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Encyclopedia > NSA call database
 This article documents a current event.
Information may change rapidly as the event progresses.

The NSA call database is a reported database of telephone calls created by the United States National Security Agency (NSA) with the cooperation of four of the largest telephone carriers in the United States: AT&T, SBC, Verizon and BellSouth. [1] The existence of this database and the NSA program that compiled it was mostly unknown to the general public until USA Today broke the story on May 10, 2006. [1] It is estimated that the database contains over 1.9 trillion call-detail records of phone calls made after September 11, 2001. [2] These records do not include audio information or transcripts of the content of the phone calls. The database's existence has prompted fierce objections from those who view it as constituting a warrantless or illegal search, and therefore a violation of the Fourth Amendment of the United States Constitution. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... To suggest a relevant news story for the Main Page, refer to the criteria then add your suggestion at the candidates page. ... A database is an organized collection of data. ... The telephone or phone (Greek: tele = far away and phone = voice) is a telecommunications device which is used to transmit and receive sound (most commonly voice and speech) across distance. ... NSA seal The National Security Agency / Central Security Service (NSA/CSS) is believed to be the largest United States government intelligence agency. ... AT&T Inc. ... SBC may refer to— St. ... This article or section should include material from Bell Atlantic This article or section should include material from GTE Verizon Communications (NYSE: VZ) is a local exchange telephone company formed by the merger of Bell Atlantic, a former Bell Operating Company, and GTE, which was the largest independant local exchange... BellSouth Corporation NYSE: BLS is a U.S. telecommunications company based in Atlanta, Georgia. ... USA Today is a national American newspaper published by the Gannett Corporation. ... {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} May 10 is the 130th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (131st in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The numeral trillion refers to one of two number values, depending on the context of where and how it is being used. ... A Call Detail Record (CDR) (also Call Detail Recording) or Station Message Detail Recording (SMDR) in the telecom sector is a file containing information about recent system usage such as the identities of sources (points of origin), the identities of destinations (endpoints), the duration of each call, the amount billed... The World Trade Center on fire The September 11, 2001 attacks were a series of coordinated terrorist attacks against the United States on September 11, 2001. ... Amendment IV (the Fourth Amendment) of the United States Constitution, which is part of the Bill of Rights, guards against unreasonable searches and seizures. ...


Five days after the story appeared, BellSouth officials said they could not find evidence of having handed over such records. "Based on our review to date, we have confirmed no such contract exists and we have not provided bulk customer calling records to the NSA," the officials said. USA Today replied that BellSouth officials had not denied the allegation when contacted the day before the story was published.[3] Verizon has also attested that it has not been a participant in the alleged program.


The Electronic Frontier Foundation filed a related suit against AT&T on 31 January 2006, alleging that the firm had given NSA access to its database, a charge reiterated in the USA Today article. [1] The EFF uses the blue ribbon as symbolism for their Free Speech defense. ... January 31 is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents


Qwest Communications

The USA Today report indicated that Qwest's then CEO, Joseph Nacchio, doubted the NSA's assertion that warrants were unnecessary. In negotiations, the NSA pressured the company to turn over the records. Qwest attorneys asked the NSA to obtain approval from the United States Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court. Aside from the chief justice, FISC was unaware of the NSA's warrantless domestic activities. When the NSA indicated they would not seek this approval, Qwest's new CEO Richard Notebaert declined NSA's request for access. Later, T-Mobile explicitly stated they do not participate in warrantless surveillance.[4] Qwest Communications International Inc. ... Joseph Nacchio, a one-time executive of AT&T, was chairman of the board and chief executive officer of Qwest Commmunications International from 1997 to 2002. ... In law, a warrant can mean any authorization. ... The United States Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court (or FISC) is a U.S. federal court authorized under 50 USC 1803 and established by the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 (known as FISA for short). ... The NSA warrantless surveillance controversy is a dispute questioning the power of the United States President to authorize the National Security Agency (NSA) to conduct electronic surveillance secretly and without court authorization within the United States. ... T-Mobile logo T-Mobile is a multinational mobile phone operator. ...


Contents of the database

According to the article, the database is "the largest database ever assembled in the world", and contains call-detail records for all phone calls, domestic and international. A call-detail record consists of the phone numbers of the callers and recipients along with time and duration of the call. While the database does not contain specific names or addresses, that information is widely available from non-classified sources.[1] In telecommunications, a Call Detail Record (CDR) (also Call Detail Recording) or Station Message Detail Recording (SMDR) is a record containing information about recent system usage, such as the identities of sources (points of origin), the identities of destinations (endpoints), the duration of each call, the amount billed for each...


According to the research group TeleGeography, AT&T (including the former SBC), Verizon, and BellSouth connected nearly 500 billion telephone calls in 2005 and nearly 2 trillion calls since late 2001.[5] It is reported that all four companies were paid to provide the information to the NSA.[6] [7] It is unknown whether the compensation was larger than in cases of lawful interception. Lawful interception (aka wiretapping) of telecommunications. ...


Uses of the database

Although such a database of phone records would not be useful on its own as a tool for national security, it could be used as an element of broader national security analytical efforts and data mining. These efforts could involve analysts using the data to connect phone numbers with names and links to persons of interest.[8] [9] Such efforts have been the focus of the NSA's recent attempts to acquire key technologies from high tech firms in Silicon Valley and elsewhere. Link analysis software, such as the Analyst's Notebook, is used by law enforcement to organize and view links that are demonstrated through such information as telephone and financial records, which are imported into the program from other sources.[10] Neural network software is used to detect patterns, classify and cluster data as well as forecast future events.[11] Security measures taken to protect the Houses of Parliament in London, England. ... It has been suggested that Tech mining be merged into this article or section. ... A view of downtown San Jose, the self-proclaimed Capital of Silicon Valley. ... Network analysis is the analysis of networks through network theory (or more generally graph theory). ... This article or section needs to be wikified. ... Neural network software is used to simulate, research, develop and apply artificial neural networks, biological neural networks and in some cases a wider array of adaptive systems. ...


Using relational mathematics it is possible to find out if someone changes their telephone number by analyzing and comparing calling patterns.[citation needed]


ThinThread, a system which pre-dated this database, but was discarded, may have introduced some of the technology which is used to analyze the data.[12] Where ThinThread encrypted privacy data, however, no such measures have been reported with respect to the current system. ThinThread is the name of a project that the United States National Security Agency engaged in during the 1990s, according to a May 17, 2006 article in the Baltimore Sun. ...


Government and public response

  • In response, the Bush administration defended its activities, while neither specifically confirming or denying the existence of the potentially illegal program.[13] According to the Deputy White House Press Secretary, "The intelligence activities undertaken by the United States government are lawful, necessary and required to protect Americans from terrorist attacks."[1]
  • Commenting on the apparent incompatibility of the NSA call database with previous assurances by President Bush, former Republican Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich told Fox News, "I’m not going to defend the indefensible. The Bush administration has an obligation to level with the American people... I don’t think the way they’ve handled this can be defended by reasonable people." [15]
  • Later on Meet the Press, Gingrich stated that "everything that has been done is totally legal," and he said the NSA program was defending the indefensible, "because they refuse to come out front and talk about it."[16]
  • Republican Senator Lindsey Graham told Fox News, "The idea of collecting millions or thousands of phone numbers, how does that fit into following the enemy?"[17]
  • House Republican Caucus chairwoman Deborah Pryce said, "While I support aggressively tracking al-Qaida, the administration needs to answer some tough questions about the protection of our civil liberties." [18]
  • Current Republican House Majority Leader John Boehner said, "I am concerned about what I read with regard to NSA databases of phone calls."[18]
  • On May 15, 2006 FCC Commissioner Copps called for the FCC to open an inquiry into the lawfulness of the disclosure of America's phone records.[19]
  • In May, 2006 Pat Robertson called the NSA wire-tapping a "tool of oppression." [20]
  • In May, 2006 former majority leader Trent Lott stated "What are people worried about? What is the problem? Are you doing something you're not supposed to?" [21]
  • On May 16, 2006 both Verizon and BellSouth state not only did they not hand over records, but that they were never contacted by the NSA in the first place.

The White House Press Secretary is a senior White House official with a rank one step below Presidential Cabinet level. ... Seal of the Senate The United States Senate is one of the two chambers of the Congress of the United States, the other being the House of Representatives. ... Arlen Specter (born February 12, 1930) is a United States Senator from Pennsylvania. ... The United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence is a select committee of the United States Senate dedicated to overseeing the American Intelligence Community—the agencies and bureaus of the U.S. federal government who provide information and analysis for leaders of the executive and legislative branches. ... Seal of the Air Force. ... Michael V. Hayden as Principal Deputy Director of National Intelligence. ... Director of the Central Intelligence Agency (D/CIA) serves as the head of the Central Intelligence Agency, which is part of the United States Intelligence Community. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... Template:Diffgggtgerent calendars 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the modern United States Republican Party. ... The chamber of the United States House of Representatives is located in the south wing of the Capitol building, in Washington, D.C.. This photograph shows a rare glimpse of the four vote tallying boards (the blackish squares across the top), which display each members name and vote as... Newt Gingrich Newton Leroy Gingrich, (born June 17, 1943) is an American politician who is best known as the Speaker of the United States House of Representatives from 1995 to 1999. ... Fox News Channels slogan is We Report, You Decide The Fox News Channel is a U.S. cable and satellite news channel. ... Meet the Press (MTP) is a weekly television news show produced by NBC. It started as a radio show in 1945, as American Mercury Presents: Meet the Press, and was later adapted for television. ... Lindsey Olin Graham (born July 9, 1955) is an American politician from South Carolina. ... Deborah D. Pryce (born July 29, 1951) is an American politician from Ohio. ... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... John Andrew Boehner (pronounced BAY-ner) (born November 17, 1949), is an American politician of the Republican Party who serves as House Majority Leader, and a U.S. Representative from the eighth congressional district of Ohio, which includes parts of the city Dayton as well as several southwestern counties along... The Democratic Party is one of the two major political parties in the United States, the other one being the Republican Party. ... Patrick Joseph Leahy (born March 31, 1940) is the senior United States Senator from Vermont. ... The U.S. Senate Committee on the Judiciary (informally Senate Judiciary Committee) is a standing committee of the United States Senate, the upper house of the United States Congress. ... May 15 is the 135th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (136th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The FCCs official seal. ... American religious broadcaster Pat Robertson Marion Gordon Pat Robertson (born March 22, 1930) is an influential televangelist from the United States. ... Chester Trent Lott (born October 9, 1941 in Grenada, Mississippi) is a U.S. Senator from Mississippi and a member of the Republican Party. ... May 16 is the 136th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (137th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Polls

  • In a new Newsweek poll of 1007 people conducted between May 11 and May 12, 2006, 53% of Americans said that "the NSA's surveillance program goes too far in invading privacy " and 57% said that in light of the NSA data-mining news and other executive actions the Bush-Cheney Administration has “gone too far in expanding presidential power" while 41% see it as a tool to "combat terrorism" and 35% think the Administration’s actions were appropriate.[22]
  • According to a Washington Post telephone poll of 502 people, conducted on May 11, 63% of the American public supports the program, 35% do not; 66% were not bothered by the idea of the NSA having a record of their calls, while 34% were; 56% however thought it was right for the knowledge of the program to be released while 42% thought it was not.[23] These results were later contradicted by further polls on the subject, specifically a USA Today/Gallup poll showing 51% opposition and 43% support for the program.[24]

The Newsweek logo Newsweek is a weekly news magazine published in New York City and distributed throughout the United States and internationally. ... May 11 is the 131st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (132nd in leap years). ... May 12 is the 132nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (133rd in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... ... May 11 is the 131st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (132nd in leap years). ... A Gallup poll is an opinion poll frequently used by the mass media for representing public opinion. ...

Political action

The Senate Armed Services Committee was scheduled to hold hearings with NSA whistle-blower Russell Tice the week following the revelation of the NSA call database. Tice indicated that his testimony would reveal information on additional illegal activity related to the NSA call database that has not yet been made public, and that even a number of NSA employees believe what they are doing is illegal. Tice also told the National Journal that he "will not confirm or deny" if his testimony will include information on spy satellites being used to spy on American citizens from space. [25] The Committee on Armed Services is a committee of the United States Senate empowered with legislative oversight of the nations military, including the Department of Defense, military research and development, nuclear energy (as pertaining to national security), benefits for members of the military, the Selective Service System and other... A whistleblower is an employee, former employee, or member of an organization who reports misconduct to people or entities that have the power to take corrective action. ... Russell D. Tice (b. ... National Journal is a weekly magazine about American politics and government, published by National Journal Group, Inc. ... KH-4B Corona satellite Lacrosse radar spy satellite under construction A spy satellite (officially referred to as a reconnaissance satellite or recon sat) is an Earth observation satellite or communications satellite deployed for military or intelligence applications. ... Earth orbit is an orbit around the planet Earth. ...


Lawsuits

New Jersey

Spurred by the public disclosure of the NSA call database, a lawsuit was filed against Verizon on May 12, 2006 at the Federal District Court in Manhattan by Princeton, N.J.-based attorneys Carl Mayer and Bruce Afran. The lawsuit seeks $1,000 for each violation of the Telecommunications Act of 1996, and would total approximately $5 billion if the court certifies the suit as a class-action lawsuit.[26] May 12 is the 132nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (133rd in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Telecommunications Act of 1996 was the first major overhaul of United States telecommunications policy in nearly 62 years, modifying earlier legislation, primarily the Communications Act of 1934. ...


Oregon

On May 12, 2006, an Oregon man filed a lawsuit against Verizon Northwest for $1 billion.[27] May 12 is the 132nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (133rd in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Maine

On May 13, 2006, a complaint in Maine was filed by a group of 21 Maine residents who asked the Public Utilities Commission (PUC) to demand answers from Verizon about whether it provided telephone records and information to the federal government without customers' knowledge or consent. Maine law requires the PUC to investigate complaints against a utility if a petition involves at least 10 of the utility's customers.[28] May 13 is the 133rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (134th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


San Francisco

Shortly after the NSA call database story surfaced, a San Francisco lawsuit was filed by the Electronic Frontier Foundation.[29][30] The EFF uses the blue ribbon as symbolism for their Free Speech defense. ...


Justice Department response

The Los Angeles Times reported on May 14, 2006, that the U.S. Justice Department called for an end to an eavesdropping lawsuit against AT&T Corp., citing possible damage from the litigation to national security.[29][31] May 14 is the 134th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (135th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Legal status

The NSA call database was not approved by the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court (FISC), which was established in 1978 to secretly authorize access to call-identifying information and interception of communications of suspected foreign agents on U.S. soil.[29] The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court is a secret U.S. court composed of eleven federal judges, established by the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (1978), and expanded by the USA PATRIOT Act in 2001. ...


It is however unclear whether the call detail records are covered by the privacy protection of the Fourth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution. As the U.S. has no explicit constitutional guarantee on the secrecy of correspondence, any protection on communications is an extension by litigation of the privacy provided to "houses and papers".[32] This again is dependent on the flexuous requirement of a reasonable expectation of privacy. It has been argued by Bush supporters that no expectation of privacy existed and thus no constitutional protection, leaving the call details outside the juristiction of the FISC. The right to privacy is a purported human right and an element of various legal traditions which may restrain both government and private party action. ... Amendment IV (the Fourth Amendment) of the United States Constitution, which is part of the Bill of Rights, guards against unreasonable searches and seizures. ... The secrecy of correspondence ( German: , Swedish: , Finnish: ), or literally translated as secrecy of letters, is a fundamental legal principle enshrined in the constitutions of several European countries. ... A lawsuit is a civil action brought before a court in order to recover a right, obtain damages for an injury, obtain an injunction to prevent an injury, or obtain a declaratory judgment to prevent future legal disputes. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


The data collecting activity may however be illegal under other telecommunications privacy laws.


The Stored Communications Act

The 1986 Stored Communications Act (18 U.S.C. § 2701) forbids turnover of information to the government without a warrant or court order, the law gives consumers the right to sue for violations of the act.[33][34]

"A governmental entity may require the disclosure by a provider of electronic communication service of the contents of a wire or electronic communication...only pursuant to a warrant issued using the procedures described in the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure"[35]

However, the Stored Communications Act also authorizes phone providers to conduct electronic surveillance if the Attorney General of the United States certifies that a court order or warrant is not required and that the surveillance is required:

[Telephone providers] are authorized to...intercept...communications or to conduct electronic surveillance...if such provider...has been provided with a certification in writing by...the Attorney General of the United States that no warrant or court order is required by law, that all statutory requirements have been met, and that the specified assistance is required.[36]

Phone providers can be held financially liable for violations of the US Constitution:

"The punishment (to the phone provider) for an offense...if the offense is committed...in violation of the Constitution or laws of the United States or any State."[35]

Finally, the act allows any customer whose telephone company provided this information to sue that company in civil court for (a) actual damages to the consumer, (b) any profits by the telephone company, (c) punitive damages, and (d) attorney fees. The minimum amount a successful customer will recover under (a) and (b) is $1,000:

"The court may assess as damages in a civil action under this section the sum of the actual damages suffered by the plaintiff and any profits made by the violator as a result of the violation, but in no case shall a person entitled to recover receive less than the sum of $1,000. If the violation is willful or intentional, the court may assess punitive damages. In the case of a successful action to enforce liability under this section, the court may assess the costs of the action, together with reasonable attorney fees determined by the court." (18 U.S.C. § 2707(c) damages)[35]

Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act

President Clinton signed into law the Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act of 1994, after it was passed in both the House and Senate by a voice vote. That law is an act "to make clear a telecommunications carrier's duty to cooperate in the interception of communications for law enforcement purposes, and for other purposes." The act states that a court order isn't the only lawful way of obtaining call information, saying, "A telecommunications carrier shall ensure that any interception of communications or access to call-identifying information effected within its switching premises can be activated only in accordance with a court order or other lawful authorization."[37] The Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act (CALEA) is a controversial United States wiretapping law passed in 1994 (Pub. ...


Historical background

Main article: Church Committee

The FISC was inspired by the recommendations of the Church Committee, [38] which investigated a wide range of intelligence and counter-intellgence incidents and programs, including some U.S. Army programs and the FBI program COINTELPRO. The Church Committee is the common term referring to the United States Senate Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, a Senate committee chaired by Senator Frank Church (D-ID) in 1975. ... Under the Merovingians and Carolingians, the fisc (Root word of fiscal) applied to the royal demesne which paid taxes, entirely in kind, from which the royal household was meant to be supported, though it rarely was. ... The Church Committee is the common term referring to the United States Senate Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, a Senate committee chaired by Senator Frank Church (D-ID) in 1975. ... COINTELPRO (Counter Intelligence Program) is a program of the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation aimed at investigating and disrupting dissident political organizations within the United States. ...


In 1971, the US media reported that COINTELPRO targeted thousands of Americans during the 1960s, after several stolen FBI dossiers were passed to news agencies.[39] The Church Committee Senate final report, which investigated COINTELPRO declared that: The Church Committee is the common term referring to the United States Senate Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, a Senate committee chaired by Senator Frank Church (D-ID) in 1975. ...

   
Too many people have been spied upon by too many Government agencies and too much information has been collected. The Government has often undertaken the secret surveillance of citizens on the basis of their political beliefs, even when those beliefs posed no threat of violence or illegal acts on behalf of a hostile foreign power. The Government, operating primarily through secret informants, but also using other intrusive techniques such as wiretaps, microphone "bugs," surreptitious mail opening, and break-ins, has swept in vast amounts of information about the personal lives, views, and associations of American citizens. Investigations of groups deemed potentially dangerous -- and even of groups suspected of associating with potentially dangerous organizations -- have continued for decades, despite the fact that those groups did not engage in unlawful activity.[40] [41]
   

Image File history File links Cquote1. ... Image File history File links Cquote2. ...

See also

Antenna 4 (through the wire) in former Echelon intelligence gathering station at Silvermine, Cape Peninsula, South Africa. ... The NSA warrantless surveillance controversy is a dispute questioning the power of the United States President to authorize the National Security Agency (NSA) to conduct electronic surveillance secretly and without court authorization within the United States. ... The Information Awareness Office (IAO) was established by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), the research and development agency of the United States Department of Defense, in January 2002 to bring together several DARPA projects focused on applying information technology to counter transnational threats to national security. ... In the field of telecommunications, data retention generally refers to the storage of telephony and internet traffic and transaction data by governments and commercial organisations. ... Mass surveillance is the pervasive surveillance of an entire population, or a substantial fraction thereof. ... Big Brother as portrayed in the BBCs 1954 production of Nineteen Eighty-Four. ... Project SHAMROCK, considered to be the sister project for Project MINARET, was an espionage exercise that involved the accumulation of all telegraphic data entering into or exiting from the United States. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d NSA has massive database of Americans' phone calls. usatoday.com. URL accessed on 2006-05-11.
  2. ^ Three Major Telecom Companies Help US Government Spy on Millions of Americans. Democracy Now!. URL accessed on 2006-05-15.
  3. ^ BellSouth Says It Gave NSA No Call Records (AP)
  4. ^ Callers Can't Hide. Forbes. URL accessed on 2006-05-15.
  5. ^ Data on Phone Calls Monitored. Washington Post. URL accessed on 2006-05-12.
  6. ^ Hold the Phone. Newsweek. URL accessed on 2006-05-22.
  7. ^ Since the NSA request, SBC has merged with AT&T, making the number of companies now involved three, not four.
  8. ^ Michael R. Ronczkowski (2003)Terrorism and Organized Hate Crime: Intelligence Gathering, Analysis, and Investigations, CRC Press LLC, ISBN 0849320127, pp. 101-106.
  9. ^ Robert M. Clark (2003), Intelligence Analysis: A Target-Centric Approach, CQ Press, ISBN 156802830X.
  10. ^ Taking Spying to Higher Level, Agencies Look for More Ways to Mine Data, New York Times
  11. ^ Missile Defense Agency (PDF file)
  12. ^ NSA killed system that sifted phone data legally; Baltimore Sun; May 17, 2006
  13. ^ Bush defends surveillance. WIS 10 TV, wistv.com. URL accessed on 2006-05-11.
  14. ^ Specter Demands Phone Companies Testify on Database (Update1). Bloomberg.
  15. ^ Gingrich on NSA Phone Records Program: Administration’s Conduct Can’t ‘Be Defended By Reasonable People’. Think Progress.
  16. ^ Immigration, NSA Wiretapping, and Iraq. Meet the Press interview, on www.newt.org. URL accessed on 2006-05-16.
  17. ^ Bush Doesn't Confirm NSA Data Collection. Associated Press. URL accessed on 2006-05-11. May 11, 2006
  18. ^ a b c Quotes About the NSA Collecting Data. Associated Press. URL accessed on 2006-05-11. May 11, 2006
  19. ^ Commissioner Copps calls for the FCC to open an inquiry into the lawfulness of the disclosure of America's phone records (FCC)
  20. ^ Robertson speaks to teens. www.manassasjm.com. URL accessed on 2006-05-15.
  21. ^ BellSouth denies giving records to NSA. cnn.com. URL accessed on 2006-05-15.
  22. ^ Newsweek.
  23. ^ Washington Post-ABC News Poll. Washington Post-ABC News. URL accessed on 2006-05-12. May 12, 2006
  24. ^ UPDATE: Early 'Wash Post' Poll on NSA Phone Spying Refuted. editorandpublisher.com.
  25. ^ NSA Whistleblower To Expose More Unlawful Activity: ‘People…Are Going To Be Shocked’, Think Progress
  26. ^ Mayer, Afran, et al v. Verizon Communications, NSA, George W. Bush. cryptome.org. URL accessed on 2006-05-17.
  27. ^ Beaverton man sues Verizon Nothwest for $1 billion. OregonLive.com. URL accessed on 2006-05-15.
  28. ^ Complaint over phone records filed with PUC. Boston.com. URL accessed on 2006-05-15.
  29. ^ a b c U.S. Justice Department urges end to AT&T suit. xinhuanet.com, quoting Los Angeles Times. URL accessed on 2006-05-15.
  30. ^ AT&T, Verizon readily break their own rules. sfgate.com. URL accessed on 2006-05-11.
  31. ^ In 1970, when stolen COINTELPRO documents were released to members of Congress, journalists, and organizations who were named in the files, the administration's response to the disclosures was to warn that any further disclosures "could endanger the lives or cause other serious harm to persons engaged in investigation activities on behalf of the United States." Stone, Geoffrey R., Perilous Times: Free Speech in Wartime from the Sedition Act of 1798 to the War on Terrorism, p. 495
  32. ^ EX PARTE JACKSON, 96 U.S. 727 (1877). U.S. Supreme Court. URL accessed on 2006-05-17.
  33. ^ Lawyer says Qwest refused data request. The Olympian. URL accessed on 2006-05-11.
  34. ^ Telecoms face billion dollar wiretap lawsuits: report. marketwatch.com. URL accessed on 2006-05-11.
  35. ^ a b c United States Code Annotated Title 18. Crimes and Criminal Procedure Part I—Crimes Chapter 121--Stored Wire And Electronic Communications And Transactional Records Access. www.cybercrime.gov. URL accessed on 2006-05-11.
  36. ^ 18 U.S.C. § 2511(2)(a)(ii). www4.law.cornell.edu. URL accessed on 2006-05-16.
  37. ^ 47 USC 1004 CALEA 105. US Code. URL accessed on 2006-05-17.
  38. ^ Cohen, David; John Wells (17 April 2004). American National Security and Civil Liberties in an Era of Terrorism. Palgrave. ISBN 1403961999. p. 34
  39. ^ COINTELPRO Rides Again. zmag.org. URL accessed on 2006-05-11.
  40. ^ Intelligence Activities and the Rights of Americans book II. United States Senate. URL accessed on 2006-05-11.
  41. ^ Tapped Out Why Congress won't get through to the NSA.. Slate.com. URL accessed on 2006-05-11.

2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 11 is the 131st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (132nd in leap years). ... Democracy Now! is a syndicated news and opinion radio and television program that airs on over 400 stations and both satellite television networks in North America. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 15 is the 135th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (136th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 15 is the 135th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (136th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 12 is the 132nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (133rd in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 22 is the 142nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (143rd in leap years). ... May 17 is the 137th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (138th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 11 is the 131st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (132nd in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 16 is the 136th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (137th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 11 is the 131st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (132nd in leap years). ... May 11 is the 131st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (132nd in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 11 is the 131st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (132nd in leap years). ... May 11 is the 131st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (132nd in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 15 is the 135th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (136th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 15 is the 135th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (136th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 12 is the 132nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (133rd in leap years). ... May 12 is the 132nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (133rd in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 17 is the 137th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (138th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 15 is the 135th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (136th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 15 is the 135th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (136th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 15 is the 135th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (136th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 11 is the 131st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (132nd in leap years). ... COINTELPRO (Counter Intelligence Program) is a program of the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation aimed at investigating and disrupting dissident political organizations within the United States. ... The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C., (large image) The Supreme Court of the United States, located in Washington, D.C., is the highest court (see supreme court) in the United States; that is, it has ultimate judicial authority within the United States... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 17 is the 137th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (138th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 11 is the 131st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (132nd in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 11 is the 131st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (132nd in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 11 is the 131st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (132nd in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 16 is the 136th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (137th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 17 is the 137th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (138th in leap years). ... April 17 is the 107th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (108th in leap years). ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 11 is the 131st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (132nd in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 11 is the 131st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (132nd in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 11 is the 131st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (132nd in leap years). ...

External links

  • NSA has massive database of Americans' phone calls. USA Today. (Original report of the NSA call database)
  • AT&T, Verizon readily break their own rules. San Francisco Chronicle. URL accessed on 2006-05-16.
  • NSA Call-Record Data Mining No Surprise to Security Experts. Fox News. URL accessed on 2006-05-16.
  • President Bush's press conference following disclosure. Video. URL accessed on 2006-05-16.
  • Spying on citizens not unusual Eavesdropping has often led to abuse. Detroit Free Press. URL accessed on 2006-05-16.

 
 

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