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Encyclopedia > Nahuatl
Nahuatl, Mexicano, Nawatl
Nāhuatlahtōlli, Māsēwallahtōlli
Spoken in: Mexico
(Mexico (state), Distrito Federal, Puebla, Veracruz, Hidalgo, Guerrero, Morelos, Oaxaca, Michoacán and Durango)
Total speakers: 1.7 million
Language family: Uto-Aztecan
 Aztecan
  General Aztec
   Nahuatl, Mexicano, Nawatl 
Official status
Official language of: none
Regulated by: Instituto Nacional de Lenguas Indígenas
Language codes
ISO 639-1: none
ISO 639-2: nah
ISO 639-3: variously:
nci — Classical Nahuatl
nhn — Central Nahuatl
nch — Central Huasteca Nahuatl
ncx — Central Puebla Nahuatl
naz — Coatepec Nahuatl
nln — Durango Nahuatl
nhe — Eastern Huasteca Nahuatl
ngu — Guerrero Nahuatl
azz — Highland Puebla Nahuatl
nhq — Huaxcaleca Nahuatl
nhk — Isthmus-Cosoleacaque Nahuatl
nhx — Isthmus-Mecayapan Nahuatl
nhp — Isthmus-Pajapan Nahuatl
ncl — Michoacán Nahuatl
nhm — Morelos Nahuatl
nhy — Northern Oaxaca Nahuatl
ncj — Northern Puebla Nahuatl
nht — Ometepec Nahuatl
nlv — Orizaba Nahuatl
ppl — Pipil language
nhz — Santa María la Alta Nahuatl
nhs — Southeastern Puebla Nahuatl
nhc — Tabasco Nahuatl
nhv — Temascaltepec Nahuatl
nhi — Tenango Nahuatl
nhg — Tetelcingo Nahuatl
nhj — Tlalitzlipa Nahuatl
nuz — Tlamacazapa Nahuatl
nhw — Western Huasteca Nahuatl
xpo — Pochutec

Nahuatl (['naː.watɬ] [1]) is a group of related languages and dialects of the Aztecan[2] branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family which is indigenous to Mesoamerica and is spoken by around 1.5 million Nahua people in Central Mexico. This article is about the international language known as Spanish. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The State of México (often abbreviated to Edomex from Estado de México in Spanish) is a state in the center of the nation of Mexico. ... The Mexican Federal District, known in Spanish as Distrito Federal (D.F.), is an area within Mexico that is not part of any of the Mexican states, but an independent self-governing city-state and the seat of the Federal Government. ... Puebla is the name of a city and a state in Mexico. ... Veracruz is the name of a city and a state in Mexico. ... This article is about the Mexican state. ... Guerrero is a state in the United Mexican States. ... Morelos is one of the constituent states of Mexico. ... Oaxaca is the name of a city and a state in Mexico. ... Location within Mexico Country Capital Municipalities 113 Government  - Governor Lázaro Cárdenas Batel (PRD)  - Federal Deputies PAN:12  - Federal Senators Jesús Mendez Arroyo García (PAN) Juan Humberto Vasquez ( (PRI) Marko A. Cortés (PAN) Area Ranked 16th  - State 59,928 km²  (23,138. ... Categories: Stub | Mexican states ... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... Pre-contact distribution of Northern Uto-Aztecan languages (note: this map does not show the distribution in Mexico) Uto-Aztecan (also Uto-Aztekan) is a Native American language family. ... Nahuatl ( [1] is a term applied to a group of related languages and dialects of the Aztecan [2] branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family, indigenous to central Mexico. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... hello how are you This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Central Huasteca Nahuatl is a native American language spoken in the Mexico by a couple hundred thousand people. ... Mexicanero is the name used by the speakers of the variety of the Nahuatl language spoken in southern Durango to refer to their language. ... Eastern Huasteca Nahuatl is a Nahuatl variety spoken by about 410,000 people (as of 1991)[1] in the eastern part of the region of La Huasteca in Mexico, spread over 1,500 villages[1] in the state of Hidalgo, the northern part of Veracruz and the extreme north of... Highland Puebla Nahuatl (pweb-lah nah-wat) is a native American Nahuatl language spoken by ethnic Aztec people in northwestern Puebla state in México. ... Isthmus-Mecayapan Nahuatl is the name given to a modern variety of Nahuatl spoken by about 20,000 people in Mecayapan and Tatahuicapan, Veracruz, Mexico. ... Orizaba Nauatl is a native American language spoken in the southeastern Mexican provinces of Veracruz and Orizaba. ... Pipil or Nawat is the language originally spoken by the Pipils of western El Salvador and still remembered by some of them, mostly elderly. ... Tetelcingo Nahuatl, or Mösiehuali, is a Nahuatl variety spoken by 3,500 people (as of 1990) in the town of Tetelcingo and its colonias, Colonia Cuauhtémoc and Colonia Lázaro Cárdenas, in Morelos, Mexico. ... Western Huasteca Nauatl is a native American language spoken in central northern México. ... Pochutec is an extinct Uto-Aztecan language of the Aztecan branch which was spoken in around the town of Pochutla on the pacific coast of Oaxaca, Mexico. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... Image File history File links Nawatl. ... The Uto-Aztecan languages are a Native American language family. ... This article is about the culture area. ... The Nahua are a group of indigenous peoples of Mexico. ...


Groups speaking Nahuan languages have existed in central Mexico at least since 600 AD [3] and at the time of the Spanish conquest of Mexico one of these Nahuatl-speaking groups, the Aztecs dominated central Mexico. Because of the expansion of the Aztec Empire the dialect spoken by the Aztecs of Tenochtitlan had become a prestige language throughout Mesoamerica. With the arrival of the Spanish and the introduction of the Latin Alphabet Nahuatl became also a literary language with large amounts of chronicles, grammars, poetry, administrative documents and codices being written in the language during the 16th and 17th centuries[4]. This early literary language based on the Tenochtitlan dialect has been labelled Classical Nahuatl and is among the most studied and best documented languages of the Americas. Aztec empire The Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire was one of the most important campaigns in the Spanish colonization of America. ... The Aztecs is a term used for certain Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican peoples of Mexico. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... hello how are you This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ...


Today Nahuan dialects[5] are spoken by more than 1.5 million people in scattered villages, towns and rural areas[6], some of these dialects being mutually unintelligible. All of these dialects show influence from the Spanish language to various degrees, some of them much more than others. No modern dialects are identical with Classical Nahuatl, but those spoken in and around the Valley of Mexico are generally more closely related to it than are peripheral ones.[7]. Under the Mexican "Law of Linguistic Rights" Nahuatl is recognized as a "national language" with the same "validity" as Spanish and Mexico's other indigenous languages[8]. Nahuatl dialects and and dialect groupings The Uto Aztecan Nahuatl language can be grouped into two rough dialect continua, labelled the central and the peripheral dialects. ... The Valley of Mexico is a highlands plateau in central Mexico roughly coterminous with the present-day Distrito Federal and the eastern half of Estado de Mexico. ...


Nahuatl is a language with a complex morphology characterized by polysynthesis and agglutination, allowing the construction of long words with complex meaning out of several stems and affixes. Throughout the centuries of coexistence with the other Mesoamerican languages Nahuatl has been influenced by these and has become part of the Mesoamerican Linguistic Area. For other uses, see Morphology. ... Polysynthetic languages are highly synthetic languages, i. ... It has been suggested that Agglutination be merged into this article or section. ... Look up affix in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Genealogy Areal Uto-Aztecan —5000 BP* Soshonean (N Uto-Aztecan) —3500 BP Numic (Plateau group) —2000 BP C Plateau Soshoni [SHH] Comanche [COM] Paramint [PAR] S Plateau Ute-Chemehuevi (S Paiute) [UTE] Kawaiisu [KAW] W Plateau Mono [MON] Paiute (Northern Paiute) [PAO] Takic ( Southern Californian) —2400... // The Mesoamerican Linguistic Area is a sprachbund containing many of the languages natively spoken in the cultural area of Mesoamerica. ...


Many words from Nahuatl have been borrowed into Spanish and further on into hundreds of other languages. These are mostly words for concepts indigenous to central Mexico which the Spanish heard mentioned for the first time by their Nahuatl names. English words of Nahuatl origin include "tomato" from Nahuatl tōmatl, "avocado" from Nahuatl ahuacatl, and "chili" from Nahuatl chīlli. For other uses, see Tomato (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Mill. ... Chili (also spelled Chilli) may refer to: Chili pepper, the fruit and plant of any one of several hot species of the genus Capsicum Chili con carne or Chili sin carne, a spicy stew-like dish traditionally made with chili peppers and beef Cincinnati style chili Chili powder, a spice...

Contents

History

Precolumbian Period

Archaeological, historical and linguistic evidence suggest that the speakers of Nahuatl languages originally came from the northern Mexican deserts and migrated into central Mexico in several waves.[9] Before the Nahuan languages entered Mesoamerica they were probably spoken in northwestern Mexico alongside the Coracholan languages(Cora and Huichol).[10] The first group to split from the main group were the Pochutec who went on to settle on the Pacific coast of Oaxaca possibly as early as 400 AD[11] From ca 600 AD Nahuan speakers quickly rose to power in central Mexico and expanded into areas earlier occupied by speakers of Oto-Manguean, Totonacan and Huastec.[12]. Also some speakers of Nahuan moved south as far as El Salvador and Panama[13] becoming the ancestors of the speakers of modern Pipil.[14] The earliest migrations are thought to correspond to the modern peripheral dialects some of which are relatively conservative and do not display much influence from the central dialects.[15] The Cora language is an indigenous language of Mexico, spoken by the ethnic group widely known as the Cora but who refers to themselves as Naáyarite. ... Huichol yarn painting The Huichol are an indigenous ethnic group of Western Central Mexico that live in the Sierra Madre Occidental. ... Pochutec is an extinct Uto-Aztecan language of the Aztecan branch which was spoken in around the town of Pochutla on the pacific coast of Oaxaca, Mexico. ... Catedral de Santo Domingo The Free and Sovereign State of Oaxaca or simply Oaxaca   is one of the 31 states of Mexico, located in the southern part of Mexico, west of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. ... Oto-Manguean languages (also Otomanguean) are a large family comprised of several families of Native American languages. ... The Totonacan Languages are a family of closely-related languages spoken by approximately 200,000 speakers in the states of Veracruz, Puebla, and Hidalgo in Mexico. ... The Wastek or Huastec language is a Mayan language of Mexico, spoken by the Huastecs living in rural areas of San Luis Potosí and northern Veracruz. ... Pipil or Nawat is the language originally spoken by the Pipils of western El Salvador and still remembered by some of them, mostly elderly. ...


Around 1000 AD Nahuatl speakers were dominant in the Valley of Mexico and far beyond, and migrations kept coming in from the north. One of the last of these migrations to arrive in the valley settled on an island in the Lake Texcoco and proceded to subjugate the surrounding tribes. This group were the Mexica who during the next 300 years founded an empire based in Tenochtitlan their island capital. Their political and linguistic influence came to reach well into Central America and it is well documented that among several non-Nahuan ethnic groups, such as the K'iche' Maya, Nahuatl became a prestige language used for long distance trade and spoken by the elite groups. Lake Texcoco is a lake in Mexico. ... The word Aztec is usually used as a historical term, although some contemporary Nahuatl speakers would consider themselves Aztecs. ... The Kiche (or Quiché in Spanish spelling), are a Native American people, one of the Maya ethnic groups. ...


Colonial Period

With the arrival of the Spanish in 1519 the tables turned for the Nahuatl language and a new language was now in the prestige position. But the missionary effort undertaken by monks from various monastic orders principally the Fransciscans, Dominicans and Jesuits introduced the alphabet to the Nahuas and they were eager to learn to read and write, both in Spanish and in their own language. Within the first ten years after the Spanish arrival texts were being prepared in the Nahuatl language written with Latin characters. Franciscans is the common name used to designate a variety of mendicant religious orders of men or women tracing their origin to Francis of Assisi and following the Rule of St. ... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ...


Also during this time institutions of learning were opened, such as the Colegio de Santa Cruz de Tlatelolco which was inaugurated in 1536 and which taught both indigenous and classical European languages to both Indians and priests. And missionary grammarians undertook the job of writing grammars for the indigenous languages in order to teach priests. For example the first grammar of Nahuatl, written by Andrés de Olmos, was published in 1547 - three years before the first grammar of French, and by 1645 another four grammars of Nahuatl had been published: One by Alonso de Molina in 1571, one by Antonio del Rincón in 1595, one by Diego de Guzman in 1642 and the grammar today seen as being the most important by Horacio Carochi in 1645.[16] The Colegio de Santa Cruz de Tlatelolco in a contemporary rendition The Real Colegio de Santa Cruz in Tlatelolco, Mexico, was the first European school of higher learning in the Americas. ... Page from Olmos Arte de la Lengua Mexicana Andrés de Olmos (c. ... Alonso de Molina (1513-1579)was a Franciscan priest and grammarian, who wrote and published a wellknown dictionary of the Nahuatl language. ... Horacio Carochi (1586 - 1666) Jesuit priest and grammarian , born in Florence, Italy and died in Mexico. ...


In 1570 Philip II of Spain decreed that Nahuatl should become the official language of the colonies of New Spain in order to facilitate communication between the Spanish and natives of the colonies. Philip II (Spanish: Felipe II de Habsburgo; Portuguese: Filipe I) (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598) was the first official King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples and Sicily from 1554 until 1598, king consort of England (as husband of Mary I) from 1554 to 1558, Lord... map of New Spain in red, with territories claimed but not controlled in orange. ...


During the 16th and 17th centuries Classical Nahuatl was used as a literary language and a large corpus of texts from that period is in existence today. Texts from this period include histories, chronicles, poetry, theatrical works, Christian canonical works, ethnographic description and all kinds of administrative and mundane documents. During this period the Spanish allowed for a great deal of autonomy in the local administration of indigenous towns and in many Nahuatl speaking towns Nahuatl was the de facto administrative language both in writing and speech. Among the most important works from this period is the Florentine Codex, a 12-volume compendium of Aztec culture compiled by Franciscan Bernardino de Sahagún; Crónica Mexicayotl, a chronicle of the royal lineage of Tenochtitlan by Fernando Alvarado Tezozomoc, Cantares Mexicanos a collection of songs in Nahuatl, the Nahuatl-Spanish/Spanish-Nahuatl dictionary compiled by Alonso de Molina and the Huei tlamahuiçoltica a description in Nahuatl of the apparition of the Virgin of Guadalupe. Page 51 of Book IX from the Florentine Codex. ... Bernardino de Sahagún (1499-1590) was a Franciscan missionary to the Aztec (Náhua) people of Mexico. ... The Crónica Mexicayotl is a chronicle of the Aztec empire written in the Nahuatl language by Fernando Alvarado Tezozómoc around 1598. ... For other persons of the same name, see Tezozomoc. ... Alonso de Molina (1513-1579)was a Franciscan priest and grammarian, who wrote and published a wellknown dictionary of the Nahuatl language. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Nican Mopohua. ... Our Lady of Guadalupe (reproduction) San Juan Bautista, Coyoacán, DF Our Lady of Guadalupe is an aspect of the Virgin Mary, who, according to legend, appeared to Saint Juan Diego Cuauhtlatoatzin, an Aztec convert to Catholicism, in the current borough of Gustavo A. Madero, in Mexico City in 1531. ...


Throughout the colonial period grammars and dictionaries of indigenous languages were composed, but strangely the quality of these were highest in the initial period and declined towards the ends of the 18th century[17]. In practice the friars found that learning all the indigenous languages was impossible and they began to focus on Nahuatl. During this period the linguistic situation of Mesoamerica was relatively stable. However, in 1696 Charles II made a counter decree banning the use of any languages other than Spanish throughout the Spanish Empire. And in 1770 a decree with the avowed purpose of eliminating the indigenous languages was put forth by the Royal Cedula[18]. This marked the end of Nahuatl as a literary language. Charles II of Spain. ... An anachronous map of the Spanish Empire (1492-1898). ...


Modern Period

Throughout the modern period the situation for indigenous languages have become increasingly worse: Numbers of speakers for virtually all indigenous languages have decreased, and this is also the case for Nahuatl. Nahuatl is now mostly spoken in rural areas by the empoverished class of indigenous subsistence agriculturists. Since the early 20th century educational policies in Mexico have focused on "hispanification" of indigenous communities teaching only Spanish and discouraging the use of Nahuatl. Even so Nahuatl is spoken by well over a million people, most of whom are bilinguals but some of whom are monolingual, and Nahuatl is not as a whole endangered, even though some dialects are severely endangered and others have become extinct within the last ten years.


Geographic distribution

Main article: List of Nahuan languages
Distribution of Nahuatl speakers per state.
Distribution of Nahuatl speakers per state.

A range of Nahuatl dialects are currently spoken in an area stretching from the northern Mexican state of Durango to Veracruz in the south. Pipil[19], a Nahuatl dialect which happens to have its own name, is spoken as far south as El Salvador, by a small number of speakers[20]. Another Nahuan language, Pochutec, was spoken on the coast of Oaxaca until circa 1930[21]. Category: ... Image File history File links Nahuatl_in_Mexico. ... Image File history File links Nahuatl_in_Mexico. ... Nahuatl dialects and and dialect groupings The Uto Aztecan Nahuatl language can be grouped into two rough dialect continua, labelled the central and the peripheral dialects. ... Durango (IPA pronunciation ) is one of the constituent states of Mexico. ... The state of Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave is one of the 31 states that comprise Mexico. ... Pipil or Nawat is the language originally spoken by the Pipils of western El Salvador and still remembered by some of them, mostly elderly. ... Pochutec is an extinct Uto-Aztecan language of the Aztecan branch which was spoken in around the town of Pochutla on the pacific coast of Oaxaca, Mexico. ... Catedral de Santo Domingo The Free and Sovereign State of Oaxaca or simply Oaxaca   is one of the 31 states of Mexico, located in the southern part of Mexico, west of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. ... Look up Circa on Wiktionary, the free dictionary The Latin word circa, literally meaning about, is often used to describe various dates (often birth and death dates) that are uncertain. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The largest concentrations of Nahuatl speakers are found in the states of Puebla[22], Veracruz[23], Guerrero[24] and Hidalgo[25]. Significant populations are also found in México State, Morelos[26], and the Mexican Federal District. Smaller populations exist in Michoacán[27], and Durango[28]. In Jalisco and Colima the language has become extinct during the 20th century. Due to migrations within Mexico nahuatl groups of nahuatl speakers or even small language communities can be found in all of the Mexican states. Currently the influx of Mexican workers into the United States has created small Nahuatl-speaking communities in the United States, particularly in New York and California[29]. Puebla is the name of a city and a state in Mexico. ... Veracruz is the name of a city and a state in Mexico. ... Guerrero is a state in the United Mexican States. ... Hidalgo is a state in central Mexico, with an area of 20,502 km². In 2000 the state had a population of some 2,231,000 people. ... The State of México (often abbreviated to Edomex from Estado de México in Spanish) is a state in the center of the nation of Mexico. ... Morelos is one of the constituent states of Mexico. ... The Mexican Federal District, known in Spanish as Distrito Federal (D.F.), is an area within Mexico that is not part of any of the Mexican states, but an independent self-governing city-state and the seat of the Federal Government. ... Location within Mexico Country Capital Municipalities 113 Government  - Governor Lázaro Cárdenas Batel (PRD)  - Federal Deputies PAN:12  - Federal Senators Jesús Mendez Arroyo García (PAN) Juan Humberto Vasquez ( (PRI) Marko A. Cortés (PAN) Area Ranked 16th  - State 59,928 km²  (23,138. ... Durango (IPA pronunciation ) is one of the constituent states of Mexico. ... Location within Mexico Country Capital Municipalities 126 Largest City Guadalajara Government  - Governor Emilio González Márquez (PAN)  - Federal Deputies PAN: 18 PRI: 1  - Federal Senators Eva Contreras (PAN) Héctor Pérez (PAN) Ramiro Hernández (PRI) Area Ranked 6th  - State 30,534. ... Location within Mexico Country  Mexico Capital Colima Municipalities 10 Largest City Manzanillo Government  - Governor Jesus Silverio Cavazos Ceballos (PRI)  - Federal Deputies PAN: 2  - Federal Senators PAN: 2 PRI: 1 Area Ranked 29th  - State 5,191 km²  (2,004. ... This article is about the state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ...


Classification and terminology

Terminology

The terminology relating to the Nahuatl varieties is rather vague and confusing - many terms are applied with differing meanings, or the some groupings have several names. Sometimes older terms are substituted with newer terms or the speakers own name for their specific variety.


The word Nahuatl itself is a Nahuatl word which is probably derived from the word "nāwatlahtolli" - "clear language". The language was formerly called "Aztec" because it was spoken by the Aztecs, who however didn't call themselves Aztecs but Mexica, and who called their language Mexicacopa[30]. Nowadays the term "Aztec" is rarely used for modern Nahuan languages, but the term "Aztecan" is used for the Nahuatl languages and dialects when described as the second constituent part of the Uto-Aztecan language family - this group is also often called "Nahuan". The term "General Aztec" is used by some linguists [31] to refer to the Aztecan languages but not Pochutec. Pochutec is an extinct Uto-Aztecan language of the Aztecan branch which was spoken in around the town of Pochutla on the pacific coast of Oaxaca, Mexico. ...


The speakers of Nahuatl themselves often refer to their language as "Mexicano"[32] or a word derived from the Nahuatl word for "commoner" "mācehualli"[33]. The Pipil of El Salvador do not call their own language "Pipil" as most linguists do, but rather "Nawat"[34]. The Nahuas of Durango call their language "Mexicanero"[35]. Speakers of Nahuatl of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec call their language "mela'tajtol" - "the straight language". Some speech communities also use the word "Nahuatl" about their language although this seems to be a recent practice. It is common practice for linguists referring to specific dialects of nahuatl to speak of "Nahuatl" adding the village or area where it is spoken as a qualifier, e.g. "Nahuatl of Acaxochitlan".


Genealogy

The Nahuatl languages are related to the other Uto-Aztecan languages spoken by peoples such as the Hopi, Comanche, Paiute and Ute, Pima, Shoshone, Tarahumara, Yaqui, Tepehuán, Huichol and other peoples of western North America. They all belong to the Uto-Aztecan linguistic family which is one of the largest and best studied language families of the Americas consisting of at least 61 individual languages, and spoken from the United States to El Salvador. This is a grouping on the same order as Indo-European. Pre-contact distribution of Northern Uto-Aztecan languages (note: this map does not show the distribution in Mexico) Uto-Aztecan (also Uto-Aztekan) is a Native American language family. ... “Moki” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Comanche (disambiguation). ... “Piute” redirects here. ... The Utes (; yoots) are an ethnically related group of American Indians now living primarily in Utah and Colorado. ... The Akimel Oodham or Pima are a group of Native Americans living in an area consisting of what is now central and southern Arizona (USA) and Sonora (Mexico). ... This article is about the Native American tribe. ... The Tarahumara are a Native American people of northern Mexico, renowned for their long-distance running ability. ... The Yoeme or Yaqui are a border Native American people who live in the Sonoran Desert region, comprising part of the northern Mexican state of Sonora and the southwestern U.S. state of Arizona. ... The Tepehuán (Tepehuanes or Tepehuanos) are an indigenous ethnic group in northwest Mexico, whose villages at the time of Spanish conquest spanned a large territory along the Sierra Madre Occidental from Chihuahua and Durango in the north to Jalisco in the south. ... The Huichol are an indigenous ethnic group of Western Central Mexico that live in the Sierra Madre Occidental, in the states of Nayarit and Jalisco. ... Pre-contact distribution of Northern Uto-Aztecan languages (note: this map does not show the distribution in Mexico) Uto-Aztecan (also Uto-Aztekan) is a Native American language family. ... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ...


The first linguist to recognize the relationship between the northern Shoshonean languages with the southern Aztecan languages was Hubert Howe Bancroft, and the unity was confirmed in the classification of Daniel Garrison Brinton in 1891, the first classification to use the term "Uto-Aztecan" for the language family .[36] Pre-contact distribution of Northern Uto-Aztecan languages (note: this map does not show the distribution in Mexico) Uto-Aztecan (also Uto-Aztekan) is a Native American language family. ... This article needs to be updated. ... Daniel Garrison Brinton (May 13, 1837-July 31, 1899), was an American archaeologist and ethnologist. ...


The subgroupings of the Nahuan dialects and languages have been the subject of discussions among linguists for the past 50 years. In the early 20th century the first classifications of the Nahuan languages were proposed. Walter Lehmann suggested a basic split between languages which had the /tl/ sound and other which had /t/.[37] In 1939 another classification was proposed by B. L. Whorf which distinguished "Nahuat", the dialects with /t/ from "Aztec" the dialects with /tl/. at first the assupmtion of linguists was that /t/ was the original phoneme and had changed into /tl/ in some dialects only.[38] Another classification distinguishing between dialects with /tl/, /t/ and /l/ was proposed by Juan Hasler in the 1950'es but this and the earlier classifications have been criticized by Canger[39] for suffering from methodological flaws and for assuming that the t-tl-l trichotomy reflected an important historical division among the dialects. This assumption however was refuted by Lyle Campbell and Ronald Langacker in 1978 who showed that all the aztecan languages had shared the development of */t/ to /tl/ but that subsequently some dialects had changed the /tl/ back to /t/ or /l/. [40] Benjamin Lee Whorf (April 24, 1897 - July 26, 1941) was an American linguist. ... In human language, a phoneme is the theoretical representation of a sound. ... Lyle Campbell is a linguist at the University of Utah in Salt Lake City, Utah, and the director of the universitys Center for American Indian Languages (CAIL). ... Ronald W. Langacker (born December 27, 1942) is a professor emeritus in the field of linguistics at the University of California, San Diego, where he has taught since 1966. ...


The most recent authoritative classifications of the Nahuan languages have been done by Yolanda Lastra de Suárez[41] and by Una Canger[42]. Both classifications are based on dialectological research focusing on the delineation of isoglosses based on differences in phonology, grammar and vocabulary. The two classifcations are largely identical, but vary on the status of the dialects of La Huasteca which Canger places in the central group but are placed by Lastra in a group unto themselves. Una Canger (neé Una Rasmussen)(May 14, 1938 – ) is a danish linguist specializing in languages of Mesoamerica. ... Isoglosses on the Faroe Islands An isogloss is the geographical boundary of a certain linguistic feature, e. ... La Huasteca is a region in the northeastern part of Mexico, comprising mountains, hill country and lowlands, centered on the watershed of the Pánuco River, inland from the city of Tampico. ...


The classification below is based on that of Lastra in combination with the classification of Campbell[43] for the higher level groupings.

  • Uto-Aztecan 5000 BP*
    • Shoshonean (Northern Uto-Aztecan)
    • Sonoran**
    • Aztecan 2000 BP (a.k.a. Nahuan)
      • Pochutec — Coast of Oaxaca
      • General Aztec (Nahuatl)
        • Western periphery
        • Eastern Periphery
        • Huasteca
        • Center

See the Nahuatl dialects page for further discussion of the sub-categories of General Aztec, which are somewhat controversial. Nahuatl dialects and and dialect groupings The Uto Aztecan Nahuatl language can be grouped into two rough dialect continua, labelled the central and the peripheral dialects. ...

*Estimated split date by glottochronology (BP = Before the Present).
**Some scholars continue to classify Aztecan and Sonoran together under a separate group (called variously "Sonoran", "Mexican", or "Southern Uto-Aztecan"). There is increasing evidence that whatever degree of additional resemblance there might be between Aztecan and Sonoran when compared with Shoshonean is probably due to proximity contact, rather than to a common immediate parent stock other than Uto-Aztecan.

Glottochronology refers to methods in historical linguistics used to estimate the time at which languages diverged, based on the assumption that the basic (core) vocabulary of a language changes at a constant average rate. ...

Phonology of Nahuan languages

Historical phonological changes

The Nahuan subgroup of Uto-Aztecan is classified partly by a number of shared phonological changes from reconstructed Proto-Uto-Aztecan to the attested Nahuan languages. The changes shared between the Nahuan languages are the basis for the reconstruction of the intermediate stage of Proto-Nahuan. Some of these changes shared by all Nahuan languages are:

  • Proto-Uto-Aztecan *t becomes Proto-Nahuan lateral affricate *tl before Proto-Uto-Aztecan *a
  • Proto-Uto-Aztecan initial *p is lost in Proto-Nahuan.
  • Proto-Uto-Aztecan *u merges with *i into Proto-Nahuan *i
  • Proto-Uto-Aztecan sibilants *ts and *s split into *ts, *ch and *s, *ʃ respectively.
  • Proto-Uto-Aztecan fifth vowel reconstructed as *ɨ or *ə merged with *e into Proto-Nahuan *e
  • a large number of metatheses in which Proto-Uto-Aztecan roots of the shape *CVCV have become *VCCV.

The table below presents some of the changes that are reconstructed from Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Proto-Nahuan.


Table of reconstructed changes from Proto-Uto-Aztecan to Proto-Nahuan

PUA Proto-Nahuan
*ta:ka "man" *tla:ka-tla "man"
*pahi "water" *a:-tla "water"
*muki "to die" *miki "to die
*pu:li "to tie" *ilpi "to tie"
*nɨmi "to walk" *nemi "to live, to walk"

From the changes common to all Nahuan languages the subgroup has diversified somewhat and giving a complete overview of the phonologies of Nahuan languages is not suitable here. However, the table below shows a standardised phonemic inventory based on the inventory of Classical Nahuatl. Many modern dialects have undergone changes from proto-Nahuan that have resulted in different phonemic inventories.


Consonants

Table of Nahuatl consonants

  Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Stops p t   k /  ʔ (h)
Fricatives   s ʃ    
Affricates     / ts    
Approximants w l j    
Nasals m n      

Labials are consonants articulated either with both lips (bilabial articulation) or with the lower lip and the upper teeth (labiodental articulation). ... Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth. ... Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the middle or back part of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... Glottal consonants are consonants articulated with the glottis. ... The word stop, when used alone, has several possible meanings in the English language. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... An affricate is a consonant that begins like a stop (most often an alveovelar, such as [t] or [d]) and that doesnt have a release of its own, but opens directly into a fricative (or, in one language, into a trill). ... Approximants are speech sounds that could be regarded as intermediate between vowels and typical consonants. ... The nasals are a pair of bones in the skull of many animals. ...

Vowels

Table of Nahuatl vowels

  front central back
  long short long short long short
high i
mid e o
low a

Grammar

The Nahuatl languages are agglutinative, polysynthetic languages that make extensive use of compounding, incorporation and derivation. That is, they can add many different prefixes and suffixes to a root until very long words are formed. Very long verbal forms or nouns created through incorporation and accumulation of prefixes are not uncommon in literary works. This also means that new words can be created at a moment's notice. // The Nahuatl languages are agglutinative, non-configurational, headmarking, polysynthetic languages that make extensive use of compounding, noun incorporation and derivation. ... It has been suggested that Agglutination be merged into this article or section. ... Polysynthetic languages are highly synthetic languages, i. ... In linguistics, a prefix is a type of affix that precedes the morphemes to which it can attach. ... It has been suggested that Ending (linguistics) be merged into this article or section. ...


A minority of linguists consider the typology of Nahuatl to be oligosynthetic. This was first proposed by Benjamin Whorf in the early 20th Century. However, by the mid-1950s, this view was largely dismissed by the linguistic community. Linguistic typology is the typology that classifies languages by their features. ... Oligosynthetic (from the Greek ολίγοι, meaning few) is a hypothetical designation for a language using an extremely small array of morphemes, perhaps numbering only in the hundreds, which combine synthetically to form statements. ... Photo of Benjamin Lee Whorf as a young man. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... The 1950s decade refers to the years 1950 to 1959 inclusive. ...


Vocabulary

For a list of words of the Nahuatl language, see the Nahuatl language category of words in Wiktionary, the free dictionary
For a list of words of Nahuatl origin, see the Nahuatl derivations category of words in Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Lizard, snake, death day pictographs on a Stone of the Sun
Lizard, snake, death day pictographs on a Stone of the Sun

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... Image File history File links Lizard,Snake,Death. ... Image File history File links Lizard,Snake,Death. ... Look up day in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Pictogram for public toilets A pictogram or pictograph is a symbol which represents an object or a concept by illustration. ... The Aztec calendar was the calendar of the Aztec people of Pre-Columbian Mexico. ...

Loanwords from Nahuatl in other languages

Many Nahuatl words have been borrowed into the Spanish language, many of which are terms designating things indigenous to the American continent. Some of these loans are restricted to Mexican or Central American Spanish, but others have entered all the varieties of Spanish in the world and a number of them, such as "chocolate", "tomato" and "avocado" have made their way into many other languages via Spanish. For example, because of extensive Mexican-Philippine contacts during Spanish colonialism in both regions, there are an estimated 250 words of Nahuatl origin in the Tagalog language. Likewise a number of English words have been borrowed from Nahuatl through Spanish. Two of the most prominent are undoubtedly chocolate (from xocolātl, 'chocolate drink', perhaps literally 'bitter-water') and tomato (from (xi) tomatl). But there are others, such as coyote (coyotl), avocado (ahuacatl) and chile or chili (chilli). The brand name Chiclets is also derived from Nahuatl (tzictli 'sticky stuff, chicle'). Other English words from Náhuatl are: Aztec, (aztecatl); cacao (cacahuatl 'shell, rind'); mesquite (mizquitl); ocelot (ocelotl); shack (xacalli), and more. Words of Nahuatl origin have entered many European languages. ... This article is about the international language known as Spanish. ... The Manila Galleons were Spanish galleons that sailed once or twice per year across the Pacific Ocean between Manila in the Philippines and Acapulco in New Spain (now Mexico). ... Tagalog (pronunciation: ) is one of the major languages of the Republic of the Philippines. ... For other uses, see Chocolate (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tomato (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Coyote (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Mill. ... The chile pepper, chili pepper, or chilli pepper, or simply chile, is the fruit of the plant Capsicum from the nightshade family, Solanaceae. ... Chiclets are a brand of candy coated chewing gum made by Cadbury Adams. ... The Aztecs is a term used for certain Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican peoples of Mexico. ... For the town in French Guiana, see Cacao, French Guiana. ... Species Many; see text. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Ocelot range The Ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), also known as the Painted Leopard, McNenneys Wildcat or Manigordo (in Costa Rica), is a wild cat distributed over South and Central America and Mexico, but has been reported as far north as Texas and in Trinidad, in the... Shacks are most often used for storage or have been abandoned. ...


Many well-known toponyms also come from Nahuatl, including Mexico (mexihco) and Guatemala (cuauhtēmallan).


In Mexico many words for common everyday concepts attest to the close contact between Spanish and Nahuatl:

achiote, aguacate, ajolote, amate, atole, axolotl, ayate, cacahuate, camote, capulín, chapopote, chayote, chicle, chile, chipotle, chocolate, cuate, comal, copal, coyote, ejote, elote, epazote, escuincle, guacamole, guajolote, huipil, huitlacoche, hule, jícama, jícara, jitomate, malacate, mecate, metate, metlapil, mezcal, mezquite, milpa, mitote, molcajete, mole, nopal, ocelote, ocote, olote, paliacate, papalote, pepenar, petate, peyote, pinole, popote, pozole, quetzal, tamal, tianguis, tlacuache, tomate, zacate, zapote, zopilote.

(The persistent -te or -le endings on these words are Spanish reflexes of the Nahuatl 'absolutive' ending -tl, -tli, or -li, which appears on (most) nouns when they are not possessed or in the plural.)


Writing systems

At the time of the Spanish conquest, Aztec writing used mostly pictographs supplemented by a few ideograms. When needed, it also used syllabic equivalences; Father Durán recorded how the tlahcuilos (codex painters) could render a prayer in Latin using this system, but it was difficult to use as it was still in development. This writing system was adequate for keeping such records as genealogies, astronomical information, and tribute lists, but could not represent a full vocabulary of spoken language in the way that the writing systems of the old world or of the Maya civilization could. The Aztec writing was not meant to be read, but to be told; the elaborate codices were essentially pictographic aids for teaching, and long texts were memorized. Pictogram for public toilets A pictogram or pictograph is a symbol which represents an object or a concept by illustration. ... A Chinese character. ... Durán or Duran may mean one of the following: // Durán, Ecuador Durán Canton, a municipality Miguel Duran, Miami-Dade Firefighter George Duran, American chef and entertainer Roberto Duran, former professional boxer Jorge Durán, a screenwriter Sixto Durán Ballén, former president of Ecuador Dwight Duran... This article is about the pre-Columbian Maya civilization. ...


The Spanish introduced the Roman script, which was then utilized to record a large body of Aztec prose and poetry, a fact which somewhat mitigated the devastating loss of the thousands of Aztec manuscripts which were burned by the Spanish. Important lexical works (e.g. Molina's classic Vocabulario of 1571) and grammatical descriptions (of which Horacio Carochi's 1645 Arte is generally acknowledged the best) were produced using variations of this orthography. Carochi's ortography used two different accents: a macron to represent long vowels and a grave for the saltillo. Alonso de Molina (1513-1579) was a Franciscan priest and grammarian, who wrote and published a well-known dictionary of the Nahuatl language. ... Horacio Carochi (1586 - 1666) Jesuit priest and grammarian , born in Florence, Italy and died in Mexico. ... The orthography of a language specifies the correct way of writing in that language. ... A macron, from Greek (makros) meaning large, is a diacritic ¯ placed over a vowel originally to indicate that the vowel is long. ... The grave accent ( ` ) is a diacritic mark used in written Greek until 1982 (polytonic orthography), French, Catalan, Welsh, Italian, Vietnamese, Scottish Gaelic, Norwegian, Portuguese and other languages. ...


The classic orthography is not perfect, and in fact there were many variations in how it is applied, due in part to dialectal differences and in part to differing traditions and preferences that developed. (The writing of Spanish itself was far from totally standardized at the time.) Today, although almost all written Nahuatl uses some form of Latin-based orthography, there continue to be strong dialectal differences, and considerable debate and differing practices regarding how to write sounds even when they are the same. Major issues are

  • whether to follow Spanish in writing the /k/ sound sometimes as c and sometimes as qu or just to use k
  • how to write /kʷ/
  • what to do about /w/, the realization of which varies considerably from place to place and even within a single dialect
  • how to write the "saltillo", phonetically a glottal stop ([ʔ]) or an [h], which has been spelled with j, h, and a straight apostrophe ('), but which traditionally was often omitted in writing.

There are a number of other issues as well, such as This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

  • whether and how to represent vowel length
  • how and whether to represent sound variants (allophones) which sound like different Spanish sounds [phonemes], especially variants of o which come close to u
  • to what extent writing in one variant should be adapted towards what is used in other variants.

The Secretaría de Educación Pública (Ministry of Public Education) has adopted an alphabet for its bilingual education programs in rural communities in Mexico in which k is used and /w/ is written as u, and this decision has been controversial; SEP's modern ortography does not recognise saltillo nor long vowels so many people still prefer the classical ortography. The recently established (2004) "Instituto Nacional de Lenguas Indígenas" (INALI) will also be involved in these issues. The Secretaría de Educación Pública (SEP) is an organ of the Mexican government concentred on basic education of public and private schools in Mexico. ...

For the pictographic writing system used by the precolumbian Nahua peoples see also Aztec writing and Aztec Codices
For more detail about the different orthographies used to transliterate Nahuatl in the Latin script see Nahuatl transcription

The Nahuatl edition Wikipedia has adopted a classical Carochi-based writing system, including the use of long accents (macrons) for represent long vowels /ā/, /ē/, /ī/ and /ō/. The 25-letter alphabet is: Aztec or Nahuatl writing is a pictographic pre-Columbian writing system used in central Mexico by the Nahua peoples. ... THIS PAGE IS CURRENTLY UNDER CONSTRUCTION As with any other spoken language, there are several different manners in which Nahuatl can be transcribed:phonemic, phonetic, morphemic, syllabic, etc. ...

a c ch cu e hu i l* m n o p qu t tl tz x y z ā ē ī ō ll* h*

Notes:¨

  • "cu" and "hu" are inverted to "uc" and "uh" when occuring at the end of a syllable.
  • These (*) letters have not capital form except in foreign names.
  • "h" is used as saltillo.

Notes

  1. ^ This word has several variant spellings, which include: Náhuatl, Naoatl, Nauatl, Nahuatl, Nawatl. In Mexican Spanish the standard spelling is náhuatl with an accent on the first syllable. (The n is lower case because Spanish does not capitalize language names.)
  2. ^ also called Nahuan.
  3. ^ Suárez, 1983, p. 149
  4. ^ Canger, 1980, p. 13
  5. ^ See Mesoamerican languages#Language vs. Dialect for a discussion on the difference between "languages" and "dialects" in Mesoamerica
  6. ^ reports on nahuan languages
  7. ^ Canger, 1988
  8. ^ ley General de derechos lingüisticos de los pueblos indígenas {es icon}
  9. ^ Canger (1980, p.12)
  10. ^ Kaufman (2001, p.12).
  11. ^ Suárez (1983, p.149).
  12. ^ Kaufman (2001).
  13. ^ Fowler (1985, p.38).
  14. ^ Kaufman (2001).
  15. ^ Canger (1988, p.64).
  16. ^ Canger, 1980, p.14
  17. ^ Suárez 1983 p5
  18. ^ Suárez 1983 p165
  19. ^ Campbell 1985
  20. ^ According to the Nawat Language Recuperation Initiative homepage http://www.compapp.dcu.ie/~mward/irin/index.htm numbers maybe be anywhere from 20 to 200 speakers
  21. ^ Boas, 1917
  22. ^ Hill & Hill 1986; Brockaway 1979
  23. ^ Wolgemuth 2002
  24. ^ Flores Farfán, 1999
  25. ^ Beller & Beller, 1979
  26. ^ Tuggy, 1979
  27. ^ Sischo 1979
  28. ^ Canger, 2001
  29. ^ Flores Farfán (2002, p.229).
  30. ^ Launey, 1992, p. 116
  31. ^ Canger, 1988
  32. ^ Hill & Hill, 1986
  33. ^ This is the case for Nahuatl of Tetelcingo, Morelos whose speakers call their language "mösiehuali" (Tuggy 1979)
  34. ^ Campbell 1985
  35. ^ Canger, 2001
  36. ^ Campbell, 1997, p. 135.
  37. ^ Canger, 1988, p. 31
  38. ^ Canger, 1988, p. 34
  39. ^ Canger, 1988
  40. ^ Campbell & Langacker, 1978, 306
  41. ^ Lastra de Suárez, 1986
  42. ^ Canger, 1988
  43. ^ Campbell, 1997

Genealogy Areal Uto-Aztecan —5000 BP* Soshonean (N Uto-Aztecan) —3500 BP Numic (Plateau group) —2000 BP C Plateau Soshoni [SHH] Comanche [COM] Paramint [PAR] S Plateau Ute-Chemehuevi (S Paiute) [UTE] Kawaiisu [KAW] W Plateau Mono [MON] Paiute (Northern Paiute) [PAO] Takic ( Southern Californian) —2400...

Bibliography

Beller, Richard; and Patricia Beller (1979). "Huasteca Nahuatl", in Ronald W. Langacker (ed.): Studies in Uto-Aztecan Grammar 2: Modern Aztec Grammatical Sketches, Summer Institute of Linguistics Publications in Linguistics, 56. Dallas, TX: Summer Institute of Linguistics and the University of Texas at Arlington, pp.199–306. ISBN 0883120720. OCLC 6086368. 
Boas, Franz (1917). "El dialecto mexicano de Pochutla, Oaxaca". International Journal of American Linguistics 1 (1): pp.9–44. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISSN 0020-7071. OCLC 56221629.  (Spanish)
Campbell, Lyle (1985). The Pipil Language of El Salvador, Mouton Grammar Library (No. 1). Berlin: Mouton Publishers. ISBN 0-89925-040-8. OCLC 13433705. 
Campbell, Lyle (1997). American Indian Languages: The Historical Linguistics of Native America (Oxford Studies in Anthropological Linguistics, 4). New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-195-09427-1. 
Campbell, Lyle; and Ronald W. Langacker (1978). "Proto-Aztecan vowels: Parts I-III.". International Journal of American Linguistics 44: pp.85–102, 197–210, 262–79. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISSN 0020-7071. 
Carochi, Horacio [1645] (1983). Arte de la lengua mexicana: con la declaración de los adverbios della (Reprint), México D.F.: Porrúa.  (Spanish) (Nahuatl)
Canger, Una (1980). Five Studies Inspired by Náhuatl Verbs in -oa, Travaux du Cercle Linguistique de Copenhague, Vol. XIX. Copenhagen: The Linguistic Circle of Copenhagen; distributed by C.A. Reitzels Boghandel. ISBN 87-7421-254-0. OCLC 7276374. 
Canger, Una (1988). "Nahuatl dialectology: A survey and some suggestions". International Journal of American Linguistics 54 (1): pp.28–72. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISSN 0020-7071. 
Canger, Una (2001). Mexicanero de la Sierra Madre Occidental, Archivo de Lenguas Indígenas de México, #24. México D.F.: El Colegio de México. ISBN 968-12-1041-7. OCLC 49212643.  (Spanish)
Dakin, Karen (1982). La evolución fonológica del Protonáhuatl. México D.F.: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Instituto de Investigaciones Filológicas. ISBN 968-58-0292-0. OCLC 10216962.  (Spanish)
Flores Farfán, José Antonio (1999). Cuatreros Somos y Toindioma Hablamos. Contactos y Conflictos entre el Náhuatl y el Español en el Sur de México. Tlalpán D.F.: Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Superiores en Antropología Social. ISBN 968-49-6344-0. OCLC 42476969.  (Spanish)
Flores Farfán, José Antonio (2002). "The Use of Multimedia and the Arts in Language Revitalization, Maintenance, and Development: The Case of the Balsas Nahuas of Guerrero, Mexico" (PDF) in Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Stabilizing Indigenous Languages (7th, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, May 11–14, 2000). Barbara Jane Burnaby and John Allan Reyhner (Eds.) Indigenous Languages across the Community: pp.225–236, Flagstaff, AZ: Center for Excellence in Education, Northern Arizona University. ISBN 0-9670554-2-3. OCLC 95062129. 
Fowler, William R., Jr. (1985). "Ethnohistoric Sources on the Pipil Nicarao: A Critical Analysis". Ethnohistory 32 (1): pp.37–62. Durham, NC: Duke University Press and the American Society for Ethnohistory. ISSN 0014-1801. OCLC 62217753. 
Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (Ed.) (2005). Ethnologue: Languages of the World (online version), Fifteenth edition, Dallas, TX: SIL International. ISBN 1-55671-159-X. OCLC 60338097. Retrieved on 2006-12-06. 
Hill, Jane H.; and Kenneth C. Hill (1986). Speaking Mexicano: Dynamics of Syncretic Language in Central Mexico. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press. ISBN 0-816-50898-4. OCLC 13126530. 
Kaufman, Terrence (2001). "The history of the Nawa language group from the earliest times to the sixteenth century: some initial results" (PDF). Project for the Documentation of the Languages of Mesoamerica. Retrieved on 2007-10-07.
Launey, Michel (1980). Introduction à la langue et à la littérature aztèques.  (French)
Launey, Michel (1992). Introducción a la lengua y a la literatura Náhuatl. México D.F.: UNAM.  (Spanish)
Olmos, Fray Andrés de [1547] (1993). Arte de la lengua mexicana concluído en el convento de San Andrés de Ueytlalpan, en la provincia de Totonacapan que es en la Nueva España (Reprint).  (Spanish)
Rincón, Antonio del [1595] (1885). Arte mexicana compuesta por el padre Antonio del Rincón (Reprint).  (Spanish)
Sahagún, Fray Bernardino de [ca. 1540–85] (1950&ndash71). in Charles Dibble and Arthur Anderson {eds.): Florentine Codex. General History of the Things of New Spain (Historia General de las Cosas de la Nueva España), vol I-XII. 
Sischo, William R. (1979). "Michoacán Nahual", in Ronald W. Langacker (ed.): Studies in Uto-Aztecan Grammar 2: Modern Aztec Grammatical Sketches, Summer Institute of Linguistics Publications in Linguistics, 56. Dallas, TX: Summer Institute of Linguistics and the University of Texas at Arlington, pp.307–380. ISBN 0883120720. OCLC 6086368. 
Suárez, Jorge A. (1983). The Mesoamerian Indian Languages (Cambridge Languages Surveys). London: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-22834-4. 
Sullivan, Thelma D.; and Neville Stiles (1988). Compendium of Náhuatl Grammar. 
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Wimmer, Alexis (2006). Dictionnaire de la langue nahuatl classique (online version). (French) (Nahuatl)
Wolgemuth, Carl (2002). Gramática Náhuatl (melaʼtájto̱l) de los municipios de Mecayapan y tatahuicapan de Juárez, Veracruz, 2nd edition. 

SIL International is a non-profit, faith-based, scientific organization with the main purpose to study, develop and document lesser-known languages for the purpose of expanding linguistic knowledge, promoting world literacy and aiding minority language development. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Franz Boas Franz Boas (July 9, 1858 – December 21, 1942[1]) was one of the pioneers of modern anthropology and is often called the Father of American Anthropology. Born in Germany, Boas worked for most of his life in North America. ... The International Journal of American Linguistics (IJAL) is an academic journal devoted to the study of the indigenous languages of the Americas. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Lyle Campbell is a linguist at the University of Utah in Salt Lake City, Utah, and the director of the universitys Center for American Indian Languages (CAIL). ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Lyle Campbell is a linguist at the University of Utah in Salt Lake City, Utah, and the director of the universitys Center for American Indian Languages (CAIL). ... Lyle Campbell is a linguist at the University of Utah in Salt Lake City, Utah, and the director of the universitys Center for American Indian Languages (CAIL). ... Ronald W. Langacker (born December 27, 1942) is an American linguist and professor emeritus at the University of California, San Diego. ... The International Journal of American Linguistics (IJAL) is an academic journal devoted to the study of the indigenous languages of the Americas. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... Horacio Carochi (1586 - 1666) Jesuit priest and grammarian , born in Florence, Italy and died in Mexico. ... Una Canger (neé Una Rasmussen)(May 14, 1938 – ) is a danish linguist specializing in languages of Mesoamerica. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... The International Journal of American Linguistics (IJAL) is an academic journal devoted to the study of the indigenous languages of the Americas. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... The National Autonomous University of Mexico (Spanish: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, commonly abbreviated as UNAM) was founded in 1551, making it the oldest in America. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... SIL International is a worldwide non-profit evangelical Christian organization whose main purpose is to study, develop and document lesser-known languages in order to expand linguistic knowledge, promote literacy and aid minority language development. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 6 is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The University of Arizona Press is a publishing house and a department of the University of Arizona in Tucson, Arizona that engages in academic publishing. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Terrence Kaufman is an American linguist specializing in documentation of unwritten languages, Mesoamerican historical linguistics and language contact phenomena. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Page from Olmos Arte de la Lengua Mexicana Andrés de Olmos (c. ... Bernardino de Sahagún (1499-1590) was a Franciscan missionary to the Aztec (Náhua) people of Mexico. ... Page 51 of Book IX from the Florentine Codex. ... SIL International is a non-profit, faith-based, scientific organization with the main purpose to study, develop and document lesser-known languages for the purpose of expanding linguistic knowledge, promoting world literacy and aiding minority language development. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... SIL International is a non-profit, faith-based, scientific organization with the main purpose to study, develop and document lesser-known languages for the purpose of expanding linguistic knowledge, promoting world literacy and aiding minority language development. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ...

Further reading

  • Andrews, J. Richard, Introduction to Classical Nahuatl, Austin, Texas, 1975 (1st ed.), 2000 (2nd ed.).
  • de Arenas, Pedro: Vocabulario manual de las lenguas castellana y mexicana. [1611] Reprint: México 1982
  • Campbell, Joe and Frances Karttunen, Foundation course in Náhuatl grammar. Austin 1989
  • Garibay K., Angel María : Llave de Náhuatl. Ed. Porrúa, SC706, México 2004.
  • Garibay K., Angel María, Historia de la literatura náhuatl. México 1953
  • Garibay K., Angel María, Poesía náhuatl. vol 1-3 México 1964
  • Garibay K. Angel María, Panorama Literario de los Pueblos Nahuas., Ed. Porrúa, SC022, México, 2001.
  • von Humboldt, Wilhelm (1767–1835): Mexicanische Grammatik. Paderborn/München 1994
  • Jiménez, Doña Luz (?–1965): Life and Death in Milpa Alta. Norman 1972
  • Karttunen, Frances, An analytical dictionary of Náhuatl. Norman 1992
  • Karttunen, Frances, Between worlds: interpreters, guides, and survivors. New Brunswick 1994
  • Karttunen, Frances, Náhuatl in the Middle Years: Language Contact Phenomena in Texts of the Colonial Period. Los Angeles 1976
  • Kaufman, Terrence, (2001) Nawa linguistic prehistory, published at website of the Mesoamerican Language Documentation Project
  • de León-Portilla, Ascensión H.: Tepuztlahcuilolli, Impresos en Náhuatl: Historia y Bibliografia. Vol. 1-2. México 1988
  • León-Portilla, Miguel : Literaturas Indígenas de México. Madrid 1992
  • Lockhart, James: Nahuatl as written : lessons in older written Nahuatl, with copious examples and texts, Stanford 2001
  • Lockhart, James (ed): We people here. Náhuatl Accounts of the conquest of Mexico. Los Angeles 1993
  • de Molina, Fray Alonso: Vocabulario en Lengua Castellana y Mexicana y Mexicana y Castellana. [1555] Reprint: Porrúa México 1992
  • Siméon, Rémi: Dictionnaire de la Langue Náhuatl ou Mexicaine. [Paris 1885] Reprint: Graz 1963
  • Siméon, Rémi: Diccionario de la Lengua Náhuatl o Mexicana. [Paris 1885] Reprint: México 2001
  • Stiles, Neville Náhuatl in the Huasteca Hidalguense: A Case Study in the Sociology of Language PhD thesis, Centre for Latin American Linguistic Study, University of St. Andrews, Scotland. 1983
  • The Nahua Newsletter: edited by the Center for Latin American and Caribbean Studies of the Indiana University (Chief Editor Alan Sandstrom)
  • Estudios de Cultura Náhuatl: special interest-yearbook of the Instituto de Investigaciones Historicas (IIH) of the Universidad Autónoma de México (UNAM), Ed.: Miguel Leon Portilla

See also

This is a list of Spanish words that come from Indigenous languages of the Americas. ...

External links

Wikipedia
Nahuatl edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Look up nahuatl in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikibooks
Wikibooks has a book on the topic of

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Nahuatl Dictionary of Plant and Food Terms (276 words)
Nahuatl was the language of the Aztec empire, with many different indigenous
Words from Nahuatl are especially present in words referring to fruits,
Nahuatl’s largest influence has been on the Spanish language for obvious reasons.
Nahuatl language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1465 words)
Nahuatl (pronounced in two syllables, NA-watl ['na.watł]) is a term applied to some members of the Aztecan or Nahuan sub-branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family.
Nahuatl is related to the languages spoken by the Hopi, Comanche, Paiute or Ute, Pima, Shoshone, Tarahumara, Yaqui, Tepehuán, Huichol and other peoples of western North America, as they all belong to the Uto-Aztecan linguistic stock or language family.
A range of Nahuatl Dialects are currently spoken in an area stretching from the northern Mexican state of Durango to Tabasco in the south.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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