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Encyclopedia > Naguib Mahfouz
Naguib Mahfouz

Born December 11, 1911(1911-12-11)
Cairo, Egypt
Died August 30, 2006 (aged 94)
Cairo, Egypt
Occupation Novelist
Nationality Flag of Egypt Egypt
Influences Marcel Proust, Franz Kafka, James Joyce

Naguib Mahfouz (Arabic: نجيب محفوظ) (December 11, 1911August 30, 2006) was an Egyptian novelist who won the 1988 Nobel Prize for Literature who managed to modernize Arabic literature. He is regarded as one of the first writers of Arabic literature, along with Tawfiq al-Hakim, to explore themes of existentialism.[1] Dr. Professor Naguib Mikhail Mahfouz (5 January 1882 - 25 July 1974) (Arabic: نجيب باشا محفوظ ) was an Egyptian pioneer in Obstetric fistula and is also known as the father of Obstetrics and Gynaecology in Egypt. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Naguib_Mahfouz. ... December 11 is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Nickname: Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 214 km²  (82. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nickname: Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 214 km²  (82. ... This article is about work. ... In English usage, nationality is the legal relationship between a person and a country. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Egypt. ... “Proust” redirects here. ... “Kafka” redirects here. ... This article is about the writer and poet. ... Arabic redirects here. ... December 11 is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A novel is an extended work of written, narrative, prose fiction, usually in story form; the writer of a novel is a novelist. ... The Nobel Prize in literature is awarded annually to an author from any country who has produced the most outstanding work of an idealistic tendency. The work in this case generally refers to an authors work as a whole, not to any individual work, though individual works are sometimes... Tawfiq al-Hakim (1898-1987) was an Egyptian thinker, author, novelist and dramatist who played a pivotal role in the creation of modern Arabic literature from the 1930s onwards. ... Existentialism is a philosophical movement which claims that individual human beings create the meanings and essence of their own lives. ...

Contents

Biography

Born in the Gamaliya quarter of Cairo, Mahfouz was named after Professor Naguib Pasha Mahfouz (1882-1974), the renowned Coptic physician who delivered him. The family lived in two popular districts of the town, in al-Jamaliyyah, from where they moved in 1924 to al-Abbasiya, then a new Cairo suburb; both have provided the backdrop for many of the author's writings. His father, whom Mahfouz described as having been "old-fashioned", was a civil servant, and Mahfouz eventually followed in his footsteps. In his childhood Mahfouz read extensively. His mother often took him to museums and Egyptian history later became a major theme in many of his books. Nickname: Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 214 km²  (82. ... Naguib Mikhail Mahfouz was born on the January 5, 1882 in the city of Mansoura in the delta of Egypt. ...


The 1919 revolution in Egypt had a strong effect on Mahfouz, although he was at the time only seven years old. From the window he often saw English soldiers firing at the demostrators, men and women. "You could say," he later noted, "that the one thing which most shook the security of my childhood was the 1919 revolution." After competing his secondary education, Mahfouz entered the University of Cairo, where he studied philosophy, graduating in 1934. By 1936, having spent a year working on an M.A., he decided to become a professional writer. Mahfouz then worked as a journalist at Ar-Risala, and contributed to Al-Hilal and Al-Ahram. The major Egyptian influence on Mahfouz's thoughts of science and socialism in the 1930s was Salama Musa, the Fabian intellectual. A longtime civil servant, Mahfouz served in the Ministry of Mortmain Endowments, then as Director of Censorship in the Bureau of Art, Director of the Foundation for the Support of the Cinema, and finally as a consultant to the Ministry of Culture. He published 34 novels, over 350 short stories, dozens of movie scripts and five plays over a 70-year career. Many of his works have been made into Arabic-language films. Mahfouz left his post as the Director of Censorship and was appointed Director of the Foundation for the Support of the Cinema. He was a contributing editor for the leading newspaper Al-Ahram and in 1969 he became a consultant to the Ministry of Culture, retiring in 1972. He has been a board member of Dar al Ma'aref publishing house. Many of his novels were serialized in Al-Ahram, and his writings also appeared in his weekly column, 'Point of View'. Before the Nobel Prize only a few of his novels had appeared in the West.


Mahfouz did not shrink from controversy outside of his work. Due to his outspoken support for Sadat's Camp David peace treaty with Israel, his books were banned in many Arab countries until after he won the Nobel prize. Celebrating the signing of the Camp David Accords: Menachem Begin, Jimmy Carter, Anwar Al Sadat. ...


Like many Egyptian writers and intellectuals, Mahfouz was on a "death list" by Islamic fundamentalists. He defended Salman Rushdie after the Iranian spiritual leader Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini condemned him to death, but later he criticized Rushdie's Satanic Verses as "insulting" to Islam.This comment lead many to believe that he spoke against the barbarian-like attitude towards Rushdie, though he personally believed the book didn't give the right image about Islam.


In 1989, after Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini's fatwa calling for Salman Rushdie and his publishers to be killed, Mahfouz called Khomeini a terrorist.[2] Shortly after Mahfouz joined 80 other Arab intellectuals in declaring that "no blasphemy harms Islam and Muslims so much as the call for murdering a writer."[3] The Rushdie incident also provoked fundamentalist Muslims to regret not having made an example of Mahfouz, one telling a journalist Grand Ayatullah Sayid Ruhullah Musawi Khomeini ( ) (Persian: RÅ«ullāh MÅ«sawÄ« KhumaynÄ« (September 21, 1900 [1]– June 3, 1989) was a senior Shi`i Muslim cleric, Islamic philosopher and marja (religious authority), and the political leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution which saw the overthrow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi... A fatwā (Arabic: ; plural fatāwā Arabic: ), is a considered opinion in Islam made by a mufti, a scholar capable of issuing judgments on Sharia (Islamic law). ... Ahmed Salman Rushdie KBE (Hindi: Urdu: سلمان رشدی; born 19 June 1947) is a British-Indian novelist and essayist. ... The Satanic Verses (1988), 2006 Vintage paperback edition For the novel by Salman Rushdie, see The Satanic Verses. ... For the black metal band, see Blasphemy (band). ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...

If only we had behaved in the proper Islamic manner with Naguib Mahfouz, we would not have been assailed by the appearance of Salman Rushdie. Had we killed Naguib Mahfouz, Salman Rushdie would not have appeared.[4]

Death threats against Mafouz followed, including one from the "blind sheikh," Egyptian theologian Omar Abdul-Rahman. Like Rushdie, Mahfouz was given police protection, but in 1994 Islamic extremists almost succeeded in assassinating the 82-year-old novelist by stabbing him in the neck outside his Cairo home. He survived, permanently affected by damage to nerves in his right hand. Subsequently, he lived under constant bodyguard protection. Finally, in the beginning of 2006, the novel was published in Egypt with a preface written by Ahmad Kamal Aboul-Magd. Sheikh Omar Abdel Rahman / Umar Abd al-Rahman / the ‘Blind Sheikh’ was convicted in 1996 with several others for conspiring to bomb a number of New York City landmarks. ...


Prior to his death, Mahfouz was the oldest living Nobel Literature laureate and the third oldest of all time, trailing only Bertrand Russell and Halldor Laxness. At the time of his death, he was the only Arabic-language writer to have won the Nobel Prize for Literature. Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970), was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, advocate for social reform, and pacifist. ... Halldór Kiljan Laxness (born Halldór Guðjónsson) (April 23, 1902 - February 8, 1998) was a famous 20th century Icelandic author of such novels as Independent People, The Atom Station, Paradise Reclaimed, Icelands Bell, The Fish Can Sing and World Light. ... The Nobel Prize in literature is awarded annually to an author from any country who has produced the most outstanding work of an idealistic tendency. The work in this case generally refers to an authors work as a whole, not to any individual work, though individual works are sometimes...


In July 2006, Mahfouz sustained an injury to his head as a result of a fall. He remained ill until his death on August 30, 2006 in a Cairo hospital. is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In his old age Mahfouz became nearly blind, and though he continued to write, had difficulties in holding a pen or a pencil. He also had to abandon his daily habit of meeting his friends at coffeehouses. Prior to his death, he suffered from a bleeding ulcer, kidney problems, and cardiac failure.


Mahfouz was accorded a state funeral with full military honors on August 31, 2006 in Cairo. His funeral took place in the Al Rashdan Mosque in Nasr City on the outskirts of Cairo. is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nickname: Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 214 km²  (82. ... Nasr City is a district of Cairo,Egypt. ...


Mahfouz once dreamed that all the social classes of Egypt, including the very poor, would join his funeral procession. However, attendance was tightly restricted by the Egyptian government amid protest by mourners.


Writing Style and Themes

Most of Mahfouz's early works were set in al-Jamaliyyah. ABATH AL-AQDAR|Mockery of the Fates (1939), RADUBIS (1943), and KIFAH TIBAH|The Struggle of Tyba (1944), were historical novels, written as part of a larger unfulfilled project of 30 novels. Inspired by Sir Walter Scott (1771-1832) Mahfouz planned to cover the whole history of Egypt in a series of books. However, following the third volume, Mahfouz shifted his interest to the present, the psychological impact of the social change on ordinary people.


Mahfouz's central work in the 1950s was The Cairo Trilogy, an emmense monumental work of 1,500 pages, which the author completed before the July Revolution. The novels were titled with the street names Palace Walk, Palace of Desire, and Sugar Street. Mahfouz set the story in the parts of Cairo where he grew up. They depict the life of the patriarch al-Sayyid Ahmad Abd al-Jawad and his family over three generations in Cairo from WW I to the 1950s, when King Farouk I was overthrown. With its rich variety of characters and psychological understanding, the work connected Mahfouz to such authors as Balzac, Dickens, Tolstoy, and Galsworthy. Mahfouz ceased to write for some years after finishing the trilogy. Disappointed in the Nasser régime, which had overthrown the monarchy in 1952, he started publishing again in 1959, now prolifically pouring out novels, short stories, journalism, memoirs, essays, and screenplays. The Cairo Trilogy is a trilogy of novels set in Cairo, Egypt. ... Farouk of Egypt King Farouk of Egypt (February 11, 1920 – March 18, 1965) was the penultimate King of Egypt, succeeding his father, Fuad I, in 1936. ...


Chitchat on the Nile (1966) is one of his most popular novels. It was later made into a film featuring a cast of top actors during the time of president Anwar al-Sadat. The film/story criticizes the decadence of Egyptian society during the era of Gamal Abdel Nasser. It was banned by Sadat to prevent provocation of Egyptians who still loved former president Nasser. Copies were hard to find prior to the late 1990s. Mahfouz's prose is characterised by the blunt expression of his ideas. He has written works covering a broad range of topics, including socialism, homosexuality, and God. Writing about some of the subjects was prohibited in Egypt. Thartharah fawqa al-Nīl (Arabic: ثرثرة فوق النيل) (Adrift on the Nile) is a film based on the novel by Egyptian Nobel Laureate Naguib Mahfouz. ... Field Marshal Muhammad Anwar al-Sadat (محمد أنورالسادات in Arabic) (December 25, 1918 – October 6, 1981) was an Egyptian soldier and politician, who served as the third President of Egypt from October 15, 1970 until his assassination on October 6, 1981. ... Gamal Abdel Nasser (Arabic: - ; Masri: جمال عبد الناصر - also transliterated as Jamal Abd al-Naser, Jamal Abd an-Nasser and other variants; January 15, 1918 – September 28, 1970) was the President of Egypt from 1954 until his death in 1970. ... Gamal Abdel Nasser (Arabic: - ; Masri: جمال عبد الناصر - also transliterated as Jamal Abd al-Naser, Jamal Abd an-Nasser and other variants; January 15, 1918 – September 28, 1970) was the President of Egypt from 1954 until his death in 1970. ...


The Children of Gebelaawi (1959) one of Mahfouz's best known works, has been banned in Egypt for alleged blasphemy over its allegorical portrayal of God and the monotheistic Abrahamic faiths of Judaism, Christianity and Islam. It portrayed the patriarch Gebelaawi and his children, average Egyptians living the lives of Cain and Abel, Moses, Jesus, and Mohammed. Gebelaawi has built a mansion in an oasis in the middle of a barren desert; his estate becomes the scene of a family feud which continues for generations. "Whenever someone is depressed, suffering or humiliated, he points to the mansion at the top of the alley at the end opening out to the desert, and says sadly, 'That is our ancestor's house, we are all his children, and we have a right to his property. Why are we starving? What have we done?' " The book was banned throughout the Arab world, except in the Lebanon. In the 1960s, Mahfouz further developed its theme that humanity is moving further away from God in his existentialist novels. In The Thief and the Dogs (1961) he depicted the fate a Marxist thief, who has been released from prison and plans revenge. Ultimately he is murdered in a cemetery. This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Monotheism (in Greek monon = single and Theos = God) is the belief in a single, universal, all-encompassing deity. ... An Abrahamic religion (also referred to as desert monotheism) is any religion derived from an ancient Semitic tradition attributed to Abraham, a great patriarch described in the Torah, the Bible and the Quran. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...


In the 1960s and 1970s Mahfouz started to construct his novels more freely and use interior monologue. In Miramar (1967) he developed a form of multiple first-person narration. Four narrators, among them a Socialist and a Nasserite opportunist, represent different political views. In the center of the story is an attractive servant girl. In Arabian Nights and Days (1981) and in The Journey of Ibn Fatouma (1983) Mahfouz drew on traditional Arabic narratives as subtexts. Akhenaten, Dweller in Truth (1985) is about conflict between old and new religious truths, a theme with which Mika Waltari dealt in Finland in his historical novel Sinuhe (1945, trans. The Egyptian).


Many of his novels were first published in serialized form, including Children of Gebelawi and Midaq Alley which was adapted into a Mexican film starring Salma Hayek (El callejón de los milagros). Children of Gebelawi (alternative title: Children of the Alley; transliterated Arabic: Awlad Haratina) is a novel by the Egyptian writer and Nobel laureate Naguib Mahfouz. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... The history of Mexican cinema goes back to the beginning of the 20th century, when several enthusiasts of the new medium documented historical events – most particularly the Mexican Revolution – and produced some movies that have been only recently been rediscovered. ... Salma Hayek Jiménez (born September 2, 1966) is an Academy Award, Golden Globe and Emmy-nominated Mexican/American actress, Daytime Emmy-winning director, and an Emmy-nominated tv and film producer. ... Orinal poster The scene that inspired the movie poster Susanita (left, Margarita Sanz) and Eusebia (Delia Casanova) El callejón de los milagros (Spanish for The alley of miracles, release in the United States as Midaq Alley and as Miracle Alley in Australia) is a 1994 film of the cinema...


Mahfouz described the development of his country in the 20th-century. He combined intellectual and cultural influences from East and West - his own exposure to the literarature of non-Arabic culture began in his youth with the enthusiastic consumption of Western detective stories, Russian classics, and such modernist writers as Proust, Kafka and Joyce. Mahfouz's stories, written in the florid classical Arabic, are almost always set in the heavily populated urban quarters of Cairo, where his characters, mostly ordinary people, try cope with the modernization of society and the temptations of Western values.


Works

  • Old Egypt (1932) مصر القديمة
  • Whisper of Madness (1938)همس الجنون
  • Mockery of the Fates (1939) عبث الأقدار
  • Rhadopis of Nubia (1943) رادوبيس
  • The Struggle of Tyba (1944) كفاح طيبة
  • Modern Cairo (1945) القاهرة الجديدة
  • Khan al-Khalili (1945) خان الخليلى
  • Midaq Alley (1947) زقاق المدق
  • The Mirage (1948) السراب
  • The Beginning and The End (1950) بداية ونهاية
  • Cairo Trilogy (1956-57) الثلاثية
  • Palace Walk (1956) بين القصرين
  • Palace of Desire (1957) قصر الشوق
  • Sugar Street (1957) السكرية
  • Children of Gebelawi (1959) أولاد حارتنا
  • The Thief and the Dogs (1961) اللص والكلاب
  • Quail and Autumn (1962) السمان والخريف
  • God's World (1962) دنيا الله
  • Zaabalawi (1963)
  • The Search (1964) الطريق
  • The Beggar (1965) الشحاذ
  • Adrift on the Nile (1966) ثرثرة فوق النيل
  • Miramar (1967) ميرامار
  • The Pub of the Black Cat (1969) خمارة القط الأسود
  • A story without a beginning or an ending (1971)حكاية بلا بداية ولا نهاية
  • The Honeymoon (1971) شهر العسل
  • Mirrors (1972) المرايا
  • Love under the rain (1973) الحب تحت المطر
  • The Crime (1973) الجريمة
  • al-Karnak (1974) الكرنك
  • Respected Sir (1975) حضرة المحترم
  • The Harafish (1977) ملحمة الحرافيش
  • Love above the Pyramid Plateau (1979) الحب فوق هضبة الهرم
  • The Devil Preaches (1979) الشيطان يعظ
  • Love and the Veil (1980) عصر الحب
  • Arabian Nights and Days (1981) ليالى ألف ليلة
  • Wedding Song (1981) أفراح القبة
  • One hour remains (1982) الباقي من الزمن ساعة
  • The Journey of Ibn Fattouma (1983) رحلة إبن فطومة
  • Akhenaten, Dweller in Truth (1985) العائش فى الحقيقة
  • The Day the Leader was Killed (1985) يوم مقتل الزعيم
  • Fountain and Tomb (1988)
  • Echoes of an Autobiography (1994)
  • Dreams of the Rehabilitation Period (2004) أحلام فترة النقاهة
  • The Seventh Heaven (2005)

Cairo, channel between Roda Island and Old Cairo, Egypt Old Cairo (Egyptian Arabic: Masr el Adīma) is a part of Cairo that contains the remnants of those cities which were capitals before Cairo, such as Fustat, as well as some other elements from the citys varied history. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... The Cairo Trilogy is a trilogy of novels set in Cairo, Egypt. ... Palace Walk (Arabic title بين القصرين) is a novel by Egyptian writer Naguib Mahfouz, and the first installment of Mahfouzs Cairo Trilogy. ... The Cairo Trilogy is a trilogy of novels set in Cairo, Egypt. ... Children of Gebelawi (alternative title: Children of the Alley; transliterated Arabic: Awlad Haratina) is a novel by the Egyptian writer and Nobel laureate Naguib Mahfouz. ... The Thief and the Dogs is one of the Egyptian author Naguib Mahfouzs most celebrated works. ... The Search is a novel written and published by Nobel Prize-winning author Naguib Mahfouz in 1964. ... The Beggar is a 1965 novella by Naguib Mahfouz about the failure to find meaning in existence. ... Thartharah fawqa al-Nīl (Arabic: ثرثرة فوق النيل) (Adrift on the Nile) is a film based on the novel by Egyptian Nobel Laureate Naguib Mahfouz. ... The Harafish is a series of novels written by Naguib Mahfouz. ... Arabian Nights and Days is a novel by Egyptian writer Naguib Mahfouz, winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature. ... The Journey of Ibn Fattouma is a novel written and published by Nobel Prize-winning author Naguib Mahfouz in 1983. ... Akhenaten, Dweller in Truth is a novel written and published by Nobel Prize-winning author Naguib Mahfouz in 1985. ... The Day the Leader was Killed (orig. ...

See also

African Writers: This is a list of literary figures from Africa, including poets, novelists, childrens writers, essayists, and scholars. ... This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... (A Beginning and an End) - 1960 بداية ونهاية An Egyptian film based on the novel by the same name, was the first film adapted from a novel written by Nobel Prize winner Naguib Mahfouz. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Haim Gordon. Naguib Mahfouz's Egypt: Existential Themes in His Writings. Retrieved on 2007-04-26.
  2. ^ Deseret Morning News editorial. "The legacy of a laureate", Deseret News, 7 September 2006. Retrieved on 2007-09-20. 
  3. ^ Le Monde, March 8, 1989
  4. ^ Yusu al-`Aquid, "`Al-Wudu` bi-Dima` Najib Mahfouz`" al-`Arab, July 3, 1989

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Alamgir Hashmi, The Worlds of Muslim Imagination (1986), ISBN 0-00-500407-1
  • Rasheed El-Enany, Naguib Mahfouz: The Pursuit of Meaning (1993), ISBN 0-415-07395-2

External links

Persondata
NAME Mahfouz, Naguib
ALTERNATIVE NAMES نجيب محفوظ (Arabic)
SHORT DESCRIPTION Novelist
DATE OF BIRTH December 11, 1911
PLACE OF BIRTH Cairo, Egypt
DATE OF DEATH 30 August 2006
PLACE OF DEATH Cairo, Egypt

  Results from FactBites:
 
Encyclopedia4U - Naguib Mahfouz - Encyclopedia Article (214 words)
Naguib Mahfouz, (born December 11, 1911) is an Egyptian novelist.
Naguib Mahfouz was born in the Gamaliya quarter of Cairo, Egypt.
A longtime civil servant, Mahfouz served in the Ministry of Mortmain Endowments, then as Director of Censorship in the Bureau of Art, as Director of the Foundation for the Support of the Cinema, and, finally, as consultant to the Ministry of Culture.
Naguib Mahfouz - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (682 words)
Naguib Mahfouz (Arabic: نجيب محفوظ‎, Nağīb Maḥfūẓ) (December 11, 1911 – August 30, 2006) was an Egyptian novelist who won the 1988 Nobel Prize for Literature.
Naguib Mahfouz was born in the Gamaliya quarter of Cairo; he was named after Professor Naguib Pasha Mahfouz (1882-1974), the physician who delivered him.
Mahfouz was accorded a state funeral with full military honors on Aug 31, 2006 in Cairo.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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