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Encyclopedia > Nail (anatomy)
Anatomy
Anatomy

In anatomy, a nail is a horn-like structure at the end of an animal's finger or toe. See also claw. Look up nail in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Fingernails is the only album (demo) released by Children of the Anachronistic Dynasty. ... Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Fingernail_label. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Fingernail_label. ... Human heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... For other uses, see Horn. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the body part. ... Cat claw A claw is a curved pointed appendage, found at the end of a toe or finger or, in arthropods, of the tarsus. ...

Contents

Parts of the nail

Fingernails
Fingernails
Toenails
Toenails

Anatomically fingernails and toenails are made of a tough protein called keratin and have many different parts: Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2000x1329, 915 KB) Female toes close-up File links The following pages link to this file: Toe ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2000x1329, 915 KB) Female toes close-up File links The following pages link to this file: Toe ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... Not to be confused with kerogen or carotene. ...

  • The free edge is the part of the nail that extends past the finger, beyond the nail plate. There are no nerve endings in the nail - this is the growing part of the nail still under the skin at the nail's proximal end.
  • eponychium or cuticle, is the fold of skin at the proximal end of the nail.
  • paronychium is the fold of skin on the sides of the nail.
  • hyponychium is the attachment between the skin of the finger or toe and the distal end of the nail.
  • nail plate is the hard and translucent portion, composed of keratin.
  • nail bed is the adherent connective tissue that underlies the nail, often colloquially referred to as the "quick."
  • lunula is the crescent shaped whitish area of the nail bed (when visible)
  • nail fold a fold of hard skin overlapping the base and sides of a fingernail or toenail.
  • Balba (free edge) is the front white part of the nail (Alba latin for White)

In common usage the word nail usually refers to the nail plate only. In zootomy, several terms are used to describe the location of organs and other structures in the body of bilateral animals. ... The eponychium of a pinky, or little finger. ... Paronychium is the term for the soft tissue surrounding the border of the fingernail or toenail. ... In sciences dealing with the anatomy of animals, precise anatomical terms of location are necessary for a variety of reasons. ... Not to be confused with kerogen or carotene. ... The lunula is the crescent shaped whitish area of the nail bed of a fingernail or toenail. ...

Long, manicured nails are a fashion statement.

Nails grow at an average rate of 3 millimetres a month. [1] Fingernails require 3 to 6 months to regrow completely. Toenails require 12 to 18 months. Actual growth rate is dependent upon age, gender, season, exercise level, and hereditary factors. Contrary to popular belief, nails do not continue to grow after death; the skin dehydrates and tightens, making the nails (and hair) appear to grow.[2] Image File history File links BothHand. ... Image File history File links BothHand. ...


This growth record can show the history of recent health and physiological imbalances, and has been used as a diagnostic tool since ancient times.[3] Major illness will cause a deep transverse groove to form across the nails. Discoloration, thinning, thickening, brittleness, splitting, grooves, Mees' lines, small white spots, receded lunula, clubbing (convex), flatness, spooning (concave) can indicate illness in other areas of the body, nutrient deficiencies, drug reaction or poisoning, or merely local injury. Nails can also become thickened (onychogryphosis), loosened (onycholysis), infected with fungus (onychomycosis) or degenerative (onychodystrophy); for further information see nail diseases. Beaus lines: Deep grooved lines that run from side to side on the fingernail. ... Mees lines or Aldrich-Mees lines are horizontal lines of discoloration which occur on the nails of the fingers and toes after an episode of poisoning with arsenic or thallium or other heavy metals. ... Leukonychia (or Leuconychia) is a medical term for white discoloration appearing on nails. ... For other uses, see Clubbing (disambiguation). ... For biological toxicity, see toxin and poison. ... Nail diseases are in a separate category from diseases of the skin. ... Nail diseases are in a separate category from diseases of the skin. ... Onychomycosis means fungal infection of the nails. ... Nail diseases are in a separate category from diseases of the skin. ...


Health and care

Mechanical injury can result in the nail being dropped
Mechanical injury can result in the nail being dropped

Nails can dry out, just like skin. They can also peel, break and be infected. Toe infections, for instance, can be caused or exacerbated by dirty socks, specific types of aggressive exercise, tight footwear and walking unprotected in an unclean environment.[citation needed] For other uses, see Skin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Sock (disambiguation). ... High-heeled shoe Footwear consists of garments worn on the feet. ...


Manicures and pedicures are health and cosmetic procedures to groom, trim, and paint the nails and manage callouses. They require various tools such as cuticle scissors, nail scissors, nail clippers, and nail files. Long, manicured nails are a fashion statement. ... Pedicure A pedicure is a way to improve the appearance of the feet, and their nails. ... A lever-type nail clipper with a file A nail clipper or nail trimmer is a mechanical device used to trim fingernails and toenails. ... nail files A nail file is a tool used to gently grind down and shape the edges of nails. ...


Nail tools used by different people may transmit infections. Regarding nail tools such as files, "If they're used on different people, these tools may spread nail fungi, staph bacteria or viruses", warns Rick Lopes, a spokesperson for the California Board of Barbering and Cosmetology.[1] In fact, over 100 bacterial skin infections in 2000 were traced to footbaths in nail salons. To avoid this, new improved contactless tools can be used, for example, gel and cream cuticle removers instead of cuticle scissors.


Biting

Main article: Nail biting

Biting the nails often indicates internal tension, stress, boredom, hunger, or it may simply be a habit. Fingers of an extreme nail-biter. ... In medical terms, stress is the disruption of homeostasis through physical or psychological stimuli. ... Boring and Bored redirect here. ... Hunger is a feeling experienced when the glycogen level of the liver falls below a threshold, usually followed by a desire to eat. ...


Nail biting can result in the transportation of germs that are buried under the surface of the nail into the mouth. It may also cause excessive or abnormal wear of tooth enamel[citation needed]. Tooth enamel is the hardest and most highly mineralized substance of the body , and with dentin, cementum, and dental pulp is one of the four major parts of the tooth. ...


Fashion

Main article: Manicure

Someone whose occupation is to cut any type of nail, apply artificial nails and care for nails is sometimes called a nail technician. The place where a nail technician works may be called a nail salon or nail shop (also "nailshop"). Long, manicured nails are a fashion statement. ...


Painting the nails with nail polish (also known as nail lacquer) is a common practice dating back to at least 3000 B.C. Pink nail polish. ...


Ornamented fake nails are sometimes used to display designs, such as stars or sparkles, on nails. They are also used to make nails look longer.


Medical test

Health care and pre-hospital care providers (paramedics) often use the fingernail beds as a cursory indicator of distal tissue perfusion of individuals who may be dehydrated or in shock.[4] However, this test is not considered reliable in adults.[5] Dehydration (hypohydration) is the removal of water (hydro in ancient Greek) from an object. ... This article is about the medical condition. ...


Procedure: briefly depress the fingernail bed gently with a finger. This will briefly turn the nailbed white; the normal pink colour should be restored within a second or two. Delayed return to pink colour can be an indicator of certain shock states such as hypovolemia.[6][7] In physiology and medicine, hypovolemia (also hypovolaemia) is a state of decreased blood volume; more specifically, decrease in volume of blood plasma. ...


References

  1. ^ Toenail Definition - Medicine.net
  2. ^ Nail growth usd.edu
  3. ^ American Academy of Dermatology - Nail Health
  4. ^ Monterey County EMS Manual. Chapter XI, Patient assessment.
  5. ^ NIH Website. Limitations of capillary refill test.
  6. ^ NIH Website. Capillary nail refill test.
  7. ^ St. Luke's Hospital. Capillary nail refill test.
  • Barker D (2007). "Nail biology and nail science.". Int J Cosmet Sci 29 (4): 241-75. doi:10.1111/j.1467-2494.2007.00372.x. 
  • Haneke E (2006). "Surgical anatomy of the nail apparatus.". Dermatol Clin 24 (3): 291-6. PMID 16798426. 

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

External links

  • LNG Nails web site

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Nails
Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Leukonychia (or Leuconychia) is a medical term for white discoloration appearing on nails. ... Nail diseases are in a separate category from diseases of the skin. ... A hangnail on left-hand little finger A hangnail or agnail is a small, loose strip of torn skin near a fingernail or toenail. ... The word lunula means moon-like and commonly refers to: Lunula (anatomy) (fingernail moons) Two round brackets and the text between them A type of necklace shaped like a crescent moon Categories: Disambiguation ... In zootomy, the integumentary system is the external covering of the body, comprising the skin, hair, scales, nails, sweat glands and their products (sweat and mucus). ... For other uses, see Skin (disambiguation). ... Cutis is the combined term for the epidermis and the dermis, the two outer layers of the skin. ... Cross-section of all skin layers Optical coherence tomography tomogram of fingertip, depicting stratum corneum (~500µm thick) with stratum disjunctum on top and stratum lucidum (connection to stratum spinosum) in the middle. ... The stratum corneum (the horny layer) is the outermost layer of the epidermis (the outermost layer of the skin). ... The Stratum Lucidum is one of the layers of the Epidermis. ... Stratum granulosum contains 3 to 5 rows of flattened cells whose cytoplasm contains small granules. ... It is a multiple-layered arrangement of cuboidal cells containing molecular bridges that conect them to adjacent cells. ... Stratum germinativum (also stratum basale or basal cell layer) is the layer of keratinocytes that lies at the base of the epidermis immediately above the dermis. ... The dermis is a layer of skin beneath the epidermis that consists of connective tissue and cushions the body from stress and strain. ... The subcutis is the layer of tissue directly underlying the cutis. ... Skin appendages are appendages that are associated with the skin and serve a particular function. ... Human submaxillary gland. ... In humans, there are four kinds of sudoriferous or sweat glands which differ greatly in both the composition of the sweat and its purpose. ... A diagrammatic sectional view of the skin (magnified). ... A diagrammatic sectional view of the skin (magnified). ... Schematic view of a hair follicle with sebaceous gland. ... For the 1968 stage production, see Hair (musical), for the 1979 film, see Hair (film). ... The root of the hair ends in an enlargement, the hair bulb, which is whiter in color and softer in texture than the shaft, and is lodged in a follicular involution of the epidermis called the hair follicle. ... A hair follicle is part of the skin that grows hair by packing old cells together. ... The inner or epidermic coat of the hair follicle is closely adherent to the root of the hair, and consists of two strata named respectively the outer and inner root sheaths; The outer root sheath corresponds with the stratum mucosum of the epidermis, and resembles it in the rounded form... The second layer of the inner root sheath of the hair consists of one or two layers of horny, flattened, nucleated cells, known as Huxleys layer. ... Henles layer is the third layer of the inner root sheath of the hair, consisting of a single layer of cubical cells with clear flattened nuclei. ... The eponychium of a pinky, or little finger. ... The lunula is the crescent shaped whitish area of the nail bed of a fingernail or toenail. ... In this SEM image of a butterfly wing the scales are clearly visible, and the tiny platelets on each individual scale are just barely visible in the striping. ... Two feathers Feathers are one of the epidermal growths that form the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on birds. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Nail (anatomy) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1361 words)
In anatomy, a nail is a horn-like piece at the end of an animal finger or toe.
nail bed which is the adherent connective tissue that underlies the nail.
To paint the nails, nail lacquer (also known as nail polish or fingernail polish) is manually applied and allowed to dry.
AllRefer.com - nail, in anatomy (Anatomy And Physiology) - Encyclopedia (307 words)
nail, in anatomy, the horny outgrowth shielding the tip of the finger and the toe in humans and most other primates.
The nail consists of dead cells pushed outward by dividing cells in the root, a fold of epidermis at the base of the nail (see skin).
Horny derivatives of the integument, homologous to the primate nail, have evolved into various structures in other animals, e.g., the hooves of horses and cattle and the claws of birds and reptiles.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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