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Encyclopedia > Nader Shah
Nader Shah
King of Persia
Nader Shah’s portrait from the collection of Smithsonian Institute
Nader Shah’s portrait from the collection of Smithsonian Institute
Reign 17361747
Born August 6, 1698
Died June 19, 1747
Predecessor Abbas III
Successor Adil Shah

Nāder Shāh Afshār (Persian: نادر شاه افشار; also known as Nāder Qoli Beg - نادر قلی بیگ or Tahmāsp Qoli Khān - تهماسپ قلی خان) (August 6, 1698[1]June 19, 1747) ruled as Shah of Iran (1736–47) and was the founder of the Afsharid dynasty. Because of his military genius, some historians have described him as the Napoleon of Persia[2] or the Second Alexander.[3] Nader Shah was a member the Turkmen Afshar tribe of northern Persia,[4] which had supplied military power to the Safavid state since the time of Shah Ismail I.[5] He created a great Iranian Empire that briefly encompassed what is now Iran, Afghanistan, northern India, and parts of Central Asia.[6] He won battles against the Afghans, Ottomans and Mughals. Nader idolised previous conquerors from Central Asia, Genghis Khan and Timur, trying to imitate their military prowess and - especially later in his reign - their cruelty. Nader Shah's victories briefly made him the Middle East's most powerful sovereign, but his empire quickly disintegrated after he was assassinated in 1747. Nader Shah was the last great Asian military conqueror. Nader is considered to be Iran's most gifted military commander[2] and is credited for restoring Iranian power as an eminence between the Ottomans and the Mughals.[7] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x1101, 245 KB) Summary A portrait of Nadir Shah from the following link: http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x1101, 245 KB) Summary A portrait of Nadir Shah from the following link: http://www. ... The Smithsonian castle, as seen through the garden gate. ... Events January 26 - Stanislaus I of Poland abdicates his throne. ... Year 1747 (MDCCXLVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 4 - Palace of Whitehall in London is destroyed by fire. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1747 (MDCCXLVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Abbas III was a son of Shah Tahmasp II of the Safavid dynasty. ... Adil Shah Afshar (? - 1748) was Shah of Persia from 1747 until 1748. ... Farsi redirects here. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 4 - Palace of Whitehall in London is destroyed by fire. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1747 (MDCCXLVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... One of the worlds longest-lasting monarchies, the Iranian monarchy went through many transformations over the centuries, from the days of Persia to the creation of what is now modern day Iran. ... Afsharid Dynasty (1723-1735) Bronze statue of Nader Shah, by Master Sadighi. ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Afshar may refer to: Afshar language, a Turkic language spoken in parts of Afghanistan and Iran Afshar tribe, a Turkic tribe Afshar District, a district in West Kabul, Afghanistan Afshar may also refer to the following people: Afshar Ganjali, Iranian Computer Scientist Ebrahim Afshar (d. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Safavid Empire at its Greatest Extent After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Safavids (Persian: ; Azerbaijani: ) were an Iranian[1] Shia dynasty of mixed Azerbaijani[2] and Kurdish[3] origins, which ruled Persia from 1501/1502 to 1722. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto El Muzaffer Daima The Ever Victorious (as written in tugra) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital İstanbul ( Constantinople/Asitane/Konstantiniyye ) Sovereigns Sultans of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million Area 12+ million km² Establishment 1299 Dissolution October 29... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... This article is about the person. ... For the similar-sounding word Timor, see Timor (disambiguation). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... A conquest is the act of conquering a foreign land, usually for its assimilation into a larger federation or empire. ... The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto El Muzaffer Daima The Ever Victorious (as written in tugra) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital İstanbul ( Constantinople/Asitane/Konstantiniyye ) Sovereigns Sultans of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million Area 12+ million km² Establishment 1299 Dissolution October 29... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ...

Contents

Early life

A Portrait of Nader Shah by Jonas Hanway
A Portrait of Nader Shah by Jonas Hanway

Nader Shah was born in Dastgerd[8] into the Qereqlu clan of the Afshars, a semi-nomadic Turkmen tribe in Khorasan.[6] His father, a poor peasant, died while Nader was still a child. According to legends, Nader and his mother were carried off as slaves by marauding Uzbek or Turkmen tribesmen, but Nader managed to escape. He joined a band of brigands while still a boy and eventually advanced to become their leader. Under the patronage of Afshar chieftains, he rose through the ranks to become a powerful military leader. Nader married the two daughters of Baba Ali Beg, a local chief.[6] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (500x627, 128 KB) Nadir Shah (Nadir Qoli Beg, Tahmasp-Qoli Kha) From: Jonas Hanway: . Leipzig: Holle, 1769 Source: http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (500x627, 128 KB) Nadir Shah (Nadir Qoli Beg, Tahmasp-Qoli Kha) From: Jonas Hanway: . Leipzig: Holle, 1769 Source: http://www. ... Afshar may refer to: Afshar language, a Turkic language spoken in parts of Afghanistan and Iran Afshar tribe, a Turkic tribe Afshar District, a district in West Kabul, Afghanistan Afshar may also refer to the following people: Afshar Ganjali, Iranian Computer Scientist Ebrahim Afshar (d. ... Map showing the pre-2004 Khorasan Province in Iran Khorasan (Persian: خراسان) (also transcribed as Khurasan and Khorassan, anciently called Traxiane during Hellenistic and Parthian times is currently a region located in north eastern Iran, but historically referred to a much larger area east and north-east of the Persian Empire... In a detail of Brueghels Land of Cockaigne (1567) a soft-boiled egg has little feet to rush to the luxuriating peasant who catches drops of honey on his tongue, while roast pigs roam wild: in fact, hunger and harsh winters were realities for the average European in the... Slave redirects here. ... ... Butch Cassidy, a famous outlaw An outlaw, a person living the lifestyle of outlawry, is most familiar to contemporary readers as a stock character in Western movies. ... The Chieftains is an Irish musical group founded in 1962, known for performing and popularizing Irish traditional music. ...


The fall of the Safavid dynasty

Nader grew up during the final years of the Safavid dynasty which had ruled Persia since 1502. At its peak, under such figures as Abbas the Great, Safavid Persia had been a powerful empire, but by the early 18th century the state was in serious decline and the reigning shah, Soltan Hossein, was a weak ruler. When Soltan Hussein attempted to quell a rebellion by Ghilzai Afghans in Kandahar, the governor he sent was killed. Under their leader Mahmud, the rebellious Afghans eventually moved on Iran itself. In 1722, they defeated a vastly superior force at the Battle of Golnabad and then besieged the capital, Isfahan. After the shah failed to escape to rally a relief force elsewhere, the city was starved into submission and Soltan Hussein abdicated, handing power to Mahmud. In Khorasan, Nader at first submitted to the local Afghan governor of Mashhad, Malek Mahmud, but then rebelled and built up his own small army. Soltan Hossein’s son had declared himself Shah Tahmasp II, but found little support and fled to the Qajar tribe, who offered to back him. Meanwhile, Persia's imperial rivals, the Ottomans and the Russians took advantage of the chaos in the country to seize territory for themselves.[9] The Safavids were a long-lasting Turkic-speaking Iranian dynasty that ruled from 1501 to 1736 and first established Shiite Islam as Persias official religion. ... Shah Abbas I (شاه عباس اول) (January 27, 1571?-January 19, 1629?) was the most eminent ruler of the Safavid Dynasty. ... Husayn (also known as Soltan Hosayn) (1668?–1726) was the last powerful Safavid king of Persia. ... The Ghilzais (also known as Khiljis or Ghaljis) are one of two largest groups of Pashtuns, along with the Durrani tribe, found in Afghanistan with a large group also found in neighboring Pakistan. ... This article is about the city in Afghanistan. ... Naghsh-i Jahan Square, Isfahan This article is about the city of Isfahan. ... Mashhad (Persian: , literally the place of martyrdom) is the second largest city in Iran and one of the holiest cities in the Shiah world. ... Tahmasp II (1704? – 1740) was one of the last Safavid rulers of Persia (Iran). ... The Qajar dynasty was the ruling family of Persia from 1796 to 1925. ... Ottoman redirects here. ...


Defeat of the Afghans

Tomb of Nader Shah, a tourist attraction in Mashhad
Tomb of Nader Shah, a tourist attraction in Mashhad

Tahmasp and the Qajar leader Fath Ali Khan (the ancestor of Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar) contacted Nader and asked him to join their cause and drive the Afghans out of Khorasan. He agreed and now became a figure of national importance. When Nader discovered that Fath Ali Khan was in treacherous correspondence with Malek Mahmud and revealed this to the shah, Tahmasp executed him and made Nader the chief of his army instead. Nader subsequently took on the title Tahmasp Qoli (Servant of Tahmasp). In late 1726, Nader captured Mashhad.[10] Nader Shah Afshar, is buried here in Mash-had Iran. ... Nader Shah Afshar, is buried here in Mash-had Iran. ... Mashhad (Persian: , literally the place of martyrdom) is the second largest city in Iran and one of the holiest cities in the Shiah world. ... Agha Muhammad Khan (1742-1797) was the chief of a Turkic tribe, the Qajars. ...


Nader chose not to march directly on Isfahan. First, in May 1729, he defeated the Abdali Afghans near Herat (many of them subsequently joined his army). The new Ghilzai Afghan shah, Ashraf, decided to move against Nader but in September 1729, Nader defeated him at the Battle of Damghan and again, decisively, in November at Murchakhor. Ashraf fled and Nader finally entered Isfahan, handing it over to Tahmasp in December. The citizens' rejoicing was cut short when Nader plundered them to pay his army. Tahmasp made Nader governor over many eastern provinces, including his native Khorasan and married him to his sister. Nader pursued and defeated Ashraf, who was murdered by his own followers.[11] In 1738 Nader Shah besieged and destroyed Kandahar. This was the ultimate defeat of any remaining Afghan forces. Nader Shah built a new city near Kandahar, which he named Naderabad.[6] This page has been deleted, and should not be re-created without a good reason. ... Herāt (Persian: ‎ ) is a city in western Afghanistan, in the province also known as Herāt. ... Combatants Persia Afghans Commanders Nadir Shah Mahmud Ghilzay Strength Casualties The Battle of Damghan was fought in 1729 between Persian and Afghan forces. ... This article is about the city in Afghanistan. ... This article is about the city in Afghanistan. ...


Ottoman campaign

In the spring of 1730, Nader attacked the Ottomans and regained most of the territory lost during the recent chaos. At the same time, the Abdali Afghans rebelled and besieged Mashhad, forcing Nader to suspend his campaign and save his brother, Ebrahim. It took Nader fourteen months to defeat the Abdali Afghans. Ottoman redirects here. ...


Relations between Nader and the shah had declined as the latter grew jealous of his general's military successes. While Nader was absent in the east, Tahmasp tried to assert himself by launching a foolhardy campaign to recapture Yerevan. He ended up losing all Nader’s recent gains to the Ottomans, and signed a treaty ceding Georgia and Armenia in exchange for Tabriz. Nader saw that the moment had come to ease Tahmasp from power. He denounced the treaty, seeking popular support for a war against the Ottomans. In Isfahan, Nader got Tahmasp drunk then showed him to the courtiers asking if a man in such a state was fit to rule. In 1732 he forced Tahmasp to abdicate in favour of the shah’s baby son, Abbas III, to whom Nader became regent. Location of Yerevan in Armenia Coordinates: , Country Established 782 BC Government  - Mayor Yervand Zakharyan Area  - City 227 km²  (87. ... Tabriz (Azari: TÉ™briz ;Persian: تبریز; is the largest city in north-western Iran with an estimated population of 1,597,319 (2007 est. ...


Nader decided he could win back the territory in Armenia and Georgia by seizing Ottoman Baghdad then offering it in exchange for the lost provinces. Unfortunately, his plan went badly wrong when his army was routed by the Ottoman general Topal Osman Pasha near the city in 1733. Nader decided he needed to regain the initiative as soon as possible to save his position; revolts were already breaking out in Persia. He faced Topal again with a larger force and defeated and killed him. He then besieged Baghdad as well as Ganja in the northern provinces, earning a Russian alliance against the Ottomans. Nader scored a great victory over a superior Ottoman force at Baghavard; by the summer of 1735, the Persian Armenia and Georgia were his again. In March 1735, he signed a treaty with the Russians in Ganja by which the latter agreed to withdraw all of their troops from Persian territory.[12] Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... For the Twentieth Century Ottoman colonel, see Topal Osman. ... For other uses, see Ganja (disambiguation). ...


Nader becomes shah

In January 1736, Nader held a qoroltai (a grand meeting in the tradition of Genghis Khan and Timur) on the Moghan Plain in Azerbaijan. The leading figures in Persian political and religious life attended. It was suggested Nader be crowned as the new shah. Everyone agreed, many - if not most - enthusiastically, the rest fearing Nader’s anger if they showed support for the deposed Safavids. Nader was crowned Shah of Persia on March 8, 1736, a date his astrologers had chosen as being especially propitious. Kurultai (Tatar: Qorıltay, Azerbaijani: Qurultay; Kurulmak meaning to assemble in Turkish, also Khural meaning meeting in Mongolian) is a political and military council of ancient Mongol and Turkic chiefs and khans. ... This article is about the person. ... For the similar-sounding word Timor, see Timor (disambiguation). ... Hand-coloured version of the anonymous Flammarion woodcut (1888). ...


Religious reforms

Nader also proposed religious reforms. The Safavids had introduced Shi'a Islam as the state religion of Persia. Nader claimed this had intensified the conflict with the Ottoman Empire which was Sunni. He wanted Persia to adopt a form of religion that would be more acceptable to Sunnis and suggested Persia should adopt the Ja'fari form of Shi'ism. He banned certain Shi'a practices and had the chief mullah in Persia strangled. Nader's aim in doing this was to further weaken the Safavids since Shi'a Islam had always been a major element in support for the dynasty. It is also highly probable that Nader had plans to make himself the master of the Ottoman and Moghul Empires (which were both Sunni) and so needed to establish a form of religion that would be accepted by the majority of his future subjects. [13] Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Twelvers (Arabic: ‎ Ithnāˤashariyya) are Shiˤa Muslims who believe there were twelve Imāms. ...


Invasion of India

In 1738, Nader Shah conquered Kandahar. Nader’s thoughts now turned to Moghul India. This once powerful Muslim state was falling apart as the nobles became increasingly disobedient and the Hindu Marathas made inroads on its territory from the south-west. Its ruler Mohammed Shah was powerless to reverse this disintegration. Nader used the pretext of his Afghan enemies taking refuge in India to cross the border and capture Kabul, Ghazni and Lahore. He then advanced deeper into India crossing the river Indus before the end of year. He defeated the Moghul army at the huge Battle of Karnal in February, 1739. After this victory, Nader captured Mohammad Shah and entered with him into Delhi. In the rioting that followed, more than 30,000 civilians were killed by the Persian troops, forcing Mohammad Shah to beg for mercy. In response, Nader Shah agreed to withdraw, but Mohammad Shah paid the consequence – handing over the keys of his royal treasury; losing even the Peacock Throne to the Persian emperor. The Peacock Throne thereafter served as a symbol of Persian imperial might. Among a trove of other fabulous jewels, Nader also gained the Koh-i-Noor and Darya-ye Noor diamonds (Koh-i-Noor means "Mountain of Light" in Persian, Darya-ye Noor means "Sea of Light"). The Persian troops left Delhi at the beginning of May 1739. Nader's soldiers also took with them thousands of elephants, horses and camels, loaded with the booty they had collected. The plunder seized from India was so rich that Nader stopped taxation in Iran for a period of three years, following his triumphant return.[14] This article is about the city in Afghanistan. ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages)[1] is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... The Marāthās (Marathi: , also Mahrattas) form an Indo Aryan group of Hindu warriors and peasants hailing mostly from the present-day state of Maharashtra, who created a the expansive Maratha Empire, covering a major part of India, in the late 17th and 18th centuries. ... See Mohammad Shah Qajar for the Ruler of Persia Muhammad Shah (1702 - 1748) was a Mughal emperor of India between 1719 and 1748. ... For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ... Ghazni (Persian: غزنی , ÄžaznÄ«) is a city in eastern Afghanistan, with an estimated population of 149,998 people. ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ... The Indus River (Urdu: Sindh; Sindhi: Sindhu; Sanskrit and Hindi: सिन्धु ; Persian: حندو ; Pashto: ّآباسنFather of Rivers; Tibetan: Lion River; Chinese: Yìndù; Greek: Ινδός Indos) is the longest and most important river in Pakistan and one of the most important rivers on the Indian subcontinent and has given the country India its... The battle of Karnal was the war between Nader Shah Afshar and King Saraad Hindion. ... For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... Former Prime Minister of India Vajpayee viewing the throne at Topkapi The Peacock Throne also known as Takht-e-Tavous (Urdu: تخت طائوس) was made for the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan in the 17th century. ... The Peacock Throne, called Takht-e-Tavous (Persian: تخت طائوس) in Persian, is the name originally of a Mughal throne, later used to describe the thrones of the Persian emperors from Nader Shah Afshari to Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi. ... This article is about the diamond. ... Darya-ye Noor The Darya-ye Noor (Persian for Sea of Light), is one of the largest diamonds in the world, weighing 182 carats (36. ... This article is about the mineral. ... This article is about the diamond. ... Darya-ye Noor The Darya-ye Noor (Persian for Sea of Light), is one of the largest diamonds in the world, weighing 182 carats (36. ... Genera and Species Loxodonta Loxodonta cyclotis Loxodonta africana Elephas Elephas maximus Elephas antiquus † Elephas beyeri † Elephas celebensis † Elephas cypriotes † Elephas ekorensis † Elephas falconeri † Elephas iolensis † Elephas planifrons † Elephas platycephalus † Elephas recki † Stegodon † Mammuthus † Elephantidae (the elephants) is a family of pachyderm, and the only remaining family in the order Proboscidea... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... For other uses, see Camel (disambiguation). ... Look up booty in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


After India

Nader Shah's dagger with a small portion of his jewelry. Now part of the Iranian Crown Jewels.
Nader Shah's dagger with a small portion of his jewelry. Now part of the Iranian Crown Jewels.

The Indian campaign was the zenith of Nader's career. After this he would become increasingly despotic as his health declined markedly. Nader had left his son Reza Qoli Mirza to rule Persia in his absence. Reza had behaved highhandedly and somewhat cruelly but he had kept the peace in Persia. When he heard rumours that his father had died he had made preparations for assuming the crown. These included the murder of the former shah Tahmasp and his family (including the nine-year old Abbas III). On hearing the news, Reza’s wife, who was Tahmasp’s sister, committed suicide. Nader was not impressed with his son’s waywardness and reprimanded him, but he took him on his expedition to conquer land in Transoxiana. The Persians forced the Uzbek khanate of Bokhara to submit and Nader wanted Reza to marry the khan’s elder daughter because she was a descendant of his hero Genghis Khan, but Reza flatly refused and Nader married the girl himself. Nader also conquered Khwarezm. Image File history File links Nader_Shah_Jewels_3_-_edited. ... Image File history File links Nader_Shah_Jewels_3_-_edited. ... The Iranian Imperial Crown Jewels, also called the Imperial Crown Jewels of Persia, is the by far largest, most dazzling and valuable jewel collection in the world. ... Map showing modern Transoxiana. ... For other uses, see Bukhara (disambiguation). ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      Khwarezm was a series of states centered on the Amu Darya river delta of the former Aral Sea, in modern Uzbekistan, extending across the Ust-Urt plateau and possibly as far west as...


Nader now decided to punish Daghestan for the death of his brother Ebrahim Qoli on a campaign a few years before. In 1741, while Nader was passing through the forest of Mazanderan, an assassin took a shot at him but Nader was only lightly wounded. He began to suspect his son was behind the attempt and confined him to Tehran. Nader’s increasing ill health made his temper ever worse. Perhaps it was his illness that made Nader lose the initiative in his war against the Lezgin tribes of Daghestan. Frustratingly for him, they resorted to guerrilla war and the Persians could make little headway against them. Nader accused his son of being behind the assassination attempt. Reza angrily protested his innocence, but Nader had him blinded as punishment, though he immediately regretted it. Soon afterwards, Nader started executing the nobles who had witnessed his son's blinding. In his last years, Nader became increasingly paranoid, ordering the assassination of large numbers of suspected enemies. The Republic of Dagestan (Russian: Респу́блика Дагеста́н) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... Mazandaran [3] is a prosperous Caspian province in the north of Iran[4]. Located on the Southern coast of the Caspian Sea, it is bordered clockwise by Golestan, Semnan and Tehran provinces (together forming Greater Mazandaran, separated from Mazandaran respectively in 1997, 1976 and 1960 [5]). The province also lies... For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ... Lezgian is a loose and imprecise term used to refer to a subgroup of the Northeast Caucasian languages spoken in Dagestan by the Lezgian tribes, consisting of ten dialects called the Lezgi language. ... For other senses of this word, see paranoia (disambiguation). ...


Nader started to build a powerful Persian navy. He recaptured the island of Bahrain from the Arabs. In 1743 he conquered Oman and its main capital the city of Muscat. In 1743 Nader started another war against the Ottoman Empire. Despite having a huge army at his disposal, in this campaign Nader showed little of his former military brilliance. It ended in 1746 with the signing of a peace treaty, in which the Ottomans agreed to let Nader occupy Najaf.[15] Naval redirects here. ... Classification City Sultan Qaboos bin Said al Said Area 3,500 km² [1] Population  - Total (2005)  - Density  - Oman calculated rank 606,024 [2] 184. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... Najaf (Arabic: ‎; BGN: An Najaf) is a city in Iraq about 160 km south of Baghdad. ...


Death and legacy

Nader Shah's tomb was designed by Hooshang Seyhoon.
Nader Shah's tomb was designed by Hooshang Seyhoon.

Nader became crueller and crueller as a result of his illness and his desire to extort more and more tax money to pay for his military campaigns. More and more revolts broke out and Nader crushed them ruthlessly, building towers from his victims’ skulls in imitation of his hero Timur. In 1747, Nader set off for Khorasan where he intended to punish Kurdish rebels. Some of his officers feared he was about to execute them and plotted against him. Nader Shah was assassinated on 19 June 1747, at Fathabad in Khorasan. He was surprised in his sleep by Salah Bey, captain of the guards, and stabbed with a sword. Nader was able to kill two of the assassins.[16][17] Image File history File links Naderafshartomb. ... Image File history File links Naderafshartomb. ... Hooshang Seyhoon is a prominent Iranian architect. ... Look up Kurdish in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Rebel may mean: A participant in a rebellion, see Rebellion. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1747 (MDCCXLVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Map showing the pre-2004 Khorasan Province in Iran Khorasan (Persian: خراسان) (also transcribed as Khurasan and Khorassan, anciently called Traxiane during Hellenistic and Parthian times is currently a region located in north eastern Iran, but historically referred to a much larger area east and north-east of the Persian Empire... Swiss longsword, 15th or 16th century Look up Sword in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


After his death, he was succeeded by his nephew Ali Qoli, who renamed himself Adil Shah ("righteous king"). Adil Shah was probably involved in the assassination plot.[12] Adil Shah was deposed within a year. During the struggle between Adil Shah, his brother Ibrahim Khan and Nader's grandson Shah Rukh almost all provincial governors declared independence, established their own states, and the entire Empire of Nader Shah fell into anarchy. Finally, Karim Khan founded the Zand dynasty and became ruler of Iran by 1760, while Ahmad Shah Durrani had already proclaimed independence in the east, marking the foundation of modern Afghanistan. Adil Shah Afshar (? - 1748) was Shah of Persia from 1747 until 1748. ... Ibrahim Obby Khan is a center for the Winnipeg Blue Bombers a Canadian Football League team. ... Shahrokh (Persian: شاهرخ) was the son of Nadir Shah and took over control of Khorasan after his fathers death in 1747. ... A governor is an official who heads the government of a colony, state or other sub-national state unit. ... In the realist theory of International Relations, the anarchical system that all states find themselves in is the lack of clear organisation of states into a hieracical order that is found within states. ... Karim Khan Zand, (Persian: کریم خان زند), (c. ... Vakeel mosque, Shiraz. ... See Ahmad Shah Qajar for the Persian ruler (1909-1925). ...


During Nader Shah's brief reign a 400,000-man army was created, and the boundaries of his empire extended to the greatest extent in Iran's history since the days of the Sassanids. Head of king Shapur II (Sasanian dynasty A.D. 4th century). ...


In 1768, Christian VII of Denmark commissioned Sir William Jones to translate a Persian language biography of Nader Shah written by his Minister Mirza Mehdi Khan Astarabadi into French. It was published in 1770 as Histoire de Nadir Chah, and subsequently translated into English, becoming the vehicle by which Nader Shah became known to the reading public in the West. King Christian VII Christian VII (January 29, 1749–March 13, 1808), King of Denmark and Norway, Duke of Schleswig and Holstein. ... Sir William Jones Sir William Jones (September 28, 1746 – April 27, 1794) was an English philologist and student of ancient India, particularly known for his proposition of the existence of a relationship among Indo-European languages. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Mirza Mehdi Khan Astarabadi (born and died in the 18th century) was an Iranian (Persian) personal secretary, and advisor of King Nadir Shah Afshar. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...

Preceded by
Abbas III
King of Persia
1736–1747
Succeeded by
Adil Shah Afshar

Abbas III was a son of Shah Tahmasp II of the Safavid dynasty. ... The following is a comprehensive list of all Persian Empires and their rulers: // The Elamites were a people located in Susa, in what is now Khuzestan province. ... Adil Shah Afshar (? - 1748) was Shah of Persia from 1747 until 1748. ...

References

  1. ^ Nader's exact date of birth is unknown but August 6 is the "likeliest" according to Axworthy p.17 (and note) and The Cambridge History of Iran (Vol. 7 p.3); other biographers favour 1688.
  2. ^ a b [1] Encyclopedia Britannica
  3. ^ http://www.xs4all.nl/~kvenjb/madmonarchs/nadir/nadir_bio.htm
  4. ^ Michael Axworthy's biography of Nader, The Sword of Persia (I.B. Tauris, 2006), p.17-19: "His father was of lowly but respectable status, a herdsman of the Afshar tribe ... The Qereqlu Afshars to whom Nader's father belonged were a semi-nomadic Turcoman tribe settled in Khorasan in north-eastern Persia ... The tribes of Khorasan were for the most part ethnically distinct from the Persian-speaking population, speaking Turkic or Kurdish languages. Nader's mother tongue was a dialect of the language group spoken by the Turkic tribes of Iran and Central Asia, and he would have quickly learned Persian, the language of high culture and the cities as he grew older. But the Turkic language was always his preferred everyday speech, unless he was dealing with someone who knew only Persian."
  5. ^ Stephen Erdely and Valentin A. Riasanovski. The Uralic and Altaic Series, Routledge, 1997, ISBN 0700703802, p. 102
  6. ^ a b c d NAÚDER SHAH 1736-47 Encyclopedia Iranica, by Ernest Tucker March 29, 2006
  7. ^ Vali Nasr, "The Shia Revival: How Conflicts within Islam Will Shape the Future" (New York 2006)
  8. ^ Axworthy p.18
  9. ^ Axworthy Chapter 1
  10. ^ Axworthy, Chapter 2
  11. ^ Axworthy Chapters 3-4
  12. ^ a b Elton L. Daniel, "The History of Iran" (Greenwood Press 2000) p.94
  13. ^ Axworthy Chapter 6
  14. ^ Axworthy Chapter 7
  15. ^ Axworthy chapters 7-9
  16. ^ http://www.iranchamber.com/history/afsharids/afsharids.php
  17. ^ Axworthy chapters 9 and 10

Additional Reading

  • Lawrence Lockhart "Nadir Shah" (London, 1938)
  • Cambridge History of Iran, vol 7
  • Michael Axworthy, "Sword of Persia: Nader Shah, from Tribal Warrior to Conquering Tyrant" Hardcover 348 pages (26 July 2006) Publisher: I.B. Tauris Language: English ISBN 1-85043-706-8
  • Ernest Tucker, "Nadir Shah's Quest for Legitimacy in Post-Safavid Iran" Hardcover 150 pages (4 October 2006) Publisher: University Press of Florida Language: English ISBN 0-8130-2964-3

See also

Nader Shah's Sword Mirza Mehdi Khan Astarbadi, Nader Shah's Prime Minister This, according to legend, is Nader Shahs All Conquering Sword though the inscription on the blade attributes it to Fathali Shah. ...


External links


 
 

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