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Encyclopedia > NC 17

The MPAA film rating system is a system used in the United States and instituted by the Motion Picture Association of America to rate a movie based on its content. It is one of various motion picture rating systems used to help patrons decide which movies may be appropriate for children. The Motion Picture Association of America needs to get a life (MPAA, originally called the Motion Pictures Producers and Distributors Association) is a non-profit trade association formed to advance the interests of movie studios. ... Film refers to the celluloid media on which movies are printed Film is a term that encompasses motion pictures as individual projects, as well as the field in general. ... Motion picture rating systems are issued to give moviegoers an idea of the suitability of a movie for children and/or adults in terms of issues such as sex, violence and bad language. ...


The current MPAA movie ratings consist of:

  • Rated G – GENERAL AUDIENCES: All ages admitted.
  • Rated PG – PARENTAL GUIDANCE SUGGESTED: Some material may not be suitable for children.
  • Rated PG-13 – PARENTS STRONGLY CAUTIONED: Some material may be inappropriate for children under 13.
  • Rated R – RESTRICTED: Under 17 requires accompanying parent or adult guardian.
  • Rated NC-17 – NO ONE 17 AND UNDER ADMITTED.

If a film has not been submitted for a rating, the label "NR" (Not Rated) is often used; however, "NR" is not an official MPAA classification. Films that have not yet received MPAA classification, but are expected to, are often advertised with the notice, "This film is not yet rated".

Contents


History

Origins

The MPAA film rating system was instituted in November 1968 as a response to massive citizen complaints about the appearance and increase of explicit sexual content, graphic violence, scatology and profanity in American film following the abolition, by the MPAA, of the Production Code of America in 1964. The United States came rather late to motion picture rating, as many other countries had been using rating systems for decades. 1968 was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1968 calendar). ... The Production Code (also known as the Hays Code) was a set of guidelines governing the production of motion pictures. ...


The postmodern movement had its advantages and disadvantages: while it allowed in its earliest days (before the Code was completely abolished) for movies like Alfred Hitchcock's Psycho (1960) to be filmed, it also sparked a rise in low-budget exploitation films that became more and more explicit in their sexual and violent changes. Alfred Hitchcock Sir Alfred Joseph Hitchcock, (13 August 1899 – 29 April 1980) was a British film director closely associated with the suspense genre. ... This article is about the novel and the movies based on it. ... See also: 1959 in film 1960 1961 in film 1950s in film 1960s in film years in film film Events April 20 - for the first time since coming home from military service in Germany, Elvis Presley returns to Hollywood, California to film August 10 - Filming of West Side Story begins. ... Exploitation is the name given to genre of films, extant since the earliest days of moviemaking, but popularized in the 1970s. ...


In 1967, two movies, Ulysses and I'll Never Forget What's'isname, were released containing the word fuck in their dialogue. This precipitated the public demand for the re-introduction of self-regulation. After a series of meetings with government representatives, the Motion Picture Association of America and National Association of Theatre Owners agreed to provide a uniform ratings system for all of its constituents' movies, a system that would be theoretically enforced by the film exhibitors. Film production companies not members of the MPAA were not affected, and the ratings system had no official, governmental enforceability due to the First Amendment of the United States Constitution as interpreted in regards to matters of sexuality and violence in the media dating back to 1952's Joseph Burstyn, Inc. v. Wilson decision. See also: 1966 in film 1967 1968 in film 1960s in film years in film film Events December 26 - The Beatles Magical Mystery Tour airs on British television. ... Ulysses is a film shot in 1967 and based on James Joyces novel Ulysses. ... Ill Never Forget Whats Isname (also released as Ill Never Forget Whatsisname) is a 1967 British film directed and produced by Michael Winner. ... Fuck is among the strongest, most controversial expletives in the modern English language and probably the most well-known vulgarism in the world. ... The National Association of Theatre Owners (NATO) is a trade organization based in the United States whose members are the owners of movie theaters. ... The first ten Amendments to the U.S. Constitution make up the Bill of Rights. ... Page I of the Constitution of the United States of America Page II of the United States Constitution Page III of the United States Constitution Page IV of the United States Constitution The Syng inkstand, with which the Constitution was signed The Constitution of the United States is the supreme...


Original ratings

The original movie ratings consisted of:

  • Rated G – Suggested For GENERAL Audiences (including children).
  • Rated M – Suggested For MATURE Audiences: Parental Discretion Advised.
  • Rated R – RESTRICTED: Children under 17 (originally 16) not admitted unless accompanied by a parent or adult guardian; some theater chains specifically stated that the "adult guardian" must be at least 21.
  • Rated X – Children Under 18 Not Admitted; the notation "Age limit may vary in certain areas" was sometimes added.

Many parents thought films rated M contained more adult content than those that were rated R; this confusion led to its replacement in 1970 by GP: X-rated, X certificate, X classification or similar terms are labels for movies implying strong adult content, typically pornography or violence. ... Events February 11 - The film The Magic Christian, starring Peter Sellers and Ringo Starr premieres in New York City. ...

  • Rated GP – General audiences/Parental guidance suggested.

In 1972 GP was changed to PG – Parental guidance suggested. See also: 1971 in film 1972 1973 in film 1970s in film years in film film Top grossing films The Godfather Fiddler on the Roof Diamonds Are Forever Whats Up, Doc?, starring Barbra Streisand and Ryan ONeal Dirty Harry The Last Picture Show A Clockwork Orange Cabaret, starring...


From the adoption of the system through the mid-1970s, it was not uncommon for mainstream films such as Airport, Planet of the Apes, The Odd Couple, and 2001: A Space Odyssey to be released with G ratings, but by 1978, that rating had become increasingly associated with films, often poorly made, intended specifically for children, while the PG rating became increasingly common for "family" films, with the G rating increasingly stigmatized by a public perception that a film so rated was a "dumb movie rated G for kids." This led to the PG rating becoming overloaded with everything from family films "spiced up" to avoid a G to very mature films that were "toned down" to avoid R ratings. It also led to the somewhat waggish public connotation (never intended by the MPAA) of PG as "Pretty Good." Planet of the Apes is a 1968 science fiction film in which an astronaut finds himself 2,000+ years in the future stranded on an earth-like planet, in which humans are enslaved by apes. ... The Odd Couple was a 1965 play by Neil Simon. ... A movie poster from the original release of 2001 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968) is an immensely popular and influential science fiction film and book; the film directed by Stanley Kubrick and the book written by Arthur C. Clarke. ... In logic and in some branches of semantics, connotation is more or less synonymous with intension. ...


PG-13

In 1984, the films of Steven Spielberg led to the introduction of the PG-13 (Parents strongly cautioned) rating. [1] Violent scenes in the PG-rated films Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom (which he directed) and Gremlins (which he produced), were the catalyst. Public outcry about the violence led Spielberg to suggest a new PG-13 rating to Jack Valenti, who conferred with theater owners and then introduced the new rating on July 1. The rating still allows children under 13 to be admitted without a parent or guardian, but it cautions parents about potentially shocking violence or sexual content. The first movie to be released with a PG-13 rating was 1984's Red Dawn. By this point, the mass audience for films with content in the G or PG range had largely abandoned filmgoing, and filmmakers began to consciously tailor their material to ensure a PG-13 or even an R rating, focussing on the remaining audience (largely teenagers and their college-age "adult" siblings) who preferred such material. Logo for the Motion Picture Association of Americas PG-13 rating. ... See also: 1983 in film 1984 1985 in film 1980s in film years in film film Events Tri-Star Pictures, a joint venture of Columbia Pictures, HBO, and CBS, releases its first film. ... Steven Spielberg Steven Allan Spielberg KBE (born on December 18, 1946 in Cincinnati, Ohio but raised in the suburbs of Haddonfield, New Jersey and Scottsdale, Arizona), is an American film director whose films range from science fiction to historical drama to horror. ... For the 1985 arcade game based on the film, please see Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom (arcade game). ... Gremlins (movie) - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Jack Joseph Valenti (born September 5, 1921) was special assistant to Lyndon Johnsons White House. ... July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 183 days remaining. ... 1984 is a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about a movie. ...


NC-17

In the early years of the ratings system, X-rated movies such as Midnight Cowboy (1969) and A Clockwork Orange (1971) could win Academy Award nominations and awards. But the rating, which wasn't trademarked by the MPAA (as were its other ratings), was self-applied by the "adult entertainment" segment of the industry to the point where an X rating became an advertising gimmick equated strictly with film pornography. X-rated, X certificate, X classification or similar terms are labels for movies implying strong adult content, typically pornography or violence. ... Midnight Cowboy is a 1969 film written by Waldo Salt based on the novel by James Leo Herlihy, and directed by John Schlesinger. ... See also: 1968 in film 1969 1970 in film 1960s in film years in film film Events Cannes Film Festival opens, but closes in support of a French general strike without awarding any prizes. ... A Clockwork Orange is a dystopian 1962 novel by Anthony Burgess, and forms the basis for the 1971 film adaptation by Stanley Kubrick. ... See also: 1970 in film 1971 1972 in film 1970s in film years in film film Events February 8 - Bob Dylans hour long documentary film, Eat the Document, premieres at New Yorks Academy of Music. ... Although he never won an Oscar for any of his movie performances, the comedian Bob Hope received two honorary Oscars for his contributions to cinema. ... A trademark (Commonwealth English: trade mark)[1] is a distinctive sign of some kind which is used by a business to identify itself and its products or services to consumers, and to set the business and its products or services apart from those of other businesses. ... Pavonazzeto marble sculpture, see Erotic art in Pompeii Pornography (from Greek πορνογραφια pornographia — literally writing about or drawings of harlots) is the representation of the human body or human sexual behaviour with the goal of sexual arousal, similar to, but (according to some) distinct from, erotica. ...


This led to large number of newspapers and TV stations refusing to accept ads for X-rated movies, and some theaters' landlords forbade exhibition of X-rated movies. Such policies led to a compromise with the distributors of George Romero's 1979 horror film Dawn of the Dead: the audience restriction for X would be enforced, but the letter "X" itself would not appear in the film's advertisements or displays, with the following message being substituted: "There is no explicit sex in this picture; however, there are scenes of violence which may be considered shocking. No one under 17 will be admitted." The same dispensation was granted to some later horror films, including Zombie and Day of the Dead. George A. Romero (born 4 February 1940) is an American director, writer, editor, actor and composer. ... Events March 5 - Production begins on The Empire Strikes Back, the sequel to Star Wars. ... Dawn of the Dead (1978) - Wikipedia /**/ @import /w/skins-1. ... Day of the Dead (released 1985) is a horror film by director George A. Romero, and the third of four movies beginning with Night of the Living Dead, continued in Dawn of the Dead and completed in Land of the Dead. ...

The MPAA introduced the NC-17 (No one 17 and under admitted) rating on September 27, 1990 to differentiate MPAA-rated adult-oriented films from movies rated X by their producers. This move was largely prompted by Universal Pictures' Henry & June (1990), which would have otherwise received a dreaded X rating. The argument was that X equated with pornography, and Henry & June was intended as an erotic but legitimate mainstream film; the revision of X to NC-17 was intended to placate the filmmakers' complaints. However, media outlets which refused ads for X-rated titles viewed ads for NC-17 rated films as equally unsuitable, despite studio claims of such films being non-pornographic art, and thus simply transferred that policy to NC-17 titles, as did many theater landlords. A number of social conservative groups placed pressure on large video chains including Blockbuster Video and Hollywood Video, as a result of which these chains do not stock NC-17 titles. Logo for the Motion Picture Association of Americas NC-17 rating. ... September 27 is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 95 days remaining. ... See also: 1989 in film, other events of 1990, 1991 in film, list of years in film. Events Chris Rock and Adam Sandler join SNL February 4 - Actor Tom Cruise and actress Mimi Rogers get divorce December 24 - Tom Cruise and actress Nicole Kidman get married Top grossing films of... Universal Studios logo Universal Studios is a famous Hollywood movie studio located at 100 Universal City Plaza Drive in Universal City, California, which is in the San Fernando Valley. ... Blockbuster Video, headquartered in Dallas, Texas, USA, is the name of the largest chain of video tape, video game and DVD rental shops in North America, with shops in countries like Canada, the US, the UK, Australia, and Taiwan. ... Hollywood Video is a video tape, video game and DVD rental shop chain in the United States; it is the largest direct competitor of Blockbuster Video. ...


While a number of movies have been released with the NC-17 rating, none of them have been a major box-office hit. In a bold attempt to broaden the acceptance of NC-17 rated films towards the movie-going public, United Artists marketed its big-budgeted Showgirls heavily, with splashy TV and print ads. The film became the first (and, to date, only) NC-17 rated film to open in wide release, on 1,388 screens. But the critically-savaged film's poor box-office performance only created a larger stigma towards the rating, deeming any film rated NC-17 as being "box-office poison". An acclaimed film, Requiem for a Dream in which the lead actress, Ellen Burstyn, was nominated for Best Actress in the 2000 Academy Awards, was released unrated rather than go out with the stigma of an NC-17 rating. The NC-17 rating has more recently been limited to films considered to appeal to a limited audience, where the limited distribution and advertising of such films is not considered a major obstacle. This is a list of films rated NC-17 by the Motion Picture Association of Americas Classification and Rating Administration (CARA). ... The United Artists Corporation (aka United Artists Pictures and United Artists Films) was formed on February 5, 1919 by four Hollywood greats: Charles Chaplin, Douglas Fairbanks, Mary Pickford and D. W. Griffith. ... Showgirls is a film directed by Paul Verhoeven and released in 1995 by MGM. It starred former teen actor Elizabeth Berkley (Saved by the Bell) as a drifter who wanders into Las Vegas and climbs the social ladder from stripper to showgirl. ... Wide release is a term in the American motion picture industry for a motion picture that is playing nationally (as opposed to a few theatres in cities such as New York and Los Angeles) and on thousands (rather than hundreds) of screens. ... The following is a list of movies that have been considered among the worst ever. ... Requiem for a Dream (2000) (aka Delusion Over Addiction) is a critically praised film directed by Darren Aronofsky, starring Ellen Burstyn and Jared Leto. ... Ellen Burstyn (born December 7, 1932 as Edna Rae Gilhooley in Detroit, Michigan) is an American actress, nominated for best actress in 1974 for her performance in the movie Alice Doesnt Live Here Anymore and for best supporting actress in 1973 for the horror movie The Exorcist. ... The Academy Award for Best Actress is one of the awards given to people working in the motion picture industry by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences; nominations are made by Academy members who are actors and actresses. ... Although he never won an Oscar for any of his movie performances, the comedian Bob Hope received two honorary Oscars for his contributions to cinema. ...


The rating process

While the MPAA does not publish an official list of all the exact words, actions, and exposed body parts used to determine a movie's rating, some guidelines can be derived based on the MPAA's actual rating decisions:

  • if a film uses "one of the harsher sexually-derived words" (such as fuck) no more than three times, it remains eligible for a PG-13 rating, provided that the word is used as an expletive and not in a sexual context;
  • if such language is used more than three times, or once if in a sexual context, it usually receives an R rating;
  • a reference to drugs usually gets a movie a PG-13 at a minimum, though occasionally movies are rated PG for mild drug references;
  • a "graphic" or "explicit" drug scene earning a film an R at a minimum;
  • while total female nudity is permitted in an R-rated movie, any display of naked male genitalia in a sexual context will (usually) result in an NC-17 rating. Non-sexual male nudity will generally lead to an R rating at a minimum.

Members of the MPAA's Rating Board view the movie, discuss it, and vote on the film's rating. If the movie's producer is unhappy with this rating, (s)he can re-edit the film and re-submit it, Fuck is among the strongest, most controversial expletives in the modern English language and probably the most well-known vulgarism in the world. ... The word expletive is currently used in three senses: syntactic expletives, expletive attributives, and bad language. The word expletive comes from the Latin verb explere, meaning to fill, via expletivus, filling out. It was introduced into English in the seventeenth century to refer to various kinds of padding -- the padding... Recreational drug use is the use of psychoactive drugs for recreational rather than medical or spiritual purposes, although the distinction is not always clear. ...


Effects of ratings

Legally, the rating system is entirely voluntary. However, given that MPAA member studios are expected to submit all of their theatrical releases for rating, and few mainstream producers (outside the pornography niche) are willing to bypass the rating system due to potential effects on revenues, the system has a de facto compulsory status in the industry. Most films released unrated nowadays are either relatively obscure independent films, foreign films, or documentaries not expected to play outside the arthouse market, or large-format films which generally contain minimal offensive content and would likely receive a G or PG rating if they were submitted for a rating. Pavonazzeto marble sculpture, see Erotic art in Pompeii Pornography (from Greek πορνογραφια pornographia — literally writing about or drawings of harlots) is the representation of the human body or human sexual behaviour with the goal of sexual arousal, similar to, but (according to some) distinct from, erotica. ... An IMAX dome in Guayaquil, Ecuador IMAX (for Image Maximum) is a film projection system that has the capacity to display images of far greater size and resolution than conventional film display systems. ...


One of the unintended side effects of the rating system is that the G and (in recent years) PG ratings have been associated with children's films and are widely considered to be commercially bad for films targeted at teenagers and adults. For example, the 2004 action/adventure film Sky Captain and the World of Tomorrow, which was not targeted at children, received a PG rating, which some believe caused it to underperform at the box office. [2] Unintended consequences can be either positive, in which case we get serendipity or windfalls source of problems, according to the Murphys law definitively negative: perverse effect, which is the opposite result to the one intended The Law of Unintended Consequences holds that almost all human actions have at least... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Film poster for Sky Captain and the World of Tomorrow. ...


The minimum age for unaccompanied patrons at R films, and all patrons at X films, was originally set at 16 and by 1970 raised to 17 (in some areas the age may be higher still, often 18 but in rare cases as high as 21), though theater owners could still allow children into R-rated (but, at least in theory, not X-rated) films without being accompanied by an adult since the rating system is technically voluntary and does not have the force of law behind it (those films with strong enough content to merit an X rating being presumably subject to obscenity laws at one governmental level or another). In the 1970s the East Coast-based Century theater chain used its own rating system, with only three categories instead of four: For All Ages, For Mature Audiences and No One Under 17 Admitted, with most, but not all, R-rated films receiving the middle designation, under which no age limits were enforced. 1970 was a common year starting on Thursday. ... This article provides extensive lists of events and significant personalities of the 1970s. ... The East Coast (also known as the Eastern Seaboard) is a term referencing the easternmost coastal states in the United States of America. ...


Many films which are rated R have been targeted at teenage audiences. In 2000, due to issues raised by Senator Joseph Lieberman, the National Association of Theater Owners, the major trade association in the U.S., announced it would start strict enforcement of ID checks for R-rated movies. 2000 is a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Joseph Isadore Lieberman (born February 24, 1942) is a Jewish-American Democratic politician and a current U.S. senator from Connecticut. ...


The 2001 independent film L.I.E. challenged its NC-17 rating and waged a publicity campaign against the arbitrary nature of the ratings system. Lot 47, the film's distributor, lost its appeal, and released the film unrated. With the recent success of another NC-17 film, The Dreamers, some film producers and directors hope that the rating may begin to lose some of its stigma and more movie theaters will consider playing such films. See also: 2000 in film, other events of 2001, 2002 in film and the list of years in film. For the 1968 science-fiction film and novel, see 2001: A Space Odyssey. ... An independent film (or indie film) is a film initially produced without financing or distribution from a major movie studio. ... L.I.E. is an independent film released in 2001 about the relationship between a teenaged boy and a pedophile known as Big John. It was directed by Michael Cuesta and starred Paul Franklin Dano as the boy and Brian Cox as the pedophile. ... Movie poster for The Dreamers The Dreamers is a 2003 French drama film directed by Bernardo Bertolucci, written by Gilbert Adair. ...


Video has allowed studios to skirt the rating system and release unrated versions of films on videocassette and DVD. Sometimes these versions would have earned an NC-17 if submitted for rating, but often their unrated status is merely for marketing purposes, with the implication that the added unrated material is racier than an R rating would permit. For example, one DVD release of American Pie, rated R in its theatrical release, exclaims on the box, "UNRATED! The Version You Couldn't See In Theaters". Sometimes the difference between an R-rated feature and its unrated home video counterpart is as little as a few seconds. A number of filmmakers have also taken to filming additional footage specifically for video or DVD release, with no intention of submitting this material to the MPAA. The video cassette recorder (or VCR, less popularly video tape recorder) is a type of video tape recorder that uses removable cassettes containing magnetic tape to record audio and video from a television broadcast so it can be played back later. ... DVD is an optical disc storage media format that can be used for storing data, including movies with high video and sound quality. ... American Pie is a 1999 film, the first by director Paul Weitz, the film was written by Adam Hertz. ...


Some foreign and independent films do not bother to submit to the rating system, reasoning that they will not be distributed widely beyond their art-house audience, so the expense is unnecessary.


Critics of system

The movie rating system has had a number of high-profile critics. Film critic Roger Ebert argues that the system places too much emphasis on not showing sex while allowing the portrayal of massive amounts of gruesome violence. Moreover, he argues that the rating system is geared toward looking at trivial aspects of the movie (such as the number of times a profane word is used) rather than at the general theme of the movie (for example, if the movie realistically depicts the consequences of sex and violence). He has called for an A rating, to indicate films high in violence or mature content which should not be marketed to teenagers, but do not have NC-17 levels of sex (or that rating's cachet). Roger Ebert (born June 18, 1942) is a Chicago Sun-Times film critic and the first author to win a Pulitzer Prize for criticism (1975 award for his film criticism during 1974). Through his newspaper reviews, books, television shows, lectures, and public persona, he has contributed perhaps more than anyone...


Perhaps with these objections in mind, the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops' Office for Film and Broadcasting (a descendent of the formerly influential National Legion of Decency) maintains its own film-classification system, which takes the overall "moral tone" (according to its point of view) of a film into account, rather than focusing on content alone. The Office for Film and Broadcasting of the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops maintains a motion picture rating system . ... The National Legion of Decency was an organization dedicated to identifying, and combatting, objectionable content in American motion pictures. ...


Many critics of the system, especially independent distributors, have charged that major studios' releases often receive more lenient treatment than independent films. It is widely assumed that Saving Private Ryan, with its intense depiction of the D-Day invasion of Normandy, would have earned an NC-17 if it were not a Steven Spielberg film. The comedy Scary Movie, released by a division of The Walt Disney Company's Miramax Films, contained "strong crude sexual humor, language, drug use and violence" but was rated R, to the surprise of many reviewers and audiences; by comparison, the comparatively tamer porn spoof Orgazmo, an independent release, contained "explicit sexual content and dialogue" and received an NC-17. Saving Private Ryan is a 1998 film directed by Steven Spielberg dealing with the World War II Battle of Normandy. ... Land on Normandy In military parlance, D-Day is a term often used to denote the day on which a combat attack or operation is to be initiated. ... Normandy is a geographical region in northern France. ... Steven Spielberg Steven Allan Spielberg KBE (born on December 18, 1946 in Cincinnati, Ohio but raised in the suburbs of Haddonfield, New Jersey and Scottsdale, Arizona), is an American film director whose films range from science fiction to historical drama to horror. ... Scary Movie (2000), an American film directed by Keenen Ivory Wayans, is a comedy, horror, and mystery. ... The Walt Disney Company (also known as Disney) (NYSE: DIS) is one of the largest media and entertainment corporations in the world. ... Miramax is a Big Ten film distribution and production company. ... Orgazmo is a 1997 movie by Trey Parker and Matt Stone, the creators of the television program South Park. ...


Ironically, before its purchase by Disney, Miramax heads Bob and Harvey Weinstein often clashed with the MPAA, proclaimed the rating system unfair to independents, and released some films unrated to avoid an X or NC-17. Orgazmo director Trey Parker's ratings battles later inspired the (R-rated) film South Park: Bigger, Longer & Uncut, which directly criticized the MPAA and holds the Guinness world record for most profanity and violence in an animated feature (399 profane words, 128 offensive gestures and 221 acts of violence). Bob Weinstein, along with brother Harvey Weinstein, is head of Mirimax Studios. ... Harvey Weinstein (born March 19, 1952) is an American film producer. ... Matt Stone and Trey Parker (right). ... South Park: Bigger, Longer & Uncut is a 1999 motion picture based on the cartoon television series of South Park. ... The Guinness Book of Records (or in recent editions Guinness World Records, and in previous US editions Guinness Book of World Records) is a reference book published annually, containing an internationally recognized collection of world records, both human achievements and the extrema of the natural world. ...


On June 13, 2004, the Harvard School of Public Health released a study documenting "ratings creep" as more adult content is allowed in films at a given rating than was allowed in the past. [3] The study reports: June 13 is the 164th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (165th in leap years), with 201 days remaining. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Harvard School of Public Health is Harvard Universitys school of public health. ...

"The MPAA appears to tolerate increasingly more extreme content in any given age-based rating category over time. Movies with the same rating can differ significantly in the amount and type of potentially objectional content. Age-based ratings alone do not provide good information about the depiction of violence, sex, profanity and other content."

Films rated PG-13, in particular, seem to be exhibiting the most "ratings creep" as more features that would have received R ratings even five years ago are now receiving the lesser rating.


The CAP Ministry had noticed and reported similar results four years earlier. The Childcare Action Project is a real-life ministry devoted to reviewing the content of films and determine if the films are okay for children. ...


See also

The Production Code (also known as the Hays Code) was a set of guidelines governing the production of motion pictures. ... X-rated, X certificate, X classification or similar terms are labels for movies implying strong adult content, typically pornography or violence. ... This is a list of films rated NC-17 by the Motion Picture Association of Americas Classification and Rating Administration (CARA). ... // United States Ratings The TV Parental Guidelines system was introduced on January 1, 1996 in the United States in response to public complaints of increasingly explicit sexual and violent content, and use of scatology, in television programs. ... The Office for Film and Broadcasting of the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops maintains a motion picture rating system . ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Motion Picture Association of America (608 words)
Children under 17 are not allowed to attend R-rated motion pictures unaccompanied by a parent or adult guardian.
An NC-17 rated motion picture is one that, in the view of the Rating Board, most parents would consider patently too adult for their children 17 and under.
NC-17 does not mean “obscene” or “pornographic” in the common or legal meaning of those words, and should not be construed as a negative judgment in any sense.
'Not Yet Rated,' alas with NC-17, is one of year's best films | www.azstarnet.com ® (576 words)
Dick commands an all-sides attack, exposing the MPAA as a bullying, hypocritical organization with homophobic tendencies and slippery standards.
Dick's research shows the board, supposedly composed of nine average parents with children ages 5 through 17, is made up of representatives from the largest studios.
It claims not to censor, but it often hands out specific notes on which scenes need to be cut to drop from an NC-17 to an R, or from an R to PG-13, and it's notoriously harsher toward sex than violence.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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