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Encyclopedia > Nakhchivan
Naxçıvan Muxtar Respublikası
Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic
Flag of Nakhchivan
Flag
Location of Nakhchivan
Location of Nakhchivan
in the South Caucasus region
Detailed map of Nakhchivan
Capital
(and largest city)
Nakhchivan City
Official languages Azerbaijani
Government
 -  Parliamentary Chairman Vasif Talibov
Autonomous republic
 -  Establishment of the Nakhchivan ASSR
February 9, 1924 
 -  Nakhchivan
Autonomous Republic

November 17, 1990 
Area
 -  Total 5,5001 km² 
2,124 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) negligible
Population
 -  2007 estimate 382,0592 
 -  Density 67.8 /km² 
 /sq mi
Currency Azerbaijani manat (AZN)
Time zone EET (UTC+4)
 -  Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+5)
1 GeoHive: Country Data: Azerbaijan
2 The State Statistical Committee of the Republic of Azerbaijan

The Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic (Azerbaijani: Naxçıvan Muxtar Respublikası; Turkish: Nahçıvan Özerk Cumhuriyeti or Nahçıvan Muhtar Cumhuriyeti; Armenian: Նախիջևանի Ինքնավար Հանրապետություն; Russian: Нахичеванская Автономная Республика; Persian: جمهوری خودمختار نخجوان), known simply as Nakhchivan, is a landlocked exclave of Azerbaijan. The 5,500 km² region borders Armenia (221 km), Turkey (9 km) and Iran (179 km). Its capital is Nakhchivan City, home to the Nakhchivan State University. Map of Azerbaijan showing Nakhchivan City. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Azerbaijan. ... Flag of Azerbaijan presently used as the flag of Nakhchivan. ... Image File history File links Azerbaijan-Nakhichevan. ... South Caucasus: Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan South Caucasus (also referred sometimes as Transcaucasus) is a name to the transitional region between Europe and Asia extending from the Greater Caucasus to the Turkish and Iranian borders, between the Black and Caspian seas. ... Image File history File links Nakhichevan_detail_map. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... Location of Nakhchivan in the South Caucasus region Detailed map of Nakhchivan Capital (and largest city) Nakhchivan City Official languages Azerbaijani Government  -  Parliamentary Chairman Vasif Talibov Autonomous republic  -  Establishment of the Nakhchivan ASSR    -  Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic   Area  -  Total 5,5001 km²  2,124 sq mi   -  Water (%) negligible Population  -  2005 estimate... Map of Azerbaijan showing Nakhchivan City. ... An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Vasif Talibov Vasif Talibov (Azerbaijani: Vasif Talıbov) (born 14 January 1960, Aralig, Nakhchivan ASSR, Azerbaijan SSR) is the current parliamentary chairman of the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic of Azerbaijan. ... A significant number of autonomous republics can be found within the successor states of the Soviet Union, but the majority are located within Russia. ... Flag of the Nakhchivan ASSR introduced in 1937 with both Azerbaijani and Armenian text. ... Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here areas between 1,000 km² and 10,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... ISO 4217 Code AZN User(s) Azerbaijan except Nagorno-Karabakh Inflation 11. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries not observing daylight saving Eastern European Time (EET) is one of the names of UTC+2 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... “UTC” redirects here. ... Though DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... Eastern European Summer Time (EEST) is one of the names of UTC+3 time zone, 3 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... “UTC” redirects here. ... “Farsi” redirects here. ... A landlocked country is one that has no coastline. ... This cites very few or no references or sources. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here areas between 1,000 km² and 10,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... A kilometer (Commonwealth spelling: kilometre), symbol: km is a unit of length in the metric system equal to 1,000 metres (from the Greek words χίλια (khilia) = thousand and μέτρο (metro) = count/measure). ... Map of Azerbaijan showing Nakhchivan City. ... Nakhchivan State University (NSU) is a public university located in Nakhchivan, Azerbaijan. ...

Contents

Etymology

Since it has been under the rule of many different kingdoms, empires, sultanates, and khanates, the name of Nakhchivan was altered many times. Variations of the name include Nakhichevan[1], Nachidsheuan[2], Nakhijevan[3], Nakhchawan[4], Nakhitchevan[5], Nakhjavan[6] and Nakhdjevan[7]. According to the nineteenth-century language scholar, Heinrich Hubschmann, the name "Nakhichavan" in Armenian literally means "the place of descent", a Biblical reference to the descent of Noah's Ark on the adjacent Mount Ararat. Hubschmann notes, however, that it was not known by that name in antiquity. Instead, he states the present-day name evolved to "Nakhchivan" from "Naxcavan". The prefix "Naxc" was a name and "avan" is Armenian for "town".[8] Nakhchivan was also mentioned in Ptolemy's Geography and by other classical writers as Naxuana.[9][10] According to other versions, the name Nakhchivan derived from the Persian Nagsh-e-Jahan ("Image of the World"), a reference to the beauty of the area.[11][12] The medieval Arab chronicles referred to the area as "Nashava".[13] This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... A painting by the American Edward Hicks (1780–1849), showing the animals boarding Noahs Ark two by two. ... Mount Ararat (Turkish: , Armenian: , Kurdish: , Greek: , Persian: , Russian: , Hebrew: , Tiberian Hebrew: ) is the tallest peak in Turkey. ... A medieval artists rendition of Claudius Ptolemaeus Claudius Ptolemaeus (Greek: ; ca. ...


History

Early history

According to Armenian tradition, Nakhchivan was founded by Noah, of the Abrahamic religions. [14] The oldest material culture artifacts found in the region date back to the Neolithic Age. The region was part of the states of Mannae, Urartu and Media. [15] It became part of the Satrapy of Armenia under Achaemenid Persia circa 521 BC. After Alexander the Great's death (323 BC) various Macedonian generals such as Neoptolemus tried to take control of the region but ultimately failed and a native dynasty of Orontids flourished until Armenia was conquered by Antiochus III the Great. [16] This article is about the biblical Noah. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Neolithic, (Greek neos=new, lithos=stone, or New Stone Age) is traditionally the last part of the stone age. ... The Mannaeans were an ancient people of Asia Minor, occupying the region East of Assyria and South-East of Urartu, in present-day North-West Iran. ... Urartu at its greatest extent 743 BC Urartu (Biainili in Urartian) was an ancient kingdom in the mountainous plateau between Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, and Caucasus mountains, later known as the Armenian Highland, and it centered around Lake Van (present-day eastern Turkey). ... The Orontid Dynasty was the first Armenian dynasty. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC Events 529 BC - Cambyses II succeeds his father Cyrus as ruler of Persia. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... On his way from Ecbatana to Babylon, Alexander the Great fights and crushes the Cossaeans. ... Neoptolemus (in Greek Νεoπτoλεμος; died 321 BC) was a Macedonian officer of Alexander the Great. ... Silver coin of Antiochus III. The reverse shows Apollo seated on an omphalos. ...

The Nakhchivan region (highlighted in light purple) at the time of the Kingdom of Vaspurakan (908-1021).

In 189 BC, Nakhchivan was part of the new Kingdom of Armenia established by Artaxias I.[17] Within the kingdom, the region of present-day Nakhchivan was part of the Ayrarat, Vaspurakan and Syunik provinces. [18] The area's status as a major trade center allowed it to prosper, though because of this, it was coveted by many foreign powers. [4] According to historian Faustus of Byzantium (4th century), when the Sassanid Persians invaded Armenia, Sassanid King Shapur II (310-380) removed 2,000 Armenian and 16,000 Jewish families in 360-370. [19] In 428, the Armenian Arshakuni monarchy was abolished and Nakhchivan was annexed by Sassanid Persia. In 623, possession of the region passed to the Byzantine Empire. [15] From 640 on, Arabs invaded Nakhchivan and undertook many campaigns in the area crushing all resistance and attacking Armenian nobles who remained in contact with the Byzantines or who refused to pay tribute. In 705, Armenian nobles and their families were locked into a church at Nakhchivan and by order of the governor, the church was burnt with them inside. [5] Eventually, Arab rule was firmly establish and Nakhchivan became part of the autonomous Principality of Armenia under Arab control. [20] In the 8th century, Nakhchivan was one of the scenes of an uprising against the Arabs led by freedom fighter Babak Khorramdin. [15] Nakhchivan was finally released from Arab rule in the 10th century by Bagratid King Smbat I and handed over to the princes of Syunik. [17] Image File history File links 93-vaspurakan908-1021. ... Image File history File links 93-vaspurakan908-1021. ... Vaspurakan was a province and then kingdom of Greater Armenia during the Middle Ages. ... Events Battle of Belach Mugna Births Deaths Categories: 908 ... // Events Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, sixth Fatimid Caliph of Egypt disappears on a trip to al-Muqattam hills. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC - 180s BC - 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC Years: 194 BC 193 BC 192 BC 191 BC 190 BC - 189 BC - 188 BC 187 BC... The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (sometimes referred to as Armenia Minor) was a state formed in the Middle Ages by Armenian refugees fleeing the Seljuk invasion of Armenia. ... Artaxias I (also called Artaxes or Artashes) (reigned 190 BCE-159 BCE) was one of the founders of the kingdom of Armenia and its first independent ruler. ... Ayrarat was a province of the old Armenia c. ... Vaspurakan was a province and then kingdom of Greater Armenia during the Middle Ages. ... Syunik (also called Siunik or Syunia) is one of the provinces (marz) of Armenia. ... Faustus of Byzantium an Armenian historian of the 5th century. ... The Sassanid Empire in the time of Shapur I; the conquest of Cappadocia was temporary Official language Pahlavi (Middle Persian) Dominant Religion Zoroastrianism Capital Ctesiphon Sovereigns Shahanshah of the Iran (Eranshahr) First Ruler Ardashir I Last Ruler Yazdegerd III Establishment 224 AD Dissolution 651 AD Part of the History of... Shapur II was king of Persia (310 - 379). ... Events April 10 - Nestorius is made Patriarch of Constantinople. ... Kingdom of Armenia under the Arshakuni Dynasty, 150 AD The Arsacid Dynasty (Arshakuni Dynasty) ruled the Kingdom of Armenia from AD 54 to 428. ... “Byzantine” redirects here. ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ... Bābak Khorram-Dīn (Persian: بابک خرمدین; alternative spelling: Bâbak Xoramdin; 795, according to some other sources 798— January 838) was one of the main Persian[1][2][3] revolutionary leaders of the Iranian Khorram-Dinān[4] (Persian, Those of the joyous religion), which was a local freedom movement... The Bagratuni or Bagratid royal dynasty of Armenia (Armenian: Բագրատունյաց Արքայական Տոհմ or Bagratunyac Arqayakan Tohm) is a royal family whose branches formerly ruled many regional polities, including Armenian lands of Syunik, Lori, Vaspurakan, Kars, Taron, and Tayk. ... Smbat I was King of Armenia (890-913) of the Bagratuni dynasty, son of Ashot I and the father of Ashot II Yerkat and Abas I. His rule was a period of unending wars against the Arab conquerors and the rebellious Armenian nobles. ...

A miniature depicting Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent marching into Nakhchivan during the continuous border wars between the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia in the 14th to 18th centuries.
A miniature depicting Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent marching into Nakhchivan during the continuous border wars between the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia in the 14th to 18th centuries.

By the 11th century, however, it was conquered by the Seljuq Turks. [15] In 12th century, the city of Nakhchivan became the capital of the state of Atabegs of Azerbaijan, also known as Ildegizid state, which included most of Iranian Azerbaijan and significant part of South Caucasus. [21] The magnificent 12th century mausoleum of Momine khatun, the wife of Ildegizid ruler, Great Atabeg Jahan Pehlevan, is the main attraction of modern Nakhchivan. [22] At its heyday, the Ildegizid authority in Nakhchivan and some other areas of South Caucasus was contested by the Kingdom of Georgia. The Armeno-Georgian princely house of Zacharids frequently raided the region when the Atabeg state was in decline in the early years of the 13th century. It was then plundered by invading Mongols in 1220 and Khwarezmians in 1225 and became part of Mongol Empire in 1236 when the Caucasus was invaded by Chormaqan. [15] The 14th century saw the rise of Armenian Catholicism in Nakhchivan,[4] though by the 15th century the territory became part of the states of Kara Koyunlu and Ak Koyunlu.[15] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (743x1024, 448 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Suleiman the Magnificent Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (743x1024, 448 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Suleiman the Magnificent Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Suleiman I (Ottoman Turkish: Sulaymān, Turkish: ; formally Kanuni Sultan Süleyman in Turkish) (November 6, 1494 – September 5/6, 1566), was the tenth and longest‐serving Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, reigning from 1520 to 1566. ... The Seljuqs (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuk, sometimes also Seljuq Turks; in Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian: á¹¢aljÅ«qÄ«yān; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a Sunni Muslim dynasty that ruled parts of Central Asia and the Middle East from the 11th to 14th centuries. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Iranian Azerbaijan or Iranian Azarbaijan (Persian: آذربایجان ایران; Ä€zārbāijān-e Irān), (Azeri: اذربایجان, c. ... Mausoleum of Momine Khatun The Mausoleum of Momine Khatun (or Mumine Khatun) is located in Nakhichevan, the capital of the Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic in Azerbaijan. ... Atabeg is a title of nobility of Turkic origin, indicating a governor of a nation or province who was subordinate to a king or Emperor but senior to a Khan. ... Motto (Georgian) Strength is in Unity Anthem Tavisupleba Freedom Capital (and largest city) Tbilisi Official languages Georgian1 Demonym Georgian Government Semi-presidential unitary republic  -  President Mikheil Saakashvili  -  Prime Minister Zurab Noghaideli Consolidation  -  Georgian kingdoms of Colchis and Iberia c. ... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Historical map of the Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: , Mongolyn Ezent Güren; 1206–1405) was the largest contiguous empire in history, covering over 33 million km²[1] (12 million square miles) at its zenith, with an estimated population of over 100 million people. ... Chormaqan was one of the most famous generals of the Mongol Empire under Genghis Khan and Ogedey Khan. ... After the Armenian Apostolic Church, along with the rest of Oriental Orthodoxy, formally broke off communion from the Chalcedonian churches, numerous Armenian bishops made attempts to restore communion with the Catholic Church (Rome). ... Flag of the Kara Koyunlu For the district in Turkey, see Karakoyunlu. ... Flag of the Ak Koyunlu (Colours are speculative) The Akkoyunlu or the White Sheep Turkomans (Azeri-Turkish: AÄŸqoyunlular/Akkoyunlular) were a Turkoman tribal federation that ruled present-day Azerbaijan, eastern Anatolia, northern Iraq and western Iran from 1378 to 1508. ...


Safavid Persian rule

In the 16th century, control of Nakhchivan passed to the Safavid dynasty of Persia. Because of its geographic position, it frequently suffered during the wars between Persia and the Ottoman Empire in the 14th to 18th centuries. In 1604, Shah Abbas I Safavi, concerned that the lands of Nakhchivan and the surrounding areas would pass into Ottoman hands, decided to institute a scorched earth policy. He forced the entire local population, Armenians, Jews and Muslims alike, to leave their homes and move to the Persian provinces south of Aras.[23] Many of the deportees were settled in the neighborhood of Isfahan that was named New Julfa since most of the residents were from the original Julfa (a predominantly Armenian town which was looted and burned). The Turkic Kangerli tribe was later permitted to move back under Shah Abbas II (1642–1666) in order to repopulate the frontier region of his realm. [24] In the 17th century, Nakhchivan was the scene of a peasant movement led by Köroğlu against foreign invaders and "native exploiters". [15] In 1747, the Nakhchivan khanate emerged in the region after the death of Nadir Shah Afshar. [15] The Safavid Empire at its 1512 borders. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... “Ottoman” redirects here. ... Shāh ‘Abbās I or Shāh ‘Abbās, The Great (Persian: ) born on (January 27, 1571 - January 19, 1629) was Shah of Iran, and the most eminent ruler of the Safavid Dynasty of the Persian Empire. ... A scorched earth policy is a military tactic which involves destroying anything that might be useful to the enemy while advancing through or withdrawing from an area. ... Naghsh-i Jahan Square, Isfahan This article is about the city of Isfahan. ... A photograph, taken in 1915, showing part of the medieval Armenian cemetery of Julfa. ... Shah Abbas II was Shah of Iran from 1642 to 1666. ... The Epic of KöroÄŸlu (Turkish: KöroÄŸlu destanı) is a legend prominent in the oral traditions of the Turkic peoples. ... Nakhchivan khanate (Naxçıvan xanlığı in Azerbaijani) was a feudal state that existed in the territory of the present-day Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic. ... Nader Shah’s portrait from the collection of Smithsonian Institute Nāder Shāh Afshar (Persian: نادر شاه افشار ; also known as Nader Qoli Beg, نادر قلی بیگ, Tahmasp-Qoli Khan, تهماسپ قلی خان) (October 22, 1688 - June 19, 1747) ruled as Shah of Iran (1736–47) and was the founder of the Afsharid dynasty. ...


Imperial Russian rule

After the last Russo-Persian War and the Treaty of Turkmenchay, the Nakhchivan khanate passed into Russian possession in 1828. With the onset of Russian rule, the Tsarist authorities encouraged resettlement of Armenians to Nakhchivan and other areas of the Caucasus from the Persian and Ottoman Empires. Special clauses of the Turkmenchay and Adrianople treaties allowed for this.[25] Alexandr Griboyedov, the Russian envoy to Persia, stated that by the time Nakhchivan came under Russian rule, only 17% of its residents were Armenians, while the remainder of the population (83%) were Muslims. After the resettlement initiative, the number of Armenians had increased to 45% while Muslims remained the majority at 55%. With such a dramatic increase in population, Griboyedov noted friction arising between the Armenian and Muslim populations. He requested Russian army commander Count Ivan Paskevich to give orders on resettlement of some of the arriving people further to the region of Daralayaz to quiet the tensions.[26] Russo-Persian Wars 1722–23 – 1796 – 1804–13 – 1826–28 The Russo-Persian War of 1826-1828 was the last major military conflict between the Russian Empire and the Persian Empire. ... Russia-Persia borders before and after the treaty The Treaty of Turkmenchay (Russian: Туркманчайский договор; Persian: عهدنامه ترکمنچای) was a treaty negotiated in Turkmenchay by which the Persian Empire, more commonly known today as Iran, recognized Russian suzerainty over the Erivan khanate, Nakhchivan khanate and the remainder of the Talysh khanate, establishing the Aras... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... “Ottoman” redirects here. ... The 1829 peace treaty of Adrianople (called also Treaty of Edirne), was settled between Russia and the Ottoman Empire. ... Alexander Sergeyevich Griboyedov (Александр Сергеевич Грибоедов in Russian) (January 15, 1795 - February 11, 1829) was a Russian diplomat, playwright, and composer, whose brilliant comedy in verse, Wit Works Woe, is the most often staged play in Russia. ... Portrait by George Dawe from the Military Gallery Ivan Fyodorovich Paskevich (Russian: ) (18 August [O.S. 5 August] 1782 – 1 February [O.S. 20 January] 1856) was a Ukrainian-born military leader in the Russian service. ...

With Nakhchivan's conquest by Imperial Russia, came Russian culture. Shown here is photograph of a statue of Catherine the Great in Nakhchivan City taken in 1902.

The Nakhchivan khanate was dissolved in 1828, its territory was merged with the territory of the Erivan khanate and the area became the Nakhchivan uyezd of the new Armenian oblast, which later became the Erivan Governorate in 1849. According to official statistics of the Russian Empire, by the turn of the 20th century Azerbaijanis made up 57% of the uyezd's population, while Armenians constituted 42%.[9] At the same time in the Sharur-Daralagyoz uyezd, the territory of which would form the northern part of modern-day Nakhchivan, Azeris constituted 70.5% of the population, while Armenians made up 27.5%. [27] During the Russian Revolution of 1905, conflict erupted between the Armenians and the Azeris, culminating in the Armenian-Tatar massacres which saw violence in Nakhchivan in May of that year. [28] Image File history File links Catherine-nakhichevan. ... Image File history File links Catherine-nakhichevan. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... Catherine II of Russia, called the Great (Russian: Екатерина II Великая, Yekaterina II Velikaya; 2 May [O.S. 21 April] 1729 – 17 November [O.S. 6 November] 1796) reigned as Empress of Russia for 34 years, from June 28, 1762 until her death. ... Map of Azerbaijan showing Nakhchivan City. ... Uyezd or uezd (Russian: ) was an admistrative subdivision of Rus, Muscovy, and Russia used from the 13th century, originally describing groups of several volosts formed around the most important cities. ... Map of the Armenian oblast The Armenian oblast (Armenian: Հայաստանի ոբլաստ; Russian: Армянская область) was an oblast (province) of the Russian Empire from 1828 to 1840, roughly corresponding to most of present-day central Armenia, the Iğdır Province of Turkey, and Azerbaijans Nakhichevan exclave. ... Erivan Governorate Coat of Arms (1878–1918) Erivan Governorate (Old Russian: Эриванская губернія) was one of the guberniyas of the Russian Empire, with its centre in Erivan (present-day Yerevan). ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... The Armenian-Tatar massacres also known as the Armenian-Tatar war of 1905—1907 refers to the bloody inter-ethnic confrontation between the Caucasian Tatars (today called Azeris) and Armenians throughout the Caucasus, then part of Imperial Russia. ...


War and revolution

Around the time of World War I, Nakhchivan was the scene of more bloodshed between Armenians and Azerbaijanis who both laid claim to the area. At the time the war broke out in 1914, the Armenian population had decreased slightly to 40% while the Azeri population increased to roughly 60%. [29] After the February Revolution, the region was under the authority of the Special Transcaucasian Committee of the Russian Provisional Government and subsequently of the short-lived Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic. When the TDFR was dissolved in May 1918, Nakhchivan, Nagorno-Karabakh, Zangezur (today the Armenian province of Syunik), and Qazakh were heavily contested between the newly formed and short-lived states of the Democratic Republic of Armenia (DRA) and the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (ADR). In June 1918, the region came under Ottoman occupation. [15] Under the terms of the Armistice of Mudros, the Ottomans agreed to pull their troops out of the Transcaucasus to make way for the forthcoming British military presence. [30] “The Great War ” redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Flag Russian Transcaucasia immediately prior to the formation of the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic. ... Nagorno-Karabakh (Azerbaijani: Dağlıq Qarabağ or Yuxarı Qarabağ, literally mountainous black garden or upper black garden; Russian: Нагорный Карабах, translit. ... Syunik (also called Siunik or Syunia) is one of the provinces (marz) of Armenia. ... Qazakh (Qazax) is a rayon of Azerbaijan. ... Motto None Anthem Mer Hayrenik (Our Fatherland) Map of the Democratic Republic of Armenia from March 1919 to March 1920. ... Motto: None Anthem: AzÉ™rbaycan Respublikasının DövlÉ™t Himni March of Azerbaijan Map of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic from 1919 to 1920. ... The Armistice of Mudros (30 October 1918), which ended the hostilities on Middle Eastern theatre of World War I between Ottoman Empire and Allies, was signed by the Minister of Marine Affairs Rauf Bey) and the British Admiral Somerset Arthur Gough-Calthorpe), on the aboard HMS Agamemnon in Moudros port...


Under British occupation, Sir John Oliver Wardrop, British Chief Commissioner in the South Caucasus, made a border proposal to solve the conflict. According to Wardrop, Armenian claims against Azerbaijan should not go beyond the administrative borders of the former Erivan Governorate (which under prior Imperial Russian rule encompassed Nakhchivan), while Azerbaijan was to be limited to the governorates of Baku and Elisabethpol. This proposal was rejected by both Armenians (who did not wish to give up their claims to Qazakh, Zangezur and Karabakh) and Azeris (who found it unacceptable to give up their claims to Nakhchivan). As disputes between both countries continued, it soon became apparent that the fragile peace under British occupation would not last. [31] Sir John Oliver Wardrop Sir John Oliver Wardrop (1864-1948) was a British diplomat, traveller and translator, primarily known as the United Kingdoms first Chief Commissioner of Transcaucasus in Georgia, 1919-21, and also as the founder and benefactor of Kartvelian studies at Oxford University. ... Coat of arms of the Baku governorate. ... Elisabethpol Governorate Coat of Arms (1878–1918) Elisabethpol Governorate (Old Russian: Елисаветпольская губернiя) was one of the guberniyas of the Russian Empire, with its centre in Elisabethpol (official name for Ganja in 1805–1918). ...


In December 1918, with the support of Azerbaijan's Musavat Party, Jafar Kuli Khan Nakhchivanski declared the Republic of Aras in the Nakhchivan uyezd of the former Erivan Governorate assigned to Armenia by Wardrop. [15] The Armenian government did not recognize the new state and sent its troops into the region to take control of it. The conflict soon erupted into the violent Aras War. [31] British journalist C.E. Bechhofer described the situation in April 1920: The Equality Party (Müsavat Partiyası) is a political party in Azerbaijan. ... The Republic of Aras (Azerbaijani: Araz Respublikası; Armenian: Արաքս Հանրապետություն; also known as the Republic of Araks or the Araxi Republic) was a short-lived and unrecognized state in the South Caucasus, roughly corresponding with the territory that is now the Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic of Azerbaijan. ...

You cannot persuade a party of frenzied nationalists that two blacks do not make a white; consequently, no day went by without a catalogue of complaints from both sides, Armenians and Tartars [Azeris], of unprovoked attacks, murders, village burnings and the like. Specifically, the situation was a series of vicious cycles. [32]

By mid-June 1919, however, Armenia succeeded in establishing control over Nakhchivan and the whole territory of the self-proclaimed republic. The fall of the Aras republic triggered an invasion by the regular Azerbaijani army and by the end of July, Armenian troops were forced to leave Nakhchivan City to the Azeris. [31] Again, more mutual violence erupted between Armenians and Azeris, ultimately leaving some ten thousand Armenians dead and forty-five Armenian villages destroyed. [4] Meanwhile, feeling the situation to be hopeless and unable to maintain any control over the area, the British decided to withdraw from the region in mid-1919. [33] Still, fighting between Armenians and Azeris continued and after a series of skirmishes that took place throughout the Nakhchivan district, a cease-fire agreement was concluded. However, the cease-fire lasted only briefly, and by early March 1920, more fighting broke out, primarily in Karabakh between Karabakh Armenians and Azerbaijan's regular army. This triggered conflicts in other areas with mixed populations, including Nakhchivan. In mid-March 1920, Armenian forces launched an offensive on all of the disputed territories, and by the end of the month both the Nakhchivan and Zangezur regions came under stable but temporary Armenian control. [31]


Sovietization

In July 1920, the 11th Soviet Red Army invaded and occupied the region and on July 28, declared the Nakhchivan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic with "close ties" to the Azerbaijan SSR. In November, on the verge of taking over Armenia, the Bolsheviks, in order to attract public support, promised they would allot Nakhchivan to Armenia, along with Karabakh and Zangezur. This was fulfilled when Nariman Narimanov, leader of Bolshevik Azerbaijan issued a declaration celebrating the "victory of Soviet power in Armenia," proclaimed that both Nakhchivan and Zangezur should be awarded to the Armenian people as a sign of the Azerbaijani people's support for Armenia's fight against the former Dashnak government [34]: The 11th Soviet Red Army was a contingent of the then newly created Russian Red Army improvised by the Bolsheviks. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Flag of the Nakhchivan ASSR introduced in 1937 with both Azerbaijani and Armenian text. ... State motto: Бүтүн өлкәләрин пролетарлары, бирләшин! Workers of the world, unite! Official language None. ... Nariman Kerbalay Nadzhaf ogly Narimanov (April 2, 1870, Tiflis - March 19, 1925, Moscow) was an Azerbaijani revolutionary, writer, publicist, politician and statesman. ...

As of today, the old frontiers between Armenia and Azerbaijan are declared to be non-existent. Mountainous Karabagh, Zangezur and Nakhchivan are recognised to be integral parts of the Socialist Republic of Armenia. [35][36]

Vladimir Lenin, although welcoming this act of "great Soviet fraternalism" where "boundaries had no meaning among the family of Soviet peoples," did not agree with the motion and instead called for the people of Nakhchivan to be consulted in a referendum. According to the formal figures of this referendum, held at the beginning of 1921, 90% of Nakhchivan's population wanted to be included in the Azerbaijan SSR "with the rights of an autonomous republic." [35] The decision to make Nakhchivan a part of modern-day Azerbaijan was cemented March 16, 1921 in the Treaty of Moscow between the Soviet Union and the newly-founded Republic of Turkey. [37] The agreement between the USSR and Turkey also called for attachment of the former Sharur-Daralagez uyezd (which had a solid Azeri majority) to Nakhchivan, thus allowing Turkey to share a border with the Azerbaijan SSR. This deal was reaffirmed on October 23, in the Treaty of Kars. Article V of the treaty stated the following: “Lenin” redirects here. ... March 16 is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Treaty of Moscow was a friendship treaty between Grand National Assembly of Turkey (TBMM) and the Bolshevik government of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Soviet-Turkish border as per treaty The Treaty of Kars (Turkish: Kars Antlaşması, Russian: Карсский договор) was a friendship treaty[1] between TBMM, (which was declared Turkey in 1923), and the Soviet Union by the representatives of Russian SFSR, Azerbaijan SSR, Armenian SSR, Georgian SSR. It was signed in Kars on...

The Turkish Government and the Soviet Governments of Armenia and Azerbaijan are agreed that the region of Nakhchivan, within the limits specified by Annex III to the present Treaty, constitutes an autonomous territory under the protection of Azerbaijan. [38]

So, on February 9, 1924, the Soviet Union officially established the Nakhchivan ASSR. Its consititution was adopted on April 18, 1926. [15] is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Nakhchivan in the Soviet Union

As a constituent part of the Soviet Union, tensions lessened over the ethnic composition of Nakhchivan or any territorial claims regarding it. Instead, it became an important point of industrial production with particular emphasis on the mining of minerals such as salt. Under Soviet rule, it was once a major junction on the Moscow-Tehran railway line [39] as well as the Baku-Yerevan railway. [15] It also served as an important strategic area during the Cold War, sharing borders with both Turkey (a NATO member) and Iran (a close ally of the west until the 1979 Iranian Revolution). For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Coordinates: , Country Azerbaijan Government  - Mayor Hajibala Abutalybov Area  - City 260 km²  (100. ... Location of Yerevan in Armenia Coordinates: Country Armenia Established 782 BC Government  - Mayor Yervand Zakharyan Area  - City 227 km²  (87. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... This article is about the military alliance. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Iranian Revolution (also known as the Islamic Revolution,[1][2][3][4][5][6] Persian: انقلاب اسلامی, Enghelābe Eslāmi) was the revolution that transformed Iran from a monarchy under Shah Mohammad Reza...

Map of the Nakhchivan ASSR within the Soviet Union.
Map of the Nakhchivan ASSR within the Soviet Union.

Facilities improved during Soviet times. Education and public health especially began to see some major changes. In 1913, Nakhchivan only had two hospitals with a total of 20 beds. The region was plagued by widespread diseases including trachoma and typhus. Malaria, which mostly came from the adjoining Aras River, brought serious harm to the region. At any one time, between 70% and 85% of Nakhchivan's population was infected with malaria, and in the region of Norashen (present-day Sharur) almost 100% were struck with the disease. This situation improved dramatically under Soviet rule. Malaria was sharply reduced and trachoma, typhus, and relapsing fever were completely eliminated. [15] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (700x633, 49 KB) Nakhichevan in the Soviet Union File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (700x633, 49 KB) Nakhichevan in the Soviet Union File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For the unrelated disease caused by Salmonella typhi, see Typhoid fever. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... The Aras (also known as Araks, Arax, Araxi, Araxes, Araz, or Yeraskh;Armenian: Արաքս, Azerbaijani: Araz, Persian: ارس, Kurdish: Aras or Araz) is a river located in and along the countries of Turkey, Iran, Armenia, and Azerbaijan. ...


Although the Armenians and the Azeris managed to put aside their differences and get along during the Soviet years, their numbers changed dramatically. Nakhchivan's Armenian population gradually decreased as many emigrated to the Armenian SSR. In 1926, 15% of region's population was Armenian, but by 1979 this number had shrunk to 1.4%. [40] The Azeri population, meanwhile increased substantially with both a higher birth rate and immigration (going from 85% in 1926 to 96% by 1979 [40]). State motto: Պրոլետարներ բոլոր երկրների, միացեք! (Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None. ...


Armenians in Nagorno-Karabakh noted similar though slower demographic trends and feared an eventual "de-Armenianization" of the area. [37] Thus, tensions between Armenians and Azeris were reignited in the late-1980s by the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict. In the summer of 1989, Azerbaijan's Popular Front managed to pressure the Azerbaijan SSR to instigate a partial railway and air blockade against Armenia, while another reason for disruption of rail service to Armenia were attacks of Armenian forces on the trains entering the Armenian territory from Azerbaijan, which resulted in railroad personnel refusing to enter Armenia.[41][42] This effectively crippled Armenia's economy, as 85% of the cargo and goods arrived through rail traffic. In response, Armenia closed the railway to Nakhchivan, thereby strangling the exclave's only link to the rest of the Soviet Union.


December 1989 saw unrest in Nakhchivan as its Azeri inhabitants moved to physically dismantle the Soviet border with Iran to flee the area and meet their ethnic Azeri cousins in northern Iran. This action was angrily denounced by the Soviet leadership and the Soviet media accused the Azeris of "embracing Islamic fundamentalism". [43] In January 1990, the Supreme Soviet of the Nakhchivan ASSR issued a declaration stating the intention for Nakhchivan to secede from the USSR to protest the Soviet Union's actions during Black January. It was the first part of the Soviet Union to declare independence, preceding Lithuania's declaration by only a few weeks. The Supreme Soviet (Russian: , Verhovniy Sovet, literally the Supreme Council) comprised the highest legislative body in the Soviet Union in the interim of the sessions of the Congress of Soviets, and the only one with the power to pass constitutional amendments. ... Soviet government troops arrest several Azeris in a clash with Popular Front protesters in Baku in January 1990. ...


Nakhchivan in the post-Soviet era

Heydar Aliyev, the future president of Azerbaijan returned to his birth place of Nakhchivan in 1990, after being ousted from his position in the Politburo by Mikhail Gorbachev in 1987. Soon after returning to Nakhchivan, Aliyev was elected to the Supreme Soviet by an overwhelming majority. Aliyev subsequently resigned from the CPSU and after the failed August 1991 coup against Gorbachev, he called for complete independence for Azerbaijan and denounced Ayaz Mütallibov for supporting the coup. In late 1991, Aliyev consolidated his power base as chairman of the Nakhchivan Supreme Soviet and asserted Nachichevan's near-total independence from Baku.[44] Heydar Alirza oglu Aliyev (HeydÉ™r Əlirza oÄŸlu Əliyev in Azerbaijani) (sometimes transliterated as Heidar Aliev or Geidar Aliev from the Russian Гейдар Алиев) (May 10, 1923? - December 12, 2003) served as president of Azerbaijan for the New Azerbaijan Party from June 1993 to October 2003, when his son Ilham Aliyev... The Politburo (in Russian: Политбюро, full: Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, abbriviated Политбюро ЦК КПСС), known as the Presidium from 1952 to 1966, functioned as the central policymaking and governing body of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. ... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (Russian: ), surname more accurately romanized as Gorbachyov; (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian politician. ... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за, transliterated Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Sovetskogo Soyuza, acronym: КПСС (KPSS)) was the ruling political party in the Soviet Union. ... Ayaz Niyazi oÄŸlu Mütallibov (Ayaz Niyazi oÄŸlu MütÉ™llibov in Azeri) (in Russian : Аяз Ниязиевич Муталибов Ayaz Niyaziyevich Mutalibov) (born 1938) was an Azerbaijani Communist political figure. ... Coordinates: , Country Azerbaijan Government  - Mayor Hajibala Abutalybov Area  - City 260 km²  (100. ...


Nakhchivan became a scene of conflict during the Nagorno-Karabakh War. On May 4, 1992, Armenian forces shelled the area's Sadarak rayon.[45][46][47] The Armenians claimed that the attack was in response to cross-border shellings of Armenian villages by Azeri forces from Nakhchivan. [48] [49] David Zadoyan, a 42-year-old Armenian physicist and mayor of the region said that the Armenians lost patience after months of firing by the Azeris. "If they were sitting on our hilltops and harassing us with gunfire, what do you think our response should be?" he asked. [50] The government of Nakhchivan denied these charges and instead asserted that the Armenian assault was unprovoked and specifically targeted the site of a bridge between Turkey and Nakhchivan. [49] "The Armenians do not react to diplomatic pressure," Nakhchivan foreign minister Rza Ibadov told the ITAR-Tass news agency, "It's vital to speak to them in a language they understand." Speaking to the agency from the Turkish capital Ankara, Ibadov said that Armenia's aim in the region was to seize control of Nakhchivan. [51] According to Human Rights Watch, hostilities broke out after three people were killed when Armenian forces began shelling the region.[52] Combatants Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh1 Republic of Armenia 2 CIS mercenaries Republic of Azerbaijan Afghan Mujahideen 3 Chechen Volunteers 4 CIS mercenaries Commanders Samvel Babayan, Hemayag Haroyan, Monte Melkonian, Vazgen Sargsyan, Arkady Ter-Tatevosyan Ä°sgandar Hamidov, Suret Huseynov, Rahim Gaziev, Shamil Basayev Casualties 6,000 dead, 25,000 wounded 17... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Map of Azerbaijan showing Sadarak rayon Sadarak is a rayon of Azerbaijan in the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic. ... Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the countrys second largest city after Ä°stanbul. ... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ...


The heaviest fighting took place on May 18, when the Armenians captured Nakhchivan's exclave of Karki, a tiny territory through which Armenia's main North-South highway passes. The exclave presently remains under Armenian control. [53] After the fall of Shusha, the Mütallibov government of Azerbaijan accused Armenia of moving to take the whole of Nakhchivan (a claim that was denied by Armenian government officials). However, Heydar Aliyev declared a unilateral ceasefire on May 23 and sought to conclude a separate peace with Armenia. Armenian President Levon Ter-Petrossian expressed his willingness to sign a cooperation treaty with Nakhchivan to end the fighting and subsequently a cease-fire was agreed upon. [52] is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Karki (also known as Kyarki or Tigranashen) is an exclave of Azerbaijans Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic. ... Azeri subdivsion Shusha rayon Nagrono Karabakh Republic Subdivsion Shushi province Elevation 1,400 m above sea level m Population  - City ~3,000 Shusha (Azerbaijani: ÅžuÅŸa, Russian: Шуша translit. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Levon Ter-Petrossian (Armenian: Ô¼Ö‡Õ¸Õ¶ Տեր-ÕŠÕ¥Õ¿Ö€Õ¸Õ½ÕµÕ¡Õ¶ Russian: Левон Тер-Петросян) (born January 9, 1945 in Aleppo, Syria in a family of a Syrian Communist) was the President of Armenia from 1991 to 1998. ...


The conflict in the area caused a harsh reaction from Turkey, which together with Russia is a guarantor of Nakhchivan's status in accordance with the Treaty of Kars. Turkish Prime Minister Tansu Çiller announced that any Armenian advance on the main territory of Nakhchivan would result in a declaration of war against Armenia. Russian military leaders declared that "third party intervention into the dispute could trigger a Third World War." Thousands of Turkish troops were sent to the border between Turkey and Armenia in early September. Russian military forces in Armenia countered their movements by increasing troop levels along Armenia's Turkish frontier and bolstering defenses in a tense period where war between the two seemed inevitable. [54] Iran also reacted to Armenia's attacks by conducting military manueuvers along its border with Nakhchivan in a move widely interpreted as a warning to Armenia.[55] However, Armenia did not launch any further attacks on Nakhchivan and the presence of Russia's military warded off any possibility that Turkey might play a military role in the conflict.[54] After a period of political instability, the parliament of Azerbaijan turned to Heydar Aliyev and invited him to return from exile in Nakhchivan to lead the country in 1993. Soviet-Turkish border as per treaty The Treaty of Kars (Turkish: Kars AntlaÅŸması, Russian: Карсский договор) was a friendship treaty[1] between TBMM, (which was declared Turkey in 1923), and the Soviet Union by the representatives of Russian SFSR, Azerbaijan SSR, Armenian SSR, Georgian SSR. It was signed in Kars on... Tansu Çiller Tansu Penbe Çiller (IPA: (born 9 October 1946) is an economist and politician in Turkey. ... A nuclear holocaust is often associated with World War III For other uses, see World War III (disambiguation). ...


Today, Nakhchivan retains its autonomy as the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic and is internationally recognized as a constituent part of Azerbaijan governed by its own elected parliament.[14] A new constitution for Nakhchivan was approved in a referendum on November 12, 1995. The constitution was adopted by the republic's assembly on April 28, 1998 and has been in force since January 8, 1999. [56] However, the republic remains isolated, not only from the rest of Azerbaijan, but practically from the entire South Caucasus region. Vasif Talibov, who is related by marriage to Azerbaijan's ruling family, the Aliyevs, serves as the current parliamentary chairman of the republic.[57] He is known for his authoritarian[57] and largely corrupt[58] rule of the region. Most residents prefer to watch Turkish television as opposed to Nakhchivan television, which one Azerbaijani journalist criticised as "a propaganda vehicle for Talibov and the Aliyevs."[57] is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... South Caucasus: Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan South Caucasus (also referred sometimes as Transcaucasus) is a name to the transitional region between Europe and Asia extending from the Greater Caucasus to the Turkish and Iranian borders, between the Black and Caspian seas. ... Vasif Talibov Vasif Talibov (Azerbaijani: Vasif Talıbov) (born 14 January 1960, Aralig, Nakhchivan ASSR, Azerbaijan SSR) is the current parliamentary chairman of the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic of Azerbaijan. ...


Economic hardships and energy shortages (due to Armenia's continued blockade of the region in response to the Azeri and Turkish blockade of Armenia) plague the area. There have been many cases of migrant workers seeking jobs in neighboring Turkey. "Emigration rates to Turkey," one analyst said, "are so high that most of the residents of the Besler district in Istanbul are Nakhchivanis."[57] When speaking to British writer Thomas de Waal, the mayor of Nakhchivan City, Veli Shakhverdiev, spoke warmly of a peaceful solution to the Karabakh conflict and of Armenian-Azeri relations during Soviet times. "I can tell you that our relations with the Armenians were very close, they were excellent," he said. "I went to university in Moscow and I didn't travel to Moscow once via Baku. I took a bus, it was one hour to Yerevan, then went by plane to Moscow and the same thing on the way back." [39] Despite recent deals to obtain more gas exports from Iran,[59] the future of Nakhchivan looks bleak.[57] Foreign farm worker, New York A foreign worker is a person who works in a country other than the one of which he or she is a citizen. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... Thomas de Waal is a British journalist. ... Map of Azerbaijan showing Nakhchivan City. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Coordinates: , Country Azerbaijan Government  - Mayor Hajibala Abutalybov Area  - City 260 km²  (100. ... Location of Yerevan in Armenia Coordinates: Country Armenia Established 782 BC Government  - Mayor Yervand Zakharyan Area  - City 227 km²  (87. ...


Administrative subdivisions

Subdivisions of Nakhchivan.
Subdivisions of Nakhchivan.

Nakhchivan is subdivided into eight administrative divisions. Seven of these are rayons. Its capital, the city (şəhər) of Nakhchivan City is treated separately. Image File history File links Nakhichevan-subdivisions. ... Image File history File links Nakhichevan-subdivisions. ... Map of the administrative divisions of Azerbaijan Azerbaijan is divided into: 59 rayons (rayonlar; rayon - singular), 11 cities* (saharlar; sahar - singular), 1 autonomous republic** (muxtar respublika); All listed are rayons (with Rayonu after their name) unless otherwise noted. ... A raion (or rayon) (Russian and Ukrainian: ; Belarusian раён; Azeri: rayon, Latvian: rajons, Georgian: , raioni) is one of two kinds of administrative subdivisions in languages of some post-Soviet states: a subnational entity and a subdivision of a city. ... Map of Azerbaijan showing Nakhchivan City. ...

Map ref. Administrative division Capital Type Area (km²) Population (2005 estimate) Notes
1 Babek (Babək) Babek Rayon 1,170 66,000 Formerly known as Nakhchivan;[citation needed] renamed after Babak Khorramdin in 1991.
2 Julfa (Culfa) Julfa Rayon 1,000 38,300 Also spelled Jugha or Dzhulfa.
3 Kangarli (Kəngərli) Givraq Rayon 682 25,500 Split from Babek in March 2004.
4 Nakhchivan City (Naxçıvan Şəhər) Municipality 130 70,000 Split from Nakhchivan (Babek) in 1991.
5 Ordubad Ordubad Rayon 970 42,700 Split from Julfa during Sovietization. [4]
6 Sadarak (Sədərək) Heydarabad Rayon 150 12,900 Split from Sharur in 1990; includes the Karki exclave in Armenia.
7 Shakhbuz (Şahbuz) Shahbuz Rayon 920 21,500 Split from Nakhchivan (Babek) during Sovietization. [4]
8 Sharur (Şərur) Sharur Rayon 478 96,000 Formerly known as Bash-Norashen during its incorporation into the Soviet Union and Ilyich (after Vladimir Ilyich Lenin) from the post-Sovietization period to 1990. [4]
Total 5,500 372,900

Map of Azerbaijan showing Babak rayon Babek (Babək) is a rayon of Azerbaijan in the Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic. ... Bābak Khorram-Dīn (Persian: بابک خرمدین; alternative spelling: Bâbak Xoramdin; 795, according to some other sources 798— January 838) was one of the main Persian[1][2][3] revolutionary leaders of the Iranian Khorram-Dinān[4] (Persian, Those of the joyous religion), which was a local freedom movement... Map of Azerbaijan showing Julfa rayon Julfa (Culfa) is a rayon of Azerbaijan in the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic. ... A photograph, taken in 1915, showing part of the medieval Armenian cemetery of Julfa. ... Map of Azerbaijan showing Kangarli rayon Kangarli or Kengerli (Azeri: Kəngərli) is the newest rayon of Azerbaijan, in the Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic. ... Map of Azerbaijan showing Nakhchivan City. ... Map of Azerbaijan showing Ordubad rayon Ordubad is a rayon of Azerbaijan in the Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic. ... Ordubad is the second largest city of the Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic of Azerbaijan. ... Sovietization is term that may be used with two distinct (but related) meanings: the adoption of a political system based on the model of soviets (workers councils). ... Map of Azerbaijan showing Sadarak rayon Sadarak is a rayon of Azerbaijan in the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic. ... Heydarabad is the capital of the Sadarak rayon of the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic of Azerbaijan. ... Karki (also known as Kyarki or Tigranashen) is an exclave of Azerbaijans Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic. ... This cites very few or no references or sources. ... Map of Azerbaijan showing Shahbuz rayon Shakhbuz (Şahbuz) is a rayon of Azerbaijan in the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic. ... Map of Azerbaijan showing Sharur rayon Sharur is a rayon of Azerbaijan in the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic. ... “Lenin” redirects here. ...

Demographics

As of 2005, Nakhchivan's population was estimated to be 372,900.[60] 98% of the population are Azerbaijanis. Ethnic Russians and a minority of Kurds constitute the remainder of the population. The remaining Armenians were expelled by Azerbaijani forces during the conflict over Nagorno-Karabakh as part of the forceful exchange of population between Armenia and Azerbaijan. According to a 1932 Soviet estimate, 85% of the area's was rural while only 15% was urban. This percentage increased to 18% by 1939 and 27% by 1959.[4] Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Languages Kurdish Religions Predominantly Sunni Muslim also some Shia, Yazidism, Yarsan, Judaism, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Iranian peoples (Talysh Baluch Gilak Bakhtiari Persians) The Kurds are an ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts...


Geography

Nakhchivan is an atmospheric, semi-desert region that is separated from the main portion of Azerbaijan by Armenia. The Zangezur Mountains make up its border with Armenia while the Aras River defines its border with Iran. It is extremely arid and mountainous. Nakhchivan's highest peak is Mount Kapydzhik (3904 m) and its most distinctive is Ilandag (Snake Mountain) (2415 m) which is visible from Nakhchivan City. According to legend, the cleft in its summit was formed by the keel of Noah's Ark as the floodwaters abated. [61] Map of Azerbaijan with cities This article describes the geography of Azerbaijan. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 155 pixelsFull resolution (5000 × 969 pixel, file size: 1. ... Zangezur Mountains The Zangezur Mountains comprise a mountain range that defines the border between Armenias southern province of Syunik and Azerbaijans Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic. ... The Aras (also known as Araks, Arax, Araxi, Araxes, Araz, or Yeraskh;Armenian: Արաքս, Azerbaijani: Araz, Persian: ارس, Kurdish: Aras or Araz) is a river located in and along the countries of Turkey, Iran, Armenia, and Azerbaijan. ... This article is about the unit of length. ...


Industry

Nakhchivan's major industries include the mining of minerals such as salt, molybdenum, and lead. Although dry, irrigation, developed during the Soviet years has allowed the region to expand into the growing of wheat (mostly grown on the plains of the Aras River), barley, cotton, tobacco, orchard fruits, mulberries, and grapes for producing wine. Other industries include cotton ginning/cleaning, silk spinning, fruit canning, meat packing, and, in the dryer regions, sheep farming. In terms of services, Nakhchivan offers very basic facilities and lacks heating fuel during the winter. [15]


International issues

Examples of Armenian khachkars from Julfa.
Examples of Armenian khachkars from Julfa.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (960x1280, 640 KB) Summary These two khachkars, originally from Jugha were taken to Etchmiadzin, Armenia to be put on display. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (960x1280, 640 KB) Summary These two khachkars, originally from Jugha were taken to Etchmiadzin, Armenia to be put on display. ...

Status of Armenian cultural monuments

Main article: Khachkar destruction in Nakhchivan

Armenia has accused the government of Azerbaijan of destroying historic Armenian headstones (khachkars) at a medieval cemetery in Julfa, presenting photos and video in support of these charges.[62][63][64] Azerbaijan denies these accusations. According to Azerbaijani ambassador to the US Khafiz Pashayev, the videos and photographs that have surfaced show some unknown people destroying some mid-size stones and is not clear of what ethnicity those people are. Instead, the ambassador asserts that the Armenian side started a propaganda campaign against Azerbaijan to divert attention from the destruction of Azerbaijani monuments in Armenia.[65] The Institute for War and Peace Reporting, meanwhile, reported on April 19, 2006 that "there is nothing left of the celebrated stone crosses of Jugha."[66] Julfa is located close to the Iranian border in the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic of Azerbaijan. ... A Khachkar or Khatchkar (Ô½Õ¡Õ¹Ö„Õ¡Ö€ in Armenian, meaning cross-stone) is a carved memorial stone, typically found in Armenia. ... Examples of khachkars from Julfa which are allegedly under threat of destruction by the govt of Azerbaijan. ... Institute for War and Peace Reporting is an international media development charity, established in 1991. ... April 19 is the 109th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (110th in leap years). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The European Parliament has formally called on Azerbaijan to stop the demolition as a breach of the UNESCO World Heritage Convention.[67] According to its resolution regarding cultural monuments in the South Caucasus, the European Parliament "condemns strongly the destruction of the Julfa cemetery as well as the destruction of all sites of historical importance that has taken place on Armenian or Azerbaijani territory, and condemns any such action that seeks to destroy cultural heritage." [68] In 2006, Azerbaijan barred the European Parliament from inspecting and examining the ancient burial site, stating that it would only accept a delegation if it visited Armenian-controlled territory as well. "We think that if a comprehensive approach is taken to the problems that have been raised," said Azerbaijani foreign ministry spokesman Tahir Tagizade, "it will be possible to study Christian monuments on the territory of Azerbaijan, including in the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic."[69] Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ...


Recognition of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus

Nakhchivan's parliament issued a non-binding declaration in the late 1990s recognizing the sovereignty of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC) and calling upon Azerbaijan to do so. While sympathetic to the TRNC, Azerbaijan has not followed suit because doing so would prompt Greek Cypriot recognition of the self-proclaimed Nagorno-Karabakh Republic.[70][71] Anthem Ä°stiklâl Marşı(Turkish) Independence March Capital Nicosia Official languages Turkish Government Representative democratic republic1  -  President Mehmet Ali Talat  -  Prime Minister Ferdi Sabit Soyer Sovereignty from Cyprus   -  Proclaimed November 15, 1983   -  Recognition By Turkey   -  Independence from Cyprus   -  Declared November 15, 1983  Area  -  Total 3,355 km² (not ranked) 1... Nagorno-Karabakh (Azerbaijani: Dağlıq Qarabağ or Yuxarı Qarabağ, literally mountainous black garden or upper black garden; Russian: Нагорный Карабах, translit. ...


Claims by the Armenian Revolutionary Federation

The Armenian Revolutionary Federation (ARF) claims that Nakhchivan belongs to Armenia. The programme of the party states: The borders of United Armenia shall include all territories designated as Armenia by the Treaty of Sèvres as well as the regions of Artsakh (Nagorno-Karabakh), Javakhk, and Nakhchivan.[72] However, it should be noted that Nakhchivan is not claimed by the government of Armenia. Armenian Foreign Minister Vartan Oskanian reaffirmed this on December 13, 2006 by openly stating that Armenia, as a legal successor to the Armenian SSR, is loyal to the Treaty of Kars and all agreements inherited by the former Soviet Armenian government.[73] Foundation: 1890 Founders: Christapor Mikaelian, Stepan Zorian, Simon Zavarian Head: Hrant Markarian Ideology: Socialism,[1] Nationalism,[2] United Armenia International alignment: Socialist International[1] Colours: Red Seats: Armenia – 16 seats out of 131 Nagorno-Karabakh – 3 seats out of 33 Lebanon – 2 seats out of 128 Website: Partys Official... Greater Armenia as advocated by the Armenian Revolutionary Federation under the title of United Armenia. ... The Treaty of Sèvres is a peace treaty that the Allies of World War I and the Ottoman Empire signed on 10 August 1920 after World War I. Representatives from the governments of the parties involved signed the treaty in Sèvres, France. ... Artsakh (Armenian - Արցախ, Azeri - Ərsak Russian - Арцах) is a historical Armenian name of the province of ancient Greater Armenia, that covered what is now mostly Nagorno-Karabakh. ... Nagorno-Karabakh (Azerbaijani: Dağlıq Qarabağ or Yuxarı Qarabağ, literally mountainous black garden or upper black garden; Russian: Нагорный Карабах, translit. ... Samtskhe-Javakheti (Georgian: ) is a region in southern Georgia, with Akhaltsikhe as its capital. ... Vartan Oskanian Vartan Oskanian (born February 7, 1955, Syria) is Armenia’s Minister of Foreign Affairs. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... State motto: ÕŠÖ€Õ¸Õ¬Õ¥Õ¿Õ¡Ö€Õ¶Õ¥Ö€ Õ¢Õ¸Õ¬Õ¸Ö€ Õ¥Ö€Õ¯Ö€Õ¶Õ¥Ö€Õ«, միացեք! (Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None. ... Soviet-Turkish border as per treaty The Treaty of Kars (Turkish: Kars AntlaÅŸması, Russian: Карсский договор) was a friendship treaty[1] between TBMM, (which was declared Turkey in 1923), and the Soviet Union by the representatives of Russian SFSR, Azerbaijan SSR, Armenian SSR, Georgian SSR. It was signed in Kars on...


Culture

Main article: Culture of Azerbaijan

Music and the arts are abound in Nakhchivan. In 1923, a musical subgroup was organized at the State Drama Theater (renamed the Mammadguluzadeh Music and Drama Theatre in 1962). The Aras Song and Dance Ensemble (established in 1959) is another famous group. Dramatic performances staged by an amateur dance troupe were held in Nakhichiven in the late 19th century. Theatrical art also greatly contributed to Nakhchivan's culture. The creative work of Jalil Mammadguluzadeh, M.S. Gulubekov, and Huseyn Arablinski (the first Azerbaijani theatre director) are just a few of the names that have enriched Nakhchivan's cultural heritage. [15] The region has also produced noteworthy Armenian artists too such as Soviet actress Hasmik Agopyan. Nakhchivan has also at times been mentioned in works of literature. Nezami, considered a master of Persian literature once wrote: This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Jalil Mammadguluzadeh Jalil Huseyngulu oglu Mammadguluzadeh (Azeri: Cəlil Hüseynqulu oğlu Məmmədquluzadə; Persian: جليل محمدقلی زاده; spelled: Jalil Mohammad Gholizadeh) (22 February 1866, Nakhichevan – 4 January 1932, Baku) was an Azerbaijani satirist and writer of Iranian descent. ... Huseyn Arablinski Huseyn Arablinski (Azeri: Hüseyn Ərəblinski), born Huseynbala Mammad oglu Khalafov (1881, Baku – 17 March 1919, Baku), was an Azerbaijani actor. ... Nezami (1141–1209) Nezāmi-ye Ganjavī (Persian: ; Azerbaijani: ;‎ 1141 – 1209), or Nezāmī (Persian: ), whose full name was Nizām ad-Dīn Abū Muhammad Ilyās ibn-Yusūf ibn-Zakī ibn-Muayyid, is considered the greatest romantic epic poet in Persian literature, who brought a colloquial... Persian literature (in Persian: ‎ ) spans two and a half millennia, though much of the pre-Islamic material has been lost. ...

که تا جایگه یافتی نخچوان
Oh Nakhchivan, respect you've attained,
بدین شاه شد بخت پیرت جوان
With this King in luck you'll remain.

Famous people from Nakhchivan

Former Azerbaijani President Heydar Aliyev was born in Nakhchivan.
Former Azerbaijani President Heydar Aliyev was born in Nakhchivan.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1113x1572, 385 KB) Summary Heydar Aliyev, President of Azerbaijan, during a visit to the Pentagon, July 31, 1997. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1113x1572, 385 KB) Summary Heydar Aliyev, President of Azerbaijan, during a visit to the Pentagon, July 31, 1997. ...

Political leaders

Heydar Alirza oglu Aliyev (Heydər Əlirza oğlu Əliyev in Azerbaijani) (sometimes transliterated as Heidar Aliev or Geidar Aliev from the Russian Гейдар Алиев) (May 10, 1923? - December 12, 2003) served as president of Azerbaijan for the New Azerbaijan Party from June 1993 to October 2003, when his son Ilham Aliyev... The country of Azerbaijan is a presidential republic, with the President of Azerbaijan as the head of state, and the Prime Minister of Azerbaijan as head of government. ... Abülfaz Elçibay, (Azerbaijani: ; b. ... The country of Azerbaijan is a presidential republic, with the President of Azerbaijan as the head of state, and the Prime Minister of Azerbaijan as head of government. ... Rasul Guliyev (born December 10, 1947 in Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic, Azerbaijan) is the Chairman of Azerbaijan Democratic Party. ... The external link and official web site of Parliament of Azebaijan is: http://www. ... Christapor Mikaelian Christapor Mikaelian (Armenian: ) also known by his noms de guerre Hellen (), Topal (), and Edward (), (1859-1905) was one of the three founders of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation along Stepan Zorian and Simon Zavarian, also part of Armenian national liberation movement. ... Foundation: 1890 Founders: Christapor Mikaelian, Stepan Zorian, Simon Zavarian Head: Hrant Markarian Ideology: Socialism,[1] Nationalism,[2] United Armenia International alignment: Socialist International[1] Colours: Red Seats: Armenia – 16 seats out of 131 Nagorno-Karabakh – 3 seats out of 33 Lebanon – 2 seats out of 128 Website: Partys Official... The Republic of Aras (Azerbaijani: Araz Respublikası; Armenian: Արաքս Հանրապետություն; also known as the Republic of Araks or the Araxi Republic) was a short-lived and unrecognized state in the South Caucasus, roughly corresponding with the territory that is now the Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic of Azerbaijan. ... An ambassador, rarely embassador, is a diplomatic official accredited to a foreign sovereign or government, or to an international organization, to serve as the official representative of his or her own country. ... State motto: Бүтүн өлкәләрин пролетарлары, бирләшин! Workers of the world, unite! Official language None. ... Garegin Njdeh Garegin Njdeh (Armenian: , real name Garegin Ter-Harutiunian, 1 January 1886 - late 1955) was an Armenian statesman, military, and political thinker, native of Nakhichevan. ...

Religious leaders

  • Alexander Jughaetsi (Alexander I of Jugha), Armenian Catholicos (1706–1714)
  • Hakob Jughaetsi (Jacob IV of Jugha), Armenian Catholicos (1655–1680)
  • Azaria I Jughaetsi, Armenian Catholicos of the Holy See of Cilicia (1584–1601)

His Holiness, the Catholicos of Armenia and of All Armenians (plural Catholicoi, due to its Greek origin) is the head bishop of Armenias dominant church, the Armenian Apostolic Church. ... This is a list of Armenian Catholicoi of Cilicia. ...

Military leaders

  • Abdurahman Fatalibeyli, Soviet army major who defected to the German forces during World War II
  • Ehsan Khan Nakhchivanski, Russian military general
  • Huseyn Khan Nakhchivanski, Russian cavalry general and the only Muslim to serve as General-Adjutant of the Russian Tsar
  • Ismail Khan Nakhchivanski, Russian military general
  • Kelbali Khan Nakhchivanski, Russian military general
  • Jamshid Khan Nakhchivanski, Soviet military general

Abdurahman Ali oglu Fatalibeyli, born Abo Dudanginski (1908, Dudangi – 1954, Munich) was a Soviet army major who defected to the German forces during World War II. Fatalibeyli-Dudanginski was born in the village of Dudangi (in present-day Sharur, Nakhchivan, Azerbaijan) . His classmate from the Chief of Staff Academy years... Huseyn Nakhchivanski Huseyn Khan Nakhchivanski, francised spelling: Hussein Nahitchevansky (Azerbaijani: ; Russian: or ) (28 July 1863, Nakhchivan City – January 1919, St. ... Not to be confused with Golgotha, which was called Calvary. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... An adjutant general is the chief administrative officer to a military general. ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ...

Writers and poets

  • M.S. Gulubekov, writer
  • Huseyn Javid, poet
  • Jalil Mammadguluzadeh, writer and satirist
  • Ekmouladdin Nakhchivani, medieval literary figure
  • Hindushah Nakhchivani, medieval literary figure
  • Abdurrakhman en-Neshevi, medieval literary figure
  • Mammed Said Ordubadi, writer

Huseyn Javid Huseyn Javid (Azeri: Hüseyn Cavid), born Huseyn Rasizadeh (24 October 1882, Nakhichevan – 5 December 1941, Magadan), was a prominent Azerbaijani poet and playwright of the early 20th century. ... Jalil Mammadguluzadeh Jalil Huseyngulu oglu Mammadguluzadeh (Azeri: Cəlil Hüseynqulu oğlu Məmmədquluzadə; Persian: جليل محمدقلی زاده; spelled: Jalil Mohammad Gholizadeh) (22 February 1866, Nakhichevan – 4 January 1932, Baku) was an Azerbaijani satirist and writer of Iranian descent. ... Mammed Said Ordubadi (Azeri: Məmməd Səid Ordubadi) (24 March 1872, Ordubad - 1 May 1950, Baku) - Azerbaijani writer, poet, playwright and journalist. ...

Others

Vladimir Andreevich Makogonov (August 27, 1904 - February 1, 1993) was a chess player from Azerbaijan. ... The title International Master is awarded to outstanding chess players by the world chess organization FIDE. The title is open to both men and women. ... The title International Grandmaster is awarded to superb chess players by the world chess organization FIDE. It is a lifetime title, in chess literature usually abbreviated as GM or IGM (this is in contrast to WGM for Woman Grandmaster and IM for International Master). ... Ajami ibn Abubakr Nakhchivani (12th-13th centuries) is a distinguished person in Azerbaijan architecture and founder of the Nakhichevan school of architecture. ... Haik Badalovich Ovakimian (Hayk Hovakimyan), Major General, USSR (11 August 1898, Nakhchivan - 1967), better known as the puppetmaster in intelligence circles, was a leading Soviet NKVD spy in the United States. ... Rza Tahmasib Rza Abbasgulu oglu Tahmasib (Azeri: Rza Təhmasib) (20 April 1894, Nakhchivan City – 14 February 1980, Baku) was an Azerbaijani film director and actor. ...

Photographs of Nakhchivan

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (982x1438, 847 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Nakhichevan ... Mausoleum of Momine Khatun The Mausoleum of Momine Khatun (or Mumine Khatun) is located in Nakhichevan, the capital of the Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic in Azerbaijan. ... Map of Azerbaijan showing Nakhchivan City. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 536 pixelsFull resolution (3000 × 2011 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 428 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 1679 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 900 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Nakhichevan Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 904 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Nakhichevan Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1200x1600, 384 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Nakhichevan ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 459 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2107 × 2752 pixel, file size: 1. ... Map of Azerbaijan showing Shahbuz rayon Shakhbuz (Şahbuz) is a rayon of Azerbaijan in the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 428 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Nakhichevan Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Ordubad is the second largest city of the Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic of Azerbaijan. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 425 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Nakhichevan Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 381 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Nakhichevan Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 403 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Nakhichevan Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2032x1520, 380 KB) Aras river in the vicinity of Julfa-Iran (Left hand Iran - Right Hand Nakhichevan) - March 2006 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Aras (also known as Araks, Arax, Araxi, Araxes, Araz, or Yeraskh;Armenian: Արաքս, Azerbaijani: Araz, Persian: ارس, Kurdish: Aras or Araz) is a river located in and along the countries of Turkey, Iran, Armenia, and Azerbaijan. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 405 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Nakhichevan Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 401 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Nakhichevan Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File links Nakhichevan_Mausoleum. ... Image File history File links Julfa-khachkars. ... A Khachkar or Khatchkar (Խաչքար in Armenian, meaning cross-stone) is a carved memorial stone, typically found in Armenia. ... A photograph, taken in 1915, showing part of the medieval Armenian cemetery of Julfa. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Encyclopedia Britannica: Nakhichevan
  2. ^ Flavius Josephus and the Flood of Noah
  3. ^ Plant Genetic Resources in Central Asia and Caucasus: History of Armenia
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h Robert H. Hewsen, Armenia: A Historical Atlas, p.266 (ISBN 0-226-33228-4).
  5. ^ a b Elisabeth Bauer, Armenia: Past and Present, p.99 (ISBN B0006EXQ9C).
  6. ^ Firuz Kazemzadeh PhD, The Struggle For Transcaucasia: 1917-1921, p.255 (ISBN 0830500766).
  7. ^ Ibid. p.267.
  8. ^ Noah's Ark: Its Final Berth by Bill Crouse
  9. ^ a b (Russian) "Nakhchivan" in the Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary, St. Petersburg, Russia: 1890-1907.
  10. ^ "Nakhichevan" in the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica, vol.19, p.156.
  11. ^ (Russian) Hamdollah Mostowfi. Nozhat al-Gholub
  12. ^ (Russian) Evliya Chelebi. Seyahatname
  13. ^ Ibn Khordadbeh, Book of Roads and Kingdoms (al-Kitab al-Masalik w’al-Mamalik).
  14. ^ a b Richard Plunkett and Tom Masters. Lonely Planet: Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan, p. 243. ISBN 1-74059-138-0
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o (Russian) Great Soviet Encyclopedia. Nakhichevan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
  16. ^ Armenia: The Yervanduni Dynasty
  17. ^ a b Argam Ayvazian. The Historical Monuments Of Nakhichevan, p. 10. ISBN 0-8143-1896-7
  18. ^ Hewsen. Armenia: A Historical Atlas, p. 100.
  19. ^ ARMENIA, by Richard Gottheil, Herman Rosenthal, Louis Ginzberg
  20. ^ Mark Whittow. The Making of Byzantium, 600-1025, p. 210. ISBN 0-520-20497-2
  21. ^ Encyclopedia Iranica, "Atabakan-e Adarbayjan", Saljuq rulers of Azerbaijan, 12th–13th, Luther, K. pp. 890-894.
  22. ^ UNESCO World Heritage Centre: Tentative Lists: Azerbaijan: The Mausoleum of Nakhchivan
  23. ^ The Status of Religious Minorities in Safavid Iran 1617-61, Vera B. Moreen, Journal of Near Eastern Studies Vol. 40, No. 2 (Apr., 1981), pp.128-129
  24. ^ Encyclopedia Iranica. Kangarlu.
  25. ^ (Russian) Great Soviet Encyclopedia. Treaty of Turkmanchai.
  26. ^ (Russian) A.S. Griboyedov. Letter to Count I.F.Paskevich.
  27. ^ (Russian) Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary. "Sharur-Daralagyoz uyezd". St. Petersburg, Russia, 1890-1907
  28. ^ Michael P. Croissant. The Armenia-Azerbaijan Conflict: Causes and Implications, p. 9. ISBN 0-275-96241-5
  29. ^ Ian Bremmer and Ray Taras. New States, New Politics: Building Post-Soviet Nations, p. 484. ISBN 0-521-57799-3
  30. ^ Croissant. Armenia-Azerbaijan Conflict, p. 15.
  31. ^ a b c d Dr. Andrew Andersen, Ph. D. Atlas of Conflicts: Armenia: Nation Building and Territorial Disputes: 1918-1920
  32. ^ Thomas de Waal. Black Garden: Armenia And Azerbaijan Through Peace and War. New York: New York University Press, pp. 128-129. ISBN 0-8147-1945-7
  33. ^ Croissant. Armenia-Azerbaijan Conflict, p. 16.
  34. ^ De Waal. Black Garden, p. 129.
  35. ^ a b Tim Potier. Conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh, Abkhazia, and South Ossetia: A Legal Appraisal, p. 4. ISBN 90-411-1477-7
  36. ^ Croissant. Armenia-Azerbaijan Conflict, p. 18.
  37. ^ a b Ian Bremmer and Ray Taras. New States, New Politics: Building Post-Soviet Nations, p. 444. ISBN 0-521-57799-3
  38. ^ Text of the Treaty of Kars
  39. ^ a b De Waal. Black Garden, p. 271.
  40. ^ a b Armenia: A Country Study: The New Nationalism, The Library of Congress
  41. ^ Thomas Ambrosio. Irredentism: Ethnic Conflict and International Politics. ISBN-10: 0275972607
  42. ^ Stuart J. Kaufman. Modern Hatreds: The Symbolic Politics of Ethnic War. ISBN 0801487366
  43. ^ De Waal, Black Garden, p. 88-89.
  44. ^ Azerbaijan: A Country Study: Aliyev and the Presidential Election of October 1993, The Library of Congress
  45. ^ Contested Borders in the Caucasus: Chapter VII: Iran's Role as Mediator in the Nagorno-Karabakh Crisis by Abdollah Ramezanzadeh
  46. ^ Russia Plans Leaner, More Open Military. The Washington Post. May 23, 1992
  47. ^ Background Paper on the Nagorno-Karabak Conflict. Council of Europe.
  48. ^ The Toronto Star. May 20, 1992
  49. ^ a b US Department of State Daily Briefing #78: Tuesday, 5/19/92
  50. ^ Armenian Siege of Azeri Town Threatens Turkey, Russia, Iran. The Baltimore Sun. June 3, 1992
  51. ^ Reuters News Agency, wire carried by the Globe and Mail (Canada) on May 20, 1992. pg. A.10
  52. ^ a b Overview of Areas of Armed Conflict in the former Soviet Union, Human Rights Watch, Helsinki Report
  53. ^ Azerbaijan: Seven Years Of Conflict In Nagorno-Karabakh, Human Rights Watch, Helsinki Report
  54. ^ a b Turkey Orders Armenians to Leave Azerbaijan, Moves Troops to the Border. The Salt Lake Tribune. September 4, 1993. pg. A1.
  55. ^ Azerbaijan: A Country Study: Efforts to Resolve the Nagorno-Karabakh Crisis, 1993, The Library of Congress
  56. ^ State Structure of Nakhchivan
  57. ^ a b c d e "Nakhchivan: Disappointment and Secrecy", Institute for War and Peace Reporting, 2004-05-19. Retrieved on 2004-05-19. 
  58. ^ "Nakhchivan: From Despair to Where?", Axis News, 2005-07-21. Retrieved on 2005-07-21. 
  59. ^ "Iran To Boost Gas Export To Nakhchivan", IranMania News, 2006-07-20. Retrieved on 2006-07-20. 
  60. ^ GeoHive: Country Data: Azerbaijan
  61. ^ Plunkett and Masters. Lonely Planet, p. 246.
  62. ^ "World Watches In Silence As Azerbaijan Wipes Out Armenian Culture", The Art Newspaper, 2006-05-25. Retrieved on 2006-05-25. 
  63. ^ "Tragedy on the Araxes", Archaeology, 2006-06-30. Retrieved on 2006-06-30. 
  64. ^ Armenica.org: Destruction of Armenian Khatchkars in Old Jougha (Nakhchivan)
  65. ^ "Will the arrested minister become new leader of opposition? Azerbaijani press digest", REGNUM News Agency, 2006-01-20. Retrieved on 2006-01-20. 
  66. ^ "Azerbaijan: Famous Medieval Cemetery Vanishes", Institute for War and Peace Reporting, 2006-04-19. Retrieved on 2006-04-19. 
  67. ^ European Parliament Resolution on the European Neighbourhood Policy - January 2006
  68. ^ European Parliament On Destruction of Cultural Heritage
  69. ^ "Azerbaijan 'Flattened' Sacred Armenian Site", The Independent, 2006-05-30. Retrieved on 2006-05-30. 
  70. ^ iExplore.com - Cyprus Overview
  71. ^ "Europe, the US, Turkey and Azerbaijan recognize the "unrecognized" Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus", REGNUM News Agency, 2006-09-22. Retrieved on 2006-09-22. 
  72. ^ Programme of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation
  73. ^ "In Vartan Oskanian's Words, Turkey Casts Doubt On The Treaty Of Kars With Its Actions", All Armenian Mass Media Association, 2006-12-13. Retrieved on 2006-12-13. 

1913 advertisement for the 11th edition, with the slogan When in doubt — look it up in the Encyclopædia Britannica The Encyclopædia Britannica (properly spelled with æ, the ae-ligature) was first published in 1768–1771 as The Britannica was an important early English-language general encyclopedia and is still... Abul Qasim UbaidAllah ibn Khordadbeh (c. ... The Book of Roads and Kingdoms (Arabic: ‎, Kitāb al-Masālik w’al- Mamālik) is a 9th century geography text by ibn Khordadbeh. ... Thomas de Waal is a British journalist. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Art Newspaper (Established in 1983) is a weekly newspaper about the visual arts based in London. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Archaeology is a bimonthly mainstream magazine about archaeology, published by the Archaeological Institute of America; the editors estimate that less than one-half of one percent of their readers are professional archaeologists. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 19 is the 109th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (110th in leap years). ... The Independent is a British compact newspaper published by Tony OReillys Independent News & Media. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Coordinates: 39°20′N, 45°30′E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


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