunciation of the citys name. ... A photograph, taken in 1915, showing part of the medieval Armenian cemetery of Julfa. ... Shah Abbas II was Shah of Iran from 1642 to 1666. ... Nakhichevan khanate (Naxçıvan xanlığı in Azerbaijani) was a feudal state that existed in the territory of the present-day Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic. ... Nader Shah’s portrait from the collection of Smithsonian Institute Nāder Shāh Afshar (Persian: نادر شاه افشار ; also known as Nader Qoli Beg, نادر قلی بیگ, Tahmasp-Qoli Khan, تهماسپ قلی خان) (October 22, 1688 - June 19, 1747) ruled as Shah of Iran (1736–47) and was the founder of the Afsharid dynasty. ...


Russian rule

With Nakhichevan's conquest by Imperial Russia, came Russian culture. Shown here is photograph of a statue of Catherine the Great in Nakhichevan City taken in 1902.
With Nakhichevan's conquest by Imperial Russia, came Russian culture. Shown here is photograph of a statue of Catherine the Great in Nakhichevan City taken in 1902.

After the second Russo-Persian War and the Treaty of Turkmanchai, the Nakhichevan khanate passed into Russian possession in 1828. With the onset of Russian rule, the Tsarist authorities encouraged resettlement of Armenians to Nakhichevan and other areas of the Caucasus from the Persian and Ottoman Empires. Special clauses of the Turkmanchai and Adrianople treaties allowed for this.[24] Alexandr Griboyedov, the Russian envoy to Persia, stated that by the time Nakhichevan came under Russian rule, only 17% of its residents were Armenians, while the remainder of the population (83%) were Muslims. After the resettlement initiative, the number of Armenians had increased to 45% while Muslims remained the majority at 55%. With such a dramatic increase in population, Griboyedov noted friction arising between the Armenian and Muslim populations. He requested Russian army commander Count Ivan Paskevich to give orders on resettlement of some of the arriving people further to the region of Daralayaz to quiet the tensions.[25] The Nakhichevan khanate was dissolved in 1828, its territory was merged with the territory of the Erivan khanate and the area became the Nakhichevan uyezd of the new Armenian oblast, which later became the Erivan guberniya in 1849. According to official statistics of the Russian Empire, by the turn of the 20th century Azerbaijanis made up 57% of the uyezd's population, while Armenians constituted 42%.[9] At the same time in the Sharur-Daralagez uyezd, the territory of which would form part of modern-day Nakhichevan, Azeris constituted 70.5% of the population, while Armenians made up 27.5%. [26] During the Russian Revolution of 1905, conflict erupted between the Armenians and the Azeris, culminating in the Armenian-Tatar massacres which saw violence in Nakhichevan in May of that year. [27] Image File history File links Catherine-nakhichevan. ... Image File history File links Catherine-nakhichevan. ... Anthem: God Save the Tsar! Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Saint Petersburg Language(s) Russian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721-1725 Peter the Great  - 1894-1917 Nicholas II History  - Established 22 October, 1721  - February Revolution 2 March, 1917 Area  - 1897 22,400,000 km2 8,648,688 sq mi Population  - 1897... Catherine II of Russia Catherine II of Russia, called the Great (Russian: Екатерина II Великая, Yekaterina II Velikaya; 2 May [O.S. 21 April] 1729–17 November [O.S. 6 November] 1796) — sometimes referred to as an epitome of the enlightened despot — reigned as Empress of Russia from June 28, 1762 until... Map of Azerbaijan showing Nakhichevan City. ... The Russo-Persian War of 1826-1828 was the last major military conflict between the Russian Empire and the Persian Empire. ... [[Image:Turkmanchai. ... Monomakhs Cap symbol of Russian autocracy, the crown of Russian grand princes and tsars Czar and tzar redirect here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and at times extending into central and mid-east Asia. ... Motto: دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem: Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299-1326) Bursa (1326-1365) Edirne (1365-1453) Constantinople (Istanbul) (1453-1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–1922 Mehmed VI... The 1829 peace treaty of Adrianople (called also Treaty of Edirne), was settled between Russia and the Ottoman Empire. ... Alexander Sergeyevich Griboyedov (Александр Сергеевич Грибоедов in Russian) (January 15, 1795 - February 11, 1829) was a Russian diplomat, playwright, and composer, whose brilliant comedy in verse, Wit Works Woe, is the most often staged play in Russia. ... Portrait by George Dawe from the Military Gallery Ivan Fyodorovich Paskevich (Russian: ) (August 5 (8th NS), 1782 – January 20 (February 1, NS), 1856), was a Ukrainian-born military leader in the Russian service. ... Uyezd or uezd (Russian: ) was an admistrative subdivision of Rus, Muscovy, and Russia used from the 13th century, originally describing groups of several volosts formed around the most important cities. ... Map of the Armenian oblast The Armenian oblast (Armenian: Õ€Õ¡ÕµÕ¡Õ½Õ¿Õ¡Õ¶Õ« Õ¸Õ¢Õ¬Õ¡Õ½Õ¿; Russian: Армянская область) was an oblast (province) of the Russian Empire from 1828 to 1840, roughly corresponding to most of present-day central Armenia, the IÄŸdır Province of Turkey, and Azerbaijans Nakhichevan exclave. ... Yerevan (Armenian: Երեվան or Երևան; sometimes written as Erevan; former names include Erivan and Erebuni) (population: 1,201,539 (1989 census); 1,088,300 (2004 estimate)[1]) is the largest city and capital of Armenia. ... Guberniya (Russian: ) (also gubernia, guberniia, gubernya) was a major administrative subdivision of the Imperial Russia, usually translated as governorate or province. ... The Russian Revolution of 1905 was an empire-wide struggle of both anti-government and undirected violence. ... The Armenian-Tatar massacres also known as the Armenian-Tatar war of 1905—1907 refers to the bloody inter-ethnic confrontation between the Caucasian Tatars (today called Azeris) and Armenians throughout the Caucasus, then part of Imperial Russia. ...


War and revolution

Around the time of World War I, Nakhichevan was the scene of more bloodshed between Armenia and Azerbaijan who both held claims to the area. At the time the war broke out in 1914, the Armenian population had decreased slightly to 40% while the Azeri population increased to roughly 60%. [28] After the February Revolution, the region was under the authority of Special Transcaucasian Committee of the Russian Provisional Government and subsequently the short-lived Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic. When the TDFR was dissolved in May 1918, Nakhichevan, Nagorno-Karabakh, Zangezur (today the Armenian province of Syunik), and Qazakh were heavily contested between the newly formed and short-lived states of the Democratic Republic of Armenia (DRA) and the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (ADR). In June 1918, the region came under Ottoman occupation. [15] Under the terms of the Armistice of Mudros, the Ottomans agreed to pull its troops out of the Transcaucasus to make way for the forthcoming British military presence. [29] Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Franz... The February Revolution (N.S.: March Revolution) of 1917 in Russia was the first stage of the Russian Revolution of 1917. ... State emblem of the Russian Provisional Government The Russian Provisional Government was formed in Petrograd after the deterioration of the Russian Empire and the tsars abdication. ... Flag of the Transcaucasian Federation. ... Nagorno-Karabakh (Azerbaijani: Dağlıq Qarabağ or Yuxarı Qarabağ, literally mountainous black garden or upper black garden; Russian: Нагорный Карабах, translit. ... Syunik (also called Siunik or Syunia) is one of the provinces (marz) of Armenia. ... Qazakh (Qazax) is a rayon of Azerbaijan. ... National motto: n/a Language Armenian (official) Capital Yerevan Independence From Imperial Russia, 1918 Currency Armenian dram National anthem Mer Hayrenik The Democratic Republic of Armenia (DRA; Armenian: Ô´Õ¥Õ´Õ¸Õ¯Ö€Õ¡Õ¿Õ¡Õ¯Õ¡Õ¶ Õ€Õ¡ÕµÕ¡Õ½Õ¿Õ¡Õ¶Õ« Õ€Õ¡Õ¶Ö€Õ¡ÕºÕ¥Õ¿Õ¸Ö‚Õ©ÕµÕ¸Ö‚Õ¶, Demokratakan Hayastani Hanrapetutyun; also known as the First Republic of Armenia), 1918–1922, was the first modern establishment of a Republic of... Motto: None Anthem: AzÉ™rbaycan Respublikasının DövlÉ™t Himni March of Azerbaijan Map of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic from 1919 to 1920. ... The Armistice of Mudros was signed between the Ottoman Empire (represented by the Ottoman Minister of Marine Affairs Rauf Beg) and the Allies (represented by the British Admiral Arthur Calthorpe), in the Mudros port in the island of Lemnos on 30 October 1918. ...


Under British occupation, Sir John Oliver Wardrop, British Chief Commissioner in the South Caucasus, made a border proposal to solve the conflict. According to Wardrop, Armenian claims against Azerbaijan should not go beyond the administrative borders of the former Erivan guberniya (which under prior Imperial Russian rule encompassed Nakhichevan), while Azerbaijan was to be limited to the guberniyas of Baku and Elisavetpol. This proposal was rejected by both Armenians (who did not wish to give up their claims to Qazakh, Zangezur and Karabakh) and Azeris (who found it unacceptable to give up their claims to Nakhichevan). As disputes between both countries continued, it soon became apparent that the fragile peace under British occupation would not last. [30] Sir John Oliver Wardrop Sir John Oliver Wardrop (1864-1948) was a British diplomat, traveller and translator, primarily known as the United Kingdoms first Chief Commissioner of Transcaucasus in Georgia, 1919-21, and also as the founder and benefactor of Kartvelian studies at Oxford University. ...


In December 1918, with the support of Azerbaijan's Musavat Party, Jafar Kuli Khan Nakhichevanski declared the Republic of Aras in the Nakhichevan uyezd of the former Erivan guberniya assigned to Armenia by Wardrop. [15] The Armenian government did not recognize the new state and sent its troops into the region to take control of it. The conflict soon erupted into the violent Aras War. [30] British journalist C.E. Bechhofer described the situation in April 1920: The Equality Party (Müsavat Partiyası) is a political party in Azerbaijan. ... The Republic of Aras (Azerbaijani: Araz Respublikası; Armenian: Արաքս Հանրապետություն; also known as the Republic of Araks or the Araxi Republic) was a short-lived and unrecognized state in the South Caucasus, roughly corresponding with the territory that is now the Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic of Azerbaijan. ...

You cannot persuade a party of frenzied nationalists that two blacks do not make a white; consequently, no day went by without a catalogue of complaints from both sides, Armenians and Tartars [Azeris], of unprovoked attacks, murders, village burnings and the like. Specifically, the situation was a series of vicious cycles. [31]
Soviet revolutionary leader Vladimir Lenin called for the people of Nakhichevan to be consulted in a referendum on their future status within the Soviet Union in 1921.
Soviet revolutionary leader Vladimir Lenin called for the people of Nakhichevan to be consulted in a referendum on their future status within the Soviet Union in 1921.

By mid-June 1919, however, Armenia succeeded in establishing control over Nakhichevan and the whole territory of the self-proclaimed republic. The fall of the Aras republic triggered an invasion by regular Azerbaijani army and by the end of July, Armenian troops were forced to leave Nakhichevan City to the Azeris. [30] Again, more mutual violence erupted between Armenians and Azeris, ultimately leaving some ten thousand Armenians dead and forty-five Armenian villages destroyed. [2] Meanwhile, feeling the situation to be hopeless and unable to maintain any control over the area, the British decided to withdraw from the region in mid-1919. [32] Still, fighting between Armenians and Azeris continued and after a series of skirmishes that took place throughout the Nakhichevan district, a cease-fire agreement was concluded. However, the cease-fire lasted briefly and by early March 1920, more fighting broke out, primarily in Karabakh between Karabakh Armenians and Azerbaijan's regular army. This triggered conflicts in other areas with mixed populations, including Nakhichevan. In mid-March 1920, Armenian forces launched an offensive on all of the disputed territories and by the end of the month, both the Nakhichevan and Zangezur regions came under stable but temporary Armenian control. [30] Image File history File links Lenin_leser_Pravda. ... Image File history File links Lenin_leser_Pravda. ... Lenin redirects here. ...


Sovietization

In July 1920, the 11th Soviet Red Army invaded and occupied the region and on July 28, declared the Nakhichevan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic with "close ties" to the Azerbaijan SSR. In November, on the verge of taking over Armenia, the Bolsheviks in order to attract public support, promised they would allot Nakhichevan to Armenia, along with Karabakh and Zangezur. This was fulfilled when Nariman Narimanov, leader of Bolshevik Azerbaijan issued a declaration celebrating the "victory of Soviet power in Armenia," proclaimed that both Nakhichevan and Zangezur should be awarded to the Armenian people as a sign of the Azerbaijani people's support for Armenia's fight against the former Dashnak government [33]: The 11th Soviet Red Army was a contingent of the then newly created Russian Red Army improvised by the Bolsheviks. ... July 28 is the 209th day (210th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 156 days remaining. ... The Nakhichevan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Nakhichevan ASSR) was an autonomous republic of the Soviet Union. ... State motto: Бүтүн өлкәләрин пролетарлары, бирләшин! Workers of the world, unite! Official language None. ... Nariman Kerbalay Nadzhaf ogly Narimanov (April 2, 1870, Tiflis - March 19, 1925, Moscow) was an Azerbaijani revolutionary, writer, publicist, politician and statesman. ...

As of today, the old frontiers between Armenia and Azerbaijan are declared to be non-existent. Mountainous Karabagh, Zangezur and Nakhichevan are recognised to be integral parts of the Socialist Republic of Armenia. [34][35]

Vladimir Lenin, although welcoming this act of "great Soviet fraternalism" where "boundaries had no meaning among the family of Soviet peoples," did not agree with the motion and instead called for the people of Nakhichevan to be consulted in a referendum. According to the formal figures of this referendum, held at the beginning of 1921, 90% of Nakhichevan's population wanted to be included in the Azerbaijan SSR "with the rights of an autonomous republic." [34] The decision to make Nakhichevan a part of modern-day Azerbaijan was cemented March 16, 1921 in the Treaty of Moscow between the Soviet Union and the newly-founded Republic of Turkey. [36] The agreement between the USSR and Turkey also called for attachment of the former Sharur-Daralagez uyezd (which had a solid Azeri majority) to Nakhichevan, thus allowing Turkey to share a border with the Azerbaijan SSR. This deal was reaffirmed on October 23, in the Treaty of Kars. Article V of the treaty stated the following: Lenin redirects here. ... March 16 is the 75th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (76th in leap years). ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for full calendar). ... The Treaty of Moscow was a friendship treaty between Grand National Assembly of Turkey (TBMM) and the Bolshevik government of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. ... October 23 is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Turkey Soviet-Turkish border as per treaty The Treaty of Kars was a friendship treaty between Turkey and the Soviet governments of the Transcaucasian Republics. ...

The Turkish Government and the Soviet Governments of Armenia and Azerbaijan are agreed that the region of Nakhichevan, within the limits specified by Annex III to the present Treaty, constitutes an autonomous territory under the protection of Azerbaijan. [37]

So, on February 9, 1924, the Soviet Union officially established the Nakhichevan ASSR. Its consititution was adopted on April 18, 1926. [15] February 9 is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Year 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar). ... April 18 is the 108th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (109th in leap years). ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Nakhichevan in the Soviet Union

Soviet troops on surveillance duty monitoring Nakichevan's Iranian frontier.
Soviet troops on surveillance duty monitoring Nakichevan's Iranian frontier.

As a constituent part of the Soviet Union, tensions lessened over the ethnic composition of Nakhichevan or any territorial claims regarding it. Instead, it became an important point of industrial production with particular emphasis on the mining of minerals such as salt. Under Soviet rule, it was once a major junction on the Moscow-Tehran railway line [38] as well as the Baku-Yerevan railway. [15] It also served as an important strategic area during the Cold War, sharing borders with both Turkey (a NATO member) and Iran (a close ally of the west until the 1979 Iranian Revolution). Image File history File links Soviet_Soldiers_on_Surveillance. ... Image File history File links Soviet_Soldiers_on_Surveillance. ... The Workers and Peasants Red Army (Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия, Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya; RKKA or usually simply the Red Army) were the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918 and that in 1922 became the army of the Soviet Union. ... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2007)    - Density 10,469,000   8537. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Municipality: Baku Area: 1000 km² Altitude: -28 m Population: 2,074,300 census 2003 Population density: 1280 persons/km² Postal Code: +99450 Area code: 012 Municipality code: BA Latitude: 41° 01 52 N Longitude: 21° 20 25 E Weather types: 9 of 11 Mayor: Hajibala Abutalybov The Baku region. ... Location Location of Yerevan in Armenia Government Country Armenia Established 782 BC Mayor Yervand Zakharyan Geographical characteristics Area  - City 227 km² Population  - City (2004)    - Density 1,226,000   5196. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation[2] (NATO; French: ; also called the North Atlantic Alliance, the Atlantic Alliance, the Western Alliance, or the North Atlantic Treaty Organization) is a military alliance established by the signing of the North Atlantic Treaty on 4 April 1949. ... Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ...

Map of the Nakhichevan ASSR within the Soviet Union.
Map of the Nakhichevan ASSR within the Soviet Union.

Facilities improved during Soviet times. Education and public health especially began to see some major changes. In 1913, Nakhichevan only had two hospitals with a total of 20 beds. The region was plagued by widespread diseases including trachoma and typhus. Malaria, which mostly came from the adjoining Aras River brought serious harm to the region. 70–85% of Nakhichevan's population was infected with malaria, and in the region of Norashen (present-day Sharur) almost 100% were struck with the disease. This pattern improved drastically under Soviet rule. Malaria was sharply reduced and trachoma, typhus, and relapsing fever were completely eliminated. [15] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (700x633, 49 KB) Nakhichevan in the Soviet Union File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (700x633, 49 KB) Nakhichevan in the Soviet Union File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Epidemic typhus. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease that is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions. ... Aras, Araks, Arax, Araxes, or Araz (Persian: ارس, Azerbaijani: Araz), is a river rising in Anatolia in Turkey, flowing along the Turkey-Armenia border, then along the Azerbaijan-Iran border, entering Azerbaijan, and falling into Kura river as a right tributary. ...


Although the Armenians and the Azeris managed to put aside their differences and get along during the Soviet years, their numbers changed dramatically. Nakhichevan's Armenian population gradually decreased as many emigrated to the Armenian SSR. In 1926, 15% of region's population was Armenian, but by 1979 this number had shrunk to 1.4%. [39] The Azeri population, meanwhile increased substantially with both a higher birth rate and immigration (going from 85% in 1926 to 96% by 1979 [39]). State motto: Պրոլետարներ բոլոր երկրների, միացեք! (Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None. ...


Armenians in Nagorno-Karabakh noted similar though slower demographic trends and feared an eventual "de-Armenianization" of the area. [36] Thus, tensions between Armenians and Azeris were reignited in the late-1980s by the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict. In the summer of 1989, Azerbaijan's Popular Front managed to pressure the Azerbaijan SSR to instigate a partial railway and air blockade against Armenia, while another reason for disruption of rail service to Armenia were attacks of Armenian forces on the trains entering the Armenian territory from Azerbaijan, which resulted in railroad personnel refusing to enter Armenia.[40][41] This effectively crippled Armenia's economy, as 85% of the cargo and goods arrived through rail traffic. In response, Armenia closed the railway to Nakhichevan, thereby strangling the exclave's only link to the rest of the Soviet Union.


December 1989 saw unrest in Nakhichevan as its Azeri inhabitants moved to physically dismantle the Soviet border with Iran to flee the area and meet their ethnic Azeri cousins in northern Iran. This action was angrily denounced by the Soviet leadership and the Soviet media accused the Azeris of "embracing Islamic fundamentalism". [42] In January 1990, the Supreme Soviet of the Nakhichevan ASSR issued a declaration stating the intention for Nakhichevan to secede from the USSR to protest the Soviet Union's actions during Black January. It was the first part of the Soviet Union to declare independence, preceding Lithuania's declaration by only a few weeks. The Supreme Soviet (Russian: , Verhovniy Sovet, literally the Supreme Council) comprised the highest legislative body in the Soviet Union in the interim of the sessions of the Congress of Soviets, and the only one with the power to pass constitutional amendments. ... Soviet government troops arrest several Azeris in a clash with Popular Front protesters in Baku in January 1990. ...


Heydar Aliyev and the post-Soviet era

A village destroyed in Nakhichevan as a result of hostilities between Armenian and Azeri forces in May 1992.
A village destroyed in Nakhichevan as a result of hostilities between Armenian and Azeri forces in May 1992.

Heydar Aliyev, the future president of Azerbaijan returned to his birth place of Nakhichevan in 1990, after being ousted from his position in the Politburo by Mikhail Gorbachev in 1987. Soon after returning to Nakhichevan, Aliyev was elected to the Supreme Soviet by an overwhelming majority. Aliyev subsequently resigned from the CPSU and after the failed August 1991 coup against Gorbachev, he called for complete independence for Azerbaijan and denounced Ayaz Mütallibov for supporting the coup. In late 1991, Aliyev consolidated his power base as chairman of the Nakhichevan Supreme Soviet and asserted Nachichevan's near-total independence from Baku.[43] Image File history File links War-Ravaged_Nikhichevan_Village. ... Image File history File links War-Ravaged_Nikhichevan_Village. ... Heydar Alirza oglu Aliyev (HeydÉ™r Əlirza oÄŸlu Əliyev in Azerbaijani) (sometimes transliterated as Heidar Aliev or Geidar Aliev from the Russian Гейдар Алиев) (May 10, 1923? - December 12, 2003) served as president of Azerbaijan for the New Azerbaijan Party from June 1993 to October 2003, when his son Ilham Aliyev... The Politburo (in Russian: Политбюро, full:Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, abbriviated Политбюро ЦК КПСС), known as the Presidium from 1952 to 1966, functioned as the central policymaking and governing body of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. ... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachyov ( , IPA: , commonly written as Mikhail Gorbachev; born March 2, 1931) was the last leader of the Soviet Union, serving from 1985 until its collapse in 1991. ... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за = КПСС) was the name used by the successors of the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party from 1952 to 1991, but the wording Communist Party was present in the partys name since 1918 when the Bolsheviks became the Russian... Ayaz Niyazi oÄŸlu Mütallibov (Ayaz Niyazi oÄŸlu MütÉ™llibov in Azeri) (in Russian : Аяз Ниязиевич Муталибов Ayaz Niyaziyevich Mutalibov) (born 1938) was an Azerbaijani Communist political figure. ... Municipality: Baku Area: 1000 km² Altitude: -28 m Population: 2,074,300 census 2003 Population density: 1280 persons/km² Postal Code: +99450 Area code: 012 Municipality code: BA Latitude: 41° 01 52 N Longitude: 21° 20 25 E Weather types: 9 of 11 Mayor: Hajibala Abutalybov The Baku region. ...


Nakhichevan became a scene of conflict during the Nagorno-Karabakh War. On May 4, 1992, Armenian forces shelled the area's Sadarak rayon.[44][45][46] The Armenians claimed that the attack was in response to cross-border shellings of Armenian villages by Azeri forces from Nakhichevan. [47] [48] David Zadoyan, a 42-year-old Armenian physicist and mayor of the region said that the Armenians lost patience after months of firing by the Azeris. "If they were sitting on our hilltops and harassing us with gunfire, what do you think our response should be?" he asked. [49] The government of Nakhichevan denied these charges and instead asserted that the Armenian assault was unprovoked and specfically targeted the site of a bridge between Turkey and Nakhichevan. [48] "The Armenians do not react to diplomatic pressure," Nakhichevan foreign minister Rza Ibadov told the ITAR-Tass news agency, "It's vital to speak to them in a language they understand." Speaking to the agency from the Turkish capital Ankara, Ibadov said that Armenia's aim in the region was to seize control of Nakhichevan. [50] According to Human Rights Watch, hostilities broke out after three people were killed when Armenian forces began shelling the region.[51] Combatants Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh1 Republic of Armenia 2 CIS mercenaries Republic of Azerbaijan Afghan Mujahideen 3 Chechen Volunteers 4 CIS mercenaries Commanders Samvel Babayan, Hemayag Haroyan, Monte Melkonian, Vazgen Sargsyan, Arkady Ter-Tatevosyan Ä°sgandar Hamidov, Suret Huseynov, Rahim Gaziev, Shamil Basayev Casualties 6,000 dead, 25,000 wounded 17... May 4 is the 124th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (125th in leap years). ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... Map of Azerbaijan showing Sadarak rayon Sadarak is a rayon of Azerbaijan in the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic. ... Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the countrys second largest city after Ä°stanbul. ... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ...


The heaviest fighting took place on May 18, when the Armenians captured Nakhichevan's exclave of Karki, a tiny territory through which Armenia's main North-South highway passes. The exclave presently remains under Armenian control. [52] After the fall of Shusha, the Mütallibov government of Azerbaijan accused Armenia of moving to take the whole of Nakhichevan (a claim that was denied by Armenian government officials). However, Heydar Aliyev declared a unilateral ceasefire on May 23 and sought to conclude a separate peace with Armenia. Armenian President Levon Ter-Petrossian expressed his willingness to sign a cooperation treaty with Nakhichevan to end the fighting and subsequently a cease-fire was agreed upon. [51] May 18 is the 138th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (139th in leap years). ... Karki (also known as Kyarki or Tigranashen) is an exclave of Azerbaijans Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic. ... Azeri subdivsion Shusha rayon Nagrono Karabakh Republic Subdivsion Shushi province Elevation 1,400 m above sea level m Population  - City ~3,000 Shusha (Azerbaijani: ÅžuÅŸa, Armenian: Õ‡Õ¸Ö‚Õ·Õ«; translit. ... May 23 is the 143rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (144th in leap years). ... Levon Ter-Petrossian (Armenian: Ô¼Ö‡Õ¸Õ¶ Տեր-ÕŠÕ¥Õ¿Ö€Õ¸Õ½ÕµÕ¡Õ¶ Russian: Левон Тер-Петросян) (born January 9, 1945 in Aleppo, Syria in a family of a Syrian Communist) was the President of Armenia from 1991 to 1998. ...


The conflict in the area caused a harsh reaction from Turkey, which together with Russia is a guarantor of Nakhichevan's status in accordance with the Treaty of Kars. Turkish Prime Minister Tansu Çiller announced that any Armenian advance on the main territory of Nakhichevan would result in a declaration of war against Armenia. Russian military leaders declared that "third party intervention into the dispute could trigger a Third World War." Thousands of Turkish troops were sent to the border between Turkey and Armenia in early September. Russian military forces in Armenia countered their movements by increasing troop levels along Armenia's Turkish frontier and bolstering defenses in a tense period where war between the two seemed inevitable. [53] Iran also reacted to Armenia's attacks by conducting military manueuvers along its border with Nakhichevan in a move widely interpreted as a warning to Armenia.[54] However, Armenia did not launch any further attacks on Nakhichevan and the presence of Russia's military warded off any possibility that Turkey might play a military role in the conflict.[53] Turkey Soviet-Turkish border as per treaty The Treaty of Kars was a friendship treaty between Turkey and the Soviet governments of the Transcaucasian Republics. ... Tansu Çiller Tansu Çiller (IPA: (born 9 October 1946) is an economist and politician in Turkey. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


After a period of political instability, the parliament of Azerbaijan turned to Heydar Aliyev and invited him to return from exile in Nakhichevan to lead the country in 1993. Today, Nakhichevan retains its autonomy as the Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic and is internationally recognized as a constituent part of Azerbaijan governed by its own elected parliament.[14] Despite this, however, the republic remains isolated, not only from Azerbaijan, but practically from the entire South Caucasus region. Economic hardships and energy shortages (due to Armenia's continued blockade of the region in response to the Azeri and Turkish blockade of Armenia) plague the area. When speaking to British writer Thomas de Waal, the mayor of Nakhichevan City, Veli Shakhverdiev, spoke warmly of a peaceful solution to the Karabakh conflict and of Armenian-Azeri relations during Soviet times. "I can tell you that our relations with the Armenians were very close, they were excellent," he said. "I went to university in Moscow and I didn't travel to Moscow once via Baku. I took a bus, it was one hour to Yerevan, then went by plane to Moscow and the same thing on the way back." [38] However, the future, especially in regards to Nakhichevan's energy problems, looks more hopeful, especially with recent deals to obtain more gas exports from Iran. [55] South Caucasus: Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan South Caucasus (also referred sometimes as Transcaucasus) is a name to the transitional region between Europe and Asia extending from the Greater Caucasus to the Turkish and Iranian borders, between the Black and Caspian seas. ... Map of Azerbaijan showing Nakhichevan City. ... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2007)    - Density 10,469,000   8537. ... Municipality: Baku Area: 1000 km² Altitude: -28 m Population: 2,074,300 census 2003 Population density: 1280 persons/km² Postal Code: +99450 Area code: 012 Municipality code: BA Latitude: 41° 01 52 N Longitude: 21° 20 25 E Weather types: 9 of 11 Mayor: Hajibala Abutalybov The Baku region. ... Location Location of Yerevan in Armenia Government Country Armenia Established 782 BC Mayor Yervand Zakharyan Geographical characteristics Area  - City 227 km² Population  - City (2004)    - Density 1,226,000   5196. ...


Administrative subdivisions

Subdivisions of Nakhichevan.
Subdivisions of Nakhichevan.

Nakhichevan is subdivided into eight administrative divisions. Seven of these are rayons. Its capital, the city (şəhər) of Nakhichevan City is treated separately. Image File history File links Nakhichevan-subdivisions. ... Image File history File links Nakhichevan-subdivisions. ... Map of the administrative divisions of Azerbaijan Azerbaijan is divided into: 59 rayons (rayonlar; rayon - singular), 11 cities* (saharlar; sahar - singular), 1 autonomous republic** (muxtar respublika); All listed are rayons (with Rayonu after their name) unless otherwise noted. ... A raion (or rayon) (Russian and Ukrainian: ; Belarusian раён; Azeri: rayon, Latvian: rajons, Georgian: , raioni) is one of two kinds of administrative subdivisions in languages of some post-Soviet states: a subnational entity and a subdivision of a city. ... Map of Azerbaijan showing Nakhichevan City. ...

Map ref. Administrative division Capital Type Area (km²) Population (2005 estimate) Notes
1 Babek (Babək) Babek Rayon 1,170 66,000 Formerly known as Nakhichevan; renamed after Babak Khorramdin in 1991.
2 Julfa (Culfa) Julfa Rayon 1,000 38,300 Also spelled Jugha or Dzhulfa.
3 Kangarli (Kəngərli) Givrahk Rayon 682 25,500 Carved from Babek in March 2004.
4 Nakhichevan City (Naxçıvan Şəhər) Municipality 130 70,000 Carved from Nakhichevan (Babek) in 1991.
5 Ordubad Ordubad Rayon 970 42,700 Carved from Julfa in 1924.
6 Sadarak (Sədərək) Heydarabad Rayon 150 12,900 Carved from Sharur in 1990; includes the Karki exclave in Armenia.
7 Shakhbuz (Şahbuz) Shahbuz Rayon 920 21,500 Carved from Nakhichevan (Babek) in 1924.
8 Sharur (Şərur) Sharur Rayon 478 96,000 Formerly known as Sharur-Daralagez under the Russian Empire, Bash-Norashen during its incorporation into the Soviet Union and Ilyich from 1924 to 1990 (after Vladimir Ilyich Lenin).
Total 5,500 372,900

Map of Azerbaijan showing Babak rayon Babek (Babək) is a rayon of Azerbaijan in the Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic. ... Babak Khorramdin by Sadıq Şərifzadə (1944) Bābak Khorramdin (Persian: بابک خرمدین; / Azeri: Babək Əl-Xürrəmi) b. ... Map of Azerbaijan showing Julfa rayon Julfa (Culfa) is a rayon of Azerbaijan in the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic. ... A photograph, taken in 1915, showing part of the medieval Armenian cemetery of Julfa. ... Map of Azerbaijan showing Kangarli rayon Kangarli or Kengerli (Azeri: Kəngərli) is the newest rayon of Azerbaijan, in the Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic. ... Map of Azerbaijan showing Nakhichevan City. ... Map of Azerbaijan showing Ordubad rayon Ordubad is a rayon of Azerbaijan in the Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic. ... Ordubad is the second largest city of the Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic of Azerbaijan. ... Map of Azerbaijan showing Sadarak rayon Sadarak is a rayon of Azerbaijan in the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic. ... Karki (also known as Kyarki or Tigranashen) is an exclave of Azerbaijans Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Map of Azerbaijan showing Shahbuz rayon Shakhbuz (Şahbuz) is a rayon of Azerbaijan in the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic. ... Map of Azerbaijan showing Sharur rayon Sharur is a rayon of Azerbaijan in the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic. ... Lenin redirects here. ...

Demographics

As of 2005, Nakhichevan's population was estimated to be 372,900. [1] 98% of the population are Azerbaijanis. Ethnic Russians and a minority of Kurds constitute the remainder of the population. The remaining Armenians were expelled by Azerbaijani forces during the conflict over Nagorno-Karabakh as part of the forceful exchange of population between Armenia and Azerbaijan. According to the 1932 Soviet census 85% of the area's was rural while only 15% was urban. This percentage increased to 18% by 1939 and 27% by 1959. [2] Languages Kurdish Religions Predominantly Sunni Muslim also some Shia, Yazidism, Yarsan, Judaism, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Iranian peoples (Talysh Baluch Gilak Bakhtiari Persians) The Kurds are an ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts...

The Aras River near the Julfa-Iranian border.
The Aras River near the Julfa-Iranian border.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2032x1520, 380 KB) Aras river in the vicinity of Julfa-Iran (Left hand Iran - Right Hand Nakhichevan) - March 2006 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2032x1520, 380 KB) Aras river in the vicinity of Julfa-Iran (Left hand Iran - Right Hand Nakhichevan) - March 2006 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Aras, Araks, Arax, Araxes, or Araz (Persian: ارس, Azerbaijani: Araz), is a river rising in Anatolia in Turkey, flowing along the Turkey-Armenia border, then along the Azerbaijan-Iran border, entering Azerbaijan, and falling into Kura river as a right tributary. ...

Geography

Nakhichevan is an atmospheric, semi-desert region that is separated from the main portion of Azerbaijan by Armenia. The Zangezur Mountains make up its border with Armenia while the Aras River defines its border with Iran. It is extremely arid and mountainous. Nakhichevan's highest peak is Mount Kapydzhik (3904 m) and its most distinctive is Ilandag (Snake Mountain) (2415 m) which is visible from Nakhichevan City. According to legend, the cleft in its summit was formed by the keel of Noah's Ark as the floodwaters abated. [56] Map of Azerbaijan with cities This article describes the geography of Azerbaijan. ... Zangezur Mountains The Zangezur Mountains comprise a mountain range that defines the border between Armenias southern province of Syunik and Azerbaijans Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic. ... Aras, Araks, Arax, Araxes, or Araz (Persian: ارس, Azerbaijani: Araz), is a river rising in Anatolia in Turkey, flowing along the Turkey-Armenia border, then along the Azerbaijan-Iran border, entering Azerbaijan, and falling into Kura river as a right tributary. ... The metre, or meter (U.S.), is a measure of length. ...


Industry

Nakhichevan's major industries include the mining of minerals such as salt, molybdenum, and lead. Although dry, irrigation, developed during the Soviet years has allowed the region to expand into the growing of wheat (mostly grown on the plains of the Aras River), barely, cotton, tobacco, orchard fruits, mulberries, and grapes for producing wine. Other industries include cotton ginning/cleaning, silk spinning, fruit canning, meat packing, and, in the dryer regions, sheep farming. In terms of services, Nakhichevan offers very basic facilities and lacks heating fuel during the winter. [15]


International disputes

Examples of Armenian khachkars from Julfa.
Examples of Armenian khachkars from Julfa.
  • Armenia has accused the government of Azerbaijan of destroying historic Armenian headstones (khachkars) at a medieval cemetery in Julfa, presenting photos and video in support of these accusations. [61] [62] The European Parliament has formally called on Azerbaijan to stop the demolition as a breach of the UNESCO World Heritage Convention. [63] Despite a confirmation by the IWPR, [64] Azerbaijani authorities have denied the charges, stating that the video presented by the Armenian side does not clearly show the nature of the destroyed objects or the nationality of the persons involved in the destruction. [65] In March 2006, Azerbaijan barred the European Parliament from inspecting and examining the ancient burial site. [66]

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (960x1280, 640 KB) Summary These two khachkars, originally from Jugha were taken to Etchmiadzin, Armenia to be put on display. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (960x1280, 640 KB) Summary These two khachkars, originally from Jugha were taken to Etchmiadzin, Armenia to be put on display. ... The Armenian Revolutionary Federation (ARF) (Armenian: Hay Heghapokhakan Dashnaktsutiun Dashnaktsutiun, Dashnak, or Tashnak) is an Armenian political party founded in Georgia in 1890 by Christapor Mikaelian, Stepan Zorian, and Simon Zavarian. ... Greater Armenia as advocated by the Armenian Revolutionary Federation under the title of United Armenia. ... The Treaty of Sèvres is a peace treaty that the Allies of World War I and the Ottoman Empire signed on 10 August 1920 after World War I. Representatives from the governments of the parties involved signed the treaty in Sèvres, France. ... Artsakh (Armenian - Արցախ, Azeri - Ərsak Russian - Арцах) is a historical Armenian name of the province of ancient Greater Armenia, that covered what is now mostly Nagorno-Karabakh. ... Nagorno-Karabakh (Azerbaijani: Dağlıq Qarabağ or Yuxarı Qarabağ, literally mountainous black garden or upper black garden; Russian: Нагорный Карабах, translit. ... Samtskhe-Javakheti (Georgian: ) is a region in southern Georgia, with Akhaltsikhe as its capital. ... Vartan Oskanian is the foreign minister of Armenia. ... December 13 is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... State motto: ÕŠÖ€Õ¸Õ¬Õ¥Õ¿Õ¡Ö€Õ¶Õ¥Ö€ Õ¢Õ¸Õ¬Õ¸Ö€ Õ¥Ö€Õ¯Ö€Õ¶Õ¥Ö€Õ«, միացեք! (Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None. ... Turkey Soviet-Turkish border as per treaty The Treaty of Kars was a friendship treaty between Turkey and the Soviet governments of the Transcaucasian Republics. ... Anthem: Ä°stiklâl Marşı  (Turkish) Independence March Capital LefkoÅŸa (Nicosia) Official languages Turkish Government Representative democratic republic[1]  - President Mehmet Ali Talat  - Prime Minister Ferdi Sabit Soyer Sovereignty from Republic of Cyprus (de facto)   - Proclaimed November 15, 1983   - Recognition Only by Turkey and OIC  Area  - Total 3,355 km... Nagorno-Karabakh (Azerbaijani: Dağlıq Qarabağ or Yuxarı Qarabağ, literally mountainous black garden or upper black garden; Russian: Нагорный Карабах, translit. ... Khachkar (Ô½Õ¡Õ¹Ö„Õ¡Ö€ in Armenian, meaning cross-stone) is a carved memorial stone, typically found in Armenia. ... Examples of khachkars from Julfa which are allegedly under threat of destruction by the govt of Azerbaijan. ... 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... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... Institute for War and Peace Reporting is an international media development charity, established in 1991. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...

Culture

Main article: Culture of Azerbaijan

Music and the arts are abound in Nakhichevan. In 1923, a musical subgroup was organized at the State Drama Theater (renamed the Dzh. Mamedkulizade Music and Drama Theater in 1962). The Aras Song and Dance Ensemble (established in 1959) is another famous group. Dramatic performances staged by an amateur dance troupe were held in Nakhichiven in the late 19th century. Theatrical art also greatly contributed to Nakhichevan's culture. The creative work of Jalil Mammadguluzadeh, M.S. Gulubekov, and G. Arablinski (the first Azerbaijani film director) are just a few of the names that have enriched Nakhichevan's cultural heritage. [15] The region has also produced noteworthy Armenian artists too such as Soviet actress Hasmik Agopyan. Nakhichevan has also at times been mentioned in works of literature. Nezami, considered a master of Persian literature once wrote: This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Jalil Mammadguluzadeh Jalil Huseyngulu oglu Mammadguluzadeh (Azeri: Cəlil Hüseynqulu oğlu Məmmədquluzadə; Persian: جليل محمدقلی زاده; spelled: Jalil Mohammad Gholizadeh) (22 February 1866, Nakhichevan – 4 January 1932, Baku) was an Azerbaijani satirist and writer of Iranian descent. ... Nezami (1141–1209) Nezami Ganjavi (Persian: ‎; Azerbaijani: ;‎ 1141 – 1209), whose full name was Nizām ad-Dīn Abū Muhammad Ilyās ibn-Yusūf ibn-Zakī ibn-Muayyid, is considered the greatest romantic epic poet in Persian literature, who brought a colloquial and realistic style to the Persian... Persian literature (in Persian: ‎ ) spans two and a half millennia, though much of the pre-Islamic material has been lost. ...

که تا جایگه یافتی نخچوان
Oh Nakhichevan, respect you've attained,
بدین شاه شد بخت پیرت جوان
With this King in luck you'll remain.

Famous people from Nakhichevan

Former Azerbaijan President Heydar Aliyev was born in Nakhichevan.
Former Azerbaijan President Heydar Aliyev was born in Nakhichevan.

Throughout history, Nakhichevan has brought up many prominent people. These include: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (526x800, 46 KB) Summary Picture from: [1], exact location: [2] uploaded by owner. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (526x800, 46 KB) Summary Picture from: [1], exact location: [2] uploaded by owner. ...

Heydar Alirza oglu Aliyev (Heydər Əlirza oğlu Əliyev in Azerbaijani) (sometimes transliterated as Heidar Aliev or Geidar Aliev from the Russian Гейдар Алиев) (May 10, 1923? - December 12, 2003) served as president of Azerbaijan for the New Azerbaijan Party from June 1993 to October 2003, when his son Ilham Aliyev... The country of Azerbaijan is a presidential republic, with the President of Azerbaijan as the head of state, and the Prime Minister of Azerbaijan as head of government. ... Abülfaz Elçibay, (Əbülfəz Elçibəy in Azeri) often spelled as Abulfaz Elchibey[1], (b. ... Rasul Quliyev (Azerbaijani: ) is a former Chairman of the Parliament of Azerbaijan, Chairman of the Azerbaijan Democratic Party. ... The external link and official web site of Parliament of Azebaijan is: http://www. ... His Holiness, the Catholicos of Armenia and of All Armenians (plural Catholicoi, due to its Greek origin) is the head bishop of Armenias dominant church, the Armenian Apostolic Church. ... This is a list of Armenian Catholicoi of Cilicia. ... Christapor Mikaelian Christapor Mikaelian (Armenian: ) also known by his noms de guerre Hellen (), Topal (), and Edward (), (1859-1905) was one of the three founders of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation along Stepan Zorian and Simon Zavarian, also part of Armenian national liberation movement. ... The Armenian Revolutionary Federation (ARF) (Armenian: Hay Heghapokhakan Dashnaktsutiun Dashnaktsutiun, Dashnak, or Tashnak) is an Armenian political party founded in Georgia in 1890 by Christapor Mikaelian, Stepan Zorian, and Simon Zavarian. ... Ajami ibn Abubakr Nakhchivani (12th-13th centuries) is a distinguished person in Azerbaijan architecture and founder of the Nakhchivan school of architecture. ... Hussein Khan Nakhichevanski Hussein Khan Nakhichevanski was Russian Cavalry General and General-Adjutant. ... Soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback in combat are commonly known as cavalry (from French cavalerie). ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Turkish: Müslüman, Persian and Urdu: مسلمان, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of Islam. ... An adjutant general is the chief administrative officer to a military general. ... Khan (sometimes spelled as Xan, Han, Ke-Han) is a title with many meanings. ... Gaik Badalovich Ovakimian (1898-1967) was a leading Soviet NKVD spy in the United States. ... Garegin Njdeh Garegin Njdeh (Armenian: , real name Garegin Ter-Harutiunian, 1 January 1886 - late 1955) was an Armenian statesman, military, and political thinker, native of Nakhichevan. ... Jalil Mammadguluzadeh Jalil Huseyngulu oglu Mammadguluzadeh (Azeri: Cəlil Hüseynqulu oğlu Məmmədquluzadə; Persian: جليل محمدقلی زاده; spelled: Jalil Mohammad Gholizadeh) (22 February 1866, Nakhichevan – 4 January 1932, Baku) was an Azerbaijani satirist and writer of Iranian descent. ...

Photographs of Nakhichevan

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (982x1438, 847 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Nakhichevan ... Mausoleum of Momine Khatun The Mausoleum of Momine Khatun (or Mumine Khatun) is located in Nakhichevan, the capital of the Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic in Azerbaijan. ... Map of Azerbaijan showing Nakhichevan City. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 900 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Nakhichevan Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 904 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Nakhichevan Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1200x1600, 384 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Nakhichevan ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 428 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Nakhichevan Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Ordubad is the second largest city of the Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic of Azerbaijan. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 425 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Nakhichevan Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 381 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Nakhichevan Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 403 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Nakhichevan Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 405 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Nakhichevan Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 401 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Nakhichevan Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File links Nakhichevan_Mausoleum. ... Image File history File links Julfa-khachkars. ... Khachkar (Ô½Õ¡Õ¹Ö„Õ¡Ö€ in Armenian, meaning cross-stone) is a carved memorial stone, typically found in Armenia. ... A photograph, taken in 1915, showing part of the medieval Armenian cemetery of Julfa. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b c GeoHive: Country Data: Azerbaijan
  2. ^ a b c d e Robert H. Hewsen. Armenia: A Historical Atlas, p. 266. ISBN 0-226-33228-4
  3. ^ Flavius Josephus and the Flood of Noah
  4. ^ Plant Genetic Resources in Central Asia and Caucasus: History of Armenia
  5. ^ a b Elisabeth Bauer. Armenia: Past and Present, p. 99. ISBN B0006EXQ9C
  6. ^ Firuz Kazemzadeh, Ph.D. The Struggle For Transcaucasia: 1917-1921, p. 255. ISBN 0830500766
  7. ^ Firuz Kazemzadeh, Ph.D. The Struggle For Transcaucasia: 1917-1921, p. 267. ISBN 0830500766
  8. ^ Noah's Ark: It's Final Berth by Bill Crouse
  9. ^ a b (Russian) Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary. "Nakhichevan". St. Petersburg, Russia, 1890-1907
  10. ^ "Nakhichevan", Volume V19, Page 156 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica
  11. ^ (Russian) Hamdollah Mostowfi. Nozhat al-Gholub
  12. ^ (Russian) Evliya Chelebi. Seyahatname
  13. ^ Ibn Khordadbeh. Book of Roads and Kingdoms (al-Kitab al-Masalik w’al-Mamalik)
  14. ^ a b Richard Plunkett and Tom Masters. Lonely Planet: Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan, p. 243. ISBN 1-74059-138-0
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o (Russian) Great Soviet Encyclopedia. Nakhichevan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
  16. ^ Armenia: The Yervanduni Dynasty
  17. ^ a b Argam Ayvazian. The Historical Monuments Of Nakhichevan, p. 10. ISBN 0-8143-1896-7
  18. ^ Robert H. Hewsen. Armenia: A Historical Atlas, p. 100. ISBN 0-226-33228-4
  19. ^ ARMENIA, by Richard Gottheil, Herman Rosenthal, Louis Ginzberg
  20. ^ Mark Whittow. The Making of Byzantium, 600-1025, p. 210. ISBN 0-520-20497-2
  21. ^ Encyclopedia Iranica, "Atabakan-e Adarbayjan", Saljuq rulers of Azerbaijan, 12th–13th, Luther, K. pp. 890-894.
  22. ^ The Status of Religious Minorities in Safavid Iran 1617-61, Vera B. Moreen, Journal of Near Eastern Studies Vol. 40, No. 2 (Apr., 1981), pp.128-129
  23. ^ Encyclopedia Iranica. Kangarlu.
  24. ^ (Russian) Great Soviet Encyclopedia. Treaty of Turkmanchai.
  25. ^ (Russian) A.S. Griboyedov. Letter to Count I.F.Paskevich.
  26. ^ (Russian) Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary. "Sharur-Daralagez uyezd". St. Petersburg, Russia, 1890-1907
  27. ^ Michael P. Croissant. The Armenia-Azerbaijan Conflict: Causes and Implications, p. 9. ISBN 0-275-96241-5
  28. ^ Ian Bremmer and Ray Taras. New States, New Politics: Building Post-Soviet Nations, p. 484. ISBN 0-521-57799-3
  29. ^ Croissant. Armenia-Azerbaijan Conflict, p. 15.
  30. ^ a b c d Dr. Andrew Andersen, Ph. D. Atlas of Conflicts: Armenia: Nation Building and Territorial Disputes: 1918-1920
  31. ^ De Waal. Black Garden: Armenia And Azerbaijan Through Peace and War. New York: New York University Press, pp. 128-129. ISBN 0-8147-1945-7
  32. ^ Croissant. Armenia-Azerbaijan Conflict, p. 16.
  33. ^ De Waal. Black Garden, p. 129.
  34. ^ a b Tim Potier. Conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh, Abkhazia, and South Ossetia: A Legal Appraisal, p. 4. ISBN 90-411-1477-7
  35. ^ Croissant. Armenia-Azerbaijan Conflict, p. 18.
  36. ^ a b Ian Bremmer and Ray Taras. New States, New Politics: Building Post-Soviet Nations, p. 444. ISBN 0-521-57799-3
  37. ^ Text of the Treaty of Kars
  38. ^ a b De Waal. Black Garden, p. 271.
  39. ^ a b Armenia: A Country Study: The New Nationalism, The Library of Congress
  40. ^ Thomas Ambrosio. Irredentism: Ethnic Conflict and International Politics. ISBN-10: 0275972607
  41. ^ Stuart J. Kaufman. Modern Hatreds: The Symbolic Politics of Ethnic War. ISBN 0801487366
  42. ^ De Waal, Black Garden, p. 88-89.
  43. ^ Azerbaijan: A Country Study: Aliyev and the Presidential Election of October 1993, The Library of Congress
  44. ^ Contested Borders in the Caucasus: Chapter VII: Iran's Role as Mediator in the Nagorno-Karabakh Crisis by Abdollah Ramezanzadeh
  45. ^ Russia Plans Leaner, More Open Military. The Washington Post. May 23, 1992
  46. ^ Background Paper on the Nagorno-Karabak Conflict. Council of Europe.
  47. ^ The Toronto Star. May 20, 1992
  48. ^ a b US Department of State Daily Briefing #78: Tuesday, 5/19/92
  49. ^ Armenian Siege of Azeri Town Threatens Turkey, Russia, Iran. The Baltimore Sun. June 3, 1992
  50. ^ Reuters News Agency, wire carried by the Globe and Mail (Canada) on May 20, 1992. pg. A.10
  51. ^ a b Overview of Areas of Armed Conflict in the former Soviet Union, Human Rights Watch, Helsinki Report
  52. ^ Azerbaijan: Seven Years Of Conflict In Nagorno-Karabakh, Human Rights Watch, Helsinki Report
  53. ^ a b Turkey Orders Armenians to Leave Azerbaijan, Moves Troops to the Border. The Salt Lake Tribune. September 4, 1993. pg. A1.
  54. ^ Azerbaijan: A Country Study: Efforts to Resolve the Nagorno-Karabakh Crisis, 1993, The Library of Congress
  55. ^ Iran To Boost Gas Export To Nakhichevan, IranMania News. July 20, 2006
  56. ^ Plunkett and Masters. Lonely Planet, p. 246.
  57. ^ Programme of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation
  58. ^ All Armenian Mass Media Association: In Vartan Oskanian's Words, Turkey Casts Doubt On The Treaty Of Kars With Its Actions
  59. ^ Overview - Cyprus Country Guide - World Travel Guide
  60. ^ Europe, the US, Turkey and Azerbaijan recognize the “unrecognized” Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
  61. ^ World Watches In Silence As Azerbaijan Wipes Out Armenian Culture
  62. ^ Armenica.org: Destruction of Armenian Khatchkars in Old Jougha (Nakhichevan)
  63. ^ European Parliament Resolution on the European Neighbourhood Policy - January 2006
  64. ^ IWPR: Azerbaijan: Famous Medieval Cemetery Vanishes
  65. ^ Regnum News Agency Report
  66. ^ European Parliament: Azeri Authorities Committed Flagrant Vandalism Act

Abul Qasim UbaidAllah ibn Khordadbeh (c. ... The Book of Roads and Kingdoms (Arabic: ‎, Kitāb al-Masālik w’al- Mamālik) is a 9th century geography text by ibn Khordadbeh. ... May 23 is the 143rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (144th in leap years). ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... May 20 is the 140th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (141st in leap years). ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... June 3 is the 154th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (155th in leap years), with 211 days remaining. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... May 20 is the 140th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (141st in leap years). ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ... September 4 is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years). ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... July 20 is the 201st day (202nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 164 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...

External links

Subdivisions of Azerbaijan Flag of Azerbaijan
Districts: Absheron | Agdam | Agdash | Agjabadi | Agstafa | Agsu | Astara | Babek* | Balakan | Barda | Beylagan | Bilasuvar | Dashkasan | Davachi | Fizuli | Gadabay | Goranboy | Goychay | Hajigabul | Imishli | Ismailli | Jabrayil | Jalilabad | Julfa* | Kalbajar | Kangarli* | Khachmaz | Khanlar | Khizi | Khojali | Khojavend | Kurdamir | Lachin | Lankaran | Lerik | Masally | Neftchala | Oguz | Ordubad* | Qabala | Qakh | Qazakh | Qobustan | Quba | Qubadli | Qusar | Saatly | Sabirabad | Sadarak* | Salyan | Samukh | Shakhbuz* | Shaki | Shamakhi | Shamkir | Sharur* | Shusha | Siazan | Tartar | Tovuz | Ujar | Yardymli | Yevlakh | Zangilan | Zaqatala | Zardab
Municipalities: Ali Bayramli | Baku | Ganja | Khankendi | Lankaran | Mingachevir | Naftalan | Nakhichevan City* | Shaki | Sumqayit | Shusha | Yevlakh
Asterisks indicate parts of the Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic

Coordinates: 39°20′N 45°30′E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Nakhichevan (0 words)
During the 6th and 7th centuries Nakhichevan suffered from the Persian-Byzantine wars, and in the 7th century it was enslaved by the Arabs.
Nakhichevan town continued to be one of the centers of the Armenian culture in XIV - XVIII centuries.
Throughout the period from the 16th to the 17th centuries Nakhichevan was the subject of Chukhur of Saad (Yerevan Province).
Nakhichevan - LoveToKnow 1911 (227 words)
NAKHICHEVAN, or Nakhjevan, a city of Russian Armenia, in the government of Erivan, 85 m.
Armenian tradition claims Noah as the founder of Nakhichevan (the Naxuana of Ptolemy), and a mound of earth in the city is still visited by many pilgrims as his grave.
In 1064 it was taken by Alp Arslan, sultan of the Seljuk Turks, and in the 13th century it fell a prey to the Mongols of Jenghiz Khan.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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