FACTOID # 18: Alaska spends more money per capita on elementary and secondary education than any other state.

 Home Encyclopedia Statistics States A-Z Flags Maps FAQ About

 WHAT'S NEW

SEARCH ALL

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

(* = Graphable)

Encyclopedia > N scale
U.S. Prototype model of an N scale (1:160) Chesapeake and Ohio Railway 2-6-6-2 shown with a pencil for size

## Contents

An EMD SW8 waits to switch a grain silo in this rural Virginia town.
CSX 4346 (an EMD GP35 made by Atlas) outside the freight depot.
There is more to N scale than just trains.
A British model (made by Graham Farish) of a LMS 4-6-0 steam locomotive
Photo of section of N scale layout with track and a human hand shown for size comparison
Close up of N gauge Southern Pacific GS-4 #4432 by Con-cor

In the United States and Europe, models of standard gauge (4ft 8.5in) trains are built to 1:160 scale and made so that they run on N gauge track. In the United Kingdom a scale of 1:148 is used for commercially produced models. In Japan, a scale of 1:150 is used for the models of 3 ft 6 in gauge trains, while a scale of 1:160 is used for models of standard gauge Shinkansen (Bullet Train) models. In the U.S. and Europe, a scale of 1:160 is used for models of trains, irrespective of the gauge of the real trains they are scaled from. All of these scales run on the same 9mm track gauge (N gauge). This means the track is a little too narrow for 1:148/1:150 but the difference is usually considered too small to matter. Strict 2mm fine scale modellers use slightly wider and usually hand built track. As railways developed and expanded one of the key issues to be decided was that of the rail gauge (the distance between the two rails of the track) which should be used. ... As railways developed and expanded one of the key issues to be decided was that of the rail gauge (the distance between the two rails of the track) which should be used. ... For the record label, see Shinkansen Records. ...

Although trains and accessories of similar gauge and/or scale existed as early as 1927, modern N scale only appeared in 1962. Unlike other scales and gauges, which were de facto standards at best, within two years N scale manufacturers defined the gauge, voltage, as well as the height and type of couplers. Year 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

N scale locomotives are powered by DC motors which accept a nominal maximum of 12 V DC. In traditional DC control, the speed of the train is determined by the amount of voltage supplied to the rails. The direction of the train is determined by the polarity of the power to the rails. Since the end of the 20th century, an increasing number of enthuisiasts have started using Digital Command Control (DCC) to determine the speed and direction of their trains. This has in part been made possible by surface mount technology and new motors that draw very little current (typically 0.2amps). Direct current (DC or continuous current) is the continuous flow of electricity through a conductor such as a wire from high to low potential. ... A Digitrax DCC system Digital Command Control (DCC) is a scheme for controlling locomotives on a model railroad layout that allows one or more locomotives to be independently controlled on the same electrical section of track. ... Surface-mount components on a keydrives circuit board Surface mount technology (SMT) is a method for constructing electronic circuits in which the components are mounted directly onto the surface of printed circuit boards (PCBs). ...

The agreed-to standard coupling is known as a 'Rapido' coupler from the manufacturer (Arnold). Most companies developed their own variants of this coupler to avoid Arnold patents on the spring system. Graham Farish initially adopted a plastic flexible U rather than a spring, Peco used a compatible weighted coupler system (Elsie) and Fleischmann cunningly sidestepped the problem by using a sprung plate. All however were compatible. Founded in 1906 by Karl Arnold in NÃ¼rnberg, K. Arnold & Co. ... Graham Farish (Grafar) produces large quantities of British outline model railway equipment in N gauge. ...

The Rapido coupler system works well but is difficult to use for automatic uncoupling and also relatively large. U.S. and Canadian modellers are making more and more use of a more realistic looking proprietary coupler system, available from Micro-Trains Line Co.. The MT couplers (as they are known) are more delicate and closer to scale North American appearance than Rapido couplers. Other manufacturers are now making couplers that mate with Micro Trains couplers although without all the features of the MT couplers due to MTL owned patent rights. For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ...

European modellers have the option to convert the couplings on their rolling stock to the Fleischmann Profi-Coupler system for more reliable operation should they wish to do so, but most N scale rolling stock continues to be manufactured with Rapido couplers - a design which is fairly robust and easy to mold. Modern N scale stock uses a standard NEM socket for couplers which allows different coupling designs to be used by simply pulling out the old coupler and fitting a new one of a different design. Fleischmann die-cast steam loco with modern driving trailer, in HO scale Fleischmann is a German manufacturer of model railroad products. ...

N scale has a large worldwide following. Models are made of very many standard gauge prototypes from every continent. N scale's popularity is second only to HO scale's. In Japan, where space in homes is more limited, N scale is the most popular scale, and HO scale is considered large. Not all modellers select N because they have small spaces, some use N scale in order to build more complex or more visually expansive models. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with prototyping. ... Animated, colour-coded map showing the various continents. ...

N gauge track and components are also used with larger scales, in particular HOe and 009 scale for modelling narrow gauge railways. N scale models on Z scale track are used to model metre gauge (Nn3). A small amount of 2' indusrial narrow gauge modelling in N scale using custom track is done but there are few suppliers of parts. HOe is a popular rail transport modelling scale/gauge combination widely used by European narrow gauge modellers. ... (Redirected from 009) OO9 is a model railway scale/gauge combination of 4 mm scale and 9 mm gauge tracks, which would be accurately to scale for a prototype (real life) track gauge of 2 ft 3 in (686 mm). ... Z scale (1:220) is the smallest commercially available model railway scale with its track gauge of only 6. ... Modelling 3 gauge railroads is part of the hobby of rail transport modelling. ...

## Standards

Standards useful to both manufacturers and modellers are maintained by MOROP in Europe and the NMRA in North America. These standards are generally the same for such elements as track gauge, scale ratio, couplings, and electrical power and differ for clearances and other factors that are specific to the prototype being modeled. MOROP is a European federation of national model railway associations, based in Berne, Switzerland. ... The National Model Railroad Association or NMRA is a non-profit organization for those involved in the hobby or business of model railroading. ...

## 2 mm scale

A number of modellers in the United Kingdom use 2 mm scale, a closer-to-scale standard than N scale. 2 mm scale, as the name implies, is scaled at 2 mm to the foot (1:152) with a 9.42 mm track gauge. Exact scale track and wheels are used in preference to the readily available 9 mm gauge components. 2 mm scale is a scale used for railway modelling, largely of British subjects. ...

## OOO models

In 1961 Lone Star introduced some of the very first (1:160) N scale models branded as Treble-0-Lectric (OOO) into the United Kingdom. The original die-cast metal models were push along and gauged to run on a die-cast trackwork having a gauge that was closer to 8 mm. Coupling was via a simple loop and pin arrangement. The novelty of the "Lone Star Locos" line was such that they even found their way to the United States and were sold in the toys area of major department stores like J.J. Newberry. Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Lone Star was the name used by Die Casting Machine Tools (DCMT) Ltd, a British Company for its toy products. ...

Electrified models followed soon after. The track gauge was widened to a nominal 9 mm and rails were isolated with non-conductive ties (sleepers) for DC operation. A different coupling based on a shrunken OO scale coupling was fitted. The OOO couplings and specifications have long since been replaced by commercial N scale manufacturers. Direct current (DC or continuous current) is the continuous flow of electricity through a conductor such as a wire from high to low potential. ...

## Notable Layouts

Rail

• In the United States, a landmark N scale project layout, the Clinchfield, was built in 1978 by the late Gordon Odegard and featured in a series of articles for Model Railroader magazine. The article series was also reprinted in the book "Modeling the Clinchfield in N Scale" by Kalmbach Publishing. The Clinchfield layout measured 6 by 13 feet and was noteworthy for a number of reasons: 1) it was highly portable because of its modular construction, 2) showed the potential of high scenery to track ratios possible in 1:160, 3) used a unique aluminum frame and (at the time revolutionary) styrofoam construction to cut down on weight and 4) was highly prototypical for the era. The Clinchfield layout is one of the most famous American N scale layouts ever constructed and was awarded as the grand prize in a 1984 sweepstakes. The layout was also displayed at a number of train shows and has traded ownership several times by private collectors. The prototype Clinchfield Railroad was an operating and holding company for the Carolina, Clinchfield and Ohio Railway.

## Weathering

An old Maine Central boxcar sits outside the Feed & Seed in this rural Virginia town.

NTrak is one of several model railroad module standards. ...

## Manufacturers

• BLMA Models. Fine-Scale Locomotive, Freight Car & Scenery Accessories
• Dapol Maker of British outline model trains
• Graham Farish Maker of British model trains
• Kato U.S.A. Maker of U.S. and Japanese Prototype model trains
• Peco Manufacturer of track and wagons, including N gauge
• PrintableKits.com An ever expanding selection of high quality downloadable n gauge kits
• Showcase Miniatures. Makers of exceptional Vehicles, Structures and scenery details.

Dapol Ltd are a United Kingdom company which designs and manufacturers model railway products at its factory near Chirk on the border between England and Wales. ... Graham Farish (Grafar) produces large quantities of British outline model railway equipment in N gauge. ... Peco is a UK-based manufacturer of model railway accessories, especially trackwork. ...

Results from FactBites:

 Scale and Gauge (2093 words) N is generally 1:160th scale, or 2mm to the foot. This was the forerunner to N scale, being 9.5mm gauge. It is 1:100 or 1:120 scale and 12 mm gauge.
 N scale at AllExperts (1356 words) N scale (or sometimes N gauge) is a popular model railway size, allowing hobbyists to build layouts that take up less space than HO scale, or put longer track runs into the same amount of space, because the models are smaller (by nearly a half) than they are in HO scale (1:87). N scale locomotives are powered by DC motors which accept a nominal maximum of 12 V DC. N gauge track and components are also used with larger scales, in particular HOe and 009 scale for modelling narrow gauge railways.
More results at FactBites »

Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here