The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. It is owned by The New York Times Company, which also publishes other major newspapers like International Herald Tribune and The Boston Globe, among 40 other newspapers.
The New York Times was founded on September 18, 1851 by Henry Jarvis Raymond and George Jones. Raymond was also a founding director of the Associated Press in 1856. It was originally intended to publish every morning except on Sundays; however, during the Civil War the Times started publishing Sunday issues along with other major dailies. It won its first Pulitzer Prize for news reports and articles about World War I in 1918. In 1919 it first made its trans-atlantic delivery to London. A crossword began to appear in 1942 as a feature. It bought the classical station WQXR in 1942. The fashions section started in 1946. The Times also started an international edition in 1946, but stopped publishing it in 1967 and joined with the owners of the Herald Tribune and The Washington Post to publish the International Herald Tribune in Paris. The Op-Ed section started appearing in 1970. More recently, in 1996 The New York Times went online, giving access to readers all over the world on the Web at www.nytimes.com.
For the year ending December 28, 2003, the reported circulation data for The New York Times were:
1,132,000 Weekday  (http://www.nytco.com/company-properties-times.html#nyt)
1,682,100 Sunday  (http://www.nytco.com/company-properties-times.html#nyt)
The New York Times is based in New York City. It has 16 news bureaus in the New York region, 11 national news bureaus and 26 foreign news bureaus.  (http://www.nytco.com/company-properties-times.html#nyt)
The New York Times is printed at the following sites:
Ann Arbor, MI; Austin, TX; Atlanta, GA; Billerica, MA; Canton, OH; Chicago, IL; College Point, NY; Concord, CA; Dayton, OH (Sunday only); Denver, CO; Fort Lauderdale, FL; Gastonia, NC; Edison, NJ; Lakeland, FL; Phoenix, AZ; Minneapolis, MN; Springfield, VA; Kent, WA and Torrance, CA.  (http://www.nytco.com/company-properties-times.html#nyt)
Adolph Ochs acquired the Times in 1896, and under his guidance the newspaper achieved an international scope, circulation, and reputation. In 1897 he coined the paper's current slogan "All The News That's Fit To Print," widely interpreted as a jibe to competing papers known for yellow journalism. After relocating the paper's headquarters to a new tower on 42nd Street, the area was named Times Square in 1904. Nine years later the Times opened an annex at 229 43rd Street, their current headquarters, later selling Times Tower in 1961. The newspaper is currently owned by The New York Times Company, in which descendants of Ochs, principally the Sulzberger family, maintain a dominant role.
The newspaper is organized in to the following three sections:
Includes International, National, Washington, Business, Technology, Science, Health, Sports, New York Region, Education, Weather, Obituaries, and Corrections.
Includes Editorials, Op-Eds and Letters to the Editor.
Includes Arts, Books, Movies, Theater, Travel, NYC Guide, Dining & Wine, Home & Garden, Fashion & Style, Crossword/Games, Cartoons, Magazine, and Week in Review
The New York Times has won 90 Pulitzer Prizes, the most prestigious award for journalism in the US given away each year by Columbia University, including a record 7 in 2003. More recently, in 2004 the Times won a Pulitzer award for a series written by David Barstow and Lowell Bergman on employers and workplace safety issues.
Allegations of Bias
The Times has also been criticized for allowing Exxon-Mobil Corporation to run a regular paid "advertorial" commentary piece on its editorial page, although the practice is common in other U.S. newspapers. Some studies have accused the Times of intentionally selecting op-ed pieces and letters to the editor that "bracket" their editorial position, making the editorials appear to be moderate.
More seriously, perhaps, many conservatives believe that the Times' hard news and soft news reportage have a consistent and pronounced liberal slant, particularly on social issues. Some claim that political commentary may intermix with art criticism in the Arts section of the paper. For example, A. O. Scott's film reviews sometimes contain barbs directed at social conservatives.
Conversely, many liberals and progressives believe that the Times' hard reporting of foreign policy issues tends to be biased towards right-wing views. In the film Manufacturing Consent: Noam Chomsky and the Media, Noam Chomsky's allegations of the paper's deliberate downplaying Indonesia's brutal invasion and occupation of East Timor are extensively illustrated as a major example of this.
Some progressives believe that the Times' reporting of economic policy issues tends to be biased towards upper-middle class or upper-class concerns over the concerns of the poor or working-class. Third, some Times political reporters, such as Elisabeth Bumiller and Adam Nagourney, have been accused by liberals of covering politics in a shallow and unreflective fashion that (perhaps inadvertently) benefits conservatives.
In the op-ed section, the Times' regular columnists — who operate largely independently of the rest of the paper, and are subject to relatively little editorial oversight — have a mixed range of political orientations. Some claim that this mix is unbalanced, and that this imbalance reflects bias at the newspaper. The 2004 roster of regular columnists range in political position from Maureen Dowd, Paul Krugman, and Bob Herbert on the left, to Thomas Friedman and Nicholas Kristof in the center-left, to David Brooks, formerly of The Weekly Standard magazine, on the center-right and William Safire (retired) on the right. However, attempts to place these columnists' positions on a one-dimensional American political spectrum does not completely characterize their actions or views. For example, Dowd strongly criticized President Clinton; Krugman (a professional economist) spoke as an economic centrist before he began systematically criticizing the George W. Bush administration; and Safire has criticized the Patriot Act.
Other criticism of The New York Times concerns the fact that it has not supported a Republican Party candidate for president since Dwight D. Eisenhower in the 1950s. It has endorsed John F. Kennedy, Lyndon B. Johnson, Hubert Humphrey, George McGovern, Jimmy Carter, Walter Mondale, Michael Dukakis, Bill Clinton and John Kerry.
Riccardo Puglisi from the London School of Economics has written an empirical paper about the editorial choices of the New York Times from 1946 to 1994, entitled, "Being the New York Times: The Political Behaviour of a Newspaper" (December 6, 2004).  (http://ssrn.com/abstract=573801) He finds that the Times displays Democratic partisanship, with some watchdog aspects. For example, during presidential campaigns, the paper systematically gives more coverage to Democratic topics (civil rights, health care, labor, social welfare), but only so when the incumbent president is a Republican.
Times self-examination of bias
In summer 2004, the Times' ombudsman, Daniel Okrent, wrote a piece on the Times' alleged liberal bias. He concluded that the Times did have a liberal bias in coverage of certain social issues, gay marriage being the example he used. He claimed that this bias reflected the paper's cosmopolitanism, which arose naturally from its roots as a hometown paper of New York City (in the United States, cosmopolitan urban populations, like New York City's, tend to be more socially liberal than the mean).
To date, Okrent has not commented extensively on general biases in coverage of "hard news" matters, such as fiscal policy, foreign policy, or civil liberties. However, he has noted that the paper's coverage of the Iraq war was, among other things, insufficiently critical of the George W. Bush administration (see below).
In 2003, the Times admitted to journalism fraud committed over a span of several years by one of its reporters, Jayson Blair, and the general professionalism of the paper was questioned, though Blair immediately resigned following the incident. Questions of affirmative action in journalism were also raised, since Blair was African American. Several top officials, including the chief of its editorial board, also resigned their posts following the incident.
On May 26, 2004, the Times published another significant admission of journalistic failings, admitting that its flawed reporting during the buildup to war with Iraq helped promote the misleading belief that Iraq possessed large stockpiles of weapons of mass destruction.  (http://www.nytimes.com/2004/05/26/international/middleeast/26FTE_NOTE.html) While this "From the Editors" piece didn't mention names, a large part of the incriminated articles had been written by Times reporter Judith Miller (journalist).
A second self-criticism by Times public editor (ombudsman) Daniel Okrent went further. "The failure was not individual, but institutional," Okrent wrote. "War requires an extra standard of care, not a lesser one. But in the Times's WMD coverage, readers encountered some rather breathless stories built on unsubstantiated 'revelations' that, in many instances, were the anonymity-cloaked assertions of people with vested interests. Times reporters broke many stories before and after the war - but when the stories themselves later broke apart, in many instances Times readers never found out. ... Other stories pushed Pentagon assertions so aggressively you could almost sense epaulets sprouting on the shoulders of editors. ... The aggressive journalism that I long for, and that the paper owes both its readers and its own self-respect, would reveal not just the tactics of those who promoted the WMD stories, but how the Times itself was used to further their cunning campaign."  (http://www.nytimes.com/2004/05/30/weekinreview/30bott.html)
The New York Times received a 100% rating on the Corporate Equality Index released by the Human Rights Campaign starting in 2004, the third year of the report.
- John Hess, My Times: A Memoir of Dissent, Seven Stories Press (2003), hardcover, ISBN 1583226044; trade paperback, Seven Stories Press (2003), ISBN 1583226222
- The New York Times on the Web (http://www.nytimes.com/)
- WQXR, the Times' radio station (http://www.wqxr.com/)
- Official history of the Times (http://www.nytco.com/company-timeline-1851.html)
- Celebrated NYT reporter was a federal informant (http://www.sianews.com/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=1618) citing David Cay Johnston Perfectly Legal ISBN 1591840198
- "The Times and Iraq (http://www.nytimes.com/2004/05/26/international/middleeast/26FTE_NOTE.html)," New York Times, May 26, 2004.
- Daniel Okrent, "Weapons of Mass Destruction? Or Mass Distraction? (http://www.nytimes.com/2004/05/30/weekinreview/30bott.html)" New York Times, May 30, 2004.
- "Times Watch (http://www.timeswatch.com/)", documents alleged liberal bias in the Times, run by the Media Research Center
- statistical analysis of the NYT behaviour, from 1946 to 1994, by Riccardo Puglisi (http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=573801/)