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Encyclopedia > Nabonidus

Nabonidus (Akkadian Nabû-nāʾid) was the last King of Babylon, who ruled the Neo-Babylonian Empire from 556 BC to 539 BC. His reign was characterized by his lack of interest in the politics and religion of his kingdom, preferring instead to study the older temples and antiquities in his region. Babylon (in Arabic: بابل; in Syriac: ܒܒܙܠ in Hebrew:בבל) was an ancient city in Mesopotamia (modern Al Hillah, Iraq), the ruins of which can be found in present-day Babil Province, about 50 miles (80 km) south of Baghdad. ... Through the centuries of Assyrian domination, Babylonia enjoyed a prominent status, or revolting at the slightest indication that it did not. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 600s BC - 590s BC - 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC Events and Trends Carthage conquers Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica 559 BC - King Cambyses I of Anshan dies... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC Events and Trends 538 BC - Babylon occupied by Jews transported to Babylon are allowed to return to...

 Nabonidus in relief showing him praying to the moon, sun and Venus
Nabonidus in relief showing him praying to the moon, sun and Venus

Nabonidus, whose relationship with the previous Chaldean Kings of Babylon is unclear, came to the throne in 556 BC by overthrowing the youthful king Labashi-Marduk. It is possible that he substantiated his claim to the throne by his marriage to Nitocris, who was the daughter of Nebuchadnezzar and the widow of Nergal-sharezer. In 549 BC he left Babylon to live at Tayma, a rich oasis city in Arabia, leaving his son Belshazzar behind to rule the empire in his stead. From [1] This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... From [1] This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Look up Chaldean in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 600s BC - 590s BC - 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC Events and Trends Carthage conquers Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica 559 BC - King Cambyses I of Anshan dies... Labashi-Marduk, Chaldean king of Babylon (556 BCE), and son of Neriglissar. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 590s BC - 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC Events and Trends 548 BC -- Croesus, Lydian king, defeated by Cyrus. ... Tayma or (Tema) is a large oasis with a long tradition of occupation, located in Saudi Arabia northeast of the Hijaz at the point where the trade route between Yathrib (Medina) and Dumah begins to cross the Nefud desert. ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... Belshazzar (or Baltasar; Akkadian Bel-sarra-usur) was a prince of Babylon, the son of Nabonidus, the last king of Babylon. ...


In 539 BC, according to the Hebrew Bible, while Belshazzar and the nobles of the empire were feasting and drinking from the chalices from the Hebrew Temple of Jerusalem, a hand wrote an unknown Aramaic text on the wall: mene, mene, tekel, parsin. Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC Events and Trends 538 BC - Babylon occupied by Jews transported to Babylon are allowed to return to... 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum This article is about the term Hebrew Bible. For the Hebrew Bible itself, see Tanakh (Jewish term) or Old Testament (Christian term). ... The Jerusalem Temple (Hebrew: beit ha-mikdash) was the center of Israelite and Jewish worship, primarily for the offering of sacrifices known as the korbanot. ...


None of Belshazzar's soothsayers could translate the words written and then Daniel the Hebrew, known for his accurate prophecies was called to translate the text. He said unto the appointed "King of Babylon" : "This is the interpetation of each word. "Mene," "God has numbered your kingdom and brought it to an end. "Tekel," You have been weighed in the balances and are found wanting. "Peres," Your kingdom is divided and given to the Medes and Persians." These words indicated the arrival of the Persian king Cyrus the Great who rode out to conquer Babylon. Daniel (Hebrew: דָּנִיֵּאל; transliterated as Daniyyel in Standard Hebrew and Dāniyyêl in Tiberian Hebrew, Arabic: Danyel, دانيال) is the name of at least three people from the Hebrew Bible: A Jewish exile in Babylon, the subject of the Book of Daniel and the most well-known of the three Daniels. ... Babylon (in Arabic: بابل; in Syriac: ܒܒܙܠ in Hebrew:בבל) was an ancient city in Mesopotamia (modern Al Hillah, Iraq), the ruins of which can be found in present-day Babil Province, about 50 miles (80 km) south of Baghdad. ... Medea (Medea Proper), ca. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... Cyrus the Great (Old Persian: KÅ«ruÅ¡[1], modern Persian: کوروش بزرگ, Kurosh-e Bozorg) (ca. ...


King Nabonidus returned to save his kingdom, but he came too late. The Persians took the city and the kingdom without resistance (they even got support from Gobryas, a local provincial governor) and King Cyrus was greeted as a liberator. The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ...


The fate of Nabonidus is uncertain. King Cyrus the Great was known for sparing the lives of the kings whom he had defeated, King Croesus of Lydia lived after his defeat at King Cyrus's court as an advisor. Most historians presume that Cyrus made an exception in Nabonidus's case, but some also believe that he was taken prisoner and died in captivity in 538 BC. Cyrus the Great (Old Persian: Kūruš[1], modern Persian: کوروش بزرگ, Kurosh-e Bozorg) (ca. ... Croesus Croesus (IPA pronunciation: , CREE-sus) was the king of Lydia from 560/561 BC until his defeat by the Persians in about 547 BC. The English name Croesus come from the Latin transliteration of the Greek , in Arabic and Persian قارون, Qârun. ... Lydia (Greek ) is a historic region of western Anatolia, congruent with Turkeys modern provinces of İzmir and Manisa. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC Events and Trends 538 BC - Babylon occupied by Jews transported to Babylon are allowed to return to...


See also

Babylonia, named for its capital city, Babylon, was an ancient state in the south part of Mesopotamia (in modern Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... The Nabonidus Cylinder. ... Biblical archaeology involves the recovery and scientific investigation of the material remains of past cultures that can illuminate the periods and descriptions in the Bible. ... Nabonidus Chronicle, British Museum, London The Nabonidus Chronicle records the events during the rule of the last king of Babylonia (King Nabonidus) before the Persian king Cyrus conquered the kingdom in October 539 BCE. However the Chronicles are currently damaged, leaving many blanks and spaces (or lacunas) throughout the script. ...

External links

Preceded by
Labashi-Marduk
King of Babylon
556–539 BC
Succeeded by
Nebuchadnezzar IV (self-proclaimed)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Nabonidus (1908 words)
We are still on track with these deadlines and presented the Nabonidus Desktop version at the Computing Applications in Archaeology conference in Berlin earlier this month.
Nabonidus is a free tool for the archaeological community - it is a website for the storage, management, manipulation and publication of excavation data.
Nabonidus saves enormous amounts of work and time for archaeologists both onsite and during post excavation research.
Nabonidus (156 words)
When the Persian threat of Cyrus the Great grew strong, Nabonidus allied himself with Croesus of Lydia and Amasis II of Egypt, but to no avail.
Nabonidus' scholars preserved information valuable to modern archaeologists.
Cuneiform records indicate that Belshazzar was Nabonidus' son and his coregent during the last years of Babylon.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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