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Encyclopedia > Nahuatl languages
Nahuatl, Náhuatl, Mexicano, Nawatl
Nahuatlahtolli, Māsēwallahtōlli
Spoken in: Mexico: Mexico (state), Puebla, Veracruz, Hidalgo, Guerrero, Morelos, and Oaxaca, Tabasco, Michoacán, Durango, Jalisco
Total speakers: over 1.5 million
Language family: Uto-Aztecan
 Aztecan
  General Aztec
   Nahuatl, Náhuatl, Mexicano, Nawatl 
Official status
Official language of: none
Regulated by: Secretaría de Educación Pública
Language codes
ISO 639-1: none
ISO 639-2: to be added
ISO/FDIS 639-3: — 

Nahuatl (['na.watɬ] [1] is a term applied to a group of related languages and dialects of the Aztecan [2] branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family, indigenous to central Mexico. It is spoken by more than 1.5 million people in Mexico, and under the "Law of Linguistic Rights" Nahuatl is recognized as a "national language" along with 62 other indigenous languages and Spanish which have the same "validity" in Mexico [1]. Nahuatl is mostly known outside of Mexico because the Aztecs spoke Nahuatl: a variant now known as Classical Nahuatl. The United Mexican States. ... Puebla is the name of a city and a state in Mexico. ... Veracruz is the name of a city and a state in Mexico. ... This article is about the Mexican state. ... Guerrero is a state in the United Mexican States. ... Morelos is one of the constituent states of Mexico. ... Oaxaca is the name of a city and a state in Mexico. ... Michoacán de Ocampo (From michoaque, Nahuatl for those who have fish) is one of the 31 constituent states of Mexico. ... Categories: Stub | Mexican states ... Jalisco is one of the 31 states of the United Mexican States (Mexico). ... Current distribution of Human Language Families Most languages are known to belong to language families. ... Pre-contact distribution of Uto-Aztecan languages (note: this map does not show the distribution in Mesoamerica) The Uto-Aztecan languages are a Native American language family. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2:1998 Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 2: Alpha-3 code Twenty-two of the languages have two three-letter codes: a code for bibliographic use (ISO 639-2/B) a code for terminological use (ISO 639-2/T). ... ISO 639-3 is in process of development as an international standard for language codes. ... The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation devised by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) used in spoken human language. ... Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone = sound/voice) is the study of sounds (voice). ... Because of technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... This is a concise version of the International Phonetic Alphabet for English sounds. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Uto-Aztecan languages are a Native American language family. ... The Aztecs were a Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican people of central Mexico in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries. ... hello how are you This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ...

Contents

Overview

Nahuatl is the most widely-spoken group of Native American languages in Mexico or in North America as a whole. As is the case with most other Mexican indigenous languages, many of the speakers of Nahuatl are bilingual, having working knowledge of the Spanish language. In the past, a significant number of the Nahuatl speakers outside the Valley of Mexico were bilingual in languages other than Spanish, speaking both Nahuatl and, as their mother tongue, some other indigenous language. A famous example of bilingualism was Malintzin ("La Malinche"), the native woman who translated between Nahuatl and a Mayan language (and who later learned Spanish as well) for Hernán Cortés. Brazilian Indian chiefs The scope of this indigenous peoples of the Americas article encompasses the definitions of indigenous peoples and the Americas as established in their respective articles. ... This article is about the international language known as Spanish. ... La Malinche (c. ... The Mayan languages , it has become conventional to use the form Mayan when referring to the languages, or an aspect of the language. ... Hernán(do) Cortés, Marqués del Valle de Oaxaca (1485–December 2, 1547) was the conquistador who became famous for leading the military expedition that initiated the Spanish Conquest of Mexico. ...


There are an estimated 1.5 million people who speak one or another Nahuatl dialect, some of these dialects being mutually unintelligible. All of these dialects show influence from the Spanish language to various degrees, some of them much more than others. No modern dialects are identical with Classical Nahuatl, but those spoken in and around the Valley of Mexico are generally more closely related to it than are peripheral ones.[3] Nahuatl dialects and and dialect groupings The Uto Aztecan Nahuatl language can be grouped into two rough dialect continua, labelled the central and the peripheral dialects. ... The Valley of Mexico is a highlands plateau in central Mexico roughly coterminous with the present-day Distrito Federal and the eastern half of Estado de Mexico. ...


Often the term Nahuatl is used specifically with reference to Classical Nahuatl, the administrative language of the Aztec empire. The Aztecs were preceded by, and surrounded by, other Nahuatl-speaking cultures, whose language certainly differed in some degree from theirs. These include the Tepaneca, Acolhua, Tlaxcalteca, and Xochimilca; and Nahuatl was perhaps one of the languages spoken in Teotihuacan. As these groups became predominant, Nahuatl, and especially Classical Nahuatl after the ascendancy of the Aztec empire, was used as a lingua franca in much of Mesoamerica beginning from the 12th century AD until the 16th century, at which time its prominence and influence were eclipsed by the Spanish conquest of Mexico. Since we only have documentation available from that point on, and since the Spanish dealt especially with the Mexica in their administrative, religious and scholarly activities, Classical Nahuatl is for us the most available, as well as the most prestigious, early form of the language. hello how are you This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... The Aztecs were a Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican people of central Mexico in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries. ... The Tepanec are a Mesoamerican people who arrived in the Valley of Mexico in the late 12th or early 13th centuries. ... The Acolhua are a Mesoamerican people who arrived in the Valley of Mexico in or around the year 1200 CE.[1] The Acolhua were a sister culture of the Aztecs (or Mexica) as well as the Tepanec, Chalca, Xochimilca and others. ... Picture from the History of Tlaxcala showing Cortés meeting with the Tlaxcallan messengers. ... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ... The cultural areas of Mesoamerica The term Mesoamérica is used to refer to a geographical region that extends roughly from the Tropic of Cancer in central Mexico down through Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, El Salvador, and Nicaragua to northwestern Costa Rica, and which is characterized by the particular cultural homogeneity... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... The Spanish conquest of Mexico was one of the most important campaigns in the Spanish colonization of the Americas. ...


Classification and terminology

Sometimes a distinction is made among Nahuan (i.e. languages of the Nahuan or Aztecan branch of Uto-Aztecan) languages between Nahuatl (variants with the characteristic tl phoneme), Nahuat (variants which have t in its place), and Nahual (variants which have l instead). Although the classification implied by emphasizing these differences is currently not given as much weight as in the past, [4] the terms are still used. Sometimes Nahuan is used for the family as a whole; others use the term Aztecan for the family, or Nahua for the family and in any context where one does not want to specify the tl/t/l differences. Most commonly, however, Nahuatl is used as a generic name for the family or any variant of it. In many Nahua speaking communities completely different names are used for the language, commonly speakers call their language "Mexicano" (a term originally used by the spanish for languages related to the language of the Mexica (Aztecs)) or "Mācehualli" (meaning "commoners speech"). In human language, a phoneme is a set of phones (speech sounds or sign elements) that are cognitively equivalent. ...


The Nahuatl languages are related to the other Uto-Aztecan languages spoken by peoples such as the Hopi, Comanche, Paiute and Ute, Pima, Shoshone, Tarahumara, Yaqui, Tepehuán, Huichol and other peoples of western North America. They all belong to the Uto-Aztecan linguistic family which is one of the largest and best studied language families of the americas consisting of at least 61 individual languages, and spoken from the United States to El Salvador. This is a grouping on the same order as Indo-European. Pre-contact distribution of Uto-Aztecan languages (note: this map does not show the distribution in Mesoamerica) The Uto-Aztecan languages are a Native American language family. ... Hopi woman dressing hair of unmarried girl. ... For alternate meanings, see Comanche (disambiguation) Pre-contact Comanche territory. ... Paiute women and children in Yosemite Valley 1891. ... Ute may refer to: The Ute, a tribe of Native Americans of the Uto-Aztecan language family. ... The Akimel Oodham or Pima are a group of Native Americans living in an area consisting of what is now central and southern Arizona (USA) and Sonora (Mexico). ... Shoshone around their tipi, probably taken around 1890 Shoshone Indians at Ft. ... The Tarahumara are a Native American people of northern Mexico, renowned for their long-distance running ability. ... The Yoeme or Yaqui are a border Native American people who live in the Sonoran Desert region, comprising part of the northern Mexican state of Sonora and the southwestern U.S. state of Arizona. ... The Tepehuán (Tepehuanes or Tepehuanos) are an indigenous ethnic group in northwest Mexico, whose villages at the time of Spanish conquest spanned a large territory along the Sierra Madre Occidental from Chihuahua and Durango in the north to Jalisco in the south. ... Huichol yarn painting To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Pre-contact distribution of Uto-Aztecan languages (note: this map does not show the distribution in Mesoamerica) The Uto-Aztecan languages are a Native American language family. ... Current distribution of Human Language Families Most languages are known to belong to language families. ... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many in Southwest Asia, Central Asia and South Asia. ...


Genealogy

  • Uto-Aztecan 5000 BP*
    • Shoshonean (Northern Uto-Aztecan)
    • Sonoran**
    • Aztecan 2000 BP (a.k.a. Nahuan)
      • Pochutec — Coast of Oaxaca
      • General Aztec (Nahuatl)
        • Western periphery
        • Eastern Periphery
        • Huasteca
        • Center

See the Nahuatl dialects page for further discussion of the sub-categories of General Aztec, which are somewhat controversial. Nahuatl dialects and and dialect groupings The Uto Aztecan Nahuatl language can be grouped into two rough dialect continua, labelled the central and the peripheral dialects. ...

*Estimated split date by glottochronology (BP = Before the Present).
**Some scholars continue to classify Aztecan and Sonoran together under a separate group (called variously "Sonoran", "Mexican", or "Southern Uto-Aztecan"). There is increasing evidence that whatever degree of additional resemblance there might be between Aztecan and Sonoran when compared with Shoshonean is probably due to proximity contact, rather than to a common immediate parent stock other than Uto-Aztecan.

</small Today, Lexicostatistics is a subfield of Quantitative Linguistics. ...


Geographic distribution

Distribution of Nahuatl speakers per state.
Distribution of Nahuatl speakers per state.

A range of Nahuatl dialects are currently spoken in an area stretching from the northern Mexican state of Durango to Tabasco in the south. Pipil, a Nahuatl dialect which happens to have its own name, is spoken as far south as El Salvador, by fewer than twenty speakers if it is not already extinct. Another Nahuan language, Pochutec, was spoken on the coast of Oaxaca until circa 1930. The largest concentrations of Nahuatl speakers are found in the states of Puebla, Veracruz, Guerrero and Hidalgo. Significant populations are also found in México State, Morelos, and the Mexican Federal District. Smaller populations exist in Michoacán, Jalisco, Tabasco, and Durango. Image File history File links Nahuatl_in_Mexico. ... Image File history File links Nahuatl_in_Mexico. ... Nahuatl dialects and and dialect groupings The Uto Aztecan Nahuatl language can be grouped into two rough dialect continua, labelled the central and the peripheral dialects. ... Durango (IPA pronunciation ) is one of the constituent states of Mexico. ... Tabasco is a state in Mexico. ... The Mexican state of Oaxaca (pronounced in English) is in the southern part of Mexico, west of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. ... Look up Circa on Wiktionary, the free dictionary The Latin word circa, literally meaning about, is often used to describe various dates (often birth and death dates) that are uncertain. ... 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link is to a full 1930 calendar). ... Puebla is the name of a city and a state in Mexico. ... Veracruz is the name of a city and a state in Mexico. ... Guerrero is a state in the United Mexican States. ... Hidalgo is a state in central Mexico, with an area of 20,502 km². In 2000 the state had a population of some 2,231,000 people. ... The United Mexican States. ... Morelos is one of the constituent states of Mexico. ... The Mexican Federal District, known in Spanish as Distrito Federal (D.F.), is an area within Mexico that is not part of any of the Mexican states, but an independent self-governing city-state and the seat of the Federal Government. ... Michoacán de Ocampo (From michoaque, Nahuatl for those who have fish) is one of the 31 constituent states of Mexico. ... Jalisco is one of the 31 states of the United Mexican States (Mexico). ... Tabasco is a state in Mexico. ... Durango (IPA pronunciation ) is one of the constituent states of Mexico. ...


It is likely that the speakers of Nahuatl languages originally came from the northern Mexican deserts and migrated into central Mexico in several waves. One of the last of these waves settled in what is now the Valley of Mexico and later founded what came to be known as the Aztec empire. During this period, if not before, Nahuatl became a lingua franca, used for trade purposes and as a prestige language in large parts of Mesoamerica, and causing the language to spread even further. For example, at the time of the Spanish conquest, the K'iche' (Mayan) nobility spoke Nahuatl as well as the K'iche' language. The Valley of Mexico is a highlands plateau in central Mexico roughly coterminous with the present-day Distrito Federal and the eastern half of Estado de Mexico. ... The Aztecs were a Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican people of central Mexico in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries. ... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ... The Kiche (or Quiché in Spanish spelling), are a Native American people, one of the Maya ethnic groups. ... The Kiche language (Quiché in Spanish) is a part of the Mayan language family. ...


Currently the influx of Mexican workers into the United States has created small Nahuatl-speaking communities in the United States, particularly in New York and California.


Phonology of Nahuan languages

Historical phonological changes

The Nahuan subgroup of Uto-Aztecan is classified partly by a number of shared phonological changes from reconstructed proto Uto-Aztecan to the attested Nahuan languages. The changes shared between the Nahuan languages are the basis for the reconstruction of the intermediate stage of proto Nahuan. Some of these changes shared by all Nahuan languages are:

  • Proto Uto-aztecan **t becomes Proto Nahuan lateral affricate *tl before proto Uto-aztecan **a
  • Proto Uto-aztecan initial **p is lost in Proto Nahuan.
  • Proto Uto-aztecan **u merges with **i into Proto Nahuan *i
  • Proto Uto-aztecan sibilants **ts and **s split into *ts, *ch and *s, *ʃ respectively.
  • Proto Uto-aztecan fifth vowel reconstructed as **ɨ or **ə merged with **e into proto Nahuan *e
  • a large number of metatheses in which Proto Uto-aztecan roots of the shape **CVCV have become *VCCV.

The table below presents some of the changes that are reconstructed from Proto Uto-aztecan to Proto Nahuan.


Table of reconstructed changes from proto Uto-aztecan to proto Nahuan

PUA proto Nahuan
**ta:ka "man" *tla:ka-tla "man"
**pahi "water" *a:-tla "water"
**muki "to die" *miki "to die
**pu:li "to tie" *ilpi "to tie"
**nɨmi "to walk" *nemi "to live, to walk"

From the changes common to all Nahuan languages the subgroup has diversified somewhat and giving a complete overview of the phonologies of Nahuan languages is not suitable here. However, the table below shows a standardised phonemic inventory based on the inventory of Classical Nahuatl. Many modern dialects have undergone changes from proto Nahuan that have resulted in different phonemic inventories.


Consonants

Table of Nahuatl consonants

  Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Stops p t   k /  ʔ
Fricatives   s ʃ    
Affricates     / ts    
Approximants w l j    
Nasals m n      

Labials are consonants articulated either with both lips (bilabial articulation) or with the lower lip and the upper teeth (labiodental articulation). ... Alveolars are consonants articulated with the tip of the tongue against the alveolar ridge, the internal side of the upper gums (known as the alveoles of the upper teeth). ... Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the middle or back part of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... The vocal cords, also known as vocal folds, are composed of twin infoldings of mucous membrane stretched horizontally across the human larynx. ... The word stop, when used alone, has several possible meanings in the English language. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... An affricate is a consonant that begins like a stop (most often an alveovelar, such as [t] or [d]) and that doesnt have a release of its own, but opens directly into a fricative (or, in one language, into a trill). ... Approximants are speech sounds that could be regarded as intermediate between vowels and typical consonants. ... The nasals are a pair of bones in the skull of many animals. ...

Vowels

Table of Nahuatl vowels

  front central back
  long short long short long short
high i
mid e o
low a

Grammar

For a grammatical sketch of a nahuan language see the article: Classical Nahuatl grammar.

The Nahuatl languages are agglutinative, polysynthetic languages that make extensive use of compounding, incorporation and derivation. That is, they can add many different prefixes and suffixes to a root until very long words are formed. Very long verbal forms or nouns created through incorporation and accumulation of prefixes are not uncommon in literary works. This also means that new words can be created at a moment's notice. It has been suggested that Agglutination be merged into this article or section. ... Polysynthetic languages are highly synthetic languages, i. ... In linguistics, a prefix is a type of affix that precedes the morphemes to which it can attach. ... Suffix has meanings in linguistics, nomenclature and computer science. ...


A minority of linguists consider the typology of Nahuatl to be oligosynthetic. This was first proposed by Benjamin Whorf in the early 20th Century. However, by the mid-1950s, this view was largely dismissed by the linguistic community. Linguistic typology is the typology that classifies languages by their features. ... Oligosynthetic (from the Greek &#959;&#955;&#943;&#947;&#959;&#953;, meaning few) is a hypothetical designation for a language using an extremely small array of morphemes, perhaps numbering only in the hundreds, which combine synthetically to form statements. ... Benjamin Lee Whorf (April 24, 1897 – July 26, 1941) was an American linguist. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901&#8211;2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900&#8211;1999... The 1950s was the decade spanning the years 1950 to 1959. ...


Vocabulary

See the list of Nahuatl words and list of words of Náhuatl origin at Wiktionary, the free dictionary and Wikipedia’s sibling project.
Lizard, snake, death day pictographs on a Stone of the Sun

Wiktionary is a Wikimedia Foundation project intended to be a free wiki dictionary (hence: Wiktionary) (including thesaurus and lexicon) in every language. ... Image File history File links Lizard,Snake,Death. ... Image File history File links Lizard,Snake,Death. ... Water, Rabbit, and Deer: three of the 20 day symbols in the Aztec calendar, from the Aztec Sun Stone. ... Pictogram for public toilets A pictogram or pictograph is a symbol which represents an object or a concept by illustration. ... The Aztec calendar was the calendar of the Aztec people of Pre-Columbian Mexico. ...

Words loaned to other languages

Main article: words of Nahuatl origin

Many Nahuatl words have been borrowed into the Spanish language, many of which are terms designating things indigenous to the American continent. Some of these loans are restricted to Mexican or Central American spanish, but others have entered all the varities of Spanish in the world and a number of them, such as "chocolate", "tomato" and "avocado" have made their way into many other languages via Spanish. For example because of extensive Mexican-Philippine contacts in the colonial history, there are an estimated 250 words of Nahuatl origin in the Tagalog language. Likewise a number of English words have been borrowed from nahuatl through spanish. Two of the most prominent are undoubtedly chocolate (from xocolātl, 'chocolate drink', perhaps literally 'bitter-water') and tomato (from (xi)tomatl). But there are others, such as coyote (coyotl), avocado (ahuacatl) and chile or chili (chilli). The brand name Chiclets is also derived from Nahuatl (tzictli 'sticky stuff, chicle'). Other English words from Náhuatl are: Aztec, (aztecatl); cacao (cacahuatl 'shell, rind'); mesquite (mizquitl); ocelot (ocelotl). Words of Nahuatl origin have entered many European languages. ... This article is about the international language known as Spanish. ... Tagalog (pronunciation: ) is one of the major languages of the Republic of the Philippines. ... Chocolate most commonly comes in dark, milk, and white varieties, with cocoa solids contributing to the brown coloration. ... Look up Tomato in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Binomial name Canis latrans Say, 1823 The coyote (Canis latrans, meaning barking dog) also prairie wolf [2]) is a member of the Canidae (dog) family and a relative of the domestic dog. ... Binomial name Persea americana Mill. ... The chile pepper, chili pepper, or chilli pepper, or simply chile, is the fruit of the plant Capsicum from the nightshade family, Solanaceae. ... Chiclets are a brand of candy coated chewing gum made by Cadbury Adams. ... The Aztecs were a Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican people of central Mexico in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries. ... Binomial name Theobroma cacao L. For the town in French Guiana see Cacao, French Guiana Cacao (Theobroma cacao) is a small (4–8 m tall) evergreen tree in the family Sterculiaceae (alternatively Malvaceae), native to tropical South America, but now cultivated throughout the tropics. ... Mesquite Trees // Species Many; see text. ... Binomial name Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758) This page is about the animal. ...


Many well-known toponyms also come from Nahuatl, including Mexico (mexihco) and Guatemala (cuauhtēmallan).


In Mexico many words for common everyday concepts attest to the close contact between Spanish and Nahuatl:

achiote, aguacate, ajolote, amate, atole, axolotl, ayate, cacahuate, camote, capulín, chapopote, chayote, chicle, chile, chipotle, chocolate, cuate, comal, copal, coyote, ejote, elote, epazote, escuincle, guacamole, guajolote, huipil, huitlacoche, hule, jícama, jícara, jitomate, malacate, mecate, metate, metlapil, mezcal, mezquite, milpa, mitote, molcajete, mole, nopal, ocelote, ocote, olote, paliacate, papalote, pepenar, petate, peyote, pinole, popote, pozole, quetzal, tamal,

(The persistent -te or -le endings on these words are Spanish reflexes of the Nahuatl 'absolutive' ending -tl, -tli, or -li, which appears on (most) nouns when they are not possessed or in the plural.)tianguis, tomate, zacate, zapote, zopilote.


Writing systems

At the time of the Spanish conquest, Aztec writing used mostly pictographs supplemented by a few ideograms. When needed, it also used syllabic equivalences; Father Durán recorded how the tlacuilos (codex painters) could render a prayer in Latin using this system, but it was difficult to use. This writing system was adequate for keeping such records as genealogies, astronomical information, and tribute lists, but could not represent a full vocabulary of spoken language in the way that the writing systems of the old world or of the Maya civilization could. The Aztec writing was not meant to be read, but to be told; the elaborate codices were essentially pictographic aids for teaching, and long texts were memorized. Pictogram for public toilets A pictogram or pictograph is a symbol which represents an object or a concept by illustration. ... A Chinese character. ... Durán (also known officially as Eloy Alfaro) is a city located in Guayas, Ecuador, on the Guayas River, opposite Guayaquil. ... The Maya civilization is a culture Mesoamerican civilization, noted for the only known fully developed written language of the pre-Columbian Americas, its spectacular art and monumental architecture, and sophisticated mathematical and astronomical systems. ...


The Spanish introduced the Roman script, which was then utilized to record a large body of Aztec prose and poetry, a fact which somewhat mitigated the devastating loss of the thousands of Aztec manuscripts which were burned by the Spanish. (See Nahuatl transcription and Aztec codices.) Important lexical works (e.g. Molina's classic Vocabulario of 1571) and grammatical descriptions (of which Carochi's 1645 Arte is generally acknowledged the best) were produced using variations of this orthography. THIS PAGE IS CURRENTLY UNDER CONSTRUCTION As with any other spoken language, there are several different manners in which Nahuatl can be transcribed:phonemic, phonetic, morphemic, syllabic, etc. ... Aztec codices (singular codex) are books written by pre-Columbian and Spanish colonial era Aztecs. ... The orthography of a language is the set of symbols (glyphs and diacritics) used to write a language, as well as the set of rules describing how to write these glyphs correctly, including spelling, punctuation, and capitalization. ...


The classical orthography was not perfect, and in fact there were many variations in how it was applied, due in part to dialectal differences and in part to differing traditions and preferences that developed. (The writing of Spanish itself was far from totally standardized at the time.) Today, although almost all written Nahuatl uses some form of Latin-based orthography, there continue to be strong dialectal differences, and considerable debate and differing practices regarding how to write sounds even when they are the same. Major issues are

  • whether to follow Spanish in writing the /k/ sound sometimes as c and sometimes as qu or just to use k
  • how to write /kʷ/
  • what to do about /w/, the realization of which varies considerably from place to place and even within a single dialect
  • how to write the "saltillo", phonetically a glottal stop ([ʔ]) or an [h], which has been spelled with j, h, and a straight apostrophe ('), but which traditionally was often omitted in writing.

There are a number of other issues as well, such as The glottal stop or voiceless glottal plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in many spoken languages. ...

  • whether and how to represent vowel length
  • how and whether to represent sound variants (allophones) which sound like different Spanish sounds [phonemes], especially variants of o which come close to u
  • to what extent writing in one variant should be adapted towards what is used in other variants.

The Secretaría de Educación Pública (Ministry of Public Education) has adopted an alphabet for its bilingual education programs in rural communities in Mexico in which k is used and /w/ is written as u, and this decision has been influential. The recently established (2004) "Instituto Nacional de Lenguas Indígenas" (INALI) will also be involved in these issues.

The Aztec world
Aztec society

Nahuatl language
Aztec philosophy
Aztec calendar
Aztec religion
Aztec mythology
Aztec entheogenic complex
Human sacrifice in Aztec culture Image File history File links Representación pictórica de la Piedra del Sol Representação pictórica da Pedra do Sol File links The following pages link to this file: Aztec calendar Wikipedia:Commons ... The Aztecs were a Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican people of central Mexico in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries. ... // Class structure The society traditionally was divided into two social classes; the macehualli (people) or peasantry and the pilli or nobility. ... Aztec philosophy was the school of philosophy developed by the Aztec Empire. ... The Aztec calendar was the calendar of the Aztec people of Pre-Columbian Mexico. ... In Mesoamerican cultures, faith was an important part of their life and death. ... The Aztec civilization recognized many gods and supernatural creatures. ... The ancient Aztecs employed a variety of entheogenic plants and animals within their society. ... For most people today, and for the European Christians who first met the Aztecs, human sacrifice was and is the most striking feature of Aztec civilization. ...

Aztec history

Aztlán
Aztec army
Aztec codices
Aztec Triple Alliance
Spanish conquest of Mexico
Siege of Tenochtitlan
La Noche Triste
Hernán Cortés The Aztecs were a Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican people of central Mexico in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries. ... The seven caves of Chicomoztoc, from Historia Tolteca-Chichimeca Aztlán (, from Nahuatl Aztlan ) is the legendary ancestral home of the Nahua peoples, one of the main cultural groups in Mesoamerica. ... The forces of the Categories: ... Aztec codices (singular codex) are books written by pre-Columbian and Spanish colonial era Aztecs. ... Aztec Triple Alliance was an alliance of three city-states: Tenochtitlán, Tlacopán, and Texcoco. ... The Spanish conquest of Mexico was one of the most important campaigns in the Spanish colonization of the Americas. ... Combatants Spain Aztec Empire Commanders Hernán Cortés Pedro de Alvarado Cuitláhuac Cuauhtemoc Strength 86 cavalry 900 infantry 80,000-200,000 Tlaxcalan and Texcoco warriors 100,000-150,000 Aztec warriors Casualties 20,000 natives dead 100,000 Aztec warriors dead 100,000+ civilians dead The siege... Hernán Cortés Hernán Cortés, marqués del Valle de Oaxaca (1485–December 2, 1547) was the conquistador who conquered Mexico for Spain. ... Hernán(do) Cortés, Marqués del Valle de Oaxaca (1485–December 2, 1547) was the conquistador who became famous for leading the military expedition that initiated the Spanish Conquest of Mexico. ...

Hueyi Tlatoani

Tenoch (13251376)
Acamapichtli (13761395)
Huitzilíhuitl (13951417)
Chimalpopoca (14171427)
Itzcóatl (14271440)
Moctezuma I (14401469)
Axayacatl (14691481)
Tízoc (14811486)
Auítzotl (14861502)
Moctezuma II (15021520)
Cuitláhuac (1520)
Cuauhtémoc (15201521) Huey Tlatoani (Nahuatl great speaker, also spelt Uei Tlatoani or Hueyi Tlahtoani; plural Huey Tlatoque) was the Nahuatl title used for the emperor of the Mexica (Aztec). ... Tenoch was a ruler of the Azteca during the fourteenth century. ... Events January 7:Alfonso IV becomes the King of Portugal. ... // Events March – The treaty between England and France is extended until April of 1377. ... Acamapichtli was the first tlatoani (king) of the Aztecs of Tenochtitlan. ... // Events March – The treaty between England and France is extended until April of 1377. ... Events End of reign of Hungary by Capet-Anjou family. ... Huitzilíhuitl (died circa 1417) was the second Tlatoani, or Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan. ... Events End of reign of Hungary by Capet-Anjou family. ... Events Antipope Benedict XIII is deposed, and Pope Martin V is elected. ... Chimalpopoca (died circa 1427) was the third Tlatoani, or Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlán. ... Events Antipope Benedict XIII is deposed, and Pope Martin V is elected. ... Events Lincoln College, a constituent college of the University of Oxford, is founded. ... Itzcóatl was the leader of the Tenochcas or Aztec from 1427/1428 to 1440. ... Events Lincoln College, a constituent college of the University of Oxford, is founded. ... For alternative meanings, see number 1440. ... The first great leader of the Aztecs, Moctezuma Ilhuicamina, or Moctezuma I (the surname meaning solitary one who shoots an arrow into the sky) was born from a noble named Huitzilihuitl. ... For alternative meanings, see number 1440. ... Events July 26 - Battle of Edgecote Moor October 17 - Prince Ferdinand of Aragon wed princess Isabella of Castile. ... Axayacatl (pron. ... Events July 26 - Battle of Edgecote Moor October 17 - Prince Ferdinand of Aragon wed princess Isabella of Castile. ... Events May 3 - Mehmed II, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire dies and is succeeded by his son Beyazid II. May 21 - Christian I, King of Denmark and Norway dies and is succeeded by his son John (1481-1513) With the death of Duke Charles IV of Anjou, Anjou was reverted... Tízoc was the Aztec ruler (Tlatoani) of the city of Tenochtitlán. ... Events May 3 - Mehmed II, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire dies and is succeeded by his son Beyazid II. May 21 - Christian I, King of Denmark and Norway dies and is succeeded by his son John (1481-1513) With the death of Duke Charles IV of Anjou, Anjou was reverted... Events Tízoc, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan dies. ... Auítzotl (sometimes rendered as Ahuitzotl) was the eighth Aztec ruler, the Chief Speaker, of the city of Tenochtitlán. ... Events Tízoc, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan dies. ... 1502 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... 1502 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... mary elline m. ... Cuitláhuac was the Aztec ruler (Tlatoani) of the city of Tenochtitlán from June to October 1520. ... mary elline m. ... Cuauhtémoc tortured by Hernán Cortéz This article is about the Aztec Emperor named Cuauhtémoc. ... mary elline m. ... Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem. ...

History

Nahuatl is often referred to as the Aztec language, or (especially in Spanish) as the Mexican language, because it was the language of the Mexica, i.e. the Aztecs. It was not spoken only by the Mexica, however, but by many other groups, including such predecessors and contemporaries of the Mexica as the Colhua, the Tepanec, the Acolhua, various Chichimeca groups, and the famous Toltecs in one interpretation of the term. Increasingly, suggestions have been appearing, from several diverse fields of Mesoamerican research, that Nahuatl may have been one of the languages spoken at the legendary Teotihuacan. The Tepanec are a Mesoamerican people who arrived in the Valley of Mexico in the late 12th or early 13th centuries. ... The Acolhua are a Mesoamerican people who arrived in the Valley of Mexico in or around the year 1200 CE.[1] The Acolhua were a sister culture of the Aztecs (or Mexica) as well as the Tepanec, Chalca, Xochimilca and others. ... The Chichimeca are a group of nomads in northern Mexico. ... The Toltecs (or Toltec or Tolteca) were a Pre-Columbian Native American people who dominated much of central Mexico between the 10th and 12th century AD. Their language, Nahuatl, was also spoken by the Aztecs. ... Teotihuacan was the largest Pre-Columbian known city in the Americas, and the name Teotihuacan is used to refer to the civilization this city dominated, which at its greatest extent included most of Mesoamerica. ...


Literature

Nahuatl literature is extensive (probably the most extensive of all Amerindian languages), including a relatively large corpus of poetry (see also Nezahualcoyotl); the Huei tlamahuiçoltica is an example of literary Nahuatl from the seventeenth century. Examples from the time immediately following the conquest include at least one census from the 1540s. The two largest collections of poetry, the Cantares mexicanos and the Romances de los señores de la Nueva España, were in all likelihood copied down in the 1560s or somewhat later. The mammoth encyclopedia of Aztec culture known as the Florentine Codex was compiled by the Franciscan Fr. Bernardino de Sahagún, with the assistance of tri-lingual students from the Colegio de Santacruz Tlatelolco at about the same time. A large dictionary of the classical nahuatl language was compiled by fray the bilingual Alonso de Molina and published in 1555. Several grammars of the nahuatl language was published during colonial times, the most influential of which were written by Horacio Carochi in 1648 and another earlier one by Fray Andrés de Olmos. Native Americans (also Indians, Aboriginal Peoples, American Indians, First Nations, Alaskan Natives, or Indigenous Peoples of America) are the indigenous inhabitants of The Americas prior to the European colonization, and their modern descendants. ... The Chinese poem Quatrain on Heavenly Mountain by Emperor Gaozong (Song Dynasty) Poetry (from the Greek , poesis, making or creating) is a form of art in which language is used for its aesthetic qualities in addition to, or in lieu of, its ostensible meaning. ... This article is about the Texcocan philosopher-king. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Nican Mopohua. ... Page 51 of Book IX from the Florentine Codex. ... Bernardino de Sahagún (1499-1590) was a Franciscan missionary to the Aztec (Náhua) people of Mexico. ... // Events January 17 - Englands Long Parliament passes the Vote of No Address, breaking off negotiations with King Charles I and thereby setting the scene for the second phase of the English Civil War. ...


Notes

  1. ^ This word has several variant spellings, which include: Naoatl, Nauatl, Nahuatl, Nawatl. In Mexico the most accepted spelling currently is Náhuatl with an accent on the first syllable.
  2. ^ also called Nahuan.
  3. ^ Canger (1988).
  4. ^ Canger (1988) criticizes this division, which was originally proposed by Juan Hasler, as being arbitrary and not reflecting any important historical divisions.

Bibliography

  • de Arenas, Pedro: Vocabulario manual de las lenguas castellana y mexicana. [1611] Reprint: México 1982
  • Campbell, Joe and Frances Karttunen, Foundation course in Náhuatl grammar. Austin 1989
  • Carochi, Horacio: Arte de la lengua mexicana: con la declaración de los adverbios della. [1645] Reprint: Porrúa México 1983
  • Canger, Una, 1980. "Five Studies inspired by Náhuatl Verbs in -oa." Travaux du Cercle Linguistique de Copenhague
  • Canger, Una. 1988. Nahuatl dialectology: A survey and some suggestions. IJAL 54.1. 28-72.
  • Dakin, Karen, 1982. "Evolución Fonológica del Protonáhuatl." UNAM, Mexico
  • Garibay K., Angel María : Llave de Náhuatl. Ed. Porrúa, SC706, México 2004.
  • Garibay K., Angel María, Historia de la literatura náhuatl. México 1953
  • Garibay K., Angel María, Poesía náhuatl. vol 1-3 México 1964
  • Garibay K. Angel María, Panorama Literario de los Pueblos Nahuas., Ed. Porrúa, SC022, México, 2001.
  • Hill, Jane and Kenneth Hill, Speaking Mexicano: dynamics of syncretic language in Central Mexico. Tucson 1986
  • Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.), 2005. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fifteenth edition. Dallas, Tex.: SIL International. Online version: http://www.ethnologue.com/show_family.asp?subid=91274
  • von Humboldt, Wilhelm (1767–1835): Mexicanische Grammatik. Paderborn/München 1994
  • Jiménez, Doña Luz (?–1965): Life and Death in Milpa Alta. Norman 1972
  • Karttunen, Frances, An analytical dictionary of Náhuatl. Norman 1992
  • Karttunen, Frances, Between worlds: interpreters, guides, and survivors. New Brunswick 1994
  • Karttunen, Frances, Náhuatl in the Middle Years: Language Contact Phenomena in Texts of the Colonial Period. Los Angeles 1976
  • Launey, Michel : Introduction à la langue et à la littérature aztèques. Paris 1980
  • Launey, Michel : Introducción a la lengua y a la literatura Náhuatl. UNAM, México 1992
  • de León-Portilla, Ascensión H.: Tepuztlahcuilolli, Impresos en Náhuatl: Historia y Bibliografia. Vol. 1-2. México 1988
  • León-Portilla, Miguel : Literaturas Indígenas de México. Madrid 1992
  • Lockhart, James (ed): We people here. Náhuatl Accounts of the conquest of Mexico. Los Angeles 1993
  • de Molina, Fray Alonso: Vocabulario en Lengua Castellana y Mexicana y Mexicana y Castellana. [1555] Reprint: Porrúa México 1992
  • de Olmos, Fray Andrés: Arte de la lengua mexicana concluído en el convento de San Andrés de Ueytlalpan, en la provincia de Totonacapan que es en la Nueva España. [1547] Reprint: México 1993
  • del Rincón, Antonio: Arte mexicana compuesta por el padre Antonio del Rincón. [1595] Reprint: México 1885
  • de Sahagún, Fray Bernardino (1499–1590): Florentine Codex. General History of the Things of New Spain (Historia General de las Cosas de la Nueva España). Eds Charles Dibble/Arthr Anderson, vol I-XII Santa Fe 1950–71
  • Siméon, Rémi: Dictionnaire de la Langue Náhuatl ou Mexicaine. [Paris 1885] Reprint: Graz 1963
  • Siméon, Rémi: Diccionario de la Lengua Náhuatl o Mexicana. [Paris 1885] Reprint: México 2001
  • Stiles, Neville Náhuatl in the Huasteca Hidalguense: A Case Study in the Sociology of Language PhD thesis, Centre for Latin American Linguistic Study, University of St. Andrews, Scotland. 1983
  • Sullivan, Thelma D & Neville Stiles.: Compendium of Náhuatl Grammar. Salt Lake City 1988
  • The Nahua Newsletter: edited by the Center for Latin American and Caribbean Studies of the University of Indiana (Chief Editor Alan Sandstrom)
  • Estudios de Cultura Náhuatl: special interest-yearbook of the Instituto de Investigaciones Historicas (IIH) of the Universidad Autónoma de México (UNAM), Ed.: Miguel Leon Portilla

See also

This is a list of Spanish words that come from Indigenous languages of the Americas. ...

External links

Wikipedia
Nahuatl language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Wikibooks
Wikibooks Náhuatl has more about this subject:
Náhuatl
Chicano Languages
Chicano Spanish | Nahuatl language | Spanish language | List of Chicano Caló words and expressions | Chicano English | New Mexican Spanish | Spanish in the United States | Ladino | Spanish profanity | Spanglish

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