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Encyclopedia > Nadir Shah
Nadir Shah’s portrait from the collection of Smithsonian Institute
Nadir Shah’s portrait from the collection of Smithsonian Institute

Nadir Shah (Persian: نادر شاه) (Nadir Qoli Beg (Persian: نادر قلی بیگ), also Tahmasp-Qoli Khan (Persian: تهماسپ قلی خان) also Nadir Shah Afshar (Persian: نادر شاه افشار) ) (October 22, 1688 - June 19, 1747) ruled as Shah of Iran (173647) and was the founder of the short-lived Turkic Afsharid dynasty. Some historians have described him, because of his military genius, as the Napoleon of Persia or the Second Alexander. He created a great Iranian Empire with boundaries from the Indus River in Pakistan to the Caucasus Mountains (north) and India (east). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x1101, 245 KB) Summary A portrait of Nadir Shah from the following link: http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x1101, 245 KB) Summary A portrait of Nadir Shah from the following link: http://www. ... The Smithsonian castle, as seen through the garden gate. ... Persian is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Bahrain, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Persian is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Bahrain, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Persian is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Bahrain, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Persian is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Bahrain, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... October 22 is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 70 days remaining. ... // Events A high-powered conspiracy of notables, the Immortal Seven, invite William and Mary to depose James II of England. ... June 19 is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 195 days remaining. ... // Events January 31 - The first venereal diseases clinic opens at London Dock Hospital April 9 - The Scottish Jacobite Lord Lovat was beheaded by axe on Tower Hill, London, for high treason; he was the last man to be executed in this way in Britain May 14 - First battle of Cape... One of the worlds longest-lasting monarchies, the Iranian monarchy went through many transformations over the centuries, from the days of Persia to the creation of what is now modern day Iran. ... Events January 26 - Stanislaus I of Poland abdicates his throne. ... // Events January 31 - The first venereal diseases clinic opens at London Dock Hospital April 9 - The Scottish Jacobite Lord Lovat was beheaded by axe on Tower Hill, London, for high treason; he was the last man to be executed in this way in Britain May 14 - First battle of Cape... This is the disambiguation page for the terms Turk, Turkey, Turkic, and Turkish. ... Tomb of Nader Shah Afshar, a popular tourist attraction in Mashad. ... Napoleon I Bonaparte, Emperor of the French, King of Italy (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution; the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from 11 November 1799 to 18 May 1804; then Emperor of the French (Empereur... Alexander the Great (Greek: Μέγας Αλέξανδρος[1] Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC — June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), is considered one of the most successful military commanders in history, conquering most of his known world before his death. ... The Indus River in Northern Areas of Pakistan, near the rock Aornus. ... The Caucasus Mountains are a mountain system between the Black and Caspian seas in the Caucasus region, usually considered the southeastern limit of Europe. ...


He gained prominence as a military leader during the Afghan occupation of Iran in the 1720s. Acting in behalf of the defeated Safavids, he expelled the Afghans in 1729, and in 1732 became regent. The following year he forced the Ottomans out of Mesopotamia, which they had seized during the Afghan invasion, and induced the Russians to give up Iranian territory they had occupied. In 1736 he took the Iranian throne for himself as Nadir Shah. By 1738 he had conquered Afghanistan, and in 1739 he invaded northern India, capturing Delhi, the capital of the Mughal Empire; he soon extended his rule into what is now Western Turkistan. Nadir Shah's victories made him briefly the Middle East's most powerful sovereign, but his empire quickly disintegrated after he was assassinated in 1747. Nadir Shah was probably the last great Asian military conqueror. But Nadir was also responsible for the mass murder of hundreds of thousands of civilians, especially non-Muslims, during his military campaigns. The Safavid Empire at its 1512 borders. ... Events July 30 - Baltimore, Maryland is founded. ... Events February 23 - First performance of Handels Orlando, in London June 9 - James Oglethorpe is granted a royal charter for the colony of Georgia. ... The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto El Muzaffer Daima The Ever Victorious (as written in tugra) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital İstanbul ( Constantinople/Asitane/Konstantiniyye ) Sovereigns Sultans of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million Area 12+ million km² Establishment 1299 Dissolution October 29, 1923... It has been suggested that History of Ancient Mesopotamia be merged into this article or section. ... Events January 26 - Stanislaus I of Poland abdicates his throne. ... Events February 4 - Court Jew Joseph Suss Oppenheimer is executed in Württenberg April 15 - Premiere in London of Serse, an Italian opera by George Frideric Handel. ... // About the number 1739 1739 is the smallest integer that can be written as sum of three perfect cubes, in two ways. ... The Mughal Empire at its greatest extent. ... Türkistan (also spelled Turkistan or Turkestan) is a region in Central Asia, largely inhabited by Turkic people. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... // Events January 31 - The first venereal diseases clinic opens at London Dock Hospital April 9 - The Scottish Jacobite Lord Lovat was beheaded by axe on Tower Hill, London, for high treason; he was the last man to be executed in this way in Britain May 14 - First battle of Cape... World map showing the location of Asia. ...

Contents


Early life

A Portrait of Nadir Shah by Jonas Hanway
A Portrait of Nadir Shah by Jonas Hanway

He was born in the Dastgerd region of Khorasan, a province of Iran. His father, a poor peasant, died while Nadir was still a child. Legends say that Nadir and his mother were carried off as slaves by marauding Uzbeg or Turkmen tribesmen, but Nadir managed to escape. He joined a band of brigands while still a boy and eventually advanced to become their leader. Later he found refuge with the Turkic Afshar tribe, where, under the patronage of Afshar chieftains, he rose through the ranks to be a powerful military leader. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (500x627, 128 KB) Nadir Shah (Nadir Qoli Beg, Tahmasp-Qoli Kha) From: Jonas Hanway: . Leipzig: Holle, 1769 Source: http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (500x627, 128 KB) Nadir Shah (Nadir Qoli Beg, Tahmasp-Qoli Kha) From: Jonas Hanway: . Leipzig: Holle, 1769 Source: http://www. ... Khorasan (also spelled Khurasan and Khorassan; Xorasan or Xurasan in Kurdish; خراسان in Persian) is an area, located in eastern and northeastern Iran. ... In a detail of Brueghels Land of Cockaigne (1567) a soft-boiled egg has little feet to rush to the luxuriating peasant who catches drops of honey on his tongue, while roast pigs roam wild: the 16th century was a good time for European peasants A peasant, from 15th... For other uses, see Slavery (disambiguation). ... Uzbeks are a Turkic ethnic group found primarily in Uzbekistan, but also in Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Xinjiang province of China and other countries in Central Asia. ... Butch Cassidy, a famous outlaw An outlaw, a person living the lifestyle of outlawry, is most familiar to contemporary readers as a stock character in Western movies. ... A tribe, viewed historically or developmentally, consists of a social group existing before the development of, or outside of, states, though some modern theorists hold that contemporary tribes can only be understood in terms of their relationship to states. ...


Military life and Rise to Power

After the Afghans invaded Persia in 1722, deposing the Safavid Shah Soltan Hosein, Nadir supported Hosein's son Tahmasp II -- in deference to whom he had named himself Tahmasp Qoli (Slave of Tahmasp)-- with a force of 5,000 soldiers against the Afghan usurper Mahmud Ghilzay. Nadir defeated the Afghans in the Battle of Damghan, 1729. He had driven out the Afghans, who were still occupying Persia, by 1730. In 1729 Tahmasp II was proclaimed shah in Isfahan. While Nadir was in Khorasan, putting down the revolt, Tahmasp II moved in person with an army against the Ottoman Empire. He was, however, heavily defeated. He made peace and Georgia and Armenia were lost. Nadir returned to Isfahan, exiled Tahmasp II to Khorasan, deposed him and placed his infant eight month old son Abbas III on the throne, declaring himself regent. In 1736 Nadir ascended to the throne himself, as Shah. Tahmasp and Abbas were killed in prison at the orders of Nader's son in 1739. Tahmasp II (1704? – 1732) was one of the last Safavid rulers of Persia, which today is known as Iran. ... Combatants Persia Afghans Commanders Nadir Shah Mahmud Ghilzay Strength Casualties The Battle of Damghan was fought in 1729 between Persian and Afghan forces. ... Events July 30 - Baltimore, Maryland is founded. ... Events Pope Clement XII elected September 17 - Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Ahmed III (1703-1730) to Mahmud I (1730-1754) Anna Ivanova (Anna I of Russia) became czarina Births April 16 - Henry Clinton, British general (d. ... Part of Shah Abbas large urban project in his new capital, the Chahār Bāgh Four Gardens, is a four-kilometer avenue in the city of Isfahan. ... Abbas III was a son of Shah Tahmasp II of the Safavid dynasty. ... // High public office A regent, from the Latin regens who reigns is anyone who acts as head of state, especially if not the monarch (who has higher titles). ... Events January 26 - Stanislaus I of Poland abdicates his throne. ...


King of Persia and military campaigns

Tomb of Nadir Shah, a popular tourist attraction in Mashhad
Tomb of Nadir Shah, a popular tourist attraction in Mashhad

Nadir then turned west against the Ottomans, defeating them. In the siege of Baghdad in 1733 he was defeated behind the walls of the city. Nadir, however, came back with a larger army and the Ottomans were forced to make a peace treaty. Nadir was given the cities on the west of Aras River in addition to Karbala and Basra in southern Iraq. With this victory, he recovered all the land lost to the Ottomans before the Afghan invasion. Nader Shah Afshar, is buried here in Mash-had Iran. ... Nader Shah Afshar, is buried here in Mash-had Iran. ... Mashhad from space, January 2003 Goharshad mosque, built in 1418. ... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Söğüt (1299-1326), Bursa (1326-1365), Edirne (1365-1453), Constantinople (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanl... Location of Baghdad within Iraq Baghdad (Arabic: ‎ translit: , Kurdish: Bexda, from Persian Baagh-daad or Bag-Da-Du meaning “Garden of God” [1]) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Events February 12 - British colonist James Oglethorpe founds Savannah, Georgia. ... Aras, Araks, Arax, Araxes, or Araz (Persian: ارس, Azerbaijani: Araz), is a river rising in Anatolia in Turkey, flowing along the Turkey-Armenia border, then along the Azerbaijan-Iran border, entering Azerbaijan, and falling into Kura river as a right tributary. ... Karbalā (Arabic: ; also transliterated as Kerbala, Kerbela, or Karbila) is a city in Iraq, located about 100 km southwest of Baghdad at 32. ... Location of Basra Basra (also spelled BaÅŸrah or Basara; historically sometimes written Busra, Busrah, and the early form Bassorah; Arabic: , Al-Basrah) is the second largest city of Iraq with an estimated population of c. ... The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto El Muzaffer Daima The Ever Victorious (as written in tugra) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital İstanbul ( Constantinople/Asitane/Konstantiniyye ) Sovereigns Sultans of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million Area 12+ million km² Establishment 1299 Dissolution October 29, 1923...


Invasion of India

In 1738, Nadir Shah conquered Kandahar. In the same year he occupied Ghazni, Kabul and Lahore. He continued on to India, crossing the river Indus before the end of year. He defeated the great Mughal army of Mohammad Shah within the span of one month at the Battle of Karnal and Nadir Shah triumphantly entered Delhi where he had the Khutba read in his name, February 24, 1739. After victory, Nadir captured Mohammad Shah and entered with him into Delhi. In the rioting that followed, more than 30,000 civilians were killed by the Persian troops, forcing Muhammad Shah to beg for mercy. In response, Nadir Shah agreed to withdraw, but Muhammad Shah paid the consequence - handing over the keys of his royal treasury and losing even the Peacock Throne to the Persian emperor. Events February 4 - Court Jew Joseph Suss Oppenheimer is executed in Württenberg April 15 - Premiere in London of Serse, an Italian opera by George Frideric Handel. ... For the 2001 movie by Mohsen Makhmalbaf, see Kandahar (film). ... Minaret, July 2001 Ghazni is a city in central Afghanistan, situated on a plateau at 7280 feet above sea level. ... A view of the old city Kabul Kabul (, Kâbl, in Persian کابل) is the capital and largest city of Afghanistan with a population variously estimated at 2 to 4 million. ... Lahore (Urdu: لاہور) is a major city of Pakistan and is the capital of the province of Punjab. ... The Indus River in Northern Areas of Pakistan, near the rock Aornus. ... The Mughal Empire at its greatest extent. ... See Mohammad Shah Qajar for the Ruler of Persia Muhammad Shah (1702 - 1748) was a Mughal emperor of India between 1719 and 1748. ... The battle of Karnal was the war between Nader Shah Afshar and King Saraad Hindion. ... It has been suggested that National Capital Territory of Delhi be merged into this article or section. ... Khutba (خطبة) is an Arabic term referring to the Islamic sermon delivered either before the Friday Salah (see: Jumuah) and after the Eid Salat. ... February 24 is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... // About the number 1739 1739 is the smallest integer that can be written as sum of three perfect cubes, in two ways. ... It has been suggested that National Capital Territory of Delhi be merged into this article or section. ... Muhammad Shah (1702 – 1748) was a Mughal emperor of India between 1719 and 1748. ... Muhammad Shah (1702 – 1748) was a Mughal emperor of India between 1719 and 1748. ... Former Prime Minister of India Vajpayee viewing the throne at Topkapi The Peacock Throne also known as Takht-e-Tavous (Urdu: تخت طائوس) was made for the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan in the 17th century. ...


Nadir returned home with vast treasures, including the Peacock Throne, which thereafter served as a symbol of Persian imperial might, and, among a trove of other fabulous jewels, the famous diamonds Koh-i-Noor and Darya-ye Noor (while Koh-i-Noor implies "Mountain of Light", Darya-ye Noor means "Sea of Light", in Persian). The Persian troops left Delhi at the beginning of May 1739. Nadir's soldiers also took with them thousands of elephants, horses and camels, loaded with the booty they had collected. The plunder seized from India was so rich that Nadir stopped taxation in Iran for a period of three years, following his triumphant return. The Peacock Throne, called Takht-e-Tavous (Persian: تخت طائوس) in Persian, is the name originally of a Mughal throne, later used to describe the thrones of the Persian emperors from Nader Shah Afshari to Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi. ... For other uses, including the shape ◊, see Diamond (disambiguation). ... Koh-i-noor (کوۂ نور) is from the Persian language and means Mountain of Light. The Koh-i-Noor, Koh-i-Nur, or Kohinoor is a 105 carat (21. ... Darya-ye Noor The Darya-ye Noor (Persian for Sea of Light), is one of the largest diamonds in the world, weighing 182 carats (36. ... Koh-i-noor (کوۂ نور) is from the Persian language and means Mountain of Light. The Koh-i-Noor, Koh-i-Nur, or Kohinoor is a 105 carat (21. ... Darya-ye Noor The Darya-ye Noor (Persian for Sea of Light), is one of the largest diamonds in the world, weighing 182 carats (36. ... // About the number 1739 1739 is the smallest integer that can be written as sum of three perfect cubes, in two ways. ... Genera and Species Elephantidae (the elephants) is a family of pachyderm, and the only remaining family in the order Proboscidea. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... Species Camelus bactrianus Camelus dromedarius A camel is either of the two species of wolf living in the serengeti. ... Booty is something both valuable and acquired by force or daring. ...


After India

After India, Nadir attacked the Uzbeks of Transoxania. Nadir also started to build a powerful Persian navy. He recaptured Bahrain from the Arabs. In 1743 he conquered Oman and its main capital, Muscat. Transoxiana (sometimes also spelled Transoxania) is the now-largely obsolete name used for the portion of Central Asia corresponding approximately with modern-day Uzbekistan and southwest Kazakhstan. ... The multinational Combined Task Force One Five Zero (CTF-150) The British Grand Fleet, the supreme naval force of World War I A rare occurrence of a 5-country multinational fleet, during Operation Enduring Freedom in the Oman Sea. ... // Events February 14 - Henry Pelham becomes British Prime Minister February 21 - - The premiere in London of George Frideric Handels oratorio, Samson. ... Several things are known as Muscat: Muscat, or Mascat is the capital of the Sultanate of Oman, also known as sultanate of Muscat. ...


In 1741, after an assassination attempt on him failed, Nadir suspected his oldest son Reza Quli Mirza as being responsible for the conspiracy and had him blinded. Soon afterwards, Nadir started executing the nobles who had witnessed his son's blinding. In his last years, Nadir became increasingly paranoid, ordering the assassination of large numbers of supposed enemies. // Events April 10 - Austrian army attack troops of Frederick the Great at Mollwitz August 10 - Raja of Travancore defeats Dutch East India Company naval expedition at Battle of Colachel December 19 - Vitus Bering dies in his expedition east of Siberia December 25 - Anders Celsius develops his own thermometer scale Celsius... In a political sense, conspiracy refers to a group of persons united in the goal of usurping or overthrowing an established political power. ... In cryptography, blinding is a technique by which an agent can provide a service to (i. ... For other senses of this word, see paranoia (disambiguation). ...


In 1743 Nadir started another war against the Ottoman Empire. It ended with a peace treaty in 1746, by which treaty the Ottomans agreed to let Nadir occupy Najaf. // Events February 14 - Henry Pelham becomes British Prime Minister February 21 - - The premiere in London of George Frideric Handels oratorio, Samson. ... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Söğüt (1299-1326), Bursa (1326-1365), Edirne (1365-1453), Constantinople (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanl... // Events Catharine de Ricci (born 1522) canonized. ... Najaf (Arabic: ) is a city in Iraq, about 160 km south of Baghdad, located at 31. ...


Nadir had been married four times; he had 5 sons and 15 grandsons. He also had 33 women in his harem. During Nadir Shah's brief reign a 400,000-man army was created, and the boundaries of his empire extended to the greatest extent in Iran's history since the days of the Sassanids. In the Arab tradition, imitated by other Muslim cultures, the harîm حريم (cf. ... Head of king Shapur II (Sasanian dynasty A.D. 4th century). ...


Death

Nader Afshar's tomb was designed by Hooshang Seyhoon.
Nader Afshar's tomb was designed by Hooshang Seyhoon.

Nadir was assassinated on 19 June 1747, at Fathabad in Khorasan, where he was preparing to punish some rebellious Kurds. The assassination was probably planned by his nephew, Ali Qoli. Nadir was surprised in his sleep by Salah Bey, captain of the guards, and killed with a sword. Image File history File links Naderafshartomb. ... Image File history File links Naderafshartomb. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... June 19 is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 195 days remaining. ... // Events January 31 - The first venereal diseases clinic opens at London Dock Hospital April 9 - The Scottish Jacobite Lord Lovat was beheaded by axe on Tower Hill, London, for high treason; he was the last man to be executed in this way in Britain May 14 - First battle of Cape... Swiss longsword, 15th or 16th century Sword (from Old English sweord, cognate to Old High German Schwert, literally wounding tool from a Proto-Indo-European root *swer- to wound, to hurt) is a term for a long edged weapon, fundamentally consisting of a blade, usually with two edges for striking...


After his death, he was succeeded by his nephew Ali Qoli, who renamed himself Adil Shah ("righteous king") Adil Shah was deposed within a year. During the struggle between Adil Shah, his brother Ibrahim Khan and Nadir's grandson Shah Rukh almost all provincial governors declared independence, established their own states, and the entire Empire of Nadir Shah fell into anarchy. Finally, Karim Khan founded the Zand dynasty and became ruler of Iran by 1760, while Ahmad Shah Durrani had already proclaimed independence in the east, marking the foundation of modern Afghanistan. Adil Shah Afshar (? - 1748) was Shah of Persia from 1747 until 1748. ... Shahrokh (Persian: شاهرخ) was the son of Nadir Shah and took over control of Khorasan after his fathers death in 1747. ... In the realist theory of International Relations, the anarchical system that all states find themselves in is the lack of clear organisation of states into a hieracical order that is found within states. ... Karim Khan Zand, (Persian: کریم خان زند), (c. ... Vakeel mosque, Shiraz. ... 1760 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... See Ahmad Shah Qajar for the Persian ruler (1909-1925). ...


In 1768, Christian VII of Denmark commissioned Sir William Jones to translate a Persian language biography of Nadir Shah into French. It was published in 1770 as Histoire de Nadir Chah, and subsequently translated into English, becoming the vehicle by which Nadir Shah became known to the reading public in the West. 1768 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... King Christian VII Christian VII (January 29, 1749–March 13, 1808), King of Denmark and Norway, Duke of Schleswig and Holstein. ... Sir William Jones Sir William Jones (September 28, 1746 – April 27, 1794) was an English philologist and student of ancient India, particularly known for his proposition of the existence of a relationship among Indo-European languages. ... Persian is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Bahrain, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... 1770 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...

Preceded by:
Abbas III
King of Persia
17361747
Succeeded by:
Adil Shah Afshar
Preceded by:
Ashraf Khan
King of Afghanistan
17291747
Succeeded by:
Ahmad Shah Durrani

Abbas III was a son of Shah Tahmasp II of the Safavid dynasty. ... The following is a comprehensive list of all Persian Empires and their rulers: // Early realms in Iran Elamite Kingdom, 3000–660 BC The Elamites were a people located in Susa, in what is now Khuzestan province. ... Events January 26 - Stanislaus I of Poland abdicates his throne. ... // Events January 31 - The first venereal diseases clinic opens at London Dock Hospital April 9 - The Scottish Jacobite Lord Lovat was beheaded by axe on Tower Hill, London, for high treason; he was the last man to be executed in this way in Britain May 14 - First battle of Cape... Adil Shah Afshar (? - 1748) was Shah of Persia from 1747 until 1748. ... List of the Heads of State of Afghanistan Ashvagan c1220 to mid-13thC ruled by Mongol Emperors mid-13thC to 1404 divided between local Mongol leaders 1404 to 1507 within Timurid Empire 1507 to 1709 Iranian rule The Afghan State in Qandahar Mir Veys Khan Hotak (1709-1715) Mahmud Khan... Events July 30 - Baltimore, Maryland is founded. ... // Events January 31 - The first venereal diseases clinic opens at London Dock Hospital April 9 - The Scottish Jacobite Lord Lovat was beheaded by axe on Tower Hill, London, for high treason; he was the last man to be executed in this way in Britain May 14 - First battle of Cape... See Ahmad Shah Qajar for the Persian ruler (1909-1925). ...

References

  • H. Maynard, Nadir Shah, (Oxford, 1885)
  • Sir H. M. Durand, in the Journal of the Asiatic Society [? Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland?], (London, 1906)
  • Lawrence Lockhart "Nadir Shah" (London, 1938)
  • Cambridge History of Iran, vol 7
  • Michael Axworthy, "Sword of Persia: Nader Shah, from Tribal Warrior to Conquering Tyrant" Hardcover 348 pages (June, 2006) Publisher: I.B. Tauris Language: English ISBN 1850437068

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Nadir Shah — Infoplease.com (501 words)
Nadir's later years were darkened by a turn toward tyranny, suspicion, and greed.
Nadir Shah - Nadir Shah Kouli Khan, a Persian warrior.
Ahmad Shah - Ahmad Shah Ahmad Shah, c.1723–1773, Afghan ruler (1747–73), founder of the Durani...
Nadir Shah — FactMonster.com (441 words)
Although the dynasty he founded, the Afshar dynasty (1736–49), was short-lived, Nadir is generally regarded as one of the greatest of all rulers of Persia.
Nadir Shah - Nadir Shah Kouli Khan, a Persian warrior.
Ahmad Shah - Ahmad Shah Ahmad Shah, c.1723–1773, Afghan ruler (1747–73), founder of the Durani...
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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