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Encyclopedia > NASA
National Aeronautics and Space Administration

NASA logo
Motto: For the Benefit of All.[1]
NASA seal
NASA seal
Agency overview
Formed 29 July 1958
Preceding Agency NACA
Jurisdiction United States government
Headquarters Washington, D.C.
Annual Budget $16.8 billion (FY 2007)[2]
Agency Executives Michael D. Griffin, Administrator
 
Shana Dale, Deputy Administrator
Website
nasa.gov

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA, pronounced /ˈnæsə/) is an agency of the United States government, responsible for the nation's public space program. NASA was established on July 29, 1958, by the National Aeronautics and Space Act.[3] NASA may refer to: National Aeronautics and Space Administration National Auto Sport Association North American Saxophone Alliance Nasa can mean: The flowering plant genus Nasa The Nasa people of Colombia Category: ... Image File history File links NASA_Logo. ... The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) logo has three official designs, although one of them (the worm) has been retired from official use since 1992. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... NACA official seal The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) was a U.S. federal agency founded on March 3, 1915 to undertake, promote, and institutionalize aeronautical research. ... United States Government redirects here. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... For other people with the same name, see Michael Griffin (disambiguation). ... The Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is the highest-ranking official of that organization and serves as the senior space science advisor to the President of the United States. ... Shana Dale Shana L. Dale (born 1964 in Georgia) is the Deputy Administrator of the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ... The Deputy Administrator of NASA serves as the agency’s second in command and is responsible to the administrator for providing overall leadership, planning, and policy direction for the agency. ... United States Government redirects here. ... // This is a list of government agencies engaged in activities related to outer space and space exploration. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wikisource. ...


In addition to the space program, it is also responsible for long-term civilian and military aerospace research. Since February 2006 NASA's self-described mission statement is to "pioneer the future in space exploration, scientific discovery, and aeronautics research."[4] Look up aerospace in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Space exploration is the physical exploration of outer space, both by human spaceflights and by robotic spacecraft. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Six F-16 Fighting Falcons with the U.S. Air Force Thunderbirds aerial demonstration team fly in delta formation in front of the Empire State Building. ...


NASA's motto is: "For the benefit of all".[1] The motto of NASA's Office of Education is: Shaping the Future: Launching New Endeavors to Inspire the Next Generation of Explorers.[5]

Contents

History

Space race

Main article: Space Race
The NASA worm logo used until 1992.
The NASA worm logo used until 1992.

Following the Soviet space program's launch of the world's first human-made satellite (Sputnik 1) on 4 October 1957, the attention of the United States turned toward its own fledgling space efforts. The U.S. Congress, alarmed by the perceived threat to U.S. security and technological leadership (known as the "Sputnik crisis"), urged immediate and swift action; President Dwight D. Eisenhower and his advisors counseled more deliberate measures. Several months of debate produced an agreement that a new federal agency was needed to conduct all non-military activity in space. DARPA was also created at this time and many of DARPA's early space programs were soon transferred to NASA. For a list of key events, see Timeline of space exploration. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Soviet Soyuz rockets like the one pictured above were the first reliable means to transport objects into Earth orbit. ... This article is about artificial satellites. ... Sputnik 1 (Russian: , Satellite-1, or literally Co-traveler-1 byname ПС-1 (PS-1, i. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... Sputnik 1 The Sputnik crisis was a turn point of the Cold War that began on October 4, 1957 when the Soviet Union launched the Sputnik 1 satellite. ... Dwight David Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969), nicknamed Ike, was a five-star General in the United States Army and U.S. politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is an agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the development of new technology for use by the military. ...


Explorer 1, officially Satellite 1958 Alpha, was the first Earth artificial satellite of the United States, having been launched at 10:48pm EST on 31 January 1958. On 29 July 1958, President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed the National Aeronautics and Space Act, establishing the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). When it began operations on 1 October 1958, NASA consisted mainly of the four laboratories and some 80 employees of the government's 46-year-old research agency, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). A significant contributor to NASA's entry into the Space race was the technology from the German rocket program, led by Wernher von Braun, who became a naturalized citizen of the United States after World War II. He is today regarded as the father of the United States space program. Elements of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency (of which von Braun's team was a part) and the Naval Research Laboratory were incorporated into NASA. Explorer-I, officially known as Satellite 1958 Alpha, was the first United States Earth satellite and was sent aloft as part of the United States program for the International Geophysical Year 1957-1958. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... Dwight David Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969), nicknamed Ike, was a five-star General in the United States Army and U.S. politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wikisource. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... NACA official seal The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) was a U.S. federal agency founded on March 3, 1915 to undertake, promote, and institutionalize aeronautical research. ... For other uses, see V2. ... For other uses of von Braun, see von Braun (disambiguation). ... A judge swears in a new citizen. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Hermann Oberth (front) with officials of the ABMA in 1956. ... Bust of Thomas Edison at the front gate of the Naval Research Laboratory. ...

May 5, 1961 launch of Redstone rocket and NASA's Mercury Freedom 7 with Alan Shepard on the United States' first manned sub-orbital spaceflight.
May 5, 1961 launch of Redstone rocket and NASA's Mercury Freedom 7 with Alan Shepard on the United States' first manned sub-orbital spaceflight.

NASA's earliest programs involved research into human spaceflight and were conducted under the pressure of the competition between the U.S. and the USSR (the Space Race) that existed during the Cold War. Project Mercury, initiated in 1958, started NASA down the path of human space exploration with missions designed to discover simply if man could survive in space. Representatives from the U.S. Army (M.L. Raines, LTC, USA), Navy (P.L. Havenstein, CDR, USN) and Air Force (K.G. Lindell, COL, USAF) were selected/requested to provide assistance to the NASA Space Task Group through coordination with the existing U.S. military research and defense contracting infrastructure, and technical assistance resulting from experimental aircraft (and the associated military test pilot pool) development in the 1950s. On May 5, 1961, astronaut Alan Shepard became the first American in space when he piloted Freedom 7 on a 15-minute suborbital flight. John Glenn became the first American to orbit the Earth on 20 February 1962 during the 5 and a quarter-hour flight of Friendship 7. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (770x1000, 171 KB)Description: Launch of the Mercury-Redstone 3 spacecraft on May 5, 1961, 9:34 a. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (770x1000, 171 KB)Description: Launch of the Mercury-Redstone 3 spacecraft on May 5, 1961, 9:34 a. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... // Alan Shepard (1) *Number in parentheses indicates number of spaceflights by each individual prior to and including this mission. ... For other persons named Alan Shepard, see Alan Shepard (disambiguation). ... A sub-orbital spaceflight (or sub-orbital flight) is a spaceflight that does not involve putting a vehicle into orbit. ... Edward White on a spacewalk during the Gemini 4 mission. ... For a list of key events, see Timeline of space exploration. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Project Mercury was the first human spaceflight program of the United States. ... Layers of Atmosphere - not to scale (NOAA)[1] Outer space, sometimes simply called space, refers to the relatively empty regions of the universe outside the atmospheres of celestial bodies. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other persons named Alan Shepard, see Alan Shepard (disambiguation). ... // Alan Shepard (1) *Number in parentheses indicates number of spaceflights by each individual prior to and including this mission. ... For other persons named John Glenn, see John Glenn (disambiguation). ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... // Crew John Glenn (flew on Mercury 6 & STS-95) Backup Crew M. Scott Carpenter Mission parameters Mass: 1,352 kg Perigee: 159 km Apogee: 265 km Inclination: 32. ...


Once the Mercury project proved that human spaceflight was possible, Project Gemini was launched to conduct experiments and work out issues relating to a moon mission. The first Gemini flight with astronauts on board, Gemini 3, was flown by Gus Grissom and John Young on 23 March 1965. Nine other missions followed, showing that long-duration human space flight was possible, proving that rendezvous and docking with another vehicle in space was possible, and gathering medical data on the effects of weightlessness on human beings. Project Gemini was the second human spaceflight program of the United States of America. ... Gemini 3 was a 1965 manned space flight in NASAs Gemini program. ... Virgil Ivan Gus Grissom (April 3, 1926 – January 27, 1967) was a United States Air Force pilot who became the second American astronaut and one of the first to die in the U.S. space program. ... John Watts Young (born September 24, 1930) is a former NASA astronaut who walked on the Moon on Apollo 16, April 21, 1972. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ...


Apollo program

Main article: Apollo program

The Apollo program was designed to land humans on the Moon and bring them safely back to Earth. Apollo 1 ended tragically when all the astronauts inside died due to fire in command module during an experimental simulation. Because of this incident, there were a few unmanned tests before men boarded the spacecraft. Apollo 8 and Apollo 10 tested various components while orbiting the Moon, and returned photography. On July 20, 1969, Apollo 11, landed the first man on the moon, Neil Armstrong. Apollo 13 did not land on the Moon due to a malfunction, but did return photographs. The six missions that landed on the Moon returned a wealth of scientific data and almost 400 kilograms of lunar samples. Experiments included soil mechanics, meteoroids, seismic, heat flow, lunar ranging, magnetic fields, and solar wind experiments.[6] This article is about the series of human spaceflight missions. ... Italics indicate parameters for the planned mission canceled following the Jan 27 fire. ... Apollo 8 was the Apollo space programs second successful manned mission. ... Apollo 10 was the fourth manned mission in the Apollo program, and the first (and only manned Saturn V) mission to launch from pad 39B. The mission included the second crew to orbit the Moon, and the test of the lunar module in lunar orbit. ... This article covers the Apollo 11 mission itself. ... This article is about the former American astronaut. ... This article is about the Apollo mission. ... Soil mechanics is a discipline that applies the principles of engineering mechanics to soil to predict the mechanical behavior of soil. ... Meteor redirects here. ... Seismology (from the Greek seismos(σεισμός) = earthquake and λόγος,logos = knowledge ) is the scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through the Earth. ... In thermal physics, heat transfer is the passage of thermal energy from a hot to a colder body. ... The Lunar Laser Ranging Experiment from the Apollo 11 mission The ongoing Lunar Laser Ranging Experiment measures the distance between the Earth and the Moon using laser ranging. ... For the indie-pop band, see The Magnetic Fields. ...


Skylab

Main article: Skylab

Skylab was the first space station the United States launched into orbit. The 75 tonne station was in Earth orbit from 1973 to 1979, and was visited by crews three times, in 1973 and 1974. Skylab was originally intended to study gravitational anomalies in other solar systems, but the assignment was curtailed due to lack of funding and interest. It included a laboratory for studying the effects of microgravity, and a solar observatory. A Space Shuttle was planned to dock with and elevate Skylab to a higher safe altitude, but Skylab reentered the atmosphere and was destroyed in 1979, before the first shuttle could be launched. For other uses, see Skylab (disambiguation). ... The International Space Station in 2007 A space station is an artificial structure designed for humans to live in outer space. ... This article is about the metric tonne. ... A microgravity environment is one where gravity has little or no measurable effect. ... The Apollo Telescope Mount, or ATM, is the name of a solar observatory that was attached to Skylab, the first US space station. ...


Apollo-Soyuz

The Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (or ASTP) was the first joint flight of the U.S. and Soviet space programs. The mission took place in July 1975. For the United States of America, it was the last Apollo flight, as well as the last manned space launch until the flight of the first Space Shuttle in April 1981. The Apollo-Soyuz Test Project was the first joint flight of the U.S. and Soviet space programs. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... CCCP redirects here. ... Space exploration is the physical exploration of outer space, both by human spaceflights and by robotic spacecraft. ... Project Apollo was a series of human spaceflight missions undertaken by the United States of America (NASA) using the Apollo spacecraft and Saturn launch vehicle, conducted during the years 1961 – 1975. ... This article is about the space vehicle. ...


Shuttle era

The Space Shuttle became the major focus of NASA in the late 1970s and the 1980s. Planned to be a frequently launchable and mostly reusable vehicle, four space shuttles were built by 1985. The first to launch, Columbia, did so on April 12, 1981.[7] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (700x813, 126 KB) A launch of the NASA Space Shuttle Columbia on STS-1 in April 1981. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (700x813, 126 KB) A launch of the NASA Space Shuttle Columbia on STS-1 in April 1981. ... Space Shuttle Columbia (NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-102) was the first spaceworthy space shuttle in NASAs orbital fleet. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... AUGUST 25 1981 US Marine Sean Vance is Born on the 25th of August {ear nav|1981}} Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the space vehicle. ... Space Shuttle Columbia (NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-102) was the first spaceworthy space shuttle in NASAs orbital fleet. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... AUGUST 25 1981 US Marine Sean Vance is Born on the 25th of August {ear nav|1981}} Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ...


The shuttle was not all good news for NASA — flights were much more expensive than initially projected, and even after the 1986 Challenger disaster highlighted the risks of space flight, the public again lost interest as missions appeared to become mundane. Work began on Space Station Freedom as a focus for the manned space program but within NASA there was argument that these projects came at the expense of more inspiring unmanned missions such as the Voyager probes. The Challenger disaster, aside from the late 1980s, marked a low point for NASA. The launch of the Space Shuttle Challenger on mission 51L/STS-33, the 25th of the STS (Space Transportation System) program, began at an estimated time of 16:38:00. ... Space Station Freedom was the name given to NASAs project to construct a permanently-manned earth-orbiting space station. ... Voyager Project redirects here. ...


Nonetheless, the shuttle has been used to launch milestone projects like the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The HST was created with a relatively small budget of $2 billion but has continued operation since 1990 and has delighted both scientists and the public. Some of the images it has returned have become near-legendary, such as the groundbreaking Hubble Deep Field images. The HST is a joint project between NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA), and its success has paved the way for greater collaboration between the agencies. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST; also known colloquially as the Hubble or just Hubble) is a space telescope that was carried into Earth orbit by the Space Shuttle in April 1990. ... The Hubble Deep Field The Hubble Deep Field (HDF) is the result of a series of observations by the Hubble Space Telescope of a small region of the northern celestial hemisphere. ... ESA redirects here. ...


In 1995 Russian-American interaction would again be achieved as the Shuttle-Mir missions began, and once more an American vehicle docked with a Russian craft (this time a full-fledged space station). This cooperation continues to the present day, with Russia and America the two biggest partners in the largest space station ever built – the International Space Station (ISS). The strength of their cooperation on this project was even more evident when NASA began relying on Russian launch vehicles to service the ISS following the 2003 Columbia disaster, which grounded the shuttle fleet for well over two years. The Shuttle–Mir Program was a collaborative space program between Russia and the United States, which involved American Space Shuttles visiting the Russian space station Mir, Russian cosmonauts flying on the shuttle and American astronauts engaging in long-duration expeditions aboard Mir. ... ISS redirects here. ... For further information about Columbias mission and crew, see STS-107. ...


Costing over one hundred billion dollars, it has been difficult at times for NASA to justify the ISS. The population at large has historically been hard to impress with details of scientific experiments in space, preferring news of grand projects to exotic locations. Even now, the ISS cannot accommodate as many scientists as planned.


During much of the 1990s, NASA was faced with shrinking annual budgets due to Congressional belt-tightening in Washington, D.C. In response, NASA's ninth administrator, Daniel Goldin, pioneered the "faster, better, cheaper" approach that enabled NASA to cut costs while still delivering a wide variety of aerospace programs (Discovery Program). That method was criticized and re-evaluated following the twin losses of Mars Climate Orbiter and Mars Polar Lander in 1999. Yet, NASA's shuttle program had made 116 successful launches as of December 2006. Daniel S. Goldin Daniel Saul Goldin (born July 23, 1940) served as the 9th and longest-tenured Administrator of NASA from April 1, 1992, to November 17, 2001. ... NASAs Discovery Program is a series of lower-cost, highly focused scientific space missions. ... Artists conception of the Mars Climate Orbiter Mars Climate Orbiter during tests The Mars Climate Orbiter (formerly the Mars Surveyor 98 Orbiter) was one of two spacecraft in the Mars Surveyor 98 program, the other being the Mars Polar Lander (formerly the Mars Surveyor 98 Lander). ... Conceptual drawing of the Mars Polar Lander on the surface of Mars. ...


The Space Shuttle Columbia disaster in 2003, which killed the crew of six Americans and one Israeli, caused a 29-month hiatus in space shuttle flights and triggered a serious re-examination of NASA's priorities. The U.S. government, various scientists, and the public all reconsidered the future of the space program.


NASA's future

Left to Right: Saturn V, which last carried men to the Moon, the Space Shuttle, the planned Ares I, proposed Ares IV and planned Ares V launch vehicles.
Left to Right: Saturn V, which last carried men to the Moon, the Space Shuttle, the planned Ares I, proposed Ares IV and planned Ares V launch vehicles.

NASA's ongoing investigations include in-depth surveys of Mars and Saturn and studies of the Earth and the Sun. Other NASA spacecraft are presently en route to Mercury and Pluto. With missions to Jupiter in planning stages, NASA's itinerary covers over half the solar system. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 497 pixelsFull resolution (1160 × 720 pixel, file size: 283 KB, MIME type: image/png) I combined the two images, [1] and [2], for easier comparison, added names onto all of the rockets, and put in reference lines. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 497 pixelsFull resolution (1160 × 720 pixel, file size: 283 KB, MIME type: image/png) I combined the two images, [1] and [2], for easier comparison, added names onto all of the rockets, and put in reference lines. ... For the moon designated Saturn V, see Rhea. ... This article is about the space vehicle. ... Ares I is the crew launch vehicle being developed by NASA as a component of Project Constellation. ... This article is about the proposed Ares IV launch vehicle. ... The Ares V (formerly known as the Cargo Launch Vehicle or CaLV) is the cargo launch component of Project Constellation. ... A Saturn V launch vehicle sends Apollo 15 on its way to the moon. ... Adjectives: Martian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ... This article is about the planet. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Sol redirects here. ... This article is about the planet. ... For other uses, see Pluto (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Jupiter (disambiguation). ...


Managed by the NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, California, the Phoenix mission was launched on August 4, 2007. It will search for possible underground water courses in the northern Martian pole. This lander revives much of its experiments and instrumentation from the failed 1999 Mars Polar Lander, hence its name. An improved and larger rover, Mars Science Laboratory, is under construction and slated to launch in 2009. On the horizon of NASA's plans are two possibilities under consideration for the Mars Scout 2013 mission. For the singer/songwriter, see Jon Peter Lewis. ... Phoenix is a robotic spacecraft on a space exploration mission to Mars under the Mars Scout Program. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Conceptual drawing of the Mars Polar Lander on the surface of Mars. ... Two different Mars rover designs. ... 2007 Mars Science Laboratory concept Schematic diagram of the planned rover components The Mars Science Laboratory (or MSL for short) is a NASA rover scheduled to launch in September 2009 and perform a precision landing on Mars in July-September 2010. ...


The New Horizons mission to Pluto was launched in 2006 and will fly by Pluto in 2015. The probe received a gravity assist from Jupiter in February 2007, examining some of Jupiter's inner moons and testing on-board instruments during the fly-by. For other uses, see New Horizons (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Pluto (disambiguation). ... In orbital mechanics and aerospace engineering, a gravitational slingshot or gravity assist is the use of the gravity of a planet or other celestial body to alter the path and speed of a spacecraft. ... For other uses, see Jupiter (disambiguation). ...


Vision for space exploration

Orion Contractor Selected August 31, 2006, at NASA Headquarters
Orion Contractor Selected August 31, 2006, at NASA Headquarters

On January 14, 2004, ten days after the landing of the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit, President George W. Bush announced a new plan for NASA's future, dubbed the Vision for Space Exploration. According to this plan, mankind will return to the Moon by 2018, and set up outposts as a testbed and potential resource for future missions. The Space Shuttle will be retired in 2010 and Orion will replace it by 2014, capable of both docking with the ISS and leaving the Earth's orbit. The future of the ISS is somewhat uncertain — construction will be completed, but beyond that is less clear. Although the plan initially met with skepticism from Congress, in late 2004 Congress agreed to provide start-up funds for the first year's worth of the new space vision. Image from NASA site Two planned configurations for a return to the moon, heavy lift (left) and crew (right) The Vision for Space Exploration is the United States space policy announced on January 14, 2004 by President George W. Bush. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The launch patch for Spirit, featuring Marvin the Martian. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Image from NASA site Two planned configurations for a return to the moon, heavy lift (left) and crew (right) The Vision for Space Exploration is the United States space policy announced on January 14, 2004 by President George W. Bush. ... This article is about the space vehicle. ... Orion is a spacecraft currently under development by the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ... ISS redirects here. ...


Hoping to spur innovation from the private sector, NASA established a series of Centennial Challenges, technology prizes for non-government teams, in 2004. The Challenges include tasks that will be useful for implementing the Vision for Space Exploration, such as building more efficient astronaut gloves. The Centennial Challenges are NASA inducement prize contests for non-government-funded technological achievements by American teams. ...


Mission statement

NASA's 50th Anniversary Logo.
NASA's 50th Anniversary Logo.

From 2002, NASA’s mission statement, used in budget and planning documents, read: “To understand and protect our home planet; to explore the universe and search for life; to inspire the next generation of explorers ... as only NASA can.” In early February 2006, the statement was altered, with the phrase “to understand and protect our home planet” deleted.[8] Some outside observers believe the change is related to criticism of government policy on global warming by NASA scientists like James Hansen, but NASA officials have denied any such connection, pointing to new priorities for space exploration. The chair and ranking member of the U.S. Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs wrote NASA Administrator Griffin on July 31, 2006 expressing concerns about the change.[9] NASA also canceled or delayed a number of earth science missions in 2006.[10] Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... For the American politician from Idaho, see Jim D. Hansen. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... The United States Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs has jurisdiction over matters related to the Department of Homeland Security and other homeland security concerns, as well as the functioning of the government itself, including the National Archives, budget and accounting measures other than appropriations, the Census, the... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Moon base

On December 4, 2006, NASA announced it was planning to build a permanent moon base.[11] NASA Associate Administrator Scott Horowitz said the goal was to start building the moonbase by 2020, and by 2024, have a fully functional base, that would allow for crew rotations like the International Space Station. Additionally, NASA plans to collaborate and partner with other nations for this project.[12] is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... On December 4, 2006, NASA announced the conclusion of its Global Exploration Strategy and Lunar Architecture Study. ... ISS redirects here. ...


Man on Mars

On September 28, 2007, NASA administrator Michael D. Griffin stated that NASA aims to put a man on Mars by 2037, and in 2057, "We should be celebrating 20 years of man on Mars."[13] is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... For other people with the same name, see Michael Griffin (disambiguation). ...


Spaceflight missions

Main article: List of NASA missions

NASA has had many successful space missions and programs, including over 150 manned missions. Many of the notable manned missions were from the Apollo program, a sequence of missions to the Moon which included the achievement of the first man to walk on the Moon, during Apollo 11. The Space Shuttle program has also been a success,[citation needed] despite the loss of two of the Space Shuttles, Challenger and Columbia which resulted in the deaths of their entire crews. The Space Shuttles were able to dock with the space station Mir while it was operational, and are now able to dock with the International Space Station — a joint project of many space agencies. NASA's future plans for space exploration are with the Project Constellation. Human spaceflight Mercury program Gemini program Apollo program Apollo-Soyuz (Soviet Union partnership) Skylab Space Shuttle Shuttle-Mir Program (Russian partnership) International Space Station (working together with Russia, Canada, ESA, and JAXA along with co-operators, ASI and Brazil) Orion Program Satellite and Robotic space missions Earth Observing Explorer I... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2700x2700, 2494 KB) Short description: Astronaut Buzz Aldrin on the moon Full description: Astronaut Buzz Aldrin, lunar module pilot, walks on the surface of the Moon near the leg of the Lunar Module (LM) Eagle during the Apollo 11 extravehicular activity... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2700x2700, 2494 KB) Short description: Astronaut Buzz Aldrin on the moon Full description: Astronaut Buzz Aldrin, lunar module pilot, walks on the surface of the Moon near the leg of the Lunar Module (LM) Eagle during the Apollo 11 extravehicular activity... Colonel Buzz Aldrin, Sc. ... Edward White on a spacewalk during the Gemini 4 mission. ... This article is about the series of human spaceflight missions. ... This article is about Earths moon. ... This article covers the Apollo 11 mission itself. ... NASAs Space Shuttle, officially called Space Transportation System (STS), is the United States governments current manned launch vehicle. ... This article is about the space vehicle. ... Space Shuttle Challenger (NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-099) was NASAs second Space Shuttle orbiter to be put into service, Columbia being the first. ... Space Shuttle Columbia (NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-102) was the first spaceworthy space shuttle in NASAs orbital fleet. ... The International Space Station in 2007 A space station is an artificial structure designed for humans to live in outer space. ... For other uses, see Mir (disambiguation). ... ISS redirects here. ... // This is a list of government agencies engaged in activities related to outer space and space exploration. ... Space exploration is the physical exploration of outer space, both by human spaceflights and by robotic spacecraft. ... Project Constellation is NASAs current plan for space exploration. ...


There have been many unmanned NASA space missions as well, including at least one that visited each of the other 7 planets in our Solar System, and four missions (Pioneer 10, Pioneer 11, Voyager 1, and Voyager 2) that have left our solar system. There has been much recent success with the missions to Mars, including the Mars Exploration Rovers, and the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. NASA remains the only space agency to have launched space missions to the outer solar system beyond the asteroid belt. This article is about the astronomical term. ... This article is about the Solar System. ... Pioneer 10 was the first spacecraft to travel through the asteroid belt, and was the first spacecraft to make direct observations of Jupiter. ... Position of Pioneer 10 and 11 Pioneer 11 was the second mission to investigate Jupiter and the outer solar system and the first to explore the planet Saturn and its main rings. ... For the album by The Verve, see Voyager 1 (album). ... Trajectory Voyager 2 is an unmanned interplanetary spacecraft, launched on August 20, 1977. ... Computer-generated image of one of the two Mars Exploration Rovers which touched down on Mars in 2004. ... Artists Concept of Rover on Mars (credit: Maas Digital LLC) Marvin the Martian, Spirit rover Mission patch Duck Dodgers, Opportunity rover Mission patch NASAs Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Mission is an ongoing robotic mission of exploring Mars, that began in 2003 with the sending of two rovers â€” Spirit... NASAs Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) is a multipurpose spacecraft designed to conduct reconnaissance and exploration of Mars from orbit. ...

The Cassini probe, launched in 1997 and in orbit around Saturn since mid-2004, is investigating Saturn and its inner satellites. With over twenty years in the making, Cassini-Huygens is an example of international cooperation between JPL-NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA). Download high resolution version (890x692, 198 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (890x692, 198 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... NASAs Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) is a multipurpose spacecraft designed to conduct reconnaissance and exploration of Mars from orbit. ... Cassini–Huygens is a joint NASA/ESA/ASI unmanned space mission intended to study Saturn and its moons. ... This article is about the planet. ... The Saturnian system (photographic montage) Moons of Saturn (photographic montage) Saturn has 60 confirmed natural satellites, plus three hypothetical moons. ...


Built entirely by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, California, NASA probes have been continually performing science at Mars since 1997, with at least two orbiters since 2001 and several Mars rovers. The orbiting Mars Odyssey and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter will continue monitoring the geology and climate of the Red Planet, as well as searching for evidence of past or present water and life, as they have since 2001 and 2006, respectively. If the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft's nine-year lifetime is typical, these probes will continue to advance our knowledge for years to come. The Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity have been traversing the surface of Mars at Gusev crater and Meridiani Planum since early 2004, and will continue to image and investigate those environments. They have both already operated over ten times longer than expected, and remain a promising part of NASA's future. For the singer/songwriter, see Jon Peter Lewis. ... A Mars Rover is an unmanned land vehicle for exploration of the planet Mars. ... 2001 Mars Odyssey is a robotic spacecraft orbiting the planet Mars. ... NASAs Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) is a multipurpose spacecraft designed to conduct reconnaissance and exploration of Mars from orbit. ... The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) was a US spacecraft developed by NASA and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and launched November 1996. ... Artists Concept of Rover on Mars (credit: Maas Digital LLC) Marvin the Martian, Spirit rover Mission patch Duck Dodgers, Opportunity rover Mission patch NASAs Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Mission is an ongoing robotic mission of exploring Mars, that began in 2003 with the sending of two rovers â€” Spirit... The launch patch for Spirit, featuring Marvin the Martian. ... The launch patch for Opportunity, featuring Duck Dodgers (Daffy Duck). ... Gusev Crater is a meteor crater in Russia. ... Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity looks southwest across Meridiani Planum; the Rovers discarded backshell and parachute are visible in the distance Hematite deposits in Meridiani Planum mapped from orbit, with Opportunity rover landing site ellipse Meridiani Planum is a plain located 2 degrees south of Mars equator, in the westernmost...


NASA Advisory Council

With the creation of NASA in 1958, the NACA was abolished, and its research centers-- Ames Research Center, Lewis Research Center, and Langley Aeronautical Laboratory--were incorporated within the new space and aeronautics agency along with some elements of the U.S. Army and U.S. Navy. In 1967, Congress directed NASA to form an Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) to advise the NASA Administrator on safety issues and hazards in NASA's aerospace programs. In addition, there were the Space Program Advisory Council and the Research and Technology Advisory Council.


In 1977, these were all combined to form the NASA Advisory Council (NAC) which is the successor to the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics.[14] The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an agency of the United States federal government, responsible for the nations public space program. ...


Leadership

Main articles: Administrator of NASA and Deputy Administrator of NASA

The Administrator of NASA is the highest-ranking official of that organization and serves as the senior space science advisor to the President of the United States. The role of the Administrator is to lead the NASA team and manage its resources to advance the U.S. Vision for Space Exploration. The current Administrator is Michael D. Griffin, who has served in that position since 2005.[15] The Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is the highest-ranking official of that organization and serves as the senior space science advisor to the President of the United States. ... The Deputy Administrator of NASA serves as the agency’s second in command and is responsible to the administrator for providing overall leadership, planning, and policy direction for the agency. ... Image from NASA site Two planned configurations for a return to the moon, heavy lift (left) and crew (right) The Vision for Space Exploration is the United States space policy announced on January 14, 2004 by President George W. Bush. ... For other people with the same name, see Michael Griffin (disambiguation). ...


The Deputy Administrator of NASA serves as the agency's second in command and is responsible to the administrator for providing overall leadership, planning, and policy direction for the agency. The deputy administrator represents NASA to the Executive Office of the President, Congress, heads of federal and other appropriate government agencies, international organizations, and external organizations and communities. The deputy administrator also oversees the day to day work of NASA’s functional offices, such as the Office of the Chief Financial Officer, Office of General Counsel and Strategic Communications. The current Deputy Administrator is Shana Dale, who has served in that position since 2005.[15] Shana Dale Shana L. Dale (born 1964 in Georgia) is the Deputy Administrator of the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ...


Field installations

NASA's headquarters is located in Washington, D.C. For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ...


NASA's Shared Services center is located on the grounds of the John C. Stennis Space Center near Bay St. Louis, Mississippi. Construction of their facility began in August 2006 and the scheduled completion date is October 2007. The John C. Stennis Space Center (or SSC), located in Hancock County, Mississippi at the Mississippi/Louisiana border, is NASAs largest rocket engine test facility. ... Bay Saint Louis is a city located in Hancock County, Mississippi. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


NASA has field and research installations listed below by application. Some facilities serve more than one application due to historical or administrative reasons.


Research centers

The JPL complex in Pasadena, California
The JPL complex in Pasadena, California

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2867x2242, 1299 KB) http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2867x2242, 1299 KB) http://www. ... The JPL complex in Pasadena, Ca. ... Aerial View of Moffett Field and NASA Ames Research Center. ... Moffett Federal Airfield (IATA: NUQ, ICAO: KNUQ), also known as Moffett Field, is a private airport located 3 miles (5 km) north of Mountain View, in Santa Clara County, California, USA. The airport is near the south end of San Francisco Bay, north of San Jose. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For the singer/songwriter, see Jon Peter Lewis. ... The California Institute of Technology (commonly referred to as Caltech)[1] is a private, coeducational research university located in Pasadena, California, in the United States. ... Pasadena is a city in Los Angeles County, California, United States. ... Langley Research Center NASA Langley 14 x 22 foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel. ... Motto: Americas First Location in the State of Virginia Coordinates: County Independent City Mayor Ross Kearney II Area    - City 352. ... Aerial View of Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field The Glenn Research Center is a NASA center, located in Cleveland, Ohio between Cleveland Hopkins International Airport and the Rocky River Reservation (part of the Cleveland Metroparks). ... Cleveland redirects here. ... Goddard Institute for Space Studies building. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Aerial view of Goddard Space Flight Center. ... Location in Maryland Coordinates: County Prince Georges County Incorporated 1937 Government  - Mayor Judith F. Davis (D) Area  - City 15. ...

Test facilities

Aerial View of Moffett Field and NASA Ames Research Center. ... Moffett Federal Airfield (IATA: NUQ, ICAO: KNUQ), also known as Moffett Field, is a private airport located 3 miles (5 km) north of Mountain View, in Santa Clara County, California, USA. The airport is near the south end of San Francisco Bay, north of San Jose. ... Dryden Flight Research Centers fleet of aircraft in 1993. ... Edwards Air Force Base (IATA: EDW, ICAO: KEDW) is a United States Air Force airbase located on the border of Kern County and Los Angeles County, California in the Antelope Valley, 7 miles (11 km) due east of Rosamond. ... NASAs Independent Verification and Validation Facility (IV&V) was established in 1993 and is located in Fairmont, West Virginia. ... Downtown Fairmont and the Monongahela River in 2006 The Marion County Courthouse in Fairmont Fairmont is a city in Marion County, West Virginia, USA. The population was 19,097 at the 2000 census. ... Langley Research Center NASA Langley 14 x 22 foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel. ... Motto: Americas First Location in the State of Virginia Coordinates: County Independent City Mayor Ross Kearney II Area    - City 352. ... The John C. Stennis Space Center (or SSC), located in Hancock County, Mississippi at the Mississippi/Louisiana border, is NASAs largest rocket engine test facility. ... Bay Saint Louis is a city located in Hancock County, Mississippi. ...

Construction and launch facilities

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 640 KB) NASAs Vehicle Assembly Building as seen on July 6, 2005. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 640 KB) NASAs Vehicle Assembly Building as seen on July 6, 2005. ... Merritt Island and Kennedy Space Center (shown in white). ... Aerial view of the test area at Marshall Space Flight Center The George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is a lead NASA center for propulsion, Space Shuttle propulsion, external fuel tank, crew training and payloads, International Space Station (ISS) design and construction, for computers, networks, and information management. ... Huntsville, Alabama (top center), near the Tennessee border, is north of Birmingham and northeast of Decatur, across the Tennessee River flowing northwest. ... Merritt Island and Kennedy Space Center (shown in white). ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... An aerial view of the Johnson Space Center facility of Houston in 1989 The Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) is the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations center for human spaceflight activities. ... Houston redirects here. ... Michoud Assembly Facility in 1968 The Michoud Assembly Facility is an 832 acre (3. ... NOLA redirects here. ... Wallops Flight Facility Coordinates: Latitude 37. ... Location of Wallops Island, and NASA Facilites Wallops Island Wallops Island Research Range launch facilities showing location of support facilities and launch pads. ... White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) is a rocket engine test facility and a resource for testing and evaluating potentially hazardous materials, space flight components, and rocket propulsion systems. ... The New Mexico Farm and Ranch Heritage Museum Las Cruces is a city in Doña Ana County, New Mexico, United States. ...

Deep Space Network

Deep Space Network (DSN) is an international network of radio antennas that supports interplanetary spacecraft missions, and radio and radar astronomy observations for the exploration of the solar system and the universe. ... The Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC) —commonly called the Goldstone Observatory— is located in Californias Mojave Desert (USA). ... Barstow is a city in San Bernardino County, California, United States. ... The Madrid Deep Space Communications Complex is located at 28290 Robledo de Chavela in (Madrid) Spain. ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ... 70m telescope at the Canberra Deep Space Communication Complex Canberra Deep Space Communication Complex Tidbinbilla Locality Map The Canberra Deep Space Communication Complex (CDSCC) is a ground station that is located in Australia at Tidbinbilla in a valley of the Murrumbidgee River, about half an hours drive out of... For other uses, see Canberra (disambiguation). ... Capital Canberra Government Constitutional monarchy Administrator none Chief Minister Jon Stanhope (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 2  - Senate seats 2 Gross Territorial Product (2006)  - Product ($m)  $19,167 (6th)  - Product per capita  $57,303/person (1st) Population (End of November 2006)  - Population  333,667 (7th)  - Density  137. ...

Tourism and museum facilities

Some of the rockets in the U.S. Space & Rocket Center. ... Huntsville, Alabama (top center), near the Tennessee border, is north of Birmingham and northeast of Decatur, across the Tennessee River flowing northwest. ... Space Center Houston logo Space Center Houston, located in Houston, Texas, is the official visitors center of the Johnson Space Center. ... Houston redirects here. ... Merritt Island and Kennedy Space Center (shown in white). ... Merritt Island is a census designated place in Brevard County, on the Atlantic coast of the U.S. state of Florida. ...

Aircraft

A NASA Boeing 737-100 landing.
A NASA Boeing 737-100 landing.

Throughout its history, NASA has used several different types of aircraft on a permanent, semi-permanent, or short-term basis. These aircraft are usually surplus (or in a few cases new-built) military aircraft. Included among these are: Image File history File links NASA_TEST_737-100. ... Image File history File links NASA_TEST_737-100. ... 737 in new Boeing Colors. ...

  • B-57 Canberra. Two Martin WB-57Fs are currently operating from Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center as high altitude research platforms for atmospheric research and Space Shuttle monitoring.
  • Boeing 747. Two 747s, one registered N905NA (which is a 747-100 model that was acquired from American Airlines in 1974) and a second registered N911NA (a 747-100SR model purchased from Japan Airlines in 1988) are currently used by NASA as Shuttle Carrier Aircraft. Another Boeing 747 (a 747SP model purchased from United Airlines in 1996) is in use since 2007 as SOFIA.
  • C-141 Starlifter. In the early 1960s a single C-141A was procured by NASA for use as a heavy transport aircraft. The C-141A Kuiper Airborne Observatory, was operated from 1974 to 1995.
  • C-5 Galaxy. Two specially designed C-5Cs were procured by NASA for use as a heavy transport aircraft and flown by USAF crews.
  • C-9 Skytrain II. One ex-USN C-9B was taken in hand in 2005 to replace the famous KC-135s used in NASA's Reduced Gravity Research Program.
  • Convair 990. Nicknamed Galileo, it was used as an airborne laboratory for research in aeronautics, astronautics, astronomy, and earth observations. The Galileo I aircraft perished in a mid-air collision in 1973. The Galileo II continued service into the 1980s.
  • F-104 Starfighter. Three F-104Gs delivered to NASA in 1963 for use as high speed chase aircraft and redesignated F-104N. One of these aircraft, piloted by Joe Walker, collided with the XB-70 Valkyrie experimental bomber on June 8, 1966, killing Walker. NASA retired its last F-104 in 1995.
  • F-106 Delta Dart. From 1986 a handful of F-106As, redesignated QF-106A, were retained by NASA for test purposes, the last being retired in 1998.
  • F-15 Eagle. One modified ex-USAF F-15, the F-15S/MTD, has been in use as a technology demonstrator and technology research aircraft since 1993, being used in the ACTIVE (1993-1999) and IFCS (2002-) programs.
  • F-16 Fighting Falcon. From 1988 until 1999, 2 prototypes of the F-16XL, designed as a competitor to the F-15E Strike Eagle in the USAF's Enhanced Tactical Fighter program, were taken in hand by NASA for aeronautical research.
  • F-8 Crusader. Several F-8Cs were used by NASA in the early 1970s to test such features as Digital Fly-By-Wire Control System and supercritical wings, which have become standard on modern high performance military aircraft.
  • KC-135 Stratotanker. Two ex-USAF KC-135As (designated N930NA and N931NA) were used by NASA from 1973 to 2004 for the Reduced Gravity Research Program, where potential astronauts are exposed to simulated near-weightlessness. It were these aircraft that collectively gained the name Vomit Comet.
  • Paresev. The Paresev program included the Paresev 1B designed by Charles Richard and flown by eight pilots was a hanging-pilot glider; the ornamental lines of the wing of the Paresev 1B along with influence from the Fleep and other related actions and patents by Francis M. Rogallo gave foundation to the large hang gliders, ultralight trikes, and ultralight aircraft developments from 1960 forward; in count, this development has been outnumbering all other manned aircraft in the world.
  • P-3 Orion. NASA currently uses the P-3 as an earth-science suborbital research platform and is located at Goddard Space Flight Center's Wallops Flight Facility, Virginia.
  • SR-71 Blackbird. Two SR-71Bs were used as trainers by NASA between 1991 and 1999.
  • T-38 Talon. A number of T-38As have been used by NASA as jet trainers for its astronauts since the 1960s. NASA's T-38 fleet is housed primarily at Ellington Field in Houston, Texas.
  • U-2 "Dragon Lady". Two U-2s have been modified to the ER-2 (Earth Resources -2) standard and are currently in use at Dryden Flight Research Center for use in various high altitude research projects.
  • North American X-15. Rocket plane which flew from 1959 to 1968. Conceived by NACA, three were built and explored the regime of hypersonic flight. It is often regarded as a direct predecessor to the Space Shuttle.

The Martin B-57 Canberra was a twin-engine jet bomber and reconnaissance aircraft which entered service in the 1950s. ... An aerial view of the Johnson Space Center facility of Houston in 1989 The Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) is the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations center for human spaceflight activities. ... This article is about the space vehicle. ... The Boeing 747, sometimes nicknamed the Jumbo Jet,[4][5] is a long-haul, widebody commercial airliner manufactured by Boeing in the United States. ... American Airlines, Inc. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Discovery leaves Edwards AFB on the back of a Shuttle Carrier enroute to Kennedy Space Center in Florida Space Shuttle Columbia atop Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) N905NA, after the successful STS-32 mission, fly by the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). ... United Airlines is a major airline of the United States. ... This article is about the capital of Bulgaria. ... C-141 Starlifter A C-141 Starlifter leaves a vapor trail over Antarctica // The Lockheed C-141 Starlifter is a military strategic airlifter in service with the United States Air Force. ... Categories: Astronomy stubs | Astronomical observatories ... The Lockheed C-5 Galaxy is a military transport aircraft designed to provide strategic heavy airlift over intercontinental distances. ... USAF redirects here. ... A C-9 Skytrain II offloading on the ramp at Naval Air Station Brunswick. ... USN redirects here. ... NASA Convair 990 The Convair 990 Coronado was a jet airliner produced by the Convair division of General Dynamics, a stretched version of their earlier Convair 880 produced in response to a request from American Airlines. ... The Lockheed F-104 Starfighter was a single-engined, high-performance, supersonic interceptor aircraft that served with the United States Air Force (USAF) from 1958 until 1967. ... Joseph Albert Joe Walker (20 February 1921 - 8 June 1966) was an American test pilot and a USAF astronaut. ... The North American XB-70 Valkyrie was conceived for the Strategic Air Command in the 1950s as a high-altitude bomber that could fly three times the speed of sound (Mach 3). ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... The Convair F-106A Delta Dart was the primary all-weather interceptor aircraft for the United States Air Force from the 1960s through the 1980s. ... F-15 redirects here. ... USAF redirects here. ... The McDonnell Douglas (now Boeing) F-15S/MTD (Short Takeoff and Landing/Maneuver Technology Demonstrator) is a modified variant of the F-15 Eagle, developed as a technology demonstrator, the F-15S/MTD carried out research for studying the effects of vectored thrust and enchanced maneuverability. ... The F-16 Fighting Falcon is an American multirole jet fighter aircraft developed by General Dynamics and Lockheed Martin for the United States Air Force. ... The General Dynamics F-16XL is a derivative of the F-16 Fighting Falcon, with a cranked-arrow delta wing that is over twice the size of that of the standard F-16 wing. ... The F-15E Strike Eagle is a modern United States all-weather strike fighter, designed for long-range interdiction of enemy ground targets deep behind enemy lines. ... USAF redirects here. ... The F-8 Crusader (originally F8U) was a single-engine aircraft carrier-based fighter aircraft built by Chance-Vought of Dallas, Texas, USA. It replaced the Vought F-7 Cutlass. ... A flight control system consists of the flight control surfaces, the respective cockpit controls, connecting linkage, and necessary operating mechanisms to control aircraft in flight. ... The Boeing KC-135 Stratotanker is an aerial refueling tanker aircraft. ... USAF redirects here. ... Project Mercury astronauts on C-131 flying as Vomit Comet, 1959 Weightlessness inside the Vomit Comet Vomit Comet is a nickname for any airplane that briefly provides a nearly weightless environment in which to train astronauts, conduct research, and film motion pictures. ... The Paresev (Paraglider Research Vehicle) was an test vehicle based upon the kite-parachute studies by NACA Langley engineer Francis M. Rogallo. ... Fleep Dust (or other particles), which cannot be swept up by a dustpan and brush. ... Hang gliding is one of the windsports. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Huntair Pathfinder Mark 1 ultralight at an English airshow Ultralight aviation is a category of recreational flying. ... The Lockheed P-3 Orion is a maritime patrol aircraft of numerous militaries around the world, used primarily for maritime patrol, reconnaissance, and anti-submarine warfare. ... Aerial view of Goddard Space Flight Center. ... Wallops Flight Facility Coordinates: Latitude 37. ... SR-71 redirects here. ... The Northrop T-38 Talon is a widely used US-built supersonic jet trainer. ... NASAs fleet of T-38 Talons sitting on the flightline at Ellington. ... Houston redirects here. ... The Lockheed U-2, nicknamed Dragon Lady, is a single-engine, high-altitude aircraft flown by the United States Air Force and previously flown by the Central Intelligence Agency. ... Dryden Flight Research Centers fleet of aircraft in 1993. ... The North American X-15 rocket plane was part of the USAF/NASA/USN X-series of experimental aircraft, including also the Bell X-1. ... NACA official seal The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) was a U.S. federal agency founded on March 3, 1915 to undertake, promote, and institutionalize aeronautical research. ... This article is about the space vehicle. ...

Related legislation

Florida, USA, taken from NASA Shuttle Mission STS-95 on October 31, 1998.
Florida, USA, taken from NASA Shuttle Mission STS-95 on October 31, 1998.
  • 1958 – National Aeronautics and Space Administration PL 85-568 (passed on July 29)
  • 1961 – Apollo mission funding PL 87-98 A
  • 1970 – National Aeronautics and Space Administration Research and Development Act PL 91-119
  • 1984 – National Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act PL 98-361
  • 1988 – National Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act PL 100-685
  • 2005 – National Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2005
  • NASA Budget 1958– 2005 in 1996 Constant Year Dollars

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3000x2624, 4402 KB)Florida, USA, taken from Shuttle Mission STS-95 on 31st October 1998. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3000x2624, 4402 KB)Florida, USA, taken from Shuttle Mission STS-95 on 31st October 1998. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... This is a mission of the United States Space Shuttle. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Description Role: Earth and Lunar Orbit Crew: 3; CDR, CM pilot, LM pilot Dimensions Height: 36. ... Each year, the United States Congress passes a Federal Budget detailing where federal tax money will be spent in the coming year. ...

Awards and decorations

NASA presently bestows a number of medals and decorations to astronauts and other NASA personnel. Some awards are authorized for wear on active duty military uniforms. The highest award is the Congressional Space Medal of Honor, which has been award to 28 individuals (17 posthumously), and is said to recognize "any astronaut who in the performance of his duties has distinguished himself by exceptionally meritorious efforts and contributions to the welfare of the Nation and mankind." Awards and decorations of the United States government are civilian awards of the U.S. federal government which are typically issued for sustained meritorious service, in a civilian capactiy, while serving in the U.S. federal government. ... Congressional Space Medal of Honor The Congressional Space Medal of Honor was authorized by the United States Congress in 1969 to recognize any astronaut who in the performance of his duties has distinguished himself by exceptionally meritorious efforts and contributions to the welfare of the Nation and mankind. ...


The second highest NASA award is the NASA Distinguished Service Medal, which may be presented to any member of the federal government, including both military astronauts and civilian employees. It is an annual award, given out at the National Aeronautics Space Foundation plant, located in Orlando, Florida. The NASA Distinguished Service Medal is the second highest award which may be bestowed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, ranking immediately below the Congressional Space Medal of Honor. ...


Environmental Record

Ozone Depletion

In the middle of the 20th century NASA augmented its mission of Earth’s observation and redirected it toward environmental quality. The result was the launch of Earth Observing System (EOS) in 1980s, which was able to monitor one of the global environmental problems – ozone depletion.[16] The first comprehensive worldwide measurements were obtained in 1978 with the Nimbus-7 satellite and NASA scientists at the Goddard Institute for Space Studies.[17] The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a program of NASA comprising a series of artificial satellite missions and scientific instruments in Earth orbit designed for long-term global observations of the land surface, biosphere, atmosphere, and oceans of the Earth. ... Eos, by Evelyn De Morgan (1850 - 1919), 1895 (Columbia Museum of Art, Columbia, SC): for a Pre-Raphaelite painter, Eos was still the classical pagan equivalent of an angel Eos (dawn) was, in Greek Mythology, the Titan goddess of the dawn, who rose from her home at the edge of... Global monthly average total ozone amount Ozone depletion describes two distinct, but related observations: a slow, steady decline of about 4 percent per decade in the total amount of ozone in Earths stratosphere since the late 1970s; and a much larger, but seasonal, decrease in stratospheric ozone over Earth... Goddard Institute for Space Studies building. ...


Salt evaporation

In one of the nation's largest restoration projects NASA technology helps state and federal government reclaim 15,100 acres (61 km²) of salt evaporation ponds in South San Francisco Bay. Satellite sensors are used by a group of scientist to study the effect of salt evaporation on local ecology.[18]


Energy Management

NASA has started Energy Efficiency and Water Conservation Program as an agency-wide program directed to prevent pollution and reduce energy and water utilization. It helps to ensure that NASA meets its federal stewardship responsibilities for the environment.[19]


Earth Science Enterprise

Understanding of natural and human-induced changes on the global environment is the main objective of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise. For years it has been cooperating with major environment related agencies and creating united projects to achieve their goal. Past Enterprise’s programs include:[20]

  • Enhanced weather predication for Energy Forecasting (DOE, EPA)
  • Carbon sequestration assessment for Carbon Management (USDA, DOE)
  • Early warning systems for air and water quality for Homeland Security (OHS, NIMA, USGS)
  • Environmental indicators for Community Growth Management (EPA, USGS, NSGIC)
  • Environmental indicators for Coastal Management (NOAA)
  • Environmental models for Biological Invasive Species (USGS, USDA)
  • Water cycle science for Water Management and Conservation (EPA, USDA)
  • Regional to national to international atmospheric measurements and predictions for Air Quality Management (EPA, NOAA)

NASA is working in cooperation with National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The goal is to obtain to produce worldwide solar resource maps with great local detail.[21] NASA was also one of the main participants in the evaluation innovative technologies for the clean up of the sources for dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). On April 6, 1999, the agency signed The Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) along with EPA, DOE, and USAF authorizing all the above organizations to conduct necessary tests at the John F. Kennedy Space center. The main purpose was to evaluate two innovative in-situ remediation technologies, thermal removal and oxidation destruction of DNAPLs.[22] National Space Agency made a partnership with Military Services and Defense Contract Management Agency named the “Joint Group on Pollution Prevention”. The group is working on reduction or elimination of hazardous materials or processes.[23] Doe is the term used for the females of various species of animal, including: some species of deer rabbits In job and classified ads, DOE is an acronym for Depending On Experience and usually indicated in pay rates. ... EPA redirects here. ... The U.S. Department of Agriculture, also called the Agriculture Department, or USDA, is a Cabinet department of the United States Federal Government. ... Doe is the term used for the females of various species of animal, including: some species of deer rabbits In job and classified ads, DOE is an acronym for Depending On Experience and usually indicated in pay rates. ... Oakton High School Oakton High School is a public high school in Vienna, Virginia. ... External links Biography of Nima Yooshij Categories: People stubs | Iranian poets ... The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is a scientific agency of the United States government. ... EPA redirects here. ... The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is a scientific agency of the United States government. ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is a scientific agency of the United States government. ... The U.S. Department of Agriculture, also called the Agriculture Department, or USDA, is a Cabinet department of the United States Federal Government. ... EPA redirects here. ... The U.S. Department of Agriculture, also called the Agriculture Department, or USDA, is a Cabinet department of the United States Federal Government. ... EPA redirects here. ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), located in Golden, Colorado, as part of the U.S. Department of Energy, is the United Statess primary laboratory for renewable energy and energy efficiency research and development. ... The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), located in Golden, Colorado, as part of the U.S. Department of Energy, is the United Statess primary laboratory for renewable energy and energy efficiency research and development. ... A memorandum of agreement (MOA) or cooperative agreement is a document written between parties to cooperatively work together on an agreed upon project or meet an agreed upon objective. ... Genera Anomalopteryx (bush moa) Euryapteryx Megalapteryx (upland moa) Dinornis (giant moa) Emeus Pachyornis Moa were giant flightless birds native to New Zealand. ... EPA redirects here. ... Doe is the term used for the females of various species of animal, including: some species of deer rabbits In job and classified ads, DOE is an acronym for Depending On Experience and usually indicated in pay rates. ... Seal of the Air Force. ... The Defense Contract Management Agency (DCMA) is the United States Department of Defense (DoD) agency responsible for performing contract administration services (CAS) for DoD and other authorized Federal Agencies. ...


On May 8, 2003, Environmental Protection Agency recognized NASA as the first federal agency to directly use landfill gas to produce energy at one of its facilities - the Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.[24] EPA redirects here. ... Natural gas rig Natural gas (commonly refered to as gas in many countries) is a gaseous fossil fuel consisting primarily of methane. ... Aerial view of Goddard Space Flight Center. ...


Criticism

Delays to completing the International Space Station

Currently, the ISS relies on the Shuttle fleet for all major construction shipments. The Shuttle fleet lost two spacecraft and fourteen astronauts in two disasters: Challenger in 1986, and Columbia in 2003.[25] While the 1986 loss was mitigated by building the Space Shuttle Endeavour from replacement parts, NASA has no plans to build another shuttle to replace the second loss, and instead will be transitioning to a new Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV).[25] ISS redirects here. ... For further information about Challengers mission and crew, see STS-51-L. The iconic image of Space Shuttle Challengers smoke plume after its breakup 73 seconds after launch. ... For further information about Columbias mission and crew, see STS-107. ... Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour (NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-105), is the fifth and final operational NASA space shuttle. ... For more on the accident, see Space Shuttle Columbia disaster. ... CEV with lunar lander CEV during a landing on earth CEV rocket, the Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) (right) along side the heavy-lift Cargo Launch Vehicle (CaLV) rocket. ...


The ISS was envisioned to eventually have a crew of seven, but following the Columbia Shuttle accident, the permanent space station crew of three was reduced to two, comprised of one Russian and one American for six months at a time. The result was that European and Japanese astronauts could not stay for longer missions. As of 2006, the station has been restored to a crew of three, and plans call for an increase to six in 2009, during Expedition 19. This would be the 1st International Space Station expedition including 6 crew members. ...


Other nations that have invested in the space station's construction, such as the members of the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), have expressed concern over the completion of the ISS.[25][26] The schedule NASA planned does have flexibility in it, and Associate Administrator for Space Operations William H. Gerstenmaier explained that the shuttle had completed three missions within six months in 2007, showing that NASA can still meet the deadlines necessary for the critical flights remaining.[25][27][28] ESA redirects here. ... The Japan Aerospace eXploration Agency (JAXA) is Japans aerospace agency. ...


Alleged alcohol use

Following the arrest of Lisa Nowak in February of 2007, NASA Administrator Michael D. Griffin commissioned an independent panel, the NASA Astronaut Health Care System Review Committee, to examine how well NASA attended to the mental health of its astronauts. The initial report released by the panel raised questions in regards to possible alcohol use prior to flight.[29] However, the report offered no specifics, no facts to substantiate the claims, and stated that no attempt to confirm or investigate the allegations had been performed.[30][31][32] Lisa Marie Nowak (née Caputo) (born May 10, 1963) is a United States naval officer and a former NASA astronaut. ... For other people with the same name, see Michael Griffin (disambiguation). ...


Shuttle commander Scott J. Kelly was vocal in his criticism of the report during interviews prior to STS-118, stating that it was beyond his comprehension that astronauts would ever consider what was suggested.[31] Following the release of the independent panel report, NASA ordered an internal review, The Space Flight Safety Review.[32] Astronaut Scott J. Kelly This article is about the astronaut Scott J. Kelly. ... STS-118 was a Space Shuttle mission to the International Space Station (ISS) flown by Space Shuttle Endeavour. ...


On August 29, 2007, Chief Safety and Mission Assurance Officer Bryan O'Connor reported that after the month-long review, NASA found that there was no evidence to verify the independent panel's report that astronauts have been allowed to fly drunk.[33][30][34] Additionally, investigation into all incident reports dating from 1984 to 2007, found no incident involving alcohol or drug use.[35] The report's findings specifically stated:

"The culture of professionalism in today’s astronaut corps, along with the highly visible, structured and supervised schedule during the last several days prior to launch, provide reasonable controls to avoid flying an alcohol-impaired crewmember. In light of all the other controls in place on launch day, the L-0 flight surgeon check provides a reasonable likelihood of identifying signs of illness or impairment of the level that would threaten flight safety,"[35]

In response to the internal review, policies at NASA would be changed in a variety of ways: Flight surgeons would be present during the pre-mission suit-up activities, flight surgeons would receive additional training in psychiatric evaluation, and although there was an unofficial code of conduct in place, an official "Code of Conduct" would be written up for employees.[35]


Stern resignation

Alan Stern, NASA's "hard-charging"[36] and "reform-minded"[37] Associate Administrator for the Science Mission Directorate, resigned on 25 March 2008,[38] to be effective 11 April, after he ordered funding cuts to the Mars rovers and Mars Odyssey that were overturned by NASA Administrator Michael D. Griffin. The cuts were intended to offset cost overruns for the Mars Science Laboratory. Stern, who served for nearly a year and has been credited with making "significant changes that have helped restore the importance of science in NASA’s mission."[39][40], says he left to avoid cutting healthy programs and basic research in favor of politically sensitive projects. Griffin favors cutting "less popular parts" of the budget, including basic research, and Stern's refusal to do so led to his resignation.[41] This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Artists Concept of Rover on Mars (credit: Maas Digital LLC) Marvin the Martian, Spirit rover Mission patch Duck Dodgers, Opportunity rover Mission patch NASAs Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Mission is an ongoing robotic mission of exploring Mars, that began in 2003 with the sending of two rovers â€” Spirit... 2001 Mars Odyssey is a robotic spacecraft orbiting the planet Mars. ... For other people with the same name, see Michael Griffin (disambiguation). ... 2007 Mars Science Laboratory concept Schematic diagram of the planned rover components The Mars Science Laboratory (or MSL for short) is a NASA rover scheduled to launch in September 2009 and perform a precision landing on Mars in July-September 2010. ...


See also

Wikisource
Wikisource has original works written by or about:

Image File history File links En-NASA.ogg Summary This is a spoken word version of the article NASA. Listen to this article (audio help) Duration: 0:19:34 Created by: {{{user_name_link}}} Date recorded: 1 Sep 2005 Accent: American Sex: Artificial/Female Refer to: List of spoken articles at the... Image File history File links Sound-icon. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... // This is a list of government agencies engaged in activities related to outer space and space exploration. ... This page aims to list all articles related to the specific discipline of aerospace engineering. ... This article is about the series of human spaceflight missions. ... The Astronomy Picture of the Day (APOD) website is a service provided by NASA and MTU (Michigan Technological University). ... For other uses, see Astronaut (disambiguation). ... The Johnson Space Cente was a hostage situation that occurred on April 20, 2007 in Building 44, the Communication and Tracking Development Laboratory, at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, Texas. ... Each year, the United States Congress passes a Federal Budget detailing where federal tax money will be spent in the coming year. ... NASA Environmental Management System (EMS) is a major contributor to the knowledge of our Earth; (EMS) has used satellites and pictures from space to show and display the change over years. ... NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts is apparently an organisation within NASA that funds research on advanced concepts, that is, not some boring present day concepts, but exciting future technologies. ... Animation showing atmosphere and shading effects in v1. ... Project Constellation is NASAs current plan for space exploration. ... Space exploration is the physical exploration of outer space, both by human spaceflights and by robotic spacecraft. ... For a list of key events, see Timeline of space exploration. ... This article is about the space vehicle. ... Image from NASA site Two planned configurations for a return to the moon, heavy lift (left) and crew (right) The Vision for Space Exploration is the United States space policy announced on January 14, 2004 by President George W. Bush. ...

References

  1. ^ a b Lale Tayla and Figen Bingul (2007). NASA stands "for the benefit of all." - Interview with NASA's Dr. Süleyman Gokoglu (English). The Light Millennium. Retrieved on September 13, 2007.
  2. ^ NASA (2006). Fiscal Year 07 Budget (English). NASA. Retrieved on August 29, 2007.
  3. ^ NASA (2005). The National Aeronautics and Space Act (English). NASA. Retrieved on August 29, 2007.
  4. ^ NASA (2005). What Does NASA Do? (English). NASA. Retrieved on August 29, 2007.
  5. ^ NASA (2007). NASA Office of Education (English). NASA Langley Research Center. Retrieved on September 13, 2007.
  6. ^ Chaikin, Andrew (1998). A Man on the Moon. New York: Penguin Books. ISBN 0140272011. 
  7. ^ Bernier, Serge (Stephen Lyle Translator) Space Odyssey: The First Forty Years of Space Exploration (Cambridge University Press, 2002) ISBN 0-521-81356-5
  8. ^ Revkin, Andrew C.. "NASA’s Goals Delete Mention of Home Planet", The New York Times, 2006-07-22. Retrieved on 2007-01-15. 
  9. ^ U.S. Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs (2006-08-01). Senators Collins and Lieberman Raise Concerns about Changes to NASA Mission Statement. Retrieved on 2007-01-16.
  10. ^ Daley, Beth. "NASA shelves climate satellites", Boston Globe, 2006-06-09. Retrieved on 2007-01-15. 
  11. ^ NASA (2006). Lunar Architecture (.pdf) (English). NASA. Retrieved on August 29, 2007.
  12. ^ Diane Hawkins-Cox (2006). NASA wants permanent moon base (English). CNN. Retrieved on August 29, 2007.
  13. ^ The Economic Times (2007). NASA aims to put man on Mars by 2037. The Economic Times. Retrieved on January 17, 2008.
  14. ^ NASA (2006). NASA Advisory Council History (English). NASA. Retrieved on August 29, 2007.
  15. ^ a b NASA (2005). NASA Biography of Michael D. Griffin (English). NASA. Retrieved on August 29, 2007.
  16. ^ W Henry Lambright (2006). NASA and the Environment: The Case of Ozone Depletion (English). The Maxwell School, Syracuse University. Retrieved on April 16, 2008.
  17. ^ Dr. Richard McPeters (2008). Ozone Hole Monitoring (English). NASA. Retrieved on May 1, 2008.
  18. ^ NASA Helps Reclaim 15,100 Acres Of San Francisco Bay Salt Ponds (English). Space Daily (2003). Retrieved on May 1, 2008.
  19. ^ Tina Norwood (2007). ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND WATER CONSERVATION (English). NASA. Retrieved on May 1, 2008.
  20. ^ Greg Williams (2008). Earth Science Enterprise Plans (English). NASA. Retrieved on May 1, 2008.
  21. ^ D. Renné, S. Wilcox, B. Marion, R. George, D. Myers, T. Stoffel, R. Perez, P. Stackhouse, Jr. (2003). Progress on Updating the1961-1990 National Solar Radiation Database (English). NREL. Retrieved on May 1, 2008.
  22. ^ EPA (1999). EPA, DOE, NASA AND USAF EVALUATE INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES (English). EPA. Retrieved on April 28, 2008.
  23. ^ Benjamin S. Griffin, Gregory S. Martin, Keith W. Lippert, J.D.MacCarthy, Eugene G. Payne, Jr. (2007). Joint Group on Pollution Prevention (English). NASA. Retrieved on May 1, 2008.
  24. ^ Michael K. Ewert (2006). Johnson Space Center’s Role in a Sustainable Future (English). NASA. Retrieved on April 28, 2008.
  25. ^ a b c d Traci Watson (2007). Shuttle delays endanger space station. USA Today. Retrieved on January 17, 2008.
  26. ^ AFP (2007). NASA resets Atlantis shuttle launch to February 7. Associated Foreign Press. Retrieved on January 17, 2008.
  27. ^ AFP (2007). NASA to speed up shuttle launch schedule. Associated Foreign Press. Retrieved on January 17, 2008.
  28. ^ NASA (2007). NASA's Shuttle and Rocket Missions. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved on October 30, 2007.
  29. ^ Traci Watson (2007). Report uncovers allegations of astronauts drunk on flights (English). USA Today. Retrieved on August 29, 2007.
  30. ^ a b Traci Watson (2007). NASA: No evidence of drunk astronauts (English). USA Today. Retrieved on August 29, 2007.
  31. ^ a b Miles O'Brien (2007). Shuttle commander: Alcohol report lacks facts (html) (English). CNN. Retrieved on August 29, 2007.
  32. ^ a b CBS News/Associated Press (2007). NASA Probe Likely To Clear Drinking Charge (English). CBS. Retrieved on August 29, 2007.
  33. ^ Miles O'Brien (2007). NASA report: No evidence astronauts flew drunk (English). CNN. Retrieved on August 29, 2007.
  34. ^ NASA (2007). Findings of NASA Safety Review Following Astronaut Health Reviews (English). NASA. Retrieved on August 29, 2007.
  35. ^ a b c Bryan O'Conner (2007). Space Flight Safety Review (Alcohol Use In The Preflight Period) (.pdf) (English). NASA Office of Safety and Mission Assurance. Retrieved on August 29, 2007.
  36. ^ Frank Morring, Jr.. "NASA science chief Alan Stern resigns", Aviation Week, 2008-03-26. Retrieved on 2008-03-26. 
  37. ^ Brian Berger. "Weiler to replace Stern as NASA science chief", Space.com, 2008-03-26. Retrieved on 2008-03-26. 
  38. ^ Warren E. Leary. "NASA's Science Chief Resigns", New York Times, 2008-03-27. Retrieved on 2008-03-27. 
  39. ^ Planetary Society statement on Alan Stern's resignation from NASA. Planetary Society (2008-03-26). Retrieved on 2008-03-26.
  40. ^ Warren E. Leary. "Wielding a Cost-Cutting Ax, and Often, at NASA", New York Times, 2008-01-01. Retrieved on 2008-03-26. 
  41. ^ Andrew Lawler, "NASA's Stern Quits Over Mars Exploration Plans" (subscription required), Science 320, 31 (4 April 2008). Retrieved on 3 April 2008.

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 160th day of the year (161st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... USA Today is a national American daily newspaper published by the Gannett Company. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Categories: Stub | Science & technology magazines ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Space. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is in need of attention. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Science is the academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and is considered one of the worlds most prestigious scientific journals. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ...

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Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ...

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This is a timeline of first orbital launches by nationality. ... Soviet Soyuz rockets like the one pictured above were the first reliable means to transport objects into Earth orbit. ...


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