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Encyclopedia > Naga Kingdom

Naga Kingdom refers to the territory of a tribe called Nagas who were a group of people spread throughout India during the period of the epic Mahabharata. They were also considered as one of the supernatural races like Kinnaras and Yakshas. Not much is known about their territories beyond ancient India except a region known as Airavata mentioned in the far north. It seems that the first settlement of this race in India is the Kashmir region. River Vitasta (Jhelum) in Kasmira is mentioned as the abode of Naga Takshaka. The city named after Takshaka, viz Takshasila (Taxila) is just to the west of this river. Places like Anantnag also is found in Kashmir. Ananta was the foremost among all the Nagas. Iravati River (Ravi) to the south of Kashmir could be the Indian territory of the Nagas called Airavatas. Their original abode could be the Airavata region mentioned in the far north. For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... Kinnaras were a group of gods, demons and demi-gods, mentioned along with others like Devas (including Rudras, Maruts, Vasus and Adityas), Asuras (including Daityas, Danavas and Kalakeyas), Pisachas, Gandharvas, Kimpurushas, Vanaras, Suparnas, Rakshasas, Bhutas and Yakshas. ... Yakshas were a group of gods, demons and demi gods, mentioned along with others like like Devas (including Rudras, Maruts, Vasus and Adityas), Asuras (including Daityas, Danavas and Kalakeyas), Pisachas, Gandharvas, Kimpurushas, Vanaras, Suparnas, Kinnaras, Bhutas etc. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... The Jhelum River is the largest and most western of the five rivers of the Punjab province of Pakistan, and passes through Jhelum City. ... Context : Kingdoms of Ancient India Kasmira was a kingdom grouped under the northern kingdoms as per the epic. ... Taxila is an important archaelogical site in Pakistan containing the ruins of the Gandhāran city and university of Takshashila (also Takkasila or Taxila) an important Vedic/Hindu[1] and Buddhist[2] centre of learning from the 5th century BCE to the 2nd century CE. In 1980, Taxila was declared... , Anantnag (Kashmiri: अनंतनाग, اننتناگ /Anaṁtnāg/, meaning abode of springs and lakes), also known as Islabamarbad (Kashmiri: इ1स्लामाबाद, اyسلام آباد /Islāmāradbād/), is a city and a municipality in Anantnag district in the state of Jammu & Kashmir, India. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... Ananta (अनन्‍त) is a Sanskrit word meaning without end or infinity. ... The Ravi River (Sanskrit: , Punjabi: , Urdu: ) is a river in India and Pakistan. ... The Ravi River (Punjabi: , Urdu: ) is a river in India and Pakistan. ...

Contents

The Sanskrit word Naga

The word Naga in the Sanskrit language means snake or serpent. It seems likely that the Naga people were a serpent-worshipping group who were later described as serpents themselves in ancient Indian literature. This transformation or identification was much like the Vanaras (forest-dwelling humans) turning unto monkeys in the later literature. Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Serpent can be any of the following: The reptile commonly called snake. ... Serpent is a word of Latin origin (serpens, serpentis) that is normally substituted for snake in a specifically mythic context, in order to distinguish such creatures from the field of biology. ... Vanara is a Sanskrit word literally meaning a human having the fur or tail of a monkey. It popularly refers to the race of monkey-like humanoids in the Hindu epic Ramayana who are brave and inquisitive in nature. ...


References in Mahabharata

Mahabharata epic begins with history of Nagas, in astonishing detail, spanning the initial chapters in the first book (Adi Parva). These chapters were distributed into three sub-volumes called Paushya, Pauloma and Astika. Since the first book is one of the latest parts of Mahabharata, it is assumed that during the last phases of Mahabharata taking its shape as an enormous epic, the Nagas were a dominant force in ancient India, especially in the north and north-west. For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ...


It is explicitly stated that, Mahabharata contains the history of Nagas or Uragas, along with that of Yakshas, Devas and the sages in the domain of Devas (Devarshis) at (1,1) the very first chapter of the first book. Yakshas were a group of gods, demons and demi gods, mentioned along with others like like Devas (including Rudras, Maruts, Vasus and Adityas), Asuras (including Daityas, Danavas and Kalakeyas), Pisachas, Gandharvas, Kimpurushas, Vanaras, Suparnas, Kinnaras, Bhutas etc. ... For other uses, see Deva (disambiguation). ...


Naga races

  • MBh (1,57)

Naga race in north-west India was almost exterminated by Janamejaya, the Kuru king in Arjuna's line, who conducted the massacre of Nagas at Takshasila. This massacre was stopped by Astika, a Brahmin whose mother was a Naga. The names of the principal Nagas known widely for their achievements, and slain by Janamejaya is mentioned at (1,57). They were described to be belonging to different Naga races:- Janamejaya, was the son of Arjunas (Mahabharata)grandson Parikishit. ... Kuru or Kurus may be: Kuru (kingdom), a powerful Indian kingdom during the Vedic period and later a republic during the Mahajanapada period Kuru Kingdom, a kingdom based on the historic Kuru kingdom in Indian epic literature Kuru (disease), neurological, and associated with New Guinea, the Fore, and cannibalism Kuru... For other uses, please see Arjun. ... AstikA is a brewery making a blond pilsner with an alcohol content of 5% ABV in the cito of Haskovo, in Southern Bulgaria. ... This page deals with the Hindu varnas. ...


Vasuki’s Race' :- Kotisa, Manasa, Purna, Cala, Pala, Halmaka, Pichchala, Kaunapa, Cakra, Kalavega, Prakalana, Hiranyavahu, Carana, Kakshaka, and Kaladantaka.


Airavata's Race  :- Paravata, Parijata, Pandara, Harina, Krisa, Vihanga, Sarabha, Meda, Pramoda and Sauhatapana.


Takshaka's Race  :- Puchchandaka, Mandalaka, Pindasektri, Ravenaka; Uchochikha, Carava, Bhangas, Vilwatejas, Virohana; Sili, Salakara, Muka, Sukumara, Pravepana, Mudgara, Sisuroman, Suroman and Mahahanu. (Takshaka's son Aswasena is mentioned as belonging to the Airavata's race at (8,90). This could mean that Takshaka's race, was a branch of Airavata's race.)


Kauravya's Race  :- Eraka, Kundala Veni, Veniskandha, Kumaraka, Vahuka, Sringavera, Dhurtaka, Pratara and Astaka. (Kauravya's race is mentioned as a branch of Airavata's race at (1,216).


Dhritarashtra's Race :- Sankukarna, Pitharaka, Kuthara, Sukhana, and Shechaka; Purnangada, Purnamukha, Prahasa, Sakuni, Dari, Amahatha, Kumathaka, Sushena, Vyaya, Bhairava, Mundavedanga, Pisanga, Udraparaka, Rishabha, Vegavat, Pindaraka; Raktanga, Sarvasaranga, Samriddha, Patha and Vasaka; Varahaka, Viranaka, Suchitra, Chitravegika, Parasara, Tarunaka, Maniskandha and Aruni. (Dhritarashtra was Airavata's younger brother (1,3).)


Dhritarashtra, is also mentioned as a Gandharva (14,10). Nagas and Gandarvas could be the same race or related races. Nishadha mountain is mentioned as a common habitation of Nagas and Gandharvas (6,6). (To know more on Gandharva Dhritarashtra see:- Gandharvas). Gandharvas were one among the group of Exotic Tribes Of Ancient India, a class of demi-gods, well versed in music and art. ...


There were also many Puru and Kuru kings by the name of Dhritarashtra. See the section Naga King Nahusha. The Purus are a people of Ancient India. ... The Kuru kingdom was ruled by the Kuru clan of kings. ...


Naga Vasuki could mean the founder of the race or any Naga in that race of Vasuki. Same logic applies to the Airavatas, Takshakas, Kauravyas and the Dhritarashtras.


Naga territories

Regions in the far north

Only speculative information is available on these regions


Airavata is mentioned as a region beyond ancient India (Bharata Varsha) at (6,6). Bharata Varsha (ancient India) is mentioned as the southern-most region known to the ancient Indian people. North of Bharata Varsha, is the region of Himalaya. To the north of it is the region called Hari-varsha (Tibet ?). To the north of it is the region called Elavrita which is the central region (Tajikistan and Xinjiang ?). North of it is the region called Hiranyaka (Kyrgistan?). North of it is the region called Sweta (white region) (Alatua mountains around Almati in Kazakstan ?). Northern-most region known to the ancient people is mentioned as the region called Airavata:- Beyond Hiranyaka is the region called Airavata covered with provinces. (This could be the regions around lake Balqash in Kazakstan.) Perspective view of the Himalaya and Mount Everest as seen from space looking south-south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... Motto: none Anthem: National Anthem of the Kyrgyz Republic Capital Bishkek Largest city Bishkek Official language(s) Kyrgyz, Russian Government President Prime Minister Republic Kurmanbek Bakiyev Feliks Kulov Independence  - Declared  - Recognized  - Formerly From the Soviet Union 31 August 1991 December 1991 Kyrgyz SSR Area  - Total    - Water (%)   198,500 km² (86th... Almaty (Алматы; formerly known as Alma-Ata, also Verny, Vyernyi (Верный) in Imperial Russia) is a city in Kazakhstan, with a population of 1,168,000. ... Lake Bakhash Balqash or Balkhash (Kazakh: , Russian: ) is a city with 81. ...


At (1,25) is mentioned a delightful and fair region inhabited by the Nagas in the midst of the ocean, in a remote quarter. Its name is mentioned as Ramaniyaka island (1,26). Vishnu, the younger brother of Deva king Indra, had slain the Nagas in the great lake. Indra asked Arjuna to slay the tribe of Nivata-kavachas, a clan of Asuras, living in the vicinity of the same lake. (Caspian Sea or Dal lake in Kashmir?) (3,47). The two islands Naga-dwipa and Kasyapa-dwipa are the two ears of this region of the form of a hare (6,6). For other uses, please see Arjun. ... In Hindu mythology, the Asura are a group of power-seeking deities, sometimes misleadingly referred to as demons. ... The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the worlds largest lake or a full-fledged sea. ... Masoor dal Masoor dal prepared using traditional yellow dal recipe Dal (also spelled dhal, dahl, or daal, daar) is a preparation of pulses which have been stripped of their outer hulls and split, as well as a thick, spicy stew prepared therefrom, a mainstay of Indian and Pakistani cuisine. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ...


North of Himalayas (Tibet)

The great Nagas, Chitra and Airavata is mentioned to dwell in White mountains (Kailas range, Tibet) (3,224). Kailash may refer to: Mount Kailash Kailash (journal) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ...


Rakshasas reside on Himavat, Guyakas (Yakshas) on Hemakuta (Kailas range, Tibet), and Gandharvas and Nagas on Nishadha. The Sweta mountains (Kailas range) are said to be the abode of the Devas and the Asuras. The mountains of Sringavat also are regarded as the resort of the Devas (6,6). In the region south-west to Deva territories is the city called Bhogavati that is ruled by Vasuki, by the Naga Takshaka and also by Airavata (5,109). Yakshas and Rakshasas and Kinnaras and Nagas and Suparnas and Gandharvas pass through the valley of Mandara mountain, in going towards Yaksha king Kubera’s palace (3,139). Nagas inhabited the Yaksha Kingdom (Tibet)(3,158). Rakshasas were a group tribes, mentioned along with others like Devas (including Rudras, Maruts, Vasus and Adityas), Asuras (including Daityas, Danavas and Kalakeyas), Pisachas, Gandharvas, Kimpurushas, Vanaras, Suparnas, Kinnaras, Bhutas and Yakshas. ... Perspective view of the Himalaya and Mount Everest as seen from space looking south-south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau. ... Yakshas were a group of gods, demons and demi gods, mentioned along with others like like Devas (including Rudras, Maruts, Vasus and Adityas), Asuras (including Daityas, Danavas and Kalakeyas), Pisachas, Gandharvas, Kimpurushas, Vanaras, Suparnas, Kinnaras, Bhutas etc. ... Kailash may refer to: Mount Kailash Kailash (journal) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... Gandharvas were one among the group of Exotic Tribes Of Ancient India, a class of demi-gods, well versed in music and art. ... Kailash may refer to: Mount Kailash Kailash (journal) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Yakshas were a group of gods, demons and demi gods, mentioned along with others like like Devas (including Rudras, Maruts, Vasus and Adityas), Asuras (including Daityas, Danavas and Kalakeyas), Pisachas, Gandharvas, Kimpurushas, Vanaras, Suparnas, Kinnaras, Bhutas etc. ... Kubera (also Kuvera or Kuber) is the god of wealth and the lord of Uttaradisha in Hindu mythology. ... Yakshas were a group of gods, demons and demi gods, mentioned along with others like like Devas (including Rudras, Maruts, Vasus and Adityas), Asuras (including Daityas, Danavas and Kalakeyas), Pisachas, Gandharvas, Kimpurushas, Vanaras, Suparnas, Kinnaras, Bhutas etc. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ...


Kasmira Region (Kashmir)

The river Vitasta (Jhelum), is situate in the country of the Kasmiras and is the abode of the Naga Takshaka (3,82). The city named after the Takshakas viz Takshasila is just to the west of this river. Jhelum River photographed during the summer periods Jehlum River or Jhelum River (Punjabi: Shahmukhi: دریاۓ جہلم, Gurmukhi: ਜੇਹਲਮ) is the largest and most western of the five rivers of Punjab, and passes through Jhelum District. ... The Jhelum River is the largest and most western of the five rivers of the Punjab province of Pakistan, and passes through Jhelum City. ... Context : Kingdoms of Ancient India Kasmira was a kingdom grouped under the northern kingdoms as per the epic. ...


Arjuna is mentioned as defeating the Kashmiras and king Lohita along with ten minor chiefs at (2,26). Then the Trigartas, the Daravas, the Kokonadas, and various other Kshatriyas advanced against him. He then took the delightful town of Avisari. Arjuna then defeated king Rochamana who ruled a kingdom called Uraga (2,26). Uraga is mentioned as a kingdom of Bharata Varsha along with the Valhikas, the Darvis, the Vanavadarvas, the Vatagas, the Amarathas etc at (6,9). Lohita is mentioned as a Naga at (2,9). Uragas and Nagas were mentioned as the same people through out Mahabharata. For other uses, please see Arjun. ... Context : Kingdoms of Ancient India Kasmira was a kingdom grouped under the northern kingdoms as per the epic. ... Capital: Unknown (probably Jullundher, Jullundher, Punjab) Trigarta was a kingdom near the Kuru kingdom. ... For other uses, please see Arjun. ... All the western kingdoms were known by the general name Bahlika (Vahika, Vahlika and Bahika as variations of the name) meaning outsider. ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ...


River Iravati (Punjab)

River Iravati is assumed to be linked with the Nagas in the race of Airavata in ancient India


River Iravati (identified as Ravi river in Punjab province of Pakistan) is mentioned along with other rivers like the Vipasa, the Satadru, the Chandrabhaga, the Saraswati, the Vitasta, the Sindhu etc at (2,9). It is also mentioned at (3,12), (6,9), (8,44) and (13,146). The Ravi River (Punjabi: , Urdu: ) is a river in India and Pakistan. ... This article is about the Pakistani province. ...


A river modern river named Iravati exists in Myanmar (Burma) to the east of India, inhabited by modern day Naga people. Modern day Naga people are also found in eastern states of India like Nagaland. Thus the Nagas of epic age could have migrated to the east into these regions. Naga people The Naga people of about two and half million are found in Nagaland, parts of Manipur, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh and Myanmar. ... , Nagaland   is a hill state located in the far north-eastern part of India. ...


Naga region lay extended many Yojanas on all sides. It was equipt with many golden walls decked with jewels and gems. There were many fine tanks of water furnished with flights of stair-cases made of pure crystal, and many rivers of clear and transparent water. There were many trees with diverse species of birds perching on them. The gate of that region which was huge and majastic. There were many mansions of Airavatas there. The Naga king was Vasuki. A Bhrahmana of Bhargava clan named Utanka, with others, is described to set fire in this Naga settlements, when an ear-ring in his possession was stolen by a Naga in the race of Airavata (14,58).


Kurukshetra Region (Hariyana)

Naga Takshaka, formerly dwelt in Kurukshetra and the forest of Khandava (modern-day Delhi). Takshaka and Aswasena, are constant companions who dwell in Kurukshetra on the banks of the Ikshumati. Srutasena, the younger brother of Takshaka, resided at the holy place called Mahadyumna. (1,3). Kurukshetra may refer to: The Kurukshetra war described in the Mahabharata, an Indian epic The town and district of Kurukshetra in the Indian state of Haryana This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ...


Bala Rama during his travels along the Saraswati River is mentioned to have reached a place called Nagadhanvana:- From Dwaita lake in Saraswati River basin, Bala Rama proceeded along the southern bank of the Sarasvati. He then reached a place called Nagadhanwana. It was populated with many Nagas. It was the abode of Vasuki the king of the Nagas. There 14,000 ascetics also had their permanent home. The Devas, having come there, had according to due rites, installed the excellent Naga Vasuki as king of all the Nagas (9,37). Balarama (left) with his brother Krishna Krishna-Balarama Mandir, Vrindavan, India In Hindu Vaishnavism, Balarama (or Bala-rama) is considered to be the ninth avatar of Vishnu. ... The Hindu Vedas mention a river named Sarasvatī. In Sanskrit saras means a pool or water body, and vatī (from vnt-ī, the female form of the -vant suffix) means she having lots of pools. Sarasvati was the biggest and most important of the seven holy rivers of the Rig Veda. ... The Hindu Vedas mention a river named Sarasvatī. In Sanskrit saras means a pool or water body, and vatī (from vnt-ī, the female form of the -vant suffix) means she having lots of pools. Sarasvati was the biggest and most important of the seven holy rivers of the Rig Veda. ... Balarama (left) with his brother Krishna Krishna-Balarama Mandir, Vrindavan, India In Hindu Vaishnavism, Balarama (or Bala-rama) is considered to be the ninth avatar of Vishnu. ... Vasuki is a naga, or one of the serpents of Hindu mythology. ...


Kurukshetra is mentioned as a favorite region for the Gandharvas, the Apsaras, the Yakshas and the Nagas (3,83). Kurukshetra may refer to: The Kurukshetra war described in the Mahabharata, an Indian epic The town and district of Kurukshetra in the Indian state of Haryana This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Kerala Region

As per the story Arjuna set fire to a Naga palace and the Nagas escaped south of the Vindhyas till they reached a place where the soil was free and was not hot with the atrocities of Arjuna. That is they reached a cool place of peace. This place became Mannarshala (Mannu (Soil) Ariye (cooled down) Shala(refuge)), the biggest serpent temple in the world. The Nagas settled here and were called Nakas by the local people. They are of the Pannaga race. The Nair caste of Kerala also claim to be descendents of the Naga race. This article is about a Hindu caste. ...


Source of Ganga in Himalayas (Uttarakhand)

A mountain named Naga-sata is mentioned in lower Himalayas at (1,119). On the northern banks of the Ganga (modern-day Uttarakhand) are many habitations of serpents. Airavata is mentioned as their king (1,3). Kapilavata is mentioned as a place at the source of Ganga (Rishikesh, in Uttarakhand). It is named after Kapila the king of Nagas. It is also known as Naga-tirtha. (3,84). This article is about the river. ... , Uttarakhand (Hindi: उत्तराखंड), known as Uttaranchal from 2000 to 2006, became the 27th state of the Republic of India on November 9, 2000. ... River Ganges in Rishikesh Rishikesh (also spelled Hrishikesh) (Hindi: )is a city and a municipal board in Dehradun district in the Indian state of Uttarakhand. ... , Uttarakhand (Hindi: उत्तराखंड), known as Uttaranchal from 2000 to 2006, became the 27th state of the Republic of India on November 9, 2000. ...


Ganga Basin (Uttar Pradesh)

In the forest which is known by the name of Naimisha, and which is situate on the banks of the river Gomati (a tributary of Ganga), there is a city called after the Nagas. It was ruled by a Naga named Padma alias Padmanabha (12,354). Naimisha Forest was an ancient forest mentioned in the epic Mahabharata. ... Shahi Bridge over the Gomti River The Gomti River, also known as the Gumti or Gomati, is a tributary of the Ganges River. ...


In the region of Nagas elephants are found; in the region of Varuna-worshippers sheeps are found; in the region of fire-worshippers goats are found; in the region of sun-worshippers horses are found; in the region of Rakshasas cocks and boars are found; in the region of Asuras buffalos are found (13,84). Elephants were predominant animals in ancient Gangatic plain. Rakshasas were a group tribes, mentioned along with others like Devas (including Rudras, Maruts, Vasus and Adityas), Asuras (including Daityas, Danavas and Kalakeyas), Pisachas, Gandharvas, Kimpurushas, Vanaras, Suparnas, Kinnaras, Bhutas and Yakshas. ...


Magahda Kingdom (Bihar)

There dwelt in old days those Nagas, Arvuda and Sakravapin, those persecutors of all enemies, as also the Naga Swastika and that other excellent Naga called Manu. Manu himself had ordered the country of the Magadhas (in Bihar)to be never afflicted with drought, and Kaushika and Manimat also have favoured the country. (2,21). Context: Kingdoms of Ancient India Magadha was a kingdom ruled by Non-Vedic kings. ... For other uses, see Bihar (disambiguation). ...


Naga cities

Bhogavati and Patalam seems to be Naga cities in Tibetan region. Kuru city Hastinapura is some times mentioned as Naga-pura. A city of Nagas also existed on the banks of river Gomati The Kuru kingdom was ruled by the Kuru clan of kings. ... In the Hindu epic Mahabharata, Hastinapura is the capital and the kingdom of the Kauravas, the descendants of Kuru, which include the Pandavas. ... Shahi Bridge over the Gomti River The Gomti River, also known as the Gumti or Gomati, is a tributary of the Ganges River. ...


Bhogavati

Bhogavati is mentioned as Naga capital at (3-57). The foremost of cities which resembles the Amaravati of Deva king Indra, is known by the name of Bhogavati. It is ruled over by Vasuki, the king of the Nagas. Shesha, the foremost of Nagas who is a great ascetic also dwells here (5,103). In the region south-west to Deva territories is the city called Bhogavati that is ruled by Vasuki, by the Naga Takshaka and also by Airavata (5,109).


Patala

In the very centre of the domain of the Nagas is situated the city known by the name of Patalam. It is worshipped by the Daityas and the Danavas (5,99). Here in these regions called Patala is that spacious and celebrated city of cities, called Hiranyapura, belonging to the Daityas and Danavas, possessing a hundred diverse kinds of illusions (technological wonders). It hath been built with great care by the achitect and town-planner viz the Danava Maya (5,100). The Danavas in Vedic mythology, were a race of the Asuras. ...


The territory of Suparnas, the enemies of Nagas was close to that of Hiranyapura. Suparnas were described as thus:- By their acts they may be said to belong to the Kshatriya order, but they are all without any compassion as they mercilessly slay the Nagas, their kinsmen. They never attain to spiritual enlightenment in consequence of their hatred towards their kinsmen. However, the race of Suparnas is much regarded in consequence of the favour that, is shown to it by Vishnu, the younger brother of Deva king Indra. Vishnu was the greatest among all the sons of Aditi (one among the 13 great mothers). All Suparnas dwell in only a single province of the region containing the cities viz Patalam and Hiranyapura (5,101).


Bhogavati and Kuru cities

Indraprastha, the new city of Kurus, which was also the capital of Pandava's kingdom, is compared with Bhogavati at (1,209). It is interesting to note that Indrprastha was built by clearing out the Nagas inhabited in that region, especially in the forest named Khandava. The older name of Indraprastha was Khandavaprastha, since it was built by clearing out the Khandava forest. Khandava forest and later the city Indraprastha alias Khadavaprastha, falls in modern-day Delhi a union-territory of India. The first city of Delhi is believed to be founded by the legendary Pandavas of the Mahabharata around 1400 BC. It was called Indraprastha. ... The Kuru kingdom was ruled by the Kuru clan of kings. ... In the Mahabharata, the Pandava are the five acknowledged sons of Pandu, by his two wives Kunti and Madri. ... For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ...


Hastinapura, the other city of Kuru Kingdom, the capital of Kauravas, was also mentioned as Naga-pura, meaning the city of the Nagas (4,25) (5,147) (8,2) (14,52). Naga also means elephant and the word Hastina-pura means the city of elephants. But Naga-pura still can be translated as the city of Nagas. The multiple meanings of the word Naga (as snake and elephant) could be the reason behind interpretation of Airavata as the king of elephants (that was used by Indra as a mount). The earlier interpretation could be the Naga king who rules the regions around river Iravati (Jhelum). In the Hindu epic Mahabharata, Hastinapura is the capital and the kingdom of the Kauravas, the descendants of Kuru, which include the Pandavas. ... The Kuru kingdom was ruled by the Kuru clan of kings. ... The term Kaurava is a Sanskrit term, that means the descendants of Kuru, a legendary king who is the ancestor of many of the characters of the Mahabharata. ... In Hinduism, Airavata (ऐरावत) is a white elephant who carries Lord Indra. ... For other uses, see Indra (disambiguation). ... The Jhelum River is the largest and most western of the five rivers of the Punjab province of Pakistan, and passes through Jhelum City. ...


Origin of Nagas and Suparnas

In the Krita age, there were neither Devas, nor Asuras, nor Gandharvas, nor Yakshas, nor Rakshasas, nor Nagas. And there was no buying and selling. (3,148).


Nagas and Suparnas were two races having kinship. Kadru was described as the mother of Naga race (1-16,122). Sister of Kadru viz Vinata was considered as the mother of Suparnas (1,16). Kadru and Vinata were two among the 13 mothers or women from who various primival races originated, including the race of Devas, Asuras, Gandharvas, Kinnaras, Yakshas, Rakshasas, Vanaras etc. Suparnas headed by Garuda were formerly sub-serviant to the Nagas (1-23 to 28). By the help of Devas, Garuda ended that slavary (1,34) and later Suparnas became rivals of Nagas (3,159). In Hindu mythology, the Asura are a group of power-seeking deities, sometimes misleadingly referred to as demons. ... Gandharvas were one among the group of Exotic Tribes Of Ancient India, a class of demi-gods, well versed in music and art. ... Kinnaras were a group of gods, demons and demi-gods, mentioned along with others like Devas (including Rudras, Maruts, Vasus and Adityas), Asuras (including Daityas, Danavas and Kalakeyas), Pisachas, Gandharvas, Kimpurushas, Vanaras, Suparnas, Rakshasas, Bhutas and Yakshas. ... Yakshas were a group of gods, demons and demi gods, mentioned along with others like like Devas (including Rudras, Maruts, Vasus and Adityas), Asuras (including Daityas, Danavas and Kalakeyas), Pisachas, Gandharvas, Kimpurushas, Vanaras, Suparnas, Kinnaras, Bhutas etc. ... Rakshasas were a group tribes, mentioned along with others like Devas (including Rudras, Maruts, Vasus and Adityas), Asuras (including Daityas, Danavas and Kalakeyas), Pisachas, Gandharvas, Kimpurushas, Vanaras, Suparnas, Kinnaras, Bhutas and Yakshas. ... Kishkindha Kingdom (also known as Kishkindhya), was the kingdom ruled by a Vanara King Sugreeva, the younger brother of Bali, during the Ramayana period. ...


Karkotaka, Vasuki, Kachchhapa, Kunda, Takshaka were mentioned as Nagas and Tarkshya, Arishtanemi, Garuda and Asitadvaja, Aruna and Aruni were mentioned as of Vinata’s race (otherwise called Suparnas) at (1,123).


Nagas, Pannagas and Uragas


Nagas were mentioned as born of Surasa and Pannagas another Naga race, was mentioned as born of Kadru at (1,66). Pannagas and Nagas were mentioned as separate but related Naga races at (3,85). Pannagas were mentioned to denote Nagas at (3-172,180,289) (7-142) (9,45) (12,47) (13,98) Nagas destroyed by Arjuna at Khadavaprstha is described as Pannagas (5,124). Pannagas and Uragas were mentioned as separate but related races at (6,65). Uragas were mentioned to denote Nagas at (1-1,172) (3-167,179,187,223) (many other references) Uragas and Nagas were mentioned as separate but related Naga races at (3,158) -in Yaksha territory; also at (7-160,198) At (1,172) is mentioned that Uragas along with Yakshas, Rakshasas, Gandharvas, Pisachas and Danavas as aware of the history of Arya kings. For other uses, please see Arjun. ...


Nagas and other exotic tribes


Nagas were mentioned along with other exotic tribes like (the Devas, Asuras, Yakshas, Gandharvas, Rakshasas, Suparnas, Vanaras, Pisachas etc) at various places (1-67,75,97,111,173,189), (2-11, and many other references). The classic Indian epics such as the Mahabharata, the Ramayana and the Puranas refer to many exotic tribes, describing them as superhuman or subhuman. ...


The names of the principal Naga Chiefs

At (1,35) (Birth of Nagas) the name of principal Naga chiefs were mentioned as:-


Sesha (Naga Ananta) was the foremost, and then Vasuki. Then were born Airavata, Takshaka, Karkotaka (linked with Nala, king of Nishadha), Dhananjaya, Kalakeya (was also mentioned as an Asura clan), the serpent Mani, Purana, Pinjaraka, and Elapatra, Vamana, Nila, Anila, Kalmasha, Savala, Aryaka, Ugra, Kalasapotaka, Suramukha, Dadhimukha, Vimalapindaka, Apta, Karotaka, Samkha, Valisikha, Nisthanaka, Hemaguha, Nahusha (Nahusha was also described as a king in the Lunar Dynasty; Pururavas (first king of Lunar dynasty) -> Ayus - > Nahusha), Pingala, Vahyakarna, Hastipada, Mudgarapindaka, Kamvala Aswatara, Kaliyaka, Vritta, Samvartaka, Padma, Mahapadma, Sankhamukha, Kushmandaka, Kshemaka, Pindaraka, Karavira, Pushpadanshtraka, Vilwaka, Vilwapandara, Mushikada, Sankhasiras, Purnabhadra, Haridraka, Aparajita, Jyotika, Srivaha, Kauravya, Dhritarashtra (also mentioned as a Gandharva king), Sankhapinda, Virajas, Suvahu, Salipinda, Prabhakara, Hastipinda, Pitharaka, Sumuksha, Kaunapashana, Kuthara, Kunjara, Kumuda, Kumudaksha, Tittri, Halika, Kardama, Vahumulaka, Karkara, Akarkara, Kundodara, and Mahodara. Ananta (अनन्‍त) is a Sanskrit word meaning without end or infinity. ... Vasuki is a naga, or one of the serpents of Hindu mythology. ... Takshaka was one of the Nagas mentioned in the epic Mahabharata. ... Nala is a character in Hindu mythology. ... Nishadha was the kingdom of the celebrated king Nala, who loved and married Damayanti the princess of Vidharbha kingdom. ... In Hindu society, the Kshatriya caste is divided into two principal houses, one claiming descent from the Sun (Surya) and the other from the Moon (Indu). ... Gandharvas were one among the group of Exotic Tribes Of Ancient India, a class of demi-gods, well versed in music and art. ...


At (5,103) (Matali's history) the name of principal Naga chiefs were mentioned as:-


Vasuki, Takshaka, Karkotaka, Dhanjaya, Kaliya (linked with river Yamuna and Vasudeva Krishna), Nahusha (also a king belonging to Lunar Dynasty), Aswatara, Vakyakunda, Mani, Apurana, Khaga, Vamana, Elapatra, Kukura, Kukuna, Aryaka (linked with Bhima), Nandaka, Kalasa, Potaka, Kalilasaka, Pinjaraka, Airavata, Sumanmukha, Dadhimukha, Sankha, Nanda, Upanandaka, Apta, Kotaraka, Sikhi, Nishthuraka, Tittiri, Hastibhadra, Kumuda, Maylapindaka, the two Padmas, Pundarika, Pushpa, Mudgaraparnaka, Karavira, Pitharaka, Samvritta, Vritta, Pindara, Vilwapatra, Mushikada, Sirishaka, Dilipa, Sankha-sirsha, Jyotishka, Aparajita, Kauravya, Dhritarashtra, Kuhara, Krisaka, Virajas, Dharana, Savahu, Mukhara, Jaya, Vidhira, Andha, Visundi, Virasa, and Sarasa. Vasuki is a naga, or one of the serpents of Hindu mythology. ... Not to be confused with the nearby Jamuna River a tributary of the Meghna River, which is sometimes confused both in older historical literature, and by translations of the local dialects. ... This article describes Krishnas role in the Mahabharata. ... In Hindu society, the Kshatriya caste is divided into two principal houses, one claiming descent from the Sun (Surya) and the other from the Moon (Indu). ... A motif depicting Bheema in the battle ready posture. ...


At (14,4) (Last moments of Bala Rama) the name of principal Naga chiefs were mentioned as:- Balarama (left) with his brother Krishna Krishna-Balarama Mandir, Vrindavan, India In Hindu Vaishnavism, Balarama (or Bala-rama) is considered to be the ninth avatar of Vishnu. ...


Karkotaka and Vasuki and Takshaka and Prithusravas and Varuna and Kunjara, and Misri and Sankha and Kumuda and Pundarika, Dhritarashtra, and Hrada and Kratha and Sitikantha of fierce energy, and Chakramanda and Atishanda, Durmukha, and Amvarisha, and king Varuna Vasuki is a naga, or one of the serpents of Hindu mythology. ...


At (1,65) (Genesis) the names of the sons of Kadru were mentioned as:-


Sesha or Ananta, Vasuki, Takshaka, Kumara, and Kulika are known to be the sons of Kadru. Vasuki is a naga, or one of the serpents of Hindu mythology. ...


At (2,9) Nagas linked with Varuna were mentioned as:-


Vasuki, Takshaka, and the Naga called Airavata, Krishna and Lohita (see Lauhitya), Padma, Chitra, Kamvala, Aswatara, Dhritarashtra, Valahaka, Matimat, Kundadhara, Karkotaka, Dhananjaya, Panimat, Kundaka, Prahlada, Mushikada and Janamejaya wait upon Varuna. Many Asuras also is mentioned as waiting upon Varuna. Nagas, Daityas (a clan of Asuras), Sadhyas and inferior Devas were mentioned to follow Varuna (3,41). Vasuki is a naga, or one of the serpents of Hindu mythology. ... Context: Kingdoms of Ancient India Lauhitya was the easternmost country known to the people of the epic age (Treta Yuga or Dwapara Yuga). ... In Vedic religion, Varuna (Devanagari:वरुण, IAST:) is a god of the sky, of rain and of the celestial ocean, as well as a god of law and of the underworld. ... In Hindu mythology, the Asura are a group of power-seeking deities, sometimes misleadingly referred to as demons. ... In Vedic religion, Varuna (Devanagari:वरुण, IAST:) is a god of the sky, of rain and of the celestial ocean, as well as a god of law and of the underworld. ... In Hindu mythology, the Asura are a group of power-seeking deities, sometimes misleadingly referred to as demons. ... In Vedic religion, Varuna (Devanagari:वरुण, IAST:) is a god of the sky, of rain and of the celestial ocean, as well as a god of law and of the underworld. ...


Prominent Nagas

Naga Ananta or Sesha

This Naga became an ascetic and dessisted from becoming a king


Sesha of great renown practised hard penances. He practised ascetic devotions, repairing to Gandhamadana (in Himalaya), Vadri (Badrinath), Gokarna (Gokarn), the woods of Pushkara (Pushkar), and the foot of Himavat. And he passed his days in those sacred regions, some of which were sacred for their water and others for their soil in the rigid observance of his vows, with singleness of aim, and his passions under complete control. Perspective view of the Himalaya and Mount Everest as seen from space looking south-south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau. ... , Badrinath is a Hindu holy town and a nagar panchayat in Chamoli district in the state of Uttarakhand, India. ... Gokarna meaning Cows Ear is a small town situated in the North Kannada district of the coastal Karnataka state, India. ... , Pushkar is a town in the state of Rajasthan in India. ... Perspective view of the Himalaya and Mount Everest as seen from space looking south-south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau. ...


Naga king Vasuki

Vasuki is mentioned as a king of Nagas at (1,39).


Naga Vasuki was anxious of rescuing his race from the threat of Kuru kings. He discussed the means to save his race from extermination by the hands of Kuru kings (1,37). Many Nagas suggested to obstruct the mission of the Kuru King by opting for violence; like slaying the king or his advisers or themselves becoming the king's advisers. The Naga Elapatra suggested Vasuki to make alliance with Brahmana Jaratkaru of Yayavara race and beget an offspring who will save them from their difficulties (1,38). That was acceptable to Vasuki. Thus was born the offspring of Naga women and and a Brahmana, viz Astika. He prevented the extermination of Naga race. Kuru or Kurus may be: Kuru (kingdom), a powerful Indian kingdom during the Vedic period and later a republic during the Mahajanapada period Kuru Kingdom, a kingdom based on the historic Kuru kingdom in Indian epic literature Kuru (disease), neurological, and associated with New Guinea, the Fore, and cannibalism Kuru... The Kuru kingdom was ruled by the Kuru clan of kings. ... The Brahmana (Sanskrit ब्राह्मण) are part of the Hindu Shruti; They are composed in Vedic Sanskrit, and the period of their composition is sometimes referred to as the Brahmanic period or age (approximately between 900 BC and 500 BC). ...


Naga king Airavata

Airavatas were the most successful Naga race during the epic-ages. The Takshakas, the Pauravas and the Dhritarashtras seems to be branches of Airavata's race. Airavatas could be earlier inhabitants of river Iravati (Ravi river in Punjab, Pakistan) or the unknown region in the far north called Airavata. The Ravi River (Punjabi: , Urdu: ) is a river in India and Pakistan. ...


All Nagas were mentioned as the subjects of King Airavata (1,3). Here Airavata is mentioned as splendid in battle and showering weapons in the field like lightning-charged clouds driven by the winds. The sons of Airavata were mentioned as handsome and of various forms and decked with many coloured ear-rings. His territory is mentioned as the northern banks of Ganga (ie Uttarakhand). Dhritarashtra was Airavata’s younger brother. When he goes out, 28008 serpents follow him as his attendants (1,3). , Uttarakhand (Hindi: उत्तराखंड), known as Uttaranchal from 2000 to 2006, became the 27th state of the Republic of India on November 9, 2000. ...


Naga King Takshaka

Main article Takshaka. Takshaka was one of the Nagas mentioned in the epic Mahabharata. ...


Acts of Pandava Arjuna and Naga Takshaka was the cause of enemity between Kuru kings and Nagas. Arjuna killed Takshaka's wife who dwelled in the Khandava Forest. Takshaka avenged her death by killing Parikshit the grandson of Arjuna by poisoning him. King Janamejaya conducted a massacre of Nagas to avenge his father Parikshit's death. Later a sage named Astika ended this enimity between Kurus and Nagas. In the Mahabharata, the Pandava are the five acknowledged sons of Pandu, by his two wives Kunti and Madri. ... For other uses, please see Arjun. ... The Kuru kingdom was ruled by the Kuru clan of kings. ... Khandava Forest was an ancient forest mentioned in the epic Mahabharata. ... Parikshita is in the Mahabharata epic the successor of Yudhisthira to the throne of Hastinapura. ... Janamejaya, was the son of Arjunas (Mahabharata)grandson Parikishit. ... The Kuru kingdom was ruled by the Kuru clan of kings. ...


Naga King Nahusha

Nahusha is mentioned as a Naga at (1,35) (5,103).


At (13,99) Nahusha is mentioned as ruling even the Deva territories, and later degraded to the status of a Naga king. It is repeated at (12,342). The history of Nahusha becoming the king of Deva territories is mentioned at (5-11 to 17). He was powerful and renowned. Power corrupted him and he was later banished from the throne of Deva territories. It seems he later lived as a small king of the Naga race. Yayati (a king of Lunar Dynasty) is mentioned as his son at many places in Mahabharata. Thus, it seems, he later became known as a king belonging to the Lunar Dynasty of kings in ancient India. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... In Hindu society, the Kshatriya caste is divided into two principal houses, one claiming descent from the Sun (Surya) and the other from the Moon (Indu). ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... In Hindu society, the Kshatriya caste is divided into two principal houses, one claiming descent from the Sun (Surya) and the other from the Moon (Indu). ...


A snake (a viper) attacked and afflicted Bhima in a forest called Visakhayupa, situated at the source of river Yamuna. This incident is mentioned at (3,176). At (3,178) that snake is described as Nahusha. He is mentioned here as the son of Ayus (Pururavas (first king of Lunar Dynasty) -> Ayus -> Nahusha), thus he becomes a forefather of the Pandavas. This raises a doubt whether the lunar race of kings originally branched from the Naga race of kings. Many kings in the line of Purus and Kurus, all being branches of the lunar race, like Dhritarashtra and Janamejaya also were mentioned as Nagas at various places. Kuru city Hastinapura also is some times mentioned as Nagapura (one of its meaning being the city of Nagas). A motif depicting Bheema in the battle ready posture. ... Not to be confused with the nearby Jamuna River a tributary of the Meghna River, which is sometimes confused both in older historical literature, and by translations of the local dialects. ... In Hindu society, the Kshatriya caste is divided into two principal houses, one claiming descent from the Sun (Surya) and the other from the Moon (Indu). ... The Pandavas were the five sons of the king Pandu. ... The Purus are a people of Ancient India. ... Kuru or Kurus may be: Kuru (kingdom), a powerful Indian kingdom during the Vedic period and later a republic during the Mahajanapada period Kuru Kingdom, a kingdom based on the historic Kuru kingdom in Indian epic literature Kuru (disease), neurological, and associated with New Guinea, the Fore, and cannibalism Kuru...

  • In Book 12 and 13 Nahusha is mentioned as a learned king conversing with many sages like Bhrigu, Chyavana and Agastya

Naga chief Aryaka

Naga Aryaka was mentioned to be a member of Naga king Vasuki's palace. He was described as related to Pandava Bhima. He was the grandfather of the father of Kunti, the mother of Bhima. He recognized Bhima as his kinsmen when the Nagas rescued Bhima, a boy then, and brought him to the palace of Vasuki. Bhima was food-poisoned, tied up and thrown into river Ganga at a place called Pramanakoti, by Duryodhana (1,128). Vasuki is a naga, or one of the serpents of Hindu mythology. ... In the Mahabharata, the Pandava are the five acknowledged sons of Pandu, by his two wives Kunti and Madri. ... A motif depicting Bheema in the battle ready posture. ... In Hinduism, Princess Kunti is the mother of the Pandavas. ... A motif depicting Bheema in the battle ready posture. ... Duryodhana as depicted in Yakshagana popular drama from Karnataka In the Hindu epic the Mahabharata, Duryodhana (दुर्योधन) is the eldest son of the blind king Dhritarashtra by Queen Gandhari, the eldest of the one hundred Kaurava brothers, and the chief antagonist of the Pandavas. ...


Aryaka is mentioned to have born in the race of Kauravya. Kauravya is born in the race of Airavata. Aryaka's son was named Chikura. Chikura was slain by a Suparna. Chikura's wife was the daughter of a Naga named Vamana. Chikura's son was named Sumukha. Matali, the charioteer of Deva king Indra chose Sumuka as his daughter Gunakesi's husband (5,103).


Naga Prince Iravat

Iravat could mean an inhabitant on the banks of river Iravati (Ravi in Punjab); or in the region named Ariavata, that was far north of ancient India somewhere in Kazakstan; or one who was born in the race of Airavata (a Naga race). The Ravi River (Punjabi: , Urdu: ) is a river in India and Pakistan. ...


During a 12 year long pilgrimage over the whole of India, Arjuna, leaving Indraprastha arrived at the source of the Ganga (now known as Rishikesh. It is in that region where the Ganga entered the plains. There he met the Naga lady named Uloopi. She took Arjuna to the mansion of Kauravya, the king of the Nagas. Uloopi was mentioned as a Naga princess in the race of Kauravya. Kauravya himself was mentioned as belonging to the race of Airavata. Arjuna spent one night with Uloopi and came back from the palace of Kauravya to the region where the Ganges entereth the plains (1,216). For other uses, please see Arjun. ... The first city of Delhi is believed to be founded by the legendary Pandavas of the Mahabharata around 1400 BC. It was called Indraprastha. ... River Ganges in Rishikesh Rishikesh (also spelled Hrishikesh) (Hindi: )is a city and a municipal board in Dehradun district in the Indian state of Uttarakhand. ... Uloopi, in the Hindu epic Mahabharata, is one of Arjunas wives. ... For other uses, please see Arjun. ...


Uloopi's former husband was slain by a Suparna. She was childless. A son named Iravat was born to Arjuna and Uloopi. But Uloopi's brother hated Arjuna since he destroyed the Nagas dwlling in Khandava forest and so abandoned Uloopi and his son. Iravat grew in the territory of Nagas, protected by his mother. Later when Arjuna visited the Deva region to the north-east of the Naga territories, he went and met Arjuna. He accepted him as his beloved son, and asked him to render assistance in battle when required. Iravat arrived at Kurukshetra War with an excellent cavelry force driven by Naga warriors(6,91). He participated in the war (6-84,91) and was slain by the Rakshasa Alamvusa, the son of Risyasringa (6,91). For other uses, please see Arjun. ... For other uses, please see Arjun. ... For other uses, please see Arjun. ... Combatants Pandavas led by Dhristadyumna Kauravas led by Bhishma Commanders Arjuna Bhima Yudhishthira Nakula Sahadeva Bhishma Drona Karna Duryodhana Ashwatthama Strength 7 Akshauhinis 1,530,900 soldiers 11 Akshauhinis 2,405,700 soldiers Casualties Almost Total Only 7 survivors - the five Pandavas, Krishna, and Satyaki Almost Total Only 3 survivors... Rakshasas were a group tribes, mentioned along with others like Devas (including Rudras, Maruts, Vasus and Adityas), Asuras (including Daityas, Danavas and Kalakeyas), Pisachas, Gandharvas, Kimpurushas, Vanaras, Suparnas, Kinnaras, Bhutas and Yakshas. ...

  • Uloopi is mentioned as interacting with Arjuna's another son Vabhruvahana, born of another wife Chitrangada at (14,79).
  • Uloopi and Chitrangada is mentioned as accepted into the palace of Hastinapura at (14,88)
  • Uloopi and Chitrangada is mentioned with other wives of Pandavas at (15,1).
  • Uloopi and Chitrangada is mentioned as departing, when Pandavas set for their last journey (17,1).
  • A weapon used in Kurukshetra War is named Naga weapon (8,53).

For other uses, please see Arjun. ... In the Hindu epic Mahabharata, Hastinapura is the capital and the kingdom of the Kauravas, the descendants of Kuru, which include the Pandavas. ... The Pandavas were the five sons of the king Pandu. ... Combatants Pandavas led by Dhristadyumna Kauravas led by Bhishma Commanders Arjuna Bhima Yudhishthira Nakula Sahadeva Bhishma Drona Karna Duryodhana Ashwatthama Strength 7 Akshauhinis 1,530,900 soldiers 11 Akshauhinis 2,405,700 soldiers Casualties Almost Total Only 7 survivors - the five Pandavas, Krishna, and Satyaki Almost Total Only 3 survivors...

Naga chief Padma

Naga Padma (Pandmanabha) is mentioned as a chief who ruled from a city in the forest of Naimisha, on the banks of the river Gomati (12,354). Reflecting upon all things with great care, he protects the righteous and chastises the wicked by adopting the quadruple policy of conciliation, provoking dissensions, making gifts or bribes, and using force. That Naga is always fond of guests. He is intelligent, and devoted to the study of the Vedas. He has great wealth. He performs sacrifice, makes gifts, abstains from inflicting injury and practises forgiveness. Ten chapters (12- 354 to 363) describes the arrival of a Brahmana as a guest to this Naga's abode, and his discussion with this Naga on the varied subjects of religion and soul. Shahi Bridge over the Gomti River The Gomti River, also known as the Gumti or Gomati, is a tributary of the Ganges River. ...


Other Nagas

  • Naga Karkotaka is mentioned as interacting with Nishadha king Nala (3-66,79).
  • Vasudeva Krishna is mentioned to end the reign of a Naga (his name was Kaliya as per Srimad Bhagavata Purana) in the river Yamuna (4,22).
  • A Naga named Renuka is mentioned at (13,132).
  • Baladeva (Bala Rama ?) is mentioned as a Naga at (13,132).
  • Bala Rama, the step-brother of Vasudeva Krishna, is linked with Naga race, at (16,4).
  • Bala Rama is linked with Sesha at (1,67).

Nishadha was the kingdom of the celebrated king Nala, who loved and married Damayanti the princess of Vidharbha kingdom. ... Nala is a character in Hindu mythology. ... This article describes Krishnas role in the Mahabharata. ... The Puranas are part of Hindu Smriti; these religious scriptures discuss devotion and mythology. ... Not to be confused with the nearby Jamuna River a tributary of the Meghna River, which is sometimes confused both in older historical literature, and by translations of the local dialects. ... Balarama (left) with his brother Krishna Krishna-Balarama Mandir, Vrindavan, India In Hindu Vaishnavism, Balarama (or Bala-rama) is considered to be the ninth avatar of Vishnu. ... Balarama (left) with his brother Krishna Krishna-Balarama Mandir, Vrindavan, India In Hindu Vaishnavism, Balarama (or Bala-rama) is considered to be the ninth avatar of Vishnu. ... This article describes Krishnas role in the Mahabharata. ... Balarama (left) with his brother Krishna Krishna-Balarama Mandir, Vrindavan, India In Hindu Vaishnavism, Balarama (or Bala-rama) is considered to be the ninth avatar of Vishnu. ...

Intermixing of Arya Race and Naga Race

  • Naga Nahusha is also mentioned as a king in the Lunar Dynasty of Arya Kings (3,178).
  • A king named Riksha in the race of Puru (a branch of Lunar Dynasti is mentioned as marrying the daughter of a Naga in the race of Takshaka (1,95).
  • Naga Aryaka is described as the grandfather of Kunti's father. Kunti is the mother of Pandavas. (1,128).
  • Iravat was mentioned as the son of Arjuna and a Naga woman named Uloopi, born in the race of Airavata (6,91).
  • Sage Somasrava, the priest of Janamejaya was the son of a Brahmin named Srutasrava and a Naga women. (1,3).
  • Sage Astika was the son of a sage in the race of Yayavara Brahmins (1,13) and a Naga women (sister of Vasuki) (1-14,15,48). Though but a boy, he had great gravity and intelligence. And he was reared with great care in the palace of the Nagas (1,48). He prevented the massacre of the Naga race by Janamejaya (1-15,56).
  • Naga women alias Nakar women of Kerala married Namboodiris of the Aryan race resulting in the Nair caste of Kerala.

In Hindu society, the Kshatriya caste is divided into two principal houses, one claiming descent from the Sun (Surya) and the other from the Moon (Indu). ... The Purus are a people of Ancient India. ... In Hinduism, Princess Kunti is the mother of the Pandavas. ... The Pandavas were the five sons of the king Pandu. ... For other uses, please see Arjun. ... Uloopi, in the Hindu epic Mahabharata, is one of Arjunas wives. ... Janamejaya, was the son of Arjunas (Mahabharata)grandson Parikishit. ... This page deals with the Hindu varnas. ... This page deals with the Hindu varnas. ... Vasuki is a naga, or one of the serpents of Hindu mythology. ... Janamejaya, was the son of Arjunas (Mahabharata)grandson Parikishit. ... The Namboothiris are the Brahmins of Kerala. ... This article is about a Hindu caste. ...

Other References

  • The Daitya heroes Sunda and Upasunda defeated the Devas, Yakshas, Rakshasas, Nagas and Arya kings. (1-212,214)
  • Rakshasa king Ravana also defeated all of them (3,289).
  • Naga women were mentioned to be very beautiul (3,263) (4,9) (6,105).
  • Yakshas, and Rakshasas, and Nagas were mentioned to use 17 types of crops for their food. This crops were mentioned as produced by a king named Prithu, the son of Vena (12,58).
  • At (14,44) the word Uraga is used to denote all the reptile-species and the word Naga is used to denote all snakes, where it mensions Nagas are the foremost among the Uragas.

A depiction of Ravana, Hindu rakshasa King of Lanka In Hinduism, Ravana; sometimes transliterated as Raavana or Ravan or Revana) is the principal antagonist of Rama in the Hindu epic, the Ramayana. ...

See also

This article tries to compile and classify all the kingdoms of ancient India mentioned in the Sanskrit/Vedic literature. ... The classic Indian epics such as the Mahabharata, the Ramayana and the Puranas refer to many exotic tribes, describing them as superhuman or subhuman. ... Nagas were a group who spread throughout India during the period of the epic Mahabharata. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

References


 
 

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