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Coordinates: 50°52′34.16″N, 4°25′19.24″E NATO may refer to: North Atlantic Treaty Organisation National Association of Theatre Owners North African Theater of Operations North American Telemark Organization nato. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord

Flag of NATO
Flag of NATO[1] Image File history File links Flag_of_NATO.svg The flag of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO). ... Missing image The of the The flag of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation consists of a blue flag with the white emblem of a compass rose with four white lines spreading out from it. ...

NATO countries shown in blue
NATO countries shown in blue Map of member nations of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. ...

Formation 4 April 1949
Type Military alliance
Headquarters Brussels, Belgium
Membership 26 member states and 14 major allies
Official languages English, French[2]
Secretary General Jaap de Hoop Scheffer
Chairman of the Military Committee General Raymond Henault
Website
http://www.nato.int/
NATO Portal 
NATO 2002 Summit in Prague.
NATO 2002 Summit in Prague.

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization/Organisation (NATO); French: Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord (OTAN); (also called the North Atlantic Alliance, the Atlantic Alliance, or the Western Alliance) is a military alliance established by the signing of the North Atlantic Treaty on 4 April 1949. With headquarters in Brussels, Belgium,[3] the organization established a system of collective defense whereby its member states agree to mutual defense in response to an attack by any external party. The date of establishment or date of founding of an institution is the date on which that institution chooses to claim as its starting point. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A military alliance is an agreement between two, or more, countries; related to wartime planning, commitments, or contingencies; such agreements can be both defensive and offensive. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other places with the same name, see Brussels (disambiguation). ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Secretary General Jaap de Hoop Scheffer meeting President George W. Bush on March 20, 2006 The Secretary General of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) is the chair of the North Atlantic Council, the supreme decision-making organisation of the defence alliance. ... Jaap de Hoop Scheffer (right) and Jan Peter Balkenende Jaap de Hoop Scheffer (left) and Colin Powell Jaap de Hoop Scheffer (legally Jakob Gijsbert de Hoop Scheffer) (born April 3, 1948) is a Dutch politician who is the 11th NATO Secretary General. ... Raymond (Ray) Roland Joseph Henault, CMM , CD , BA (born Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada in 1949) was the Chief of the Defence Staff of Canada from June 28, 2001. ... A website (alternatively, Web site or web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos or other digital assets that is hosted on one or several Web server(s), usually accessible via the Internet, cell phone or a LAN. A Web page is a document, typically written in HTML... Image File history File links Portal. ... From the White House [1]. Public domain. ... From the White House [1]. Public domain. ... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ... A military alliance is an agreement between two, or more, countries; related to wartime planning, commitments, or contingencies; such agreements can be both defensive and offensive. ... The North Atlantic Treaty is the treaty that brought NATO into existence, signed in Washington, DC on April 4, 1949. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other places with the same name, see Brussels (disambiguation). ... Collective defense is an arrangement, usually formalized by a treaty and an organization, among participant states that commit support in defense of a member state if it is attacked by another state outside the organization. ...

Contents

History

Beginnings

The Treaty of Brussels, signed on 17 March 1948 by Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, France and the United Kingdom is considered the precursor to the NATO agreement. This treaty established a military alliance, later to become the Western European Union. However, American participation was thought necessary in order to counter the military power of the Soviet Union, and therefore talks for a new military alliance began almost immediately. This article is on the 1948 treaty, which served as a basis for the Western Union. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...  â€¢  â€¢  â€¢ Membership 10 member states 6 associate member states 5 observer countries 7 associate partner countries Establishment Treaty of Brussels  -  Signed 17 March 1948  The Western European Union (WEU) is a partially dormant European defence and security organization, established on the basis of the Treaty of Brussels of 1948 with the...


These talks resulted in the North Atlantic Treaty, which was signed in Washington, D.C. on 4 April 1949. It included the five Treaty of Brussels states, as well as the United States, Canada, Portugal, Italy, Norway, Denmark and Iceland. Three years later, on 18 February 1952, Greece and Turkey also joined. The North Atlantic Treaty is the treaty that brought NATO into existence, signed in Washington, DC on April 4, 1949. ... ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

The Parties of NATO agreed that an armed attack against one or more of them in Europe or North America shall be considered an attack against them all. Consequently they agree that, if such an armed attack occurs, each of them, in exercise of the right of individual or collective self-defence will assist the Party or Parties being attacked, individually and in concert with the other Parties, such action as it deems necessary, including the use of armed force, to restore and maintain the security of the North Atlantic area.

"Such action as it deems necessary, including the use of armed force" does not necessarily mean that other member states will respond with military action against the aggressor(s). Rather they are obliged to respond, but maintain the freedom to choose how they will respond. This differs from Article IV of the Treaty of Brussels (which founded the Western European Union) which clearly states that the response must include military action. It is however often assumed that NATO members will aid the attacked member militarily. Further, the article limits the organization's scope to Europe and North America, which explains why the invasion of the British Falkland Islands did not result in NATO involvement. Combatants Argentina United Kingdom Commanders President Leopoldo Galtieri Vice-Admiral Juan Lombardo Brigadier-General Ernesto Crespo Brigade-General Mario Menéndez Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher Admiral Sir John Fieldhouse Rear-Admiral John “Sandy” Woodward Major-General Jeremy Moore Casualties 649 killed 1,068 wounded 11,313 taken prisoner 75 fixed...


In 1954, the Soviet Union suggested that it should join NATO to preserve peace in Europe.[4] The NATO countries, fearing that the Soviet Union's motive was to weaken the alliance, ultimately rejected this proposal.


The incorporation of West Germany into the organization on 9 May 1955 was described as "a decisive turning point in the history of our continent" by Halvard Lange, Foreign Minister of Norway at the time.[5] Indeed, one of its immediate results was the creation of the Warsaw Pact, signed on 14 May 1955 by the Soviet Union, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Bulgaria, Romania, Albania, Yugoslavia, and East Germany, as a formal response to this event, thereby delineating the two opposing sides of the Cold War. is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... Halvard Mathey Lange (1902 - 1970) was a Norwegian diplomat. ... Not to be confused with the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement about airlines financial liability and the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


The unity of NATO was breached early on in its history, with a crisis occurring during Charles de Gaulle's presidency of France from 1958 onward. De Gaulle protested the United States' strong role in the organization and what he perceived as a special relationship between the United States and the United Kingdom. In a memorandum sent to President Dwight D. Eisenhower and Prime Minister Harold Macmillan on 17 September 1958, he argued for the creation of a tripartite directorate that would put France on an equal footing with the United States and the United Kingdom, and also for the expansion of NATO's coverage to include geographical areas of interest to France, most notably Algeria, where France was waging a counter-insurgency and sought NATO assistance. For other uses, see Charles de Gaulle (disambiguation). ... Prime Minister Winston Churchill, (left) with President Franklin Roosevelt, at the 1945 Yalta Conference. ... Dwight David Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969), nicknamed Ike, was a five-star General in the United States Army and U.S. politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... Maurice Harold Macmillan, 1st Earl of Stockton, OM, PC (10 February 1894 – 29 December 1986), was a British Conservative politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1957 to 1963. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ...


Considering the response given to be unsatisfactory, and in order to give France, in the event of a East German incursion into West Germany, the option of coming to a separate peace with the Eastern bloc instead of being drawn into a NATO-Warsaw Pact global war, de Gaulle began to build an independent defense for his country. On 11 March 1959, France withdrew its Mediterranean fleet from NATO command; three months later, in June 1959, de Gaulle banned the stationing of foreign nuclear weapons on French soil. This caused the United States to transfer two hundred military aircraft out of France and return control of the ten major air force bases that had operated in France since 1950 to the French by 1967. is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... A rare occurance of a 5-country multinational fleet, during Operation Enduring Freedom in the Oman Sea. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... Map Of Major USAF bases in France during the Cold War F-100D Tactical Fighter/Bombers of the 48th Tactical Fighter Wing at Chaumont-Semoutiers Air Base, 1957. ...


In the meantime, France had initiated an independent nuclear deterrence programme, spearheaded by the "Force de frappe" ("Striking force"). France tested its first nuclear weapon, Gerboise Bleue, on 13 February 1960, in (what was then) French Algeria. There were 210 French nuclear tests from 1960 until 1996. ... Mutually assured destruction (MAD) is the doctrine of military strategy in which a full scale use of nuclear weapons by one of two opposing sides would result in the destruction of both the attacker and the defender. ... The Redoutable, the first French nuclear missile submarine // a Pluton missile mobile launcher The Force de frappe (literally Striking Force; meant for dissuasion, i. ... Gerboise Bleue (blue jerboa) was the name of the first French nuclear test. ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... French rule in Algeria, 1830–1962 Most of Frances actions in Algeria, not least the invasion of Algiers, were propelled by contradictory impulses. ...

Map of Major USAF bases in France before Charles de Gaulle's 1966 withdrawal from NATO military integrated command.
Map of Major USAF bases in France before Charles de Gaulle's 1966 withdrawal from NATO military integrated command.

Though France showed solidarity with the rest of NATO during the Cuban missile crisis in 1962, de Gaulle continued his pursuit of an independent defence by removing France's Atlantic and Channel fleets from NATO command. In 1966, all French armed forces were removed from NATO's integrated military command, and all non-French NATO troops were asked to leave France. This withdrawal forced the relocation of the Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE) from Paris to Casteau, north of Mons, Belgium, by 16 October 1967. France remained a member of the alliance, and committed to the defense of Europe from possible Communist attack with its own forces stationed in the Federal Republic of Germany throughout this period. France rejoined NATO's Military Committee in 1995, and has since intensified working relations with the military structure. France has not, however, rejoined the integrated military command and no non-French NATO troops are allowed to be based on its soil. The policies of current French President Nicolas Sarkozy appear to be aimed at eventual re-integration. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1058x1114, 253 KB) Summary Map of major United States Air Force Bases in France - 1951 - 1967 Source: Created by author on public domain map of admnstrative regions of France Licensing Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1058x1114, 253 KB) Summary Map of major United States Air Force Bases in France - 1951 - 1967 Source: Created by author on public domain map of admnstrative regions of France Licensing Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document... Emblem of the U.S. Air Forces in Europe. ... For other uses, see Charles de Gaulle (disambiguation). ... For the video game based on the possible outcomes of this event, see Cuban Missile Crisis: The Aftermath. ... The Atlantic Ocean, not including Arctic and Antarctic regions. ... For the Thoroughbred racehorse of the same name, see English Channel (horse). ... Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE) is the central command of NATO military forces. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Casteau is an old village of Belgium in the french speaking region. ... Mons Mons ---- (more info) Stage 1 : Request (How-to) Article EN is too short for the city where the Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe is located Sylfred1977 20:04, 13 October 2007 (UTC) Very good article (featured article in the french WIKIPEDIA) Join this translation   ---   Update this information (instructions)   This... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Nicolas Sarkozy at Paris, May 2005. ...


The creation of NATO necessitated the standardization of military technology and unified strategy, through Command, Control and Communications centers (aka C4ISTAR). The STANAG (Standardization Agreement) insured such coherence. Hence, the 7.62×51 NATO rifle cartridge was introduced in the 1950s as a standard firearm cartridge among many NATO countries. Fabrique Nationale's FAL became the most popular 7.62 NATO rifle in Europe and served into the early 1990s. Also, aircraft marshalling signals were standardized, so that any NATO aircraft could land at any NATO base. “Standard” redirects here. ... A weapon is a tool used to kill or incapacitate a person or animal, or destroy a military target. ... A strategy is a long term plan of action designed to achieve a particular goal, most often winning. Strategy is differentiated from tactics or immediate actions with resources at hand by its nature of being extensively premeditated, and often practically rehearsed. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with ISTAR. (Discuss) C4ISTAR is an acronym used to represent the group of the military functions defined by C4 (Command, Control, Communications, Computers), I (military intelligence) and STAR (Surveillance, Target Acquisition and Reconnaissance) in order to enable the coordination... STANAG is the NATO abbreviation for Standardization Agreement, which set up processes, procedures, terms and conditions for common military or technical procedures between the member countries of the alliance. ... NATOs 7. ... Fabrique Nationale de Herstal, more often known as Fabrique Nationale and abbreviated simply as FN, is a well-known firearm manufacturer that originated in the Belgian city of Herstal, near Liège. ... The Fusil Automatique Leger, or Light Automatic Rifle (LAR). ... Marshaller guiding a plane with beacons Aircraft marshalling is a method of visual signalling between ground personnel and pilots on an airport, aircraft carrier or helipad. ...


Détente

Main article: Détente

During most of the duration of the Cold War, NATO maintained a holding pattern with no actual military engagement as an organization. On 1 July 1968, the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty opened for signature: NATO argued that its nuclear weapons sharing arrangements did not breach the treaty as U.S. forces controlled the weapons until a decision was made to go to war, at which point the treaty would no longer be controlling. Few states knew of the NATO nuclear sharing arrangements at that time, and they were not challenged. Détente is a French term, meaning a relaxing or easing; the term has been used in international politics since the early 1970s. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 in New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ... Nuclear sharing is a concept in NATOs policy of nuclear deterrence, which involves member countries without nuclear weapons of their own in the planning for the use of nuclear weapons by NATO, and in particular provides for the armed forces of these countries to be involved in delivering these...


On 30 May 1978, NATO countries officially defined two complementary aims of the Alliance, to maintain security and pursue détente. This was supposed to mean matching defenses at the level rendered necessary by the Warsaw Pact's offensive capabilities without spurring a further arms race. is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... The term arms race in its original usage describes a competition between two or more parties for military supremacy. ...


However, on 12 December 1979, in light of a build-up of Warsaw Pact nuclear capabilities in Europe, ministers approved the deployment of U.S. Cruise and Pershing II theatre nuclear weapons in Europe. The new warheads were also meant to strengthen the western negotiating position in regard to nuclear disarmament. This policy was called the Dual Track policy. Similarly, in 1983–84, responding to the stationing of Warsaw Pact SS-20 medium-range missiles in Europe, NATO deployed modern Pershing II missiles able to reach Eastern capitals within minutes. This action led to peace movement protests throughout Western Europe. is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... A Taurus KEPD 350 cruise missile of the German Luftwaffe A cruise missile is a guided missile which carries an explosive payload and uses a lifting wing and a propulsion system, usually a jet engine, to allow sustained flight; it is essentially a flying bomb. ... The Pershing II Missile during a test flight The MGM-31 Pershing was a solid-fueled two-stage inertially guided medium range ballistic missile used by the U.S. Armys Missile Command. ... The Dual-Track decision of 1979 was a NATO strategic decision concerning nuclear missile deployment which it was hoped would reduce nuclear arsenals for both sides in the Cold War. ... The RT-21M Pioneer was a medium-range ballistic missile with a nuclear warhead deployed by the Soviet Union from 1976 to 1988. ... An Australian anti-conscription poster from World War One A peace movement is a social movement that seeks to achieve ideals such as the ending of a particular war (or all wars), minimize inter-human violence in a particular place or type of situation, often linked to the goal of...


KAL 007 and NATO deployment of missiles in W. Europe

With the background of the build-up of tension between the Soviet Union and the United States, NATO decided, under the impetus of the Reagan presidency, to deploy Pershing II and cruise missles in Western Europe, primarily West Germany. This deployment would have placed missiles just 6 minutes striking distance from Moscow, the capital of the "Evil Empire", as Reagan had termed it. Yet support for the deployment was wavering and many doubted whether the push for deployment could be sustained. But on Sept. 1, 1983, the Soviet Union would shoot down Korean Air Lines Flight 007, a Boeing 747 with 269 people aboard, in international waters just past the west coast of Sakhalin Island - an act which Reagan characterized as a "massacre". The barbarity of this act, as the U.S. and indeed the world understood it, galvanized support for the deployment - which stood in place until the later accords between Reagan and Mikhael Gorbachev Korean Air Lines Flight 007, also known as KAL 007 or KE007, was a Korean Air Lines civilian airliner shot down by Soviet jet interceptors on September 1, 1983 just west of Sakhalin island. ...


The membership of the organization in this time period likewise remained largely static. In 1974, as a consequence of the Turkish invasion of Cyprus, Greece withdrew its forces from NATO's military command structure, but, with Turkish cooperation, were readmitted in 1980. On 30 May 1982, NATO gained a new member when, following a referendum, the newly democratic Spain joined the alliance. Combatants  Turkey  Cyprus  Greece On the 20th of July 1974, Turkey launched a military invasion by air, land and sea against Cyprus purportedly to restore constitutional order following an Athens orchestrated coup by the Cypriot National Guard against the President of Cyprus, Makarios III. Though Turkey had consistently refused to... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural referendums or referenda), ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ...


In November 1983, NATO maneuvers simulating a nuclear launch caused panic in the Kremlin. The Soviet leadership, led by ailing General Secretary Yuri Andropov, became concerned that the maneuvers, codenamed Able Archer 83, were the beginnings of a genuine first strike. In response, Soviet nuclear forces were readied and air units in East Germany and Poland were placed on alert. Though at the time written off by U.S. intelligence as a propaganda effort, many historians now believe that the Soviet fear of a NATO first strike was genuine. Andropov, then the LKSM KFSSR First Secretary, speaks at the May 9, 1945, victory celebrations Yuri Vladimirovich Andropov (Russian: , Jurij Vladimirovič Andropov) (June 15 [O.S. June 2] 1914 – February 9, 1984) was a Soviet politician and General Secretary of the CPSU from November 12, 1982 until his death just... Able Archer 83 was a ten-day NATO exercise starting on November 2, 1983 that spanned the continent of Europe and simulated a coordinated nuclear release. ... In nuclear strategy, first strike capability is a countrys ability to defeat another nuclear power by destroying its arsenal to the point where the attacking country can survive the weakened retaliation. ... This article is about the state which existed from 1949 to 1990. ...


Post-Cold War

The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Warsaw Pact in 1991 removed the de facto main adversary of NATO. This caused a strategic re-evaluation of NATO's purpose, nature and tasks. In practice this ended up entailing a gradual (and still ongoing) expansion of NATO to Eastern Europe, as well as the extension of its activities to areas that had not formerly been NATO concerns. The first post-Cold War expansion of NATO came with the reunification of Germany on 3 October 1990, when the former East Germany became part of the Federal Republic of Germany and the alliance. This had been agreed in the Two Plus Four Treaty earlier in the year. To secure Soviet approval of a united Germany remaining in NATO, it was agreed that foreign troops and nuclear weapons would not be stationed in the east, and also that NATO would never expand further east.[6][dubious ] Not to be confused with the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement about airlines financial liability and the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ... German reunification (Deutsche Wiedervereinigung) refers to the reunification of Germany from its constituent parts of East Germany and West Germany under a single government on October 3, 1990. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... This article is about the state which existed from 1949 to 1990. ... The Federal Republic of Germany can refer to two things: West Germany from 1949-1990 Germany since German reunification in 1990 ... The Treaty on the Final Settlement With Respect to Germany is the final peace treaty negotiated between the Federal Republic of Germany, the German Democratic Republic, and the Four Powers which occupied Germany at the end of World War II in Europe - France, the United Kingdom, the United States and...


As part of post-Cold War restructuring, NATO's military structure was cut back and reorganised, with new forces such as the Headquarters Allied Command Europe Rapid Reaction Corps established. The Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe agreed between NATO and the Warsaw Pact and signed in Paris in 1990, mandated specific reductions. The changes brought about by the collapse of the Soviet Union on the military balance in Europe were recognised in the Adapted Conventional Armed Forces in Europe Treaty, signed some years later. The Headquarters Allied Command Europe Rapid Reaction Corps, (HQ ARRC or ARRC) was created in 1992 in Bielefeld based on the former British I Corps (or I (BR) Corps ). It was originally created as the rapid reaction corps sized land force of the Reaction Forces Concept that emerged after the... The original Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE) was negotiated and concluded during the last years of the Cold War and established comprehensive limits on key categories of conventional military equipment in Europe (from the Atlantic to the Urals) and mandated the destruction of excess weaponry. ... The Adapted Conventional Armed Forces in Europe Treaty is a post-Cold War adaptation of the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE), signed on November 19, 1999 during the OSCEs 1999 Istanbul summit. ...


On 28 February 1994, NATO also took its first military action, shooting down four Bosnian Serb aircraft violating a U.N.-mandated no-fly zone over central Bosnia and Herzegovina. Operation Deny Flight, the no-fly-zone enforcement mission, had begun a year before, on 12 April 1993, and was to continue until 20 December 1995. NATO air strikes that year helped bring the war in Bosnia to an end, resulting in the Dayton Agreement. is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... A No-Fly Zone is a territory over which aircraft generally or certain unauthorized aircraft are not permitted to fly. ... Enforcement of the Bosnian no-fly zone, beginning 12 April 1993 and ending 20 December 1995. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... The General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, also known as the Dayton Agreement, Dayton Accords, Paris Protocol or Dayton-Paris Agreement, is the peace agreement reached at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio in November 1995, and formally signed in Paris on December 14...


Between 1994 and 1997, wider forums for regional cooperation between NATO and its neighbors were set up, like the Partnership for Peace, the Mediterranean Dialogue initiative and the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council. On 8 July 1997, three former communist countries, Hungary, the Czech Republic, and Poland, were invited to join NATO, which finally happened in 1999. Partnership for Peace is a NATO project aimed at creating trust between NATO and other states in Europe and the former Soviet Union. ... The Mediterranean Dialogue, first launched in 1994 is a forum of cooperation between NATO and seven countries of the Mediterranean with the aim of contributing to regional security and stability by achieving mutual understanding and dispelling misconceptions about NATO among Dialogue countries. ... The Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC), a NATO institution, is a multilateral forum created to improve relations between NATO and non-NATO countries in Europe and those parts of Asia on the European periphery. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ...


On 24 March 1999, NATO saw its first broad-scale military engagement in the Kosovo War, where it waged an 11-week bombing campaign against what was then the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. A formal declaration of war never took place. Yugoslavia referred to the Kosovo War as military aggression, being undeclared and contravening the UN Charter.[7] The conflict ended on 11 June 1999, when Yugoslavian leader Slobodan Milošević agreed to NATO’s demands by accepting UN resolution 1244. NATO then helped establish the KFOR, a NATO-led force under a United Nations mandate that operated the military mission in Kosovo. After the 2008 Kosovo declaration of independence the commander of NATO forces in Kosovo said February 20, 2008 he does not plan to step up security in the tense north despite violent attacks by Kosovo Serb which forced the temporary closure of two boundary crossings between Kosovo and Serbia. No added NATO security in Kosovo is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... The term Kosovo War or Kosovo Conflict is often used to describe two sequential and at times parallel armed conflicts (a civil war followed by an international war) in the southern Serbian province called Kosovo (officially Kosovo and Metohia), part of the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... An USAF F-15E takes off from Aviano, Italy Operation Allied Force aka Kosovo-NATO War was NATOs military operation against Federal Republic of Yugoslavia that lasted from 24 March to 11 June 1999 and is considered a major part of Kosovo War. ... Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbian Government Republic President  - 1992 - 1993 Dobrica Ćosić  - 1993 - 1997 Zoran Lilić  - 1997 – 2000 Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević  - 2000 - 2003 Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Prime Minister  - 1992 - 1993 Milan Panić  - 1993 - 1998 Radoje Kontić  - 1998 - 2000 Momir Bulatović  - 2000 - 2001 Zoran Žižić  - 2001 - 2003 DragiÅ¡a Pe... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... MiloÅ¡ević redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with UN General Assembly Resolution 1244. ... For other uses, see KFOR (disambiguation). ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ...


Debate concerning NATO's role and the concerns of the wider international community continued throughout its expanded military activities: The United States opposed efforts to require the U.N. Security Council to approve NATO military strikes, such as the ongoing action against Yugoslavia, while France and other NATO countries claimed the alliance needed U.N. approval. American officials said that this would undermine the authority of the alliance, and they noted that Russia and China would have exercised their Security Council vetoes to block the strike on Yugoslavia. In April 1999, at the Washington summit, a German proposal that NATO adopt a no-first-use nuclear strategy was rejected. Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Nuclear strategy involves the development of doctrines and strategies for the production and use of nuclear weapons. ...


After the September 11 attacks

NATO Defense Ministers' Summit in Poiana Braşov, 13-14 October 2004
NATO Defense Ministers' Summit in Poiana Braşov, 13-14 October 2004

The expansion of the activities and geographical reach of NATO grew even further as an outcome of the September 11 attacks. These caused as a response the provisional invocation (on September 12) of the collective security of NATO's charter—Article 5 which states that any attack on a member state will be considered an attack against the entire group of members. The invocation was confirmed on 4 October 2001 when NATO determined that the attacks were indeed eligible under the terms of the North Atlantic Treaty.[8] The eight official actions taken by NATO in response to the attacks included the first two examples of military action taken in response to an invocation of Article 5: Operation Eagle Assist and Operation Active Endeavour. Poiana BraÅŸov (Hungarian: Brassópojána) is a Romanian ski resort preferred by some tourists because it is relatively inexpensive compared to ski resorts in Italy, France, Germany, Switzerland and other European states. ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... NATO AWACS Eagle Assist badge Operation Eagle Assist began on October 9, 2001 following the North Atlantic Councils October 4 decision to take measures to operationalize Article 5 of the North Atlantic Treaty. ... Combatants NATO, represented by Denmark Germany Greece Italy Norway Spain Turkey  Russia  Ukraine  Israel  Egypt Morocco Commanders Vice Admiral Roberto Cesaretti, Italian Navy Strength 480 ships and 84 planes Operation Active Endeavour is a naval operation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation. ...


Despite this early show of solidarity, NATO faced a crisis little more than a year later, when on 10 February 2003, France and Belgium vetoed the procedure of silent approval concerning the timing of protective measures for Turkey in case of a possible war with Iraq. Germany did not use its right to break the procedure but said it supported the veto. is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


On the issue of Afghanistan on the other hand, the alliance showed greater unity: On 16 April 2003 NATO agreed to take command of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan. The decision came at the request of Germany and the Netherlands, the two nations leading ISAF at the time of the agreement, and all 19 NATO ambassadors approved it unanimously. The handover of control to NATO took place on 11 August, and marked the first time in NATO’s history that it took charge of a mission outside the north Atlantic area. Canada had originally been slated to take over ISAF by itself on that date. is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Logo of ISAF. Pashto writing: Ú©Ù…Ú© Ùˆ همکاری (Komak wa Hamkari) means Help and Cooperation. International Security Assistance Force (10) (ISAF) is the name of a NATO-led security and development mission in Afghanistan which was established by the United Nations Security Council on 20 December 2001[1] and consists of about 35... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


In January 2004, NATO appointed Minister Hikmet Çetin, of Turkey, as the Senior Civilian Representative (SCR) in Afghanistan. Minister Cetin is primarily responsible for advancing the political-military aspects of the Alliance in Afghanistan. Hikmet Çetin (born 1937 in Diyarbakır) is a Turkish politician, former minister of foreign affairs and was leader of the Republicans People Party for a short time. ...


On 31 July 2006, a NATO-led force, made up mostly of troops from Canada, Great Britain, Turkey and the Netherlands, took over military operations in the south of Afghanistan from a U.S.-led anti-terrorism coalition. is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... // In January 2006, NATO’s focus in southern Afghanistan was to form Provincial Reconstruction Teams with the British leading in Helmand Province and the Netherlands and Canada would lead similar deployments in Orūzgān Province and Kandahar Province respectively. ...


Expansion and restructuring

The NATO Secretary General, the U.S. President, and the Prime Ministers of Latvia, Slovenia, Lithuania, Slovakia, Romania, Bulgaria, and Estonia after a ceremony welcoming them into NATO on 29 March 2004.
The NATO Secretary General, the U.S. President, and the Prime Ministers of Latvia, Slovenia, Lithuania, Slovakia, Romania, Bulgaria, and Estonia after a ceremony welcoming them into NATO on 29 March 2004.

New NATO structures were also formed while old ones were abolished: The NATO Response Force (NRF) was launched at the 2002 Prague Summit on 21 November. On 19 June 2003, a major restructuring of the NATO military commands began as the Headquarters of the Supreme Allied Commander, Atlantic were abolished and a new command, Allied Command Transformation (ACT), was established in Norfolk, Virginia, USA, and the Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE) became the Headquarters of Allied Command Operations (ACO). ACT is responsible for driving transformation (future capabilities) in NATO, whilst ACO is responsible for current operations. Image File history File linksMetadata NATO_March_29_2004. ... Image File history File linksMetadata NATO_March_29_2004. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The NATO Response Force (NRF) is a coherent, high readiness, joint, multinational force package of approximately 25,000 troops that is technologically advanced, flexible, deployable, interoperable and sustainable. Its role is to act as a stand alone military force that can be rapidly deployed by the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation... The 2002 Prague Summit was a NATO summit where the heads of state and government of the NATO member states met. ... is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This Wikipedia article uses European spelling because of NATOs historical use of this style as a standard. ... Motto: Crescas (Latin for, Thou shalt grow. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... SHAPE Emblem Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE) is the central command of NATO military forces. ...


Membership went on expanding with the accession of seven more Northern European and Eastern European countries to NATO: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania (see Baltic Air Policing) and also Slovenia, Slovakia, Bulgaria, and Romania. They were first invited to start talks of membership during the 2002 Prague Summit, and joined NATO on 29 March 2004, shortly before the 2004 Istanbul Summit. The three Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Honoring the start of the 2-day NATO Summit in Istanbul, fighter jets fly in formation over the summit site. ...


A number of other countries have also expressed a wish to join the alliance, including Albania, Croatia, former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Georgia, Montenegro and Ukraine. From the Russian point of view, NATO's eastward expansion since the end of the Cold War has been in clear breach of an agreement between Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and U.S. President George H. W. Bush which allowed for a peaceful unification of Germany. NATO's expansion policy is seen as a continuation of a Cold War attempt to surround and isolate Russia.[9][10][11][12] Motto: Anthem: Today Over Macedonia (Macedonian: Денес Над Македонија, Denes Nad Makedonija) Capital Skopje Largest city Skopje Official language(s) Macedonian1 Government President Prime Minister Parliamentary republic Branko Crvenkovski Vlado Bučkovski Independence Declared From Yugoslavia September 8, 1991 Area  â€¢ Total  â€¢ Water (%)   25,333 km² (146th) 1. ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev[1] (Russian: , IPA: ; born 2 March 1931) is a Russian politician. ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... This article is about the 1990 German reunification. ...


The 2006 NATO summit was held in Riga, Latvia, which had joined the Atlantic Alliance two years earlier. It is the first NATO summit to be held in a country that was part of the Soviet Union, and the second one in a former COMECON country (after the 2002 Prague Summit). Energy Security was one of the main themes of the Riga Summit.[13] The 2006 NATO Summit was the 19th Summit of NATO. It was expected to focus on NATO’s transformation, taking stock of what has been accomplished and charting the way ahead for the Alliance. ... For other uses, see Riga (disambiguation). ... A NATO summit is a summit meeting that is regarded as a periodic opportunity for Heads of State and Heads of Government of NATO member countries to evaluate and provide strategic direction for Alliance activities. ... A Soviet poster reading COMECON: Unity of Goals, Unity of Action The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON / Comecon / CMEA / CEMA), 1949 – 1991, was an economic organization of communist states and a kind of Eastern Bloc equivalent to—but more inclusive than—the European Economic Community. ... The 2002 Prague Summit was a NATO summit where the heads of state and government of the NATO member states met. ...


At the April 2008 summit in Bucharest, Romania, NATO agreed to the accession of Croatia and Albania and invited them to join. The rest were rejected.[14] Nickname: Motto: Patria si Dreptul Meu (My Country and My Right) Location of Bucharest within Romania (in red) Coordinates: , Country County Founded 1459 (first official record) Government  - Mayor Adriean Videanu Area  - City 228 km² (88 sq mi)  - Metro 238 km² (91. ...


ISAF

In August 2003, NATO commenced its first mission ever outside Europe when it assumed control over International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan. However, some critics feel that national caveats or other restrictions undermine the efficiency of ISAF. For instance, political scientist Joseph Nye stated in a 2006 article that "many NATO countries with troops in Afghanistan have "national caveats" that restrict how their troops may be used. While the Riga summit relaxed some of these caveats to allow assistance to allies in dire circumstances, Britain, Canada, the Netherlands, and the U.S. are doing most of the fighting in southern Afghanistan, while French, German, and Italian troops are deployed in the quieter north. At the hands of the escalation of the fighting, France has recently accepted to redeploy its bombers in the south to help the other countries.[15] It is difficult to see how NATO can succeed in stabilizing Afghanistan unless it is willing to commit more troops and give commanders more flexibility."[16] If these caveats were to be eliminated, it is argued that this could help NATO to succeed. Logo of ISAF. Pashto writing: کمک و همکاری (Komak wa Hamkari) means Help and Cooperation. International Security Assistance Force (10) (ISAF) is the name of a NATO-led security and development mission in Afghanistan which was established by the United Nations Security Council on 20 December 2001[1] and consists of about 35... Logo of ISAF. Pashto writing: کمک و همکاری (Komak wa Hamkari) means Help and Cooperation. International Security Assistance Force (10) (ISAF) is the name of a NATO-led security and development mission in Afghanistan which was established by the United Nations Security Council on 20 December 2001[1] and consists of about 35... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with 2001 War in Afghanistan. ... Joseph Nye (born 1937) is the founder, along with Robert Keohane, of the international relations theory neoliberalism (international relations) developed in their 1977 book Power and Interdependence. ... For other uses, see Bomber (disambiguation). ...


NATO missile defense talks controversy

For some years, the United States negotiated with Poland and the Czech Republic for the deployment of interceptor missiles and a radar tracking system in the two countries. Both countries' governments indicated that they would allow the deployment. The proposed American missile defence site in Central Europe is believed to be fully operational in 2015 and would be capable of covering most of Europe except part of Romania plus Bulgaria, Greece and Turkey.[17]


In April 2007, NATO's European allies called for a NATO missile defense system which would complement the American National Missile Defense system to protect Europe from missile attacks and NATO's decision-making North Atlantic Council held consultations on missile defense in the first meeting on the topic at such a senior level.[17] A payload launch vehicle carrying a prototype exoatmospheric kill vehicle is launched from Meck Island at the Kwajalein Missile Range on December 3, 2001, for an intercept of a ballistic missile target over the central Pacific Ocean. ...


In response, Russian president Vladimir Putin claimed that such a deployment could lead to a new arms race and could enhance the likelihood of mutual destruction. He also suggested that his country should freeze its compliance with the 1990 Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE)—which limits military deployments across the continent—until all NATO countries had ratified the adapted CFE treaty.[18] Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Russian: ) (born October 7, 1952) is the current President of the Russian Federation. ... The original Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE) was negotiated and concluded during the last years of the Cold War and established comprehensive limits on key categories of conventional military equipment in Europe (from the Atlantic to the Urals) and mandated the destruction of excess weaponry. ... The Adapted Conventional Armed Forces in Europe Treaty is a post-Cold War adaptation of the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE), signed on November 19, 1999 during the OSCEs 1999 Istanbul summit. ...


Secretary General Jaap de Hoop Scheffer said the system would not affect strategic balance or threaten Russia, as the plan is to base only 10 interceptor missiles in Poland with an associated radar in the Czech Republic.[19] Jaap de Hoop Scheffer (right) and Jan Peter Balkenende Jaap de Hoop Scheffer (left) and Colin Powell Jaap de Hoop Scheffer (legally Jakob Gijsbert de Hoop Scheffer) (born April 3, 1948) is a Dutch politician who is the 11th NATO Secretary General. ...


On July 14, Russia notified its intention to suspend the CFE treaty, effective 150 days later.


Pre-emptive nuclear strike

One group of generals suggest that the West must have the option to launch pre-emptive nuclear attacks in the face of challenges in the post 9/11 world. This is found in a manifesto for a new NATO by five senior military NATO officers and strategists, American General John Shalikashvili, German General Klaus Naumann, Dutch General Henk van den Breemen, French Admiral Jacques Lanxade, and British Field Marshal Lord Inge, and discussions with active commanders and policymakers.[20][21] The Titan II ICBM carried a 9 Mt W53 warhead, making it one of the most powerful nuclear weapons fielded by the United States during the Cold War. ... This article talks about the aftermath of the September 11, 2001 attacks. ... John Malchase David Shalikashvili (born 27 June 1936) is a retired American general who served as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff from 1993 to 1997. ... Klaus Naumann (born May 25, 1939 in Munich) is a German general, who was General Inspector of the German military from 1991 to 1996 and Chair of the Military Committee of the NATO from 1996 to 1999, succeeding the British general Richard Frederick Vincent, Baron Vincent of Coleshill. ... Field Marshal Peter Anthony Inge, Baron Inge, KG, GCB, DL (born 5 August 1935) was the Chief of the General Staff, the professional head of the British Army, between 1992 and 1994. ...

"The risk of further [nuclear] proliferation is imminent and, with it, the danger that nuclear war fighting, albeit limited in scope, might become possible.....The first use of nuclear weapons must remain in the quiver of escalation as the ultimate instrument to prevent the use of weapons of mass destruction."[20][21] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Preventative war. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... For the Xzibit album, see Weapons of Mass Destruction (album). ...

Governance amendments

The manifesto calls for an overhaul of NATO decision-taking methods including:[20]

  • a new pact drawing the US, NATO and the European Union together in a "grand strategy"
  • a new "directorate" of US, European and NATO leaders to respond rapidly to crises
  • an end to EU "obstruction" of and rivalry with NATO.
  • A shift from consensus decision-taking in NATO bodies to majority voting, meaning faster action through an end to national vetoes.
  • The abolition of national caveats in NATO operations
  • The use of force without UN security council authorisation when "immediate action is needed to protect large numbers of human beings"

Membership

There are currently 26 members within NATO.

Date Country Expansion Notes
April 4, 1949  Belgium Founders
Flag of Canada Canada
Flag of Denmark Denmark
Flag of France France France withdrew from the integrated military command in 1966 to pursue an independent defense system.
Flag of Iceland Iceland Iceland, the sole member that does not have its own standing army, joined on the condition that it would not be expected to establish one. However, it has a Coast Guard and has recently provided troops trained in Norway for NATO peacekeeping.
 Italy
Flag of Luxembourg Luxembourg
 Netherlands
Flag of Norway Norway
Flag of Portugal Portugal
 United Kingdom
 United States
18 February 1952 Flag of Greece Greece First Greece withdrew its forces from NATO’s military command structure from 1974 to 1980 as a result of Greco-Turkish tensions following the 1974 Turkish invasion of Cyprus.
Flag of Turkey Turkey
9 May 1955 Flag of Germany Germany Second (as West Germany; Saarland reunited with it in 1957 and the territories of Berlin and the former German Democratic Republic reunited with it on 3 October 1990)
30 May 1982  Spain Third
12 March 1999 Flag of the Czech Republic Czech Republic Fourth
Flag of Hungary Hungary
Flag of Poland Poland
29 March 2004 Flag of Bulgaria Bulgaria Fifth
Flag of Estonia Estonia
Flag of Latvia Latvia
Flag of Lithuania Lithuania
Flag of Romania Romania
Flag of Slovakia Slovakia
Flag of Slovenia Slovenia
TBA 2009  Albania Sixth
 Croatia

At the NATO summit in Bucharest (April 2008) Albania and Croatia were officially invited to start accession talks with the alliance.[22][23] is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iceland. ... Coat of arms of the Icelandic Coast Guard Naval Ensign of the Icelandic Coast Guard The Icelandic Coast Guard is a branch of Icelands military. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Luxembourg. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Portugal. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... Relations between Greece and Turkey have been marked by alternating periods of mutual hostility and reconciliation ever since Greece won its independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1832. ... Combatants  Turkey  Cyprus  Greece On the 20th of July 1974, Turkey launched a military invasion by air, land and sea against Cyprus purportedly to restore constitutional order following an Athens orchestrated coup by the Cypriot National Guard against the President of Cyprus, Makarios III. Though Turkey had consistently refused to... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DEC Capital Saarbrücken Minister-President Peter Müller (CDU) Governing party CDU Votes in Bundesrat 3 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  2,569 km² (992 sq mi) Population 1,044,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 406 /km... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... “East Germany” redirects here. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Czech_Republic. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hungary. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Estonia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Latvia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lithuania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Romania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Slovakia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Slovenia. ... Look up TBA in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 2009 (MMIX) will be a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Albania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Croatia. ... Nickname: Motto: Patria si Dreptul Meu (My Country and My Right) Location of Bucharest within Romania (in red) Coordinates: , Country County Founded 1459 (first official record) Government  - Mayor Adriean Videanu Area  - City 228 km² (88 sq mi)  - Metro 238 km² (91. ...

Map of NATO countries chronological membership.
Membership of NATO in Europe.
Membership of NATO in Europe.

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Download high resolution version (1210x1298, 68 KB)Expansion of NATO in Europe. ... Download high resolution version (1210x1298, 68 KB)Expansion of NATO in Europe. ...

Future membership

Article X of the North Atlantic Treaty describes how non-member states may join NATO:[24] The North Atlantic Treaty is the treaty that brought NATO into existence, signed in Washington, DC on April 4, 1949. ...

The Parties may by unanimous agreement, invite any other European State in a position to further the principles of this Treaty and to contribute to the security of the North Atlantic area to accede to this Treaty. Any State so invited may become a Party to the Treaty by depositing its instrument of accession with the Government of the United States of America. The Government of the United States of America will inform each of the Parties of the deposit of each such instrument of accession.

Note that this article poses two general limits to non-member states: (1) only European states are eligible for membership and (2) these states need the approval of all the existing member states. The second criterion means that every member state can put some criteria forward that have to be attained. In practice, NATO formulates in most cases a common set of criteria, but for instance in the case of Cyprus, Turkey blocks Cyprus' wish to be able to apply for membership as long as the Cyprus dispute is not resolved. Cyprus opposes Turkey's admission to the European Union for the same reason. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In April 2008, Greece also blocked a membership invitation to the Former Yugoslavian Republic of Macedonia over a more-than-a-decade long dispute regarding the latter country's name.


Membership Action Plan

As a procedure for nations wishing to join , a mechanism called Membership Action Plan (MAP) was approved in the Washington Summit of 1999. A country's participation in MAP entails the annual presentation of reports concerning its progress on five different measures: Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Membership Action Plan (MAP) is a term for countries that are in a stage of becoming members of NATO. The current MAP-countries are: Albania, the Republic of Macedonia (both since April 1999) and Croatia (since May 2002). ... Membership Action Plan (MAP) is a term for countries that are in a stage of becoming members of NATO. The current MAP-countries are: Albania, the Republic of Macedonia (both since April 1999) and Croatia (since May 2002). ...

  • Willingness to settle international, ethnic or external territorial disputes by peaceful means, commitment to the rule of law and human rights, and democratic control of armed forces
  • Ability to contribute to the organization's defense and missions
  • Devotion of sufficient resources to armed forces to be able to meet the commitments of membership
  • Security of sensitive information, and safeguards ensuring it
  • Compatibility of domestic legislation with NATO cooperation

NATO provides feedback as well as technical advice to each country and evaluates its progress on an individual basis.[25]


NATO is also unlikely to invite countries such as Ireland, Sweden, Finland, Austria and Switzerland, where popular opinions do not support NATO membership. NATO officially recognizes the policy of neutrality practiced in these countries, and does not consider the failure to set a goal for NATO membership as a sign of distrust[citation needed]. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Country Partnership for Peace Individual Partnership Action Plan NATO membership declared as goal Intensified Dialogue Membership Action Plan NATO membership
 Albania 1994-02 - Yes Yes - April 1999 Invited: April 2008,[23] Expected: 2009[23]
 Croatia 2000-05 - Yes Yes - May 2002 Invited: April 2008,[23] Expected: 2009[23]
 Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 1995-11 - Yes Yes - April 1999 Vetoed by Greece on 03 Apr 2008,[26] Only conditional invitation.
 Georgia March 1994 2004-10 Yes Yes September 2006[27] Expected December 2008 -
 Montenegro 2006-12 - Yes Yes April 2008[28] Expected April 2010 -
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 2006-12 January 2008[29] Yes Yes April 2008 - -
Flag of Ukraine Ukraine 1994-02 - Yes Yes April 2005 Expected December 2008 -
 Serbia 2006-12 - No No - - -
Flag of Azerbaijan Azerbaijan 1994-05 May 2005
[30]
- - -
Flag of Armenia Armenia 1994-10 December 2005 No No[31] - - -
Flag of Kazakhstan Kazakhstan 1994-05 January 2006 No No - - -
Flag of Moldova Moldova 1994-05 May 2006 - - - -
Flag of Finland Finland 1994-05 - No No - - -
 Sweden 1994-05 - No No - - -
Flag of Turkmenistan Turkmenistan 1994-05 - No No - - -
Flag of Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan 1994-06 - No No - - -
Flag of Russia Russia 1994-06 - No No - - -
Flag of Uzbekistan Uzbekistan 1994-07 - No No - - -
Flag of Belarus Belarus 1995-01 - No No - - -
Flag of Austria Austria 1995-02 - No No - - -
 Switzerland 1996-12 - No No - - -
 Ireland 1999-12 - No No - - -
Flag of Tajikistan Tajikistan 2002-02 - No No - - -
 Cyprus Pending resolution of the Cyprus dispute - - - - -
 Malta Former signatory, 1995–1996; membership reactivated in 2008[32] - No No - - -

Partnership for Peace is a NATO project aimed at creating trust between NATO and other states in Europe and the former Soviet Union. ... NATO launched IPAPs at the November 2002 Prague Summit, Individual Partnership Action Plans (IPAPs) are open to countries that have the political will and ability to deepen their relationship with NATO.[1] Currently IPAPs are in implementation with the following countries:  Georgia (29 October 2004)  Azerbaijan (27 May 2005)  Armenia... Intensified Dialogue with NATO is viewed as a stage before being invited to enter the alliance Membership Action Plan (MAP), while the latter should eventually lead to NATO membership. ... Membership Action Plan (MAP) is a term for countries that are in a stage of becoming members of NATO. The current MAP-countries are: Albania, the Republic of Macedonia (both since April 1999) and Croatia (since May 2002). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Albania. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Croatia. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Macedonia. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Georgia. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Montenegro. ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bosnia_and_Herzegovina. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ukraine. ... Image File history File links Yes_check. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Serbia. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... Image File history File links X_mark. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Azerbaijan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Armenia. ... Image File history File links X_mark. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Kazakhstan. ... Image File history File links X_mark. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Moldova. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Finland. ... Image File history File links X_mark. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... Image File history File links X_mark. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkmenistan. ... Image File history File links X_mark. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Kyrgyzstan. ... Image File history File links X_mark. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Image File history File links X_mark. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Uzbekistan. ... Image File history File links X_mark. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belarus. ... Image File history File links X_mark. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Austria. ... Image File history File links X_mark. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Switzerland. ... Image File history File links X_mark. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ireland. ... Image File history File links X_mark. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Tajikistan. ... Image File history File links X_mark. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cyprus. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Malta. ... Image File history File links X_mark. ...

Debate about membership

Albania

Albania was among the first Eastern European countries to join the PFP programme. Since 1992, Albanian politicians have considered admission to NATO a top priority. In this regard Albania has been extensively engaged with NATO since 1994, and has maintained its position as a stability factor and a strong ally of USA and EU in the troubled and divided region of the Balkans. In addition to the political will, the overwhelming majority (95% [33]) of the Albanian population supports NATO membership. Partnership for Peace is a NATO project aimed at creating trust between NATO and other states in Europe and the former Soviet Union. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations by or about: European Union The European Union On-Line Official EU website, europa. ...


Albania was invited to join NATO on 3 April 2008. Full admission to the alliance is expected to happen in 2009.


Croatia

The Croatian government considers NATO membership a top priority,[34]. However, although a 2003 opinion poll showed that about 60% of Croatians were in favor of NATO membership,[35] the support for membership declined after 2003 dropping to only 29% in 2006. In 2007 it increased somewhat.[36][34] For the time being it is not clear how Croatia will make the final decision about the membership i.e. will an act of parliament suffice or should a referendum be held. On 23 March 2007 the Croatian president Stjepan Mesić, Prime minister Ivo Sanader and President of parliament Vladimir Šeks declared that Croatian constitution does not call for a referendum on this issue.[37] In 2006 the Croatian government was planning to start a media campaign to promote the benefits of membership. A May 2007 poll commissioned by the government showed that NATO membership was backed by 52% of the population (9 points up from March) and 25% was against.[38] Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural referendums or referenda), ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... Stjepan Stipe Mesić (born December 24, 1934) is a Croatian politician. ... Ivo Sanader [] (born June 8, 1953 in Split) is the current Prime Thief of Croatia (President of the Government). ... Vladimir Å eks Vladimir Å eks (born Osijek, 1 January 1943) is the current speaker of the Croatian Parliament. ...


Recently a newspaper report suggested that a Slovenian military air base in Cerklje ob Krki, a town near the Croatian border, would be transformed into a NATO base. When in 2010 the base becomes operational the military planes stationed there will have to use Croatian air space.[39] Local inhabitants and environmentalists from both sides of the border have been expressing their concerns about this plan. Cerklje ob Krki is small town in southern Slovenia, near the border with Croatia. ...


On 4 January 2008 Croatian Prime minister Ivo Sanader reached a coalition agreement with partners from HSS and HSLS to form a new government. According to a provision of the said agreement Croatia's entry into NATO will not be decided on a referendum.[40] The Croatian Peasant Party (Croatian: Hrvatska seljačka stranka, HSS) was formed in 1905 by Stjepan Radić, a leading Croatian politician. ... Croatian Social Liberal Party (Croatian: Hrvatska socijalno liberalna stranka, HSLS) is a liberal party in Croatia. ...


At the NATO summit in Bucharest on April 3, 2008 Croatia received the invitation to join the alliance.[22] Full admission to the alliance is expected to happen in 2009.


Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnia and Herzegovina expects to be invited to the Membership Action Plan at the 2008 Bucharest Summit and to join NATO between 2012 and 2015.[41] Membership Action Plan (MAP) is a term for countries that are in a stage of becoming members of NATO. The current MAP-countries are: Albania, the Republic of Macedonia (both since April 1999) and Croatia (since May 2002). ... The 2008 Bucharest Summit or the 20th NATO Summit is a NATO summit that will be organized in Bucharest, Romania in early April, 2008. ...


Finland

Finland is participating in nearly all sub-areas of the Partnership for Peace programme, and has provided peacekeeping forces to the Afghanistan and Kosovo missions. Polls in Finland indicate that the public is strongly against NATO membership[42] and the possibility of Finland's membership in NATO was one of the most important issues debated in relation to the Finnish presidential election of 2006. The 2006 Finnish Presidential election saw the reelection of Tarja Halonen as President of Finland for a second six-year term. ...


The main contester of the presidency, Sauli Niinistö of the National Coalition Party, supported Finland joining a "more European" NATO. Fellow right-winger Henrik Lax of the Swedish People's Party likewise supported the concept. On the other side, president Tarja Halonen of the Social Democratic Party opposed changing the status quo, as did most other candidates in the election. Her victory and re-election to the post of president has currently put the issue of a NATO membership for Finland on hold for at least the duration of her term. Finland could however change its official position on NATO membership after the new E.U. treaty clarifies if there will be any new E.U.–level defense deal, but in the meantime Helsinki's defense ministry is pushing to join NATO and its army is making technical preparations for membership,[43] stating that it would increase Finland's security.[44] The President of Finland is the Head of State of Finland. ... Sauli Niinistö Sauli Väinämö Niinistö (born August 24, 1948, Salo, Finland) is a Director at the European Investment Bank, a lawyer, former Finnish finance minister and was the Kokoomus candidate in the 2006 presidential election. ... The National Coalition Party (Kansallinen Kokoomus or Samlingspartiet) is a political party in Finland. ... Henrik Lax Henrik Lax (born on 6 May 1946 in Helsinki) is a Finnish politician and Member of the European Parliament with the Swedish Peoples Party, Member of the Bureau of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe and sits on the European Parliaments Committee on Civil... The Swedish Peoples Party (Swedish: ; Finnish: ) is a Swedish speaking minority and mainly liberal party in Finland. ... {{Infobox President|name= Tarja Halonen |order=11th President of Finland |image=Finland. ... The Social Democratic Party of Finland (SDP) is one of the most influential political parties in Finland, along with the Centre Party and the Coalition Party. ... Location of Helsinki in Northern Europe Coordinates: , Country Province Region Uusimaa Sub-region Helsinki Charter 1550 Capital city 1812 Government  - Mayor Jussi Pajunen Area  - Total 187. ... The Finnish Defence Forces (Finnish: Puolustusvoimat) consist of 34,700 people in uniform (27,300 army, 3,000 navy, and 4,400 air force). ... The Finnish Army (Finnish: Maavoimat) is one of the branches of the Finnish Defence Forces. ...


Other political figures of Finland who have weighed in with opinions include former President of Finland Martti Ahtisaari who has argued that Finland should join all the organizations supported by other Western democracies in order "to shrug off once and for all the burden of Finlandisation".[45] An ex-president, Mauno Koivisto, opposes the idea, arguing that NATO membership would ruin Finland's relations with Russia. Finland has received some very critical feedback from Russia for even considering the possibility of joining NATO.[46] Martti Oiva Kalevi Ahtisaari (IPA: ) (born June 23, 1937 Viipuri, Finland) is a former President of Finland (1994–2000) and a United Nations diplomat and mediator, noted for his international peace work. ... Finlandization (Finnlandisierung in German) is a negatively charged term originating in West German political debate of the 1960s and 1970s. ... Dr. Mauno Henrik Koivisto [IPA: mɑuno henrik koiʋisto] (born November 25, 1923) was the President of Finland from 1982 to 1994. ...


Montenegro

Montenegro joined the PFP programme at the 2006 Riga Summit. In November of 2007, Montenegro signed a transit agreement with NATO, allowing the alliance's troops to move across the country.[47] Montenegro then signed an agreement with the United States, in which Montenegro will destroy its outdated weaponry as a precondition for NATO membership.[48] In late 2007, Montenegro's Defence Minister Boro Vučinić said that Montenegro would intensify its accession to the alliance after the 2008 Bucharest summit.[49] Montenegro has received support for its membership from many NATO countries, including Romania and Turkey.[50][51] It was announced that Montenegro would adopt an Individual Partnership Action Plan in March of 2008.[52] Partnership for Peace is a NATO project aimed at creating trust between NATO and other states in Europe and the former Soviet Union. ... The 2006 Riga Summit or the 19th NATO Summit was a NATO summit held in Riga, Latvia from November 28 until November 29, 2006. ... The 2008 Bucharest Summit or the 20th NATO Summit is a NATO summit that will be organized in Bucharest, Romania in early April, 2008. ...


Nearly all present political currents support NATO admission. The exceptions include the Serb List political alliance which cites the NATO 1999 bombing campaign of the then Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and opposes recognition of independence of neighbouring Kosovo, as well as the Liberal Party of Montenegro which favors military neutrality to the type of Iceland. According to an October 2007 poll, 32.4% of Montenegrins are in support of NATO membership, 40.7% are opposed and 26.9% are without opinion.[53]


Serbia

During the 2006 Riga Summit Serbia joined the PFP programme. While this program is often the first step towards full NATO membership, it is uncertain whether Serbia perceives it as signalling her intent to join the alliance[54] (NATO fought Bosnian-Serbian forces during the Bosnia war and Serbia during the 1999 Kosovo conflict). An overwhelming Serbian majority opposes NATO membership.[54] Recently the DS party of Serbia which is seen as overwhelmingly pro-EU has given hints that it is also wished to integrate the country into NATO. Although they remain silent on the issue, it is facing a problem from its coalition partners DSS and NS which are diametrically opposed to NATO membership. Recently these parties have begun verbal attacks on NATO for its presence in the Serbian province of Kosovo accusing them of establishing a NATO state, governed from Camp Bondsteel.[55] Although current Serbian priorities do not include NATO membership, the Alliance has offered Serbia to enter the intensified dialogue programme[56] whenever Serbia is ready to do so (as of April 2008).[57] An earler poll (September 2007) showed that 28% of Serbian citizens supported NATO membership, with 58% supporting the Partnership for Peace.[58] The 2006 Riga Summit or the 19th NATO Summit was a NATO summit held in Riga, Latvia from November 28 until November 29, 2006. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... Partnership for Peace is a NATO project aimed at creating trust between NATO and other states in Europe and the former Soviet Union. ... Serbs (in the Serbian language Срби, Srbi) are a south Slavic people living chiefly in Serbia and Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Combatants  Bosnia and Herzegovina Volunteers from Islamic countries HVO  Croatia Volunteers from Western Europe  Republika Srpska  Yugoslavia Various paramilitary units from Serbia and Montenegro Volunteers from Eastern Europe Commanders Alija Izetbegović (President of Bosnia and Herzegovina) Sefer Halilović (Army chief of staff 1992-1993) Rasim Delić (Army chief of Staff... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... The term Kosovo War or Kosovo Conflict is often used to describe two sequential and at times parallel armed conflicts (a civil war followed by an international war) in the southern Serbian province called Kosovo (officially Kosovo and Metohia), part of the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... The Democratic Party (Serbian: Демократска странка or Demokratska stranka,  ) is the largest center-left political party in Serbia. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations by or about: European Union The European Union On-Line Official EU website, europa. ... DSS can refer to: Sometimes used as an informal abbreviation for the Dead Sea scrolls. ... New Serbia (Serbian: Нова Србија or Nova Srbija) is a moderate nationalist political party in Serbia. ... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... Camp Bondsteel, Kosovo Davidson SEAhuts Big Duke (Mt. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... Intensified Dialogue with NATO is viewed as a stage before being invited to enter the alliance Membership Action Plan (MAP), while the latter should eventually lead to NATO membership. ... Partnership for Peace is a NATO project aimed at creating trust between NATO and other states in Europe and the former Soviet Union. ...


As of NATO's open support to Kosovo's unilateral declaration of independence, support for NATO greatly succumbed and the only political party which supports NATO integration is the minor opposition Liberal Democratic Party. The Democratic Party abandoned its pro-NATO attitude, claiming the Partnership for Peace is enough. For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... The Liberal Democratic Party (Serbian: Либерално-демократска партија or Liberalno-demokratska partija) is a social liberal political party in Serbia. ... The Democratic Party (Serbian: Демократска странка or Demokratska stranka,  ) is the largest center-left political party in Serbia. ...


Sweden

In 1949 Sweden elected[citation needed] not to join NATO and declared a security policy aiming for: non-alignment in peace, neutrality in war. A modified version now states: non-alignment in peace for possible neutrality in war. This position was maintained without much discussion during the Cold War. The Swedish government decided not to participate in the membership of NATO because they wanted a neutral position in war status. Since the 1990s however there has been an active debate in Sweden on the question of NATO membership in the post-Cold War world.[citation needed] While the governing parties in Sweden have opposed membership, they have participated in NATO-led missions in Bosnia (IFOR and SFOR), Kosovo (KFOR) and Afghanistan (ISAF). The acronym IFOR may also refer to the International Fellowship of Reconciliation. ... Members of the Dutch, French, German and U.S. military watch as an Italian honour guard hoists the new Stabilisation Force flag during the Stabilisation Force (SFOR) activation ceremony in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, on the 20 of December 1996. ... For other uses, see KFOR (disambiguation). ... Logo of ISAF. Pashto writing: کمک و همکاری (Komak wa Hamkari) means Help and Cooperation. International Security Assistance Force (10) (ISAF) is the name of a NATO-led security and development mission in Afghanistan which was established by the United Nations Security Council on 20 December 2001[1] and consists of about 35...


The Swedish Centre Party and Social Democratic party have remained in favor of non-alignment. This view is shared by Green and Left parties in Sweden. The Moderate Party and the Liberal party lean toward NATO membership.[citation needed] Prime Minister Fredrik Reinfeldt stated on September 18, 2007 that Swedish membership in NATO would require a "very wide" majority in Parliament, including the social democrats, and coordination with Finland.[59] The Centre Party (Centerpartiet) is a political party in Sweden. ... The Swedish Social Democratic Party, (Swedish: , Social Democratic Workers Party of Sweden), contests elections as Workers Party - Social Democrats (Arbetarepartiet-Socialdemokraterna), commonly referred to just as the Social Democrats (Socialdemokraterna); is the oldest and largest political party in Sweden. ... The Moderate Party (Swedish: : the Moderate Coalition Party, commonly referred to in Swedish as Moderaterna: the Moderates) is a liberal conservative political party in Sweden. ... The Liberal Party of Sweden (in Swedish: Folkpartiet liberalerna, abbreviated fp, meaning Peoples Party the Liberals) is a political party in Sweden. ... John Fredrik Reinfeldt (IPA: ) (born 4 August 1965, in Österhaninge) is the current Prime Minister of Sweden and leader of the liberal conservative Moderate Party (Swedish: ). A native of Stockholm County, Reinfeldt joined the Moderate Youth League in 1983, and by 1992 had risen to the rank of chairman, a... The Swedish Social Democratic Party, (Swedish: , Social Democratic Workers Party of Sweden), contests elections as Workers Party - Social Democrats (Arbetarepartiet-Socialdemokraterna), commonly referred to just as the Social Democrats (Socialdemokraterna); is the oldest and largest political party in Sweden. ...


These ideological divides were visible again in November 2006 when Sweden could either buy two new transport planes or join NATO's plane pool,[60] and in December 2006, when Sweden was invited to join the NATO Response Force.[61] The NATO Response Force (NRF) is a coherent, high readiness, joint, multinational force package of approximately 25,000 troops that is technologically advanced, flexible, deployable, interoperable and sustainable. Its role is to act as a stand alone military force that can be rapidly deployed by the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation...


A 2005 poll indicated that more Swedes were opposed to NATO membership than there were supporters (46% against, 22% for).[62]


Ukraine

At the beginning of 2008, Ukrainian President, Prime minister and head of parliament sent official letter to apply for MAP.


Ukraine Defense Minister Anatoliy Hrytsenko declared that Ukraine would have an Action Plan on NATO membership by the end of March 2006, to begin implementation by September 2006. A final decision concerning Ukraine's membership in NATO is expected to be made in 2008, with full membership possible by 2010.[63] Anatoliy Hrytsenko (Ukrainian: ; Russian: ), (born October 25, 1957) is the current Minister of Defence of Ukraine. ...


The idea of Ukrainian membership in NATO has gained support from a number of NATO leaders, including President Traian Băsescu of Romania[64] and president Ivan Gašparovič of Slovakia.[65] The Deputy Foreign Minister of Russia, Alexander Grushko, announced however that NATO membership for Ukraine was not in Russia's best interests and wouldn't help the relations of the two countries.[66] Traian Băsescu (born November 4, 1951) is a Romanian politician and former Merchant Navy officer. ... Ivan GaÅ¡parovič (born March 27, 1941), Slovak politician and law professor, became President of Slovakia on June 15, 2004. ...


Current public opinion in Ukraine on NATO membership is not clear. A poll commissioned by the government showed that 47 percent support joining NATO and 45 are opposed.[67], but on the other side a poll taken by Interfax has showed that less than 20% of respondents are in support of Ukraine joining NATO, with 57% against [68] . Protests have taken place by opposition blocs against the idea, and petitions signed urging the end of relations with NATO. Newly appointed Defense Minister and former Prime Minister Yuriy Yekhanurov has stated Ukraine will not join NATO as long as the public continues opposing the move.[69] . This has also been confirmed by a March 6, 2008 agreement between the parliamentary coalition and opposition parties which says that any international agreements regarding Ukraine’s entry to NATO must be decided by referendum [70] Currently the Ukrainian Government started an information campaign, aimed at informing the Ukrainian people about the consequences of membership. Yuriy Yekhanurov. ...


April 4 2008 at final press conference of summit in Bucharest NATO Secretary General Jaap de Hoop Scheffer declared in a press conference that, without doubt, Georgia and Ukraine will join NATO. Within the NATO Ukraine working Commission, NATO officials reassured Ukraine officials that they are willing to invite their country to join the Alliance. Jaap de Hoop Scheffer (right) and Jan Peter Balkenende Jaap de Hoop Scheffer (left) and Colin Powell Jaap de Hoop Scheffer (legally Jakob Gijsbert de Hoop Scheffer) (born April 3, 1948) is a Dutch politician who is the 11th NATO Secretary General. ...


Cooperation with non-member states

     NATO member states      Partnership for Peace countries      Mediterranean Dialogue countries
     NATO member states      Partnership for Peace countries      Mediterranean Dialogue countries

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 38 KB) Summary NATO (in blue), the Partnership for Peace countries (in yellowish), the Mediterranean dialogue countries (in reddish). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 38 KB) Summary NATO (in blue), the Partnership for Peace countries (in yellowish), the Mediterranean dialogue countries (in reddish). ...

Euro-Atlantic Partnership

Main articles: Partnership for Peace and Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council

A double framework has been established to help further co-operation between the 26 NATO members and 23 "partner countries". Partnership for Peace is a NATO project aimed at creating trust between NATO and other states in Europe and the former Soviet Union. ... The Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC), a NATO institution, is a multilateral forum created to improve relations between NATO and non-NATO countries in Europe and those parts of Asia on the European periphery. ...

  • The Partnership for Peace (PfP) programme was established in 1994 and is based on individual bilateral relations between each partner country and NATO: each country may choose the extent of its participation. The PfP programme is considered the operational wing of the Euro-Atlantic Partnership.[71]
  • The Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC) on the other hand was first established on 29 May 1997, and is a forum for regular coordination, consultation and dialogue between all 49 participants.[72]

The 23 partner countries are the following: is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ...

  • Former Soviet republics:
  1. Flag of Armenia Armenia
  2. Flag of Azerbaijan Azerbaijan
  3. Flag of Belarus Belarus
  4.  Georgia
  5. Flag of Kazakhstan Kazakhstan
  6. Flag of Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan
  7. Flag of Moldova Moldova
  8. Flag of Russia Russia
  9. Flag of Tajikistan Tajikistan
  10. Flag of Turkmenistan Turkmenistan
  11. Flag of Ukraine Ukraine
  12. Flag of Uzbekistan Uzbekistan
  • Countries that (though militarily neutral) possessed capitalist economies during the Cold War:
  1. Flag of Austria Austria
  2. Flag of Finland Finland
  3.  Ireland
  4.  Sweden
  5.  Switzerland
  • Nations that (though militarily neutral) possessed socialist economies during the Cold War:
  1.  Albania
  2.  Bosnia and Herzegovina (as part of Yugoslavia)
  3.  Croatia (as part of Yugoslavia)
  4.  Montenegro (as part of Yugoslavia)
  5.  Serbia (as part of Yugoslavia)
  6.  Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (as part of Yugoslavia)
  •  Malta joined PfP on April 26, 1995[73], but its new government withdrew on October 27, 1996[74]. Malta's Membership in PfP was reactivated on April 3, 2008[32].
  •  Cyprus's admission to PfP is resisted by Turkey, because of the Northern Cyprus issue. Because of this Cyprus is not participating in ESDP activities that use NATO assets and information.

Post-Soviet states in alphabetical order: 1. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Armenia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Azerbaijan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belarus. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Georgia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Kazakhstan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Kyrgyzstan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Moldova. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Tajikistan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkmenistan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ukraine. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Uzbekistan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Austria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Finland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ireland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Switzerland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Albania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bosnia_and_Herzegovina. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Croatia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Montenegro. ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Serbia. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Macedonia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Malta. ... Partnership for Peace is a NATO project aimed at creating trust between NATO and other states in Europe and the former Soviet Union. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cyprus. ... Partnership for Peace is a NATO project aimed at creating trust between NATO and other states in Europe and the former Soviet Union. ... Anthem: Ä°stiklâl Marşı(Turkish) Independence March Capital Nicosia (LefkoÅŸa in Turkish) Official languages Turkish Government Representative democratic republic1  -  President Mehmet Ali Talat  -  Prime Minister Ferdi Sabit Soyer Independence from Cyprus   -  Proclaimed November 15, 1983   -  Recognition By Turkey only  Area  -  Total 3,355 km² (167th ranked together with Cyprus...

Individual Partnership Action Plans

Launched at the November 2002 Prague Summit, Individual Partnership Action Plans (IPAPs) are open to countries that have the political will and ability to deepen their relationship with NATO.[75] NATO launched IPAPs at the November 2002 Prague Summit, Individual Partnership Action Plans (IPAPs) are open to countries that have the political will and ability to deepen their relationship with NATO.[1] Currently IPAPs are in implementation with the following countries:  Georgia (29 October 2004)  Azerbaijan (27 May 2005)  Armenia...


Currently IPAPs are in implementation with the following countries:

Image File history File links Flag_of_Georgia. ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Structures

Political structure

Like any alliance, NATO is ultimately governed by its 26 member states. However, the North Atlantic Treaty, and other agreements, outline how decisions are to be made within NATO. Each of the 26 members sends a delegation or mission to NATO’s headquarters in Brussels, Belgium.[76] The senior permanent member of each delegation is known as the Permanent Representative and is generally a senior civil servant or an experienced ambassador (and holding that diplomatic rank). Image File history File linksMetadata Bush_dehoopscheffer. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Bush_dehoopscheffer. ... Secretary General Jaap de Hoop Scheffer meeting President George W. Bush on March 20, 2006 The Secretary General of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) is the chair of the North Atlantic Council, the supreme decision-making organisation of the defence alliance. ... Jaap de Hoop Scheffer (right) and Jan Peter Balkenende Jaap de Hoop Scheffer (left) and Colin Powell Jaap de Hoop Scheffer (legally Jakob Gijsbert de Hoop Scheffer) (born April 3, 1948) is a Dutch politician who is the 11th NATO Secretary General. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... For other places with the same name, see Brussels (disambiguation). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Ambassador (disambiguation). ...


Together the Permanent Members form the North Atlantic Council (NAC), a body which meets together at least once a week and has effective political authority and powers of decision in NATO. From time to time the Council also meets at higher levels involving Foreign Ministers, Defence Ministers or Heads of State or Government (HOSG) and it is at these meetings that major decisions regarding NATO’s policies are generally taken. However, it is worth noting that the Council has the same authority and powers of decision-making, and its decisions have the same status and validity, at whatever level it meets. North Atlantic Council is the most senior political governing body of NATO. The NAC can be held at the Permanent Representative Level (PermReps), or can be comprised of member states Ministers of State, Defense, or Heads of State. ... A minister for foreign affairs, or foreign minister, is a governmental cabinet minister who helps form the foreign policy of a sovereign nation. ... Department of Defence redirects here. ...


The meetings of the North Atlantic Council are chaired by the Secretary General of NATO and, when decisions have to be made, action is agreed upon on the basis of unanimity and common accord. There is no voting or decision by majority. Each nation represented at the Council table or on any of its subordinate committees retains complete sovereignty and responsibility for its own decisions. Secretary General Jaap de Hoop Scheffer meeting President George W. Bush on March 20, 2006 The Secretary General of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) is the chair of the North Atlantic Council, the supreme decision-making organisation of the defence alliance. ...


The second pivotal member of each country's delegation is the Military Representative, a senior officer from each country's armed forces. Together the Military Representatives form the Military Committee (MC), a body responsible for recommending to NATO’s political authorities those measures considered necessary for the common defence of the NATO area. Its principal role is to provide direction and advice on military policy and strategy. It provides guidance on military matters to the NATO Strategic Commanders, whose representatives attend its meetings, and is responsible for the overall conduct of the military affairs of the Alliance under the authority of the Council. Like the council, from time to time the Military Committee also meets at a higher level, namely at the level of Chiefs of defence, the most senior military officer in each nation's armed forces. The Defence Planning Committee excludes France, due to that country's 1966 decision to remove itself from NATO's integrated military structure.[77] On a practical level, this means that issues that are acceptable to most NATO members but unacceptable to France may be directed to the Defence Planning Committee for more expedient resolution. Such was the case in the lead up to Operation Iraqi Freedom.[78] For other uses of the term, see Iraq war (disambiguation) The 2003 invasion of Iraq (also called the 2nd or 3rd Persian Gulf War) began on March 20, 2003, when forces belonging primarily to the United States and the United Kingdom invaded Iraq arguably without the explicit backing of the...


The current Chairman of the NATO Military Committee is Ray Henault of Canada (since 2005). Raymond (Ray) Roland Joseph Henault, CMM , CD , BA (born Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada in 1949) was the Chief of the Defence Staff of Canada from June 28, 2001. ...


The NATO Parliamentary Assembly, presided by José Lello, is made up of legislators from the member countries of the North Atlantic Alliance as well as 13 associate members.[79] It is however officially a different structure from NATO, and has as aim to join together deputies of NATO countries in order to discuss security policies. The NATO Parliamentary Assembly, or NATO-PA, formerly the North Atlantic Assembly, is an inter-parliamentary organization of legislators. ...


List of officials

Secretaries General[80]
1 General Lord Ismay  United Kingdom 4 April 195216 May 1957
2 Paul-Henri Spaak  Belgium 16 May 195721 April 1961
3 Dirk Stikker  Netherlands 21 April 19611 August 1964
4 Manlio Brosio  Italy 1 August 19641 October 1971
5 Joseph Luns  Netherlands 1 October 197125 June 1984
6 Lord Carrington  United Kingdom 25 June 19841 July 1988
7 Manfred Wörner  West Germany/Germany 1 July 198813 August 1994
8 Sergio Balanzino  Italy 13 August 199417 October 1994
9 Willy Claes  Belgium 17 October 199420 October 1995
10 Sergio Balanzino  Italy 20 October 19955 December 1995
11 Javier Solana  Spain 5 December 19956 October 1999
12 Lord Robertson of Port Ellen  United Kingdom 14 October 19991 January 2004
13 Jaap de Hoop Scheffer  Netherlands 1 January 2004–present
Deputy Secretary General of NATO[80]
# Name Country Duration
1 Sergio Balanzino  Italy 1994–2001
2 Alessandro Minuto Rizzo  Italy 2001–present

Secretary General Jaap de Hoop Scheffer meeting President George W. Bush on March 20, 2006 The Secretary General of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) is the chair of the North Atlantic Council, the supreme decision-making organisation of the defence alliance. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... Paul-Henri Charles Spaak   listen? (January 25, 1899 - July 31, 1972) was a Belgian Socialist politician and statesman. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Dirk Uipko Stikker (February 5, 1897 - December 23, 1979) is a Dutch banker, industrialist, politician, and diplomat. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Manlio Brosio (1897-1980) was an Italian diplomat and politician. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... Joseph Antoine Marie Hubert Luns ( August 28, 1911 - July 18, 2002) was a Dutch politician and former NATO secretary-general. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Lord Carrington wearing his robes as a Knight Companion of the Order of the Garter, in procession to St Georges Chapel, Windsor Castle for the annual service of the Order of the Garter. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... Manfred Wörner (born September 24, 1934 in Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt; died August 13, 1994 in Brussels) was a German politician and diplomat. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... Sergio Balanzino was born on 20th June 1934 in Bologna, Italy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... Willy Claes (born November 24, 1938) was Secretary General of NATO and a Belgian politician. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... Sergio Balanzino was born on 20th June 1934 in Bologna, Italy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... Javier Solana Madariaga (born July 14, 1942 in Madrid, Spain) is the High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and the Secretary-General of both the Council of the European Union (EU) and the Western European Union (WEU). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... George Robertson pictured at The Pentagon in June 2001 The Right Honourable George Islay MacNeill Robertson, Baron Robertson of Port Ellen, KT, GCMG, FRSA, PC (born 12 April 1946, in Port Ellen, Isle of Islay, Scotland) was the Secretary-General of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, between October 1999 and... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jaap de Hoop Scheffer (right) and Jan Peter Balkenende Jaap de Hoop Scheffer (left) and Colin Powell Jaap de Hoop Scheffer (legally Jakob Gijsbert de Hoop Scheffer) (born April 3, 1948) is a Dutch politician who is the 11th NATO Secretary General. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sergio Balanzino was born on 20th June 1934 in Bologna, Italy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ...

Military structure

NATO E-3A flying with US F-16s in a NATO exercise.

NATO’s military operations are directed by the Chairman of the NATO Military Committee, and split into two Strategic Commands both commanded by a senior U.S. officer assisted by a staff drawn from across NATO. The Strategic Commanders are responsible to the Military Committee for the overall direction and conduct of all Alliance military matters within their areas of command. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1500x1123, 565 KB) Summary NATO E-3 AWACS flying with three American Air Force F-16 Fighting Falcon fighter aircraft SOURCE This image is a work of a U.S. Air Force Airman or employee, taken or made during the course... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1500x1123, 565 KB) Summary NATO E-3 AWACS flying with three American Air Force F-16 Fighting Falcon fighter aircraft SOURCE This image is a work of a U.S. Air Force Airman or employee, taken or made during the course... rolling out of the Boeing factory in the 1970s A Sentry AEW1 of the RAF takes off USAF E-3 Sentry prepared for flight at 4 Wing Cold Lake, Canada The NATO E-3s have the Coat of arms of Luxembourg and the registration LX on the tail. ... “The U.S. Air Force” redirects here. ... The F-16 Fighting Falcon is an American multirole jet fighter aircraft developed by General Dynamics and Lockheed Martin for the United States Air Force. ...


Before 2003 the Strategic Commanders were the Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR) and the Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic (SACLANT) but the current arrangement is to separate command responsibility between Allied Command Transformation (ACT), responsible for transformation and training of NATO forces, and Allied Command Operations, responsible for NATO operations world wide. The NATO structure is divided into two commands, one for operations and one for transformation. ... The Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic was one of two supreme commanders of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation. ... Peace Palace in The Hague Command responsibility, sometimes referred to as the Yamashita standard, or the Medina standard is the doctrine of hierarchical accountability in cases of war crimes. ... This Wikipedia article uses European spelling because of NATOs historical use of this style as a standard. ... SHAPE Emblem Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE) is the central command of NATO military forces. ...


The commander of Allied Command Operations retained the title "Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR)", and is based in the Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE) located at Casteau, north of the Belgian city of Mons. This is about 80 km (50 miles) south of NATO’s political headquarters in Brussels. ACO is headed by SACEUR, a U.S. four star general with the dual-hatted role of heading U.S. European Command, which is headquartered in Stuttgart, Germany. SHAPE was in Paris until 1966, when French president Charles de Gaulle withdrew French forces from the Atlantic Alliance. NATO's headquarters were then forced to move to Belgium, while many military units had to move. Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE) is the central command of NATO military forces. ... Casteau is an old village of Belgium in the french speaking region. ... National motto: Dutch: Eendracht maakt macht; French: Lunion fait la force; German: Einigkeit macht stark (English: Strength lies in unity) Official language Dutch, French, German Capital Brussels Largest City Brussels King Albert II Prime Minister Guy Verhofstadt Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 148th 30,528 km² 6. ... Mons Mons ---- (more info) Stage 1 : Request (How-to) Article EN is too short for the city where the Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe is located Sylfred1977 20:04, 13 October 2007 (UTC) Very good article (featured article in the french WIKIPEDIA) Join this translation   ---   Update this information (instructions)   This... NATO military is divided into two commands, Atlantic and Europe. ... The U.S. European Command (EUCOM) is a Unified Combatant Command of the United States military, headquartered in Stuttgart, Germany. ... For other uses, see Stuttgart (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Charles de Gaulle (disambiguation). ...


ACO includes Joint Force Command Brunssum in the Netherlands, Joint Force Command Naples in Italy, and Joint Command Lisbon, all multinational headquarters with many nations represented. JFC Brunssum has its land component, Allied Land Component Command Headquarters Heidelberg at Heidelberg, Germany, its air component at Ramstein in Germany, and its naval component at the Northwood Headquarters in the northwest suburbs of London. JFC Naples has its land component in Madrid, air component at Izmir, Turkey, and naval component in Naples, Italy. It also directs KFOR in Kosovo. JC Lisbon is a smaller HQ with no subordinate commands. Lajes Field, in the Portuguese Azores, is an important transatlantic staging post. Allied Forces Central Europe, or AFCENT, was a military installation in Brunssum, the Netherlands. ... Allied Joint Force Command Naples or JFC Naples was activated on 15 March 2004, when its predecessor command, Allied Forces Southern Europe (AFSOUTH), was deactivated after nearly 53 years of successful activity in support of peace and stability in and around its designated area of responsibility. ... Joint Command Lisbon or JC Lisbon is one of the three main subdivisions of the Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe. ... Allied Forces Central Europe, or AFCENT, was a military installation in Brunssum, the Netherlands. ... For other uses, see Heidelberg (disambiguation). ... Tri-service badge of the British Army, Royal Air Force and Royal Navy. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Pocket badge of the KFOR Ukrainian soldier on foot patrolling in Serbian village near Brezovica KFOR vehicle of the French Army The Kosovo Force (KFOR) is a NATO-led international force responsible for establishing and maintaining security in Kosovo. ... Lajes Air Base Diagram Lajes Field (or Air Base No. ...


Allied Command Transformation (ACT) is based in the former Allied Command Atlantic headquarters in Norfolk, Virginia, USA. Allied Command Atlantic, usually known as SACLANT (Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic), after its commander, became ACT in 2003. It is headed by the the Supreme Allied Commander Transformation (SACT), a U.S. four-star general or admiral with the dual-hatted role as commander U.S. Joint Forces Command (COMUSJFCOM). There is also an ACT command element located at SHAPE in Mons, Belgium. This Wikipedia article uses European spelling because of NATOs historical use of this style as a standard. ... Motto: Crescas (Latin for, Thou shalt grow. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... The Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic (SACLANT) was one of two supreme commanders of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO). ... USJFCOM emblem United States Joint Forces Command (USJFCOM) is one of nine unified combatant commands of the United States military. ...


Subordinate ACT organisations include the Joint Warfare Centre (JWC) located in Stavanger, Norway (in the same site as the Norwegian NJHQ); the Joint Force Training Centre (JFTC) in Bydgoszcz, Poland; the Joint Analysis and Lessons Learned Centre (JALLC) in Monsanto, Portugal; and the NATO Undersea Research Centre (NURC), La Spezia, Italy. The Joint Warfare Centre Crest The Joint Warfare Centre (JWC) is a NATO establishment headquartered in Stavanger, Norway. ... Ranks Norwegian military ranks The Norwegian Defence Forces (Norwegian: Forsvaret) numbers about 60,000 personnel, including civilian employees. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


NATO bases

Further information: Category:Military facilities of NATO


NATO bases can be divided into two categories: national military facilities of NATO members, sometimes located in another NATO member country, such as Dutch and British army bases in Germany during the Cold War, and multinational bases with NATO multinational units in residence. For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


Multinational NATO bases with NATO specific units include NATO Air Base Geilenkirchen in Germany where a jointly funded fleet of E-3 Sentry AWACS airborne radar aircraft is located, and, in 2008, Pápa in Hungary, where the C-17s of the NATO Strategic Airlift Capability will be located. NATO Air Base Geilenkirchen, located near Geilenkirchen, Germany, is the main operating base of the NATO Airborne Early Warning Force (NAEWF) Commands E-3A Component (AWACS). ... rolling out of the Boeing factory in the 1970s A Sentry AEW1 of the RAF takes off USAF E-3 Sentry prepared for flight at 4 Wing Cold Lake, Canada The NATO E-3s have the Coat of arms of Luxembourg and the registration LX on the tail. ... US Air Force E-3 Sentry AWACS aircraft is prepared for flight in November 1997 Cockpit of RAF E-3 Sentry undergoing upgrades Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS) is a radar-based electronic system designed to carry out airborne surveillance, and C3 (command, control and communications) functions for both... Pápa is a historical town in Veszprém county, Hungary, located close to the northern edge of the Bakony Hills. ... The C_17 Globemaster III is a strategic airlifter manufactured by Boeing IDS, used by the United States Air Force and the Royal Air Force. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


Research and Technology at NATO

NATO currently possesses three Research and Technology organisations:

This Wikipedia article uses European spelling because of NATOs historical use of this style as a standard. ... The NATO Consultation, Command and Control Agency (NC3A) was formed in 1996 from the merging of the previous SHAPE Technical Centre (STC) in The Hague, The Netherlands and the NATO Communications and Information Systems Agency (NACISA) in Brussels, Belgium. ... The Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE) Technical Centre (STC) was formerly known as the SHAPE Air Defence Technical Centre (SADTC). ... Hague redirects here. ... NACISA was the NATO Communications and Information Systems Agency, located in Brussels, Belgium until 1996 when it was merged with the SHAPE Technical Centre to form the NATO Consultation, Command and Control Agency. ... The NATO Consultation, Command and Control Agency (NC3A) was formed in 1996 from the merging of the previous SHAPE Technical Centre (STC) in The Hague, The Netherlands and the NATO Communications and Information Systems Agency (NACISA) in Brussels, Belgium. ... NACMA is the NATO ACCS Management Agency. ... ACCS is the $500M NATO Air Command and Control System programme, which is intended to replace the existing air command and control systems in Europe from 2009 onwards. ...

List of NATO operations

During the Cold War: For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...

In Yugoslav Wars (1991–2001): Emblem of Gladio, Italian branch of the NATO stay-behind paramilitary organizations. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ...

Other: Operation Sharp Guard was a joint operation between NATO and the Western European Union beginning on 15 June 1993, suspended 19 June 1996 and terminated 2 October 1996. ... An arms embargo serves one or more purposes. ... Economic sanctions are economic penalties applied by one country (or group of countries) on another for a variety of reasons. ... Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbian Government Republic President  - 1992 - 1993 Dobrica Ćosić  - 1993 - 1997 Zoran Lilić  - 1997 – 2000 Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević  - 2000 - 2003 Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Prime Minister  - 1992 - 1993 Milan Panić  - 1993 - 1998 Radoje Kontić  - 1998 - 2000 Momir Bulatović  - 2000 - 2001 Zoran Žižić  - 2001 - 2003 DragiÅ¡a Pe... “Operation Deliberate Force” was a sustained air campaign conducted by NATO to undermine the military capability of Bosnian Serb who threatened or attacked UN designated safe areas in Bosnia. ... Not to be confused with Serbia. ... Combatants Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Predominantly Bosniak) Army of Republika Srpska, Yugoslav Peoples Army, various paramilitary units from Serbia and Montenegro (Serbian) Croatian Defence Council, Croatian Army (Croatian) Commanders Alija Izetbegović (President of Bosnia and Herzegovina) Sefer Halilović (Army chief of staff 1992-1993) Rasim... Operation Joint Endeavour was the deployment U.S. and other nations forces of IFOR in Bosnia beginning in December 1995. ... Members of the Dutch, French, German and U.S. military watch as an Italian honour guard hoists the new Stabilisation Force flag during the Stabilisation Force (SFOR) activation ceremony in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, on the 20 of December 1996. ... An USAF F-15E takes off from Aviano, Italy Operation Allied Force aka Kosovo-NATO War was NATOs military operation against Federal Republic of Yugoslavia that lasted from 24 March to 11 June 1999 and is considered a major part of Kosovo War. ... The term Kosovo War or Kosovo Conflict is often used to describe two sequential and at times parallel armed conflicts (a civil war followed by an international war) in the southern Serbian province called Kosovo (officially Kosovo and Metohia), part of the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... Operation Essential Harvest (or Task Force Harvest) was officially launched on August 22, 2001 and effectively started on August 27. ... Motto: Anthem: Today Over Macedonia (Macedonian: Денес Над Македонија, Denes Nad Makedonija) Capital Skopje Largest city Skopje Official language(s) Macedonian1 Government President Prime Minister Parliamentary republic Branko Crvenkovski Vlado Bučkovski Independence Declared From Yugoslavia September 8, 1991 Area  â€¢ Total  â€¢ Water (%)   25,333 km² (146th) 1. ...

  • Operation Active Endeavour (since October 2001); Operation Active Endeavour is a naval operation in the Mediterranean Sea and is designed to prevent the movement of terrorists or weapons of mass destruction as well as to enhance the security of shipping in general. It began on October 4, 2001 as one of the NATO responses to the September 11, 2001 attacks.
  • International Security Assistance Force (since August 2003); ISAF, a security operation in Afghanistan, was put under NATO command in August 2003, due to the fact that the majority of the contributed troops were from NATO member states.
  • Baltic Air Policing (since March 2004); Operation Peaceful Summit temporarily enhanced this patrolling during the 2006 Riga Summit.[84]
  • NATO-Sponsored Training of the Iraqi Police Force (since February 2005); part of the Multinational Force in Iraq.

Combatants NATO, represented by Denmark Germany Greece Italy Norway Spain Turkey  Russia  Ukraine  Israel  Egypt Morocco Commanders Vice Admiral Roberto Cesaretti, Italian Navy Strength 480 ships and 84 planes Operation Active Endeavour is a naval operation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation. ... Logo of ISAF. Pashto writing: Ú©Ù…Ú© Ùˆ همکاری (Komak wa Hamkari) means Help and Cooperation. International Security Assistance Force (10) (ISAF) is the name of a NATO-led security and development mission in Afghanistan which was established by the United Nations Security Council on 20 December 2001[1] and consists of about 35... The three Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. ... The 2006 Riga Summit or the 19th NATO Summit was a NATO summit held in Riga, Latvia from November 28 until November 29, 2006. ... The Multi-National Force - Iraq (MNF-I), is a military command, led by the United States, that is fighting the Iraq War against the multitude of Iraqi insurgents. ...

See also

The Icelandic NATO riot of March 30, 1949 in one of the most famous riots in Icelandic history. ...  â€¢  â€¢  â€¢ Membership 10 member states 6 associate member states 5 observer countries 7 associate partner countries Establishment Treaty of Brussels  -  Signed 17 March 1948  The Western European Union (WEU) is a partially dormant European defence and security organization, established on the basis of the Treaty of Brussels of 1948 with the... The following table lists the independent European states, and their memberships in selected organizations and treaties, and their use of the euro (€). 1 The United Nations is a world-wide organization with members from all continents, not only from Europe. ... Organisations called Atlantic Councils exist in most NATO and Partnership for Peace countries. ... A Silence procedure is a way of formally adopting texts, often, but not exclusively in international political context. ... NATO Medals for Yugoslavia and Kosovo The NATO Medal is an international military decoration which is awarded to various militaries of the world under the authority of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation. ... FAA radiotelephony phonetic alphabet and Morse code chart. ... A NATO summit is a summit meeting that is regarded as a periodic opportunity for Heads of State and Heads of Government of NATO member countries to evaluate and provide strategic direction for Alliance activities. ... The NATO Tiger Association or the Association of Tiger Squadrons was established in 1959. ... This is the list of NATO country codes. ... Ranks and insignia of NATO are combined military insignia used by the member countries of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation. ...

References

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  3. ^ Boulevard Leopold III-laan, B-1110 BRUSSELS, which is in Haren, part of the City of Brussels. NATO homepage. Retrieved on 2006-03-07.
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  82. ^ NATO Research & Technology Organisation
  83. ^ NATO C3 Agency
  84. ^ L. NEIDINGER "NATO team ensures safe sky during Riga Summit" in Air Force Link, December 8, 2006, [11]

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The City of Brussels (Bruxelles-Ville or Ville de Bruxelles in French, Stad Brussel in Dutch) is one of the municipalities (the largest one) of the Brussels-Capital Region in Belgium. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Nation (ISSN 0027-8378) is a weekly [1] U.S. periodical devoted to politics and culture, self-described as the flagship of the left. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The United Nations General Assembly (GA, UNGA) is one of the five principal organs of the United Nations and the only one in which all member nations have equal representation. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... Several newspapers go by the name of Guardian: The Guardian, a British newspaper founded in 1821 as the Manchester Guardian, which took its current title in 1959. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Telegraphy (from the Greek words tele = far away and grapho = write) is the long distance transmission of written messages without physical transport of letters, originally over wire. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Vijesti (Serbian Cyrillic: Вијести, English translation: News) is a Montenegrin daily newspaper. ... ▶(?) (DN) (Swedish: lit. ... The Local is an English-language online newspaper published in Sweden. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Asmus, Ronald D. Opening NATO's Door: How the Alliance Remade Itself for a New Era Columbia U. Press, 2002. 372 pp.
  • Bacevich, Andrew J. and Cohen, Eliot A. War over Kosovo: Politics and Strategy in a Global Age. Columbia U. Press, 2002. 223 pp.
  • Eisenhower, Dwight D. The Papers of Dwight David Eisenhower. Vols. 12 and 13: NATO and the Campaign of 1952 : Louis Galambos et al., ed. Johns Hopkins U. Press, 1989. 1707 pp. in 2 vol.
  • Daclon, Corrado Maria Security through Science: Interview with Jean Fournet, Assistant Secretary General of NATO, Analisi Difesa, 2004. no. 42
  • Ganser, Daniele Natos Secret Armies: Operation Gladio and Terrorism in Western Europe, ISBN 0-7146-5607-0
  • Gearson, John and Schake, Kori, ed. The Berlin Wall Crisis: Perspectives on Cold War Alliances Palgrave Macmillan, 2002. 209 pp.
  • Gheciu, Alexandra. NATO in the 'New Europe' Stanford University Press, 2005. 345 pp.
  • Hendrickson, Ryan C. Diplomacy and War at NATO: The Secretary General and Military Action After the Cold War Univ. of Missouri Press, 2006. 175 pp.
  • Hunter, Robert. "The European Security and Defense Policy: NATO's Companion—Or Competitor?" RAND National Security Research Division, 2002. 206 pp.
  • Jordan, Robert S. Norstad: Cold War NATO Supreme Commander—Airman, Strategist, Diplomat St. Martin's Press, 2000. 350 pp.
  • Kaplan, Lawrence S. The Long Entanglement: NATO's First Fifty Years. Praeger, 1999. 262 pp.
  • Kaplan, Lawrence S. NATO Divided, NATO United: The Evolution of an Alliance. Praeger, 2004. 165 pp.
  • Kaplan, Lawrence S., ed. American Historians and the Atlantic Alliance. Kent State U. Press, 1991. 192 pp.
  • Lambeth, Benjamin S. NATO's Air War in Kosovo: A Strategic and Operational Assessment Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND, 2001. 250 pp.
  • Létourneau, Paul. Le Canada et l'OTAN après 40 ans, 1949–1989 Quebec: Cen. Québécois de Relations Int., 1992. 217 pp.
  • Maloney, Sean M. Securing Command of the Sea: NATO Naval Planning, 1948–1954. Naval Institute Press, 1995. 276 pp.
  • John C. Milloy. North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, 1948–1957: Community or Alliance? (2006), focus on non-military issues
  • Powaski, Ronald E. The Entangling Alliance: The United States and European Security, 1950–1993. Greenwood, 1994. 261 pp.
  • Ruane, Kevin. The Rise and Fall of the European Defense Community: Anglo-American Relations and the Crisis of European Defense, 1950–55 Palgrave, 2000. 252 pp.
  • Sandler, Todd and Hartley, Keith. The Political Economy of NATO: Past, Present, and into the 21st Century. Cambridge U. Press, 1999. 292 pp.
  • Smith, Jean Edward, and Canby, Steven L.The Evolution of NATO with Four Plausible Threat Scenarios. Canada Department of Defense: Ottawa, 1987. 117 pp.
  • Smith, Joseph, ed. The Origins of NATO Exeter, UK U. of Exeter Press, 1990. 173 pp.
  • Telo, António José. Portugal e a NATO: O Reencontro da Tradiçoa Atlântica Lisbon: Cosmos, 1996. 374 pp.
  • Zorgbibe, Charles. Histoire de l'OTAN Brussels: Complexe, 2002. 283 pp.

Jean Edward Smith is an accomplished educator and biographer having authored such works as Grant, John Marshall: Definer of a Nation, and Presently he is the John Marshall Professor of Political Science at Marshall University. ...

External links

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  • NATO including Basic NATO Documents
  • NATO: A Pledge for Peace and Progress - Canadian War Museum
  • Congressional Research Service (CRS) Reports regarding NATO
  • History of NATO – the Atlantic Alliance—UK Government site
  • NATO searches for defining role
  • The Globalization of Military Power: NATO Expansion (CRG)
  • CBC Digital Archives—One for all: The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation
  • NATO at Fifty: New Challenges, Future Uncertainties U.S. Institute of Peace Report, March 1999
  • NATO at 50
  • The Impact of NATO forces in Afghanistan An analysis of the effects of the U.S. led occupation on the political and social climate of Afghanistan.

Components and Agencies Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ... The United States Institute of Peace is an independent, nonpartisan federal institution created by Congress to promote the prevention, management, and peaceful resolution of international conflicts. ...

  • NATO Code of Best Practice for C2 AssessmentPDF (1.68 MiB)
  • NATO Maintenance and Supply Agency (NAMSA) Official Website
  • NATO Consultation, Command and Control Agency (NC3A) Official Website
  • Joint Warfare Centre
  • NATO Defense College
Timeline of the War on Terrorism: // September 11 - September 11, 2001 attacks take place in New York City, Washington D.C., and Shanksville, United States and kill 2,993 people. ... War on Terrorism casualties: // Military casualties only United States: 4,318 killed, 4 POW/MIA, 11 ex-POW/MIA [1][2] United Kingdom: 258 killed, 25 ex-POW/MIA [1][2] Canada: 73 killed [2] Other Coalition forces: 244 killed, 1 ex-POW/MIA[1][2] Iraqi security forces: 8... // Military/diplomatic campaigns The War on Terror is broadly agreed to be taking place in the following theaters of operation. ... Criticism of the War on Terrorism addresses the issues, morals, ethics, efficiency, economics, and other questions surrounding the War on Terrorism. ... Abu Ghraib cell block The Abu Ghraib prison (Arabic: سجن أبو غريب; also Abu Ghurayb) is in Abu Ghraib, an Iraqi city 32 km (20 mi) west of Baghdad. ... For the movie Behind Enemy Lines II: Axis of Evil, see Behind Enemy Lines II. For cosmic anisotropy, see Anisotropy#Physics. ... President Bush makes remarks in 2006 during a press conference in the Rose Garden about Irans nuclear ambitions and discusses North Koreas nuclear test. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Detention, Treatment, and Trial of Certain Non-Citizens in the War Against Terrorism The Salt Pit in Afghanistan Black site is a military term that has been used by United States intelligence agencies to refer to any classified facility whose existence or... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Detention, Treatment, and Trial of Certain Non-Citizens in the War Against Terrorism Wikisource has original text related to this article: Declaration of Stephen Abraham, Lieutenant Colonel, United States Army Reserve, June 14th, 2007 This is the trailer where the Combatant Status... Painting of waterboarding from Cambodias Tuol Sleng Prison Enhanced interrogation techniques is a term that the Bush administration uses to describe techniques of aggressively extracting information from captives which they say are necessary in the War on Terror. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Ghost detainee. ... Extraordinary rendition and irregular rendition are terms used to describe the extrajudicial transfer of a person from one state to another with the intent of legally torturing them outside of the jurisdiction of a state which prohibits it. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Detention, Treatment, and Trial of Certain Non-Citizens in the War Against Terrorism Wikisource has original text related to this article: Statement of Alberto J Mora on interrogation abuse, July 7, 2004 Guantanamo Bay detention camp is a joint military prison and... The United States Military Commissions Act of 2006, Pub. ... An NSA electronic surveillance program that operated without judicial oversight mandated by Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) was named the Terrorist Surveillance Program by the George W. Bush administration[1] in response to the NSA warrantless surveillance controversy which followed the disclosure of the program. ... A bill to amend the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 to provide additional procedures for authorizing certain acquisitions of foreign intelligence information and for other purposes also known as the Protect America Act of 2007 (Pub. ... In American political and legal discourse, the unitary executive theory is a theory of Constitutional interpretation that is based on aspects of the separation of powers. ... The term unlawful combatant (also unlawful enemy combatant or unprivileged combatant/belligerent) denotes a person denied the privileges of prisoner of war (POW) designation, in accordance with the Geneva Conventions; one to whom protection is recognised as due is a lawful or privileged combatant. ... In the United States, the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 (Public Law 107-56), known as the USA PATRIOT Act or simply the Patriot Act, is an Act of Congress which President George W. Bush signed into law...

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