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Encyclopedia > Nagarjunakonda
  ?Nagarjunakonda
Andhra Pradesh • India
Coordinates: 16°11′N 80°16′E / 16.18, 80.27
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
District(s) Guntur
Sources:[1]

Coordinates: 16°11′N 80°16′E / 16.18, 80.27 , Andhra Pradesh (Telugu: , Urdu: ; pronunciation: ), the Rice Bowl of India, is a state in southern India. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links India_Andhra_Pradesh_locator_map. ... Image File history File links Locator_Dot. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... A time zone is a region of the Earth that has adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. ... Location of Mirzapur and the 82. ... The divisions of a district. ... Map showing guntur district This is an article about Guntur District; see also Guntur (disambiguation). ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

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Buddhism
This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ...



Image File history File links Lotus-buddha. ...

History of Buddhism
The History of Buddhism spans from the 6th century BCE to the present, starting with the birth of the Buddha Siddhartha Gautama. ...

Dharmic religions
Timeline of Buddhism
Buddhist councils
map showing the prevalence of Dharmic (yellow) and Abrahamic (purple) religions in each country. ... 563 BCE: Siddhārtha Gautama, Buddha-to-be, is born in Lumbini, Ancient India. ... // 1st Buddhist council (5th century BC) The first Buddhist council was held soon after the death of the Buddha under the patronage of king Ajatasatru, and presided by a monk named Mahakasyapa, at Rajagaha (todays Rajgir). ...

Foundations
Several Buddhist terms and concepts lack direct translations into English that cover the breadth of the original term. ...

Four Noble Truths
Noble Eightfold Path
Buddhist Precepts
Nirvāṇa · Three Jewels
The Four Noble Truths (Pali: Cattāri ariyasaccāni, Sanskrit: Catvāri āryasatyāni, Chinese: Sìshèngdì, Thai: อริยสัจสี่, Ariyasaj Sii) are one of the most fundamental Buddhist teachings. ... The Dharma wheel, often used to represent the Noble Eightfold Path The Noble Eightfold Path (Pāli: Ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo; Sanskrit: Ārya ṣṭāṅga mārgaḥ; Chinese: 八正道, Bāzhèngdào; Japanese: 八正道, Hasshōdō, Thai: อริยมรรคแปด, Ariya Mugg Paad) is, in the teachings of the Buddha, declared to be the... Śīla (Sanskrit) or sīla (Pāli) is usually rendered into English as behavioral discipline, morality, or ethics. ... ( Sanskrit: ; Pali: निब्बान Nibbāna; Vietnamese: Niết bàn; Chinese: 涅槃; Mandarin Pinyin: nièpán, Cantonese: nihppùhn; Japanese: nehan ); Korean: 열반, yeolbhan; Thai: nibpan นิพพาน), is a Sanskrit word that literally means to cease blowing (as when a candle flame ceases to flicker) and/or extinguishing (that is, of the passions). ... Symbol of the triratna, as seen in the Sanchi stupa, 1st century BCE. The Three Jewels, also rendered as Three Treasures, Three Refuges or Triple Gem are the three things that Buddhists give themselves to, and in return look toward for guidance, in the process known as taking refuge. ...

Key Concepts
Several Buddhist terms and concepts lack direct translations into English that cover the breadth of the original term. ...

Three marks of existence
Skandha · Cosmology · Dharma
Saṃsāra · Rebirth · Shunyata
Pratitya-samutpada · Karma
According to the Buddhist tradition, all phenomena (dharmas) are marked by three characteristics, sometimes referred to as the Dharma seals, that is dukkha (suffering), anicca (impermanence), and anatta (non-Self). ... The skandhas (Sanskrit: Pāli: Khandha; literally: heap or bundle) are the five constituents or aggregates through which the functioning and experience of an individual is created according to Buddhist phenomenology. ... Buddhist cosmology is the description of the shape and evolution of the universe according to the canonical Buddhist scriptures and commentaries. ... Dharma (Sanskrit: धर्म) or Dhamma (Pāli: धम्म) in Buddhism has two primary meanings: the teachings of the Buddha which lead to enlightenment the constituent factors of the experienced world In East Asia, the character for Dharma is 法, pronounced fǎ in Mandarin and hō in Japanese. ... Saṃsāra, the Sanskrit and Pāli term for continous movement or continuous flowing refers in Buddhism to the concept of a cycle of birth (jāti) and consequent decay and death (jarāmaraṇa), in which all beings in the universe participate and which can only be escaped... Rebirth in Buddhism is the doctrine that the consciousness of a person (as conventionally regarded), upon the death or dissolution of the aggregates (skandhas) which make up that person, becomes one of the contributing causes for the arising of a new group of skandhas which may again be conventionally considered... Śūnyatā, शून्यता (Sanskrit), Suññatā (Pāli) or stong pa nyid (Tibetan), generally translated into English as Emptiness or Voidness, is a concept of central importance in the teaching of the Buddha, intimately related to the doctrine of the three marks of existence (ti-lakkhana). ... The doctrine of Pratītyasamutpāda (Sanskrit: प्रतित्यसमुत्पादा) or Paticcasamuppāda (Pāli: पतिचसमुपादा; Tibetan: ; Chinese:緣起) Dependent Arising is an important part of Buddhist metaphysics. ... Karma (Sanskrit: कर्मन karman, Pāli: कमा Kamma) means action or doing; whatever one does, says, or thinks is a karma. ...

Major Figures
A number of noted individuals have been Buddhists. ...

Gautama Buddha
Disciples · Later Buddhists Standing Buddha sculpture, ancient region of Gandhara, northern Pakistan, 1st century CE, Musée Guimet. ... A number of noted individuals have been Buddhists. ...

Practices and Attainment

Buddhahood · Bodhisattva
Four Stages of Enlightenment
Paramis · Meditation · Laity
Media:Example. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The four stages of enlightenment in Buddhism are the four degrees of approach to full enlightenment as an Arahant which a person can attain in this life. ... Pāramitā (Sanskrit) or Parami (Pāli): Perfection or Transcendent (lit. ... Buddhist meditation encompasses a variety of meditation techniques that develop mindfulness, concentration, tranquility and insight. ... In canonical Buddhism, householder refers to a particular strata of society whose individuals are typified by having a home life and family. ...

Regions
Buddhist beliefs and practices vary according to region. ...

Southeast Asia · East Asia
India · Sri Lanka · Tibet
Western Countries
Theravada (Pali; Sanskrit: Sthaviravada) is one of the eighteen (or twenty) Nikāya schools that formed early in the history of Buddhism. ... The Aomori Daibutsu (Big Buddha), Aomori, Japan. ... Tibetan Buddhism is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet, the Himalayan region (including northern Nepal, Bhutan, and Sikkim and Ladakh), Mongolia, Buryatia, Tuva and Kalmykia (Russia), and northeastern China (Manchuria: Heilongjiang, Jilin). ... The Indo-Greek king Menander (155-130 BCE) is the first Western historical figure documented to have converted to Buddhism. ...

Branches

Theravāda · Mahāyāna
Vajrayāna · Early schools
Theravada (Pāli: theravāda; Sanskrit: स्थविरवाद sthaviravāda; literally, the Way of the Elders) is the oldest surviving Buddhist school, and for many centuries has been the predominant religion of Sri Lanka (about 70% of the population[1]) and most of continental Southeast Asia (Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand). ... Relief image of the bodhisattva Kuan Yin from Mt. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Divisions among the early Buddhist schools came about due to doctrinal or practical differences in the views of the Buddhist Sangha following the death of the Buddha. ...

Texts
There are a great variety of Buddhist texts. ...

Pali Canon · Mahayana Sutras
Tibetan Canon Standard edition of the Thai Pali Canon The Pali Canon is the standard scripture collection of the Theravada Buddhist tradition. ... Mahayana sutras are a very broad genre of Buddhist scriptures that began to be compiled from the first century BCE. They form the basis of the various Mahayana schools, and survive predominantly in primary translations in Chinese and Tibetan from original texts in Sanskrit or Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit. ... The Tibetan Buddhist canon is a loosely defined list of sacred texts recognized by various sects of Tibetan Buddhism. ...

Comparative Studies
Culture · List of Topics
Portal: Buddhism
The cultural elements of Buddhism vary by region and include: Buddhist cuisine Buddhist art Buddharupa Art and architecture of Japan Greco-Buddhism Tibetan Buddhist sacred art Buddhist music Buddhist chant Shomyo Categories: Buddhism-related stubs ... Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z The following is a List of Buddhist topics: A Abhidharma Ahimsa Ajahn Ajahn Chah Ajanta Aksobhya Alexandra David-Néel...

Image File history File links Dharma_wheel. ...

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Nagarjunakonda (meaning Nagarjuna Hill in Telugu) is a historical Buddhist town, now an island located near Nagarjuna Sagar in Nalgonda district in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It is 150km south east of the capital, Hyderabad. It was formed when a hill was submerged in the waters of the Nagarjuna Sagar Dam, constructed in the 1960s. It is named after Nagarjuna, a southern Indian master of Mahayana Buddhism who lived in the 2nd century AD, who is believed to have been responsible for the Buddhist activity in the area. The site was once the location of many Buddhist universities and monasteries, attracting students from afar as China, Gandhara, Bengal and Ceylon. The Buddhist archaeological sites there were submerged, and had to later be dug up and transferred to higher land on the hill, which had become an island. Telugu (తెలుగు) is a Dravidian language primarily spoken in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh, where it is the official language. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Nagarjuna Sagar ( నాగార్జునసాగర్) is an important Buddhist site and tourist place located 150 km from Hyderabad, (India). ... Nalgonda District is a district in Andhra Pradesh. ... India is subdivided into 28 states, 6 union territories and a National Capital Territory. ... , Andhra Pradesh (Telugu: , Urdu: ; pronunciation: ), the Rice Bowl of India, is a state in southern India. ... Hyderabad or Haydarābād (Telugu: హైదరాబాదు Urdu: حیدر آباد ) is the capital city of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. ... Nagarjuna Sagar Dam is a masonry dam built across Krishna River in Andhra Pradesh, India. ... A statue depicting Nagarjuna at the Samye Ling Monastery, Dumfriesshire, Scotland Nāgārjuna (నాగార్జున in Telugu, 龍樹 in Chinese) (c. ... Relief image of the bodhisattva Guan Yin from Mt. ... Gandhāra (Sanskrit: गन्धार, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: گندھارا) is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ... Bengal (Bengali: বঙ্গ Bôngo, বাংলা Bangla, বঙ্গদেশ Bôngodesh or বাংলাদেশ Bangladesh), is a historical and geographical region in the northeast of South Asia. ...

Contents

History

The settlement of Nagarjunakonda was the capital of the Ikshvaku dynasty (225 AD - 325 AD), the successors of the Satavahanas in the eastern Deccan. It is believed that Sadvaha authorised the first monastic construction there during his reign. Ikshvaku dynasty or Sun Dynasty are the same. ... The Sātavāhanas (Marathi:सातवाहन Telugu:సాతవాహనులు), also known as the Andhras, were a dynasty which ruled from Junnar, Pune over Southern and Central India starting from around 230 BCE. Although there is some controversy about when the dynasty came to an end, the most liberal estimates suggest that it lasted... The Deccan Plateau is a vast plateau in India, encompassing most of Central and Southern India. ...


During the early centuries AD, the site housed more than 30 Buddhist viharas; excavations have yielded art works and inscriptions of great significance for the scholarly study of the history of this early period.[2] Nagarjuna was the exponent of the philosophy of sunyata (void). At the time, Buddhism often spread to Sri Lanka and Burma after using the area and the bustling Bay of Bengal ports of the Andhra to re-stock for the impending journey. Archaeological inscriptions at the site show that Sri Virapurusadatta, the second ruler of the dynasty was a Buddhist, as were his son Ehuvula and their descendants. The inscriptions also show state-sponsorship of construction of temples and monasteries, through the funding of the queen of Ikshvaku. Camtisiri inparticular, is recorded as having funded the building of the main stupa for ten consecutive years. The support also spread beyond the noble classes, many non-royal names being enscribed in the relics. At its peak, there were more than thirty monasteries and it was the largest Buddhist centre in South India. Inscriptions showed that there were monasteries belonging to the Bahusrutiya and Aparamahavinaseliya schools of Mahayana Buddhism, the Mahisasaka, and the Mahaviharavasin, from Sri Lanka. The architecture of the area reflects that of these traditions. There were other monasteries for Buddhist scholars originating from the Tamil kingdoms, Orissa, Kalinga, Gandhara, Bengal, Ceylon (the Culadhammagiri) and China. There is also a footprint at the site of the Mahaviharavasin monastery, which is believed to be a reproduction of that of Gautama Buddha. Vihara (विहार) is Sanskrit or Pali for (Buddhist) monastery. ... Śūnyatā, शून्यता (Sanskrit, Pali: suññatā), or Emptiness, is a term for a concept or set of concepts playing an important role in some versions of the Buddhist metaphysical critique, but also having important implications for Buddhist epistemology and phenomenology. ... Look up Bay of Bengal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Andhra Pradesh (ఆంధర దేశం), a state in South India, lies between 12°41 and 22°N latitude and 77° and 84°40E longitude . ... South India is a linguistic-cultural region of India that comprises the four Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu and the Union Territory of Pondicherry, whose inhabitants are collectively referred to as South Indians. ... Relief image of the bodhisattva Guan Yin from Mt. ... Mahisasaka is one of the twenty schools of early Buddhism according to a Mahayana record. ... The ancient Tamil country refers to the areas of South India and the northeastern Sri Lanka in which Tamil was the major language during ancient times. ... , Orissa   (Oriya: ଓଡ଼ିଶା), is a state situated on the east coast of India. ... Kalinga is a landlocked province of the Philippines in the Cordillera Administrative Region in Luzon. ... Gandhāra (Sanskrit: गन्धार, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: گندھارا) is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ... Bengal (Bengali: বঙ্গ Bôngo, বাংলা Bangla, বঙ্গদেশ Bôngodesh or বাংলাদেশ Bangladesh), is a historical and geographical region in the northeast of South Asia. ... Standing Buddha sculpture, ancient region of Gandhara, northern Pakistan, 1st century CE, Musée Guimet. ...


The region declined after the death of Rudrapurusa, the last Ikshvaku king. Excavations began in 1927, and the first finds were made by English archaeologists in 1928. The excavations were continuous until 1931. They unearthed the ruins of stupas and chaityas in 1926 at what was once an immense centre for Buddhist learning in ancient India. This was expanded in 1954 to include the whole valley, unearthing more than 100 further relics dating from the stone age to the 16th century AD. Stone Age fishing hook. ...


The great stupa at Nagarjunakonda belongs to the class of uncased stupas, its brickwork being plastered over and the stupa decorated by a large garland-ornament. The original stupa was renovated by the Ikshvaku princess Chamtisiri in the 3rd century AD, when ayaka-pillars of stone were erected. The outer railing, if any, was of wood, its uprights erected over a brick plinth. The stupa, 32.3 m in diameter, rose to a height of 18 m with a 4 m wide circumambulatory. The medhi stood 1.5 m and the ayaka-platforms were rectangular offsets measuring 6.7 by 1.5 m.[3]


An archaeological catastrophe struck in 1960, when an irrigation dam was constructed across the nearby Krishna River, submerging the original site under the waters of a reservoir. In advance of the flooding, several monuments were dug up and relocated to the top of Nagarjuna's Hill, where a museum was built in 1966. Other monuments were relocated to the mainland, east of the flooded area. Dedicated archaeologists managed to recover almost all of the relics. 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1960 calendar). ... Krishna in Vijayawada in 2007 The River Krishna (meaning dark (feminine) in Sanskrit, also called the Krishnaveni, is one of the longest rivers of India (about 1300 km in length). ...


Nagarjunasagar dam

The Nagarjunasagar dam is the tallest masonry dam in the World. The excavated remains of the Buddhist civilisation were reconstructed and preserved at a museum on the island situated in the midst of the man-made Nagarjunasagar lake. The site has a 14th-century fort, medieval temples and a museum constructed like a Buddhist vihara. The museum houses a collection of relics of Buddhist culture and art. These include a small tooth and an ear-ring believed to be that of Gautama Buddha. The main stupa of Nagarjunakonda named Mahachaitya is believed to contain the sacred relics of the Buddha. A partly ruined monolithic statue of the Buddha is the main attraction at the museum. It also houses historic finds in the form of tools from Paleolithic and Neolithic times, as well as friezes, coins and jewellery.[4] [5] Standing Buddha sculpture, ancient region of Gandhara, northern Pakistan, 1st century CE, Musée Guimet. ...


Tourism

Located between the cities of Guntur and Hyderabad, it is accessible on the State Highway, with the nearest train station being at Macherla, 29 kms away. It is connected by a ferry to the mainland. [6] Guntur   (గుంటూరు in Telugu) is a city and a municipal corporation in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. ... Hyderabad or Haydarābād (Telugu: హైదరాబాదు Urdu: حیدر آباد ) is the capital city of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. ... Macherla is a city and a municipality in Guntur District in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. ...


The area is also known for panoramic views of the valley from a viewing area near the dam, and is also the site of natural waterfalls which cascade down 22 m into a blue lagoon that is also a breeding centre for crocodiles. The nearby Srisailam wildlife sanctuary, a Project Tiger reserve and refuge for diverse reptiles, birds and animals. Srisailam, which sits on the shore of Krishna in the Nallamalai Hills is a site of immense historical and religious significance, including a Shiva temple that is one of the 12 sacred Jyotirlingas. This article is about the deity Shiva. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


References

  1. ^ Buddhist Pilgrimage - Nagarjuna Konda
  2. ^ http://www.art-and-archaeology.com/india/nkonda/nk01.html
  3. ^ http://www.visitlordbuddha.com/cities/nagarjunakonda.htm
  4. ^ http://www.jetairtours.com/hyd.htm
  5. ^ http://www.tourismofindia.com/hibuddh/buddh_excursions.htm
  6. ^ http://india.journeymart.com/nagarjunakonda/default.asp
  • Archaeological Survey of India (1987). Nagarjunakonda. 

Buddhism and Quantum Physics by Christian Thomas Kohl: http://ctkohl.googlepages.com


 
 

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