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Encyclopedia > Myxomatosis
A European Rabbit afflicted by Myxomatosis in Shropshire, England.

Myxomatosis (commonly called 'myxi') is a disease which infects rabbits. It is caused by the Myxoma virus. First observed in Uruguay in the late 1800s, it was deliberately introduced into Australia and the United Kingdom in an attempt to control rabbit infestation and population there; see rabbits in Australia. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 573 pixelsFull resolution (943 × 676 pixel, file size: 925 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A European Rabbit afflicted by Myxomatosis in Shropshire, England. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 573 pixelsFull resolution (943 × 676 pixel, file size: 925 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A European Rabbit afflicted by Myxomatosis in Shropshire, England. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Range map The European Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is a species of rabbit native to southern Europe. ... Shropshire (pronounced /, -/), alternatively known as Salop[6] or abbreviated Shrops[7], is a county in the West Midlands of England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rabbit (disambiguation). ... Myxomatosis (from the Greek μύξα (mucus), and ματώνω (to bleed)) is a disease which infects only rabbits. ... // Invention of the Jacquard loom in 1801. ... A European Rabbit in an Australian farm In Australia, rabbits are the most serious mammalian pests, an invasive species whose destruction of habitats is responsible for the extinction or major decline of many native animals such as the Western Quoll. ...

Contents

Effects of the disease

In rabbits of the genus Sylvilagus (cottontail rabbits), myxomatosis only causes localized skin tumors, but the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is more severely affected.[1] At first, normally the disease is visible by lumps (myxomata) and puffiness around the head and genitals. It then may progress to acute conjunctivitis and possibly blindness; however, this also may be the first indication of the disease. The rabbits become listless, lose appetite, and develop a fever. Secondary bacterial infections occur in most cases which cause pneumonia and purulent inflammation of the lumps. In typical cases where the rabbit has no resistance, death takes an average of 13 days.[citation needed] Type species Lepus sylvaticus Bachman, 1837 (=Lepus sylvaticus floridanus J. Allen, 1890) Species 16, see text The cottontail rabbits are the 16 lagomorph species in the genus Sylvilagus, found in the Americas. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Range map The European Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is a species of rabbit native to southern Europe. ...


Spread of the disease

After its discovery in 1896 in imported rabbits in Uruguay, a relatively harmless strain spread quickly throughout the wild population in South America. South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...


In Australia, the virus was first field-tested for population control in 1938. A full-scale release was performed in 1950. It was devastatingly effective, reducing the estimated rabbit population from 600 million to 100 million in two years. However, the rabbits remaining alive were those least affected by the disease. Genetic resistance to myxomatosis was observed soon after the first release and most rabbits acquired partial immunity in the first two decades. Resistance has been increasing slowly since the 1970s, and the disease now only kills about 50% of infected rabbits. In an attempt to increase that number, a second virus (rabbit calicivirus) was introduced into the rabbit population in 1996. Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The immune system of mammals is composed of a complex constellation of cells, organs and tissues, arranged in an elaborate and dynamic communications network and equipped to optimize the response against invasion by pathogenic organisms. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... Rabbit calicivirus (RCD) or Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease (RHD) is a disease which infects only rabbits. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ...


Myxomatosis was unintentionally introduced to France by the bacteriologist Dr. Paul Armand Delille, following his use of the virus to rid his private estate of rabbits in June 1952 (controversially, he inoculated two of the rabbits on his land). Within four months the virus had spread 50 km; Armand suspected this was due to poachers taking infected rabbits from his estate. By 1954, 90% of the wild rabbits in France were dead. The disease spread throughout Europe. It reached the UK in 1953, apparently without human action. Some in the UK deliberately spread the disease, placing sick rabbits in burrows, while many others deplored the cruelty and suffering. The government refused to legislate to make deliberate spread of the disease illegal. By 1955, about 95% of rabbits in the UK were dead. Rabbits suffering in the last stages of the disease, commonly called "mixy" or "myxie" rabbits, are still a common sight in the UK in 2007. Unfortunately, the disease affects more than the rabbits: the Spanish lynx among others is now almost extinct because the declining rabbit population, encompassing 90% of its diet, has caused mass starvation. It is not uncommon for shooters to specifically target infected rabbits, viewing the act as being merciful. Prof. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... January 7 - President Harry S. Truman announces the United States has developed a hydrogen bomb. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Myxomatosis is spread by fleas and mosquitos. Therefore, pet rabbits should be kept away from these pests. For other uses, see Flea (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mosquito (disambiguation). ...


Use of vaccine

A vaccine is available for pet rabbits, but is illegal in Australia because of fears that the immunity conferred by the vaccine could be transmitted through the wild rabbit population, because the vaccine uses a live virus, the Shope fibroma virus. A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to establish immunity to a disease. ...


Natural resistance

The development of resistance to the disease seems to have taken different courses. In Australia, the virus initially killed rabbits very quickly, about 4 days after infection. This gives little time for the infection to spread. As a result of this, a less virulent form of the virus has become prevalent there, spreading more effectively by being less lethal. In Europe, rabbits that are genetically resistant to the original virus have spread. It is conjectured that this is because the main transmission vector in Australia is the mosquito, while in Europe it is the rabbit flea. For other uses, see Mosquito (disambiguation). ...


Cultural references

  • "Myxomatosis" is the name of a poem by Philip Larkin from his 1955 anthology The Less Deceived.
  • Myxomatosis Failed is the title of folk/rock quartet ilyAIMY 2003 album. It was followed up in 2005 with Myxomatosis Took Its Toll. [1]
  • "Myxomatosis (Judge, Jury & Executioner.)" is the name of a song on the 2003 album Hail to the Thief, by Radiohead.
  • "Myxomatosis" is the name of a song on the 1983 album Strive to Survive Causing the Least Suffering Possible by the English anarcho-punk band Flux of Pink Indians.
  • "Myxomatosis" appears in the T.Rex lyrics for the song "Left Hand Luke": "Myxomatosis is an animal's disease, but I got so shook up mama that it ate away my knees, and I'm Left Hand Luke and the beggar boys, O yes we are."
  • "Myxomatosis" is a song my Radiohead
  • Ben Elton said of the novelty pop act Jive Bunny in The Man From Auntie "I have never seen a more coherent argument for myxomatosis."
  • The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy mentions myxomatosis in Chapter 24. It jokingly applies the disease to mice.
  • Originating on the Australian children's TV show The Ferals in 1994, there is a pink rabbit character named "Mixy". She also was in the spin off, Feral TV. Due to the popularity of the character, she was later given her own show, presenting children's shows on the Australian Broadcasting Corporation.
  • In the classic Richard Adams book Watership Down (featuring rabbit characters), myxomatosis is the disease the rabbits refer to as the "white blindness."
  • "Myxomatosis" is the name of a short poem by Spike Milligan
  • In the film, Meet The Feebles, it is implied that the rabbit in the film has contracted AIDS (due to his extreme promiscuity). In fact, the disease he is suspected to have is myxomatosis, although it is later revealed to be just "bunny pox".
  • Singer, actor and comedian Tim Minchin cited Donnie Darko as "an excellent example of why they developed myxomatosis" in a song for ABC's series counting down Australia's favourite films.
  • Performer Tim Minchin mentioned the disease in his song about Donnie Darko.
  • "Myxomatose" is a stabile (standing mobile) sculpture by Alexander Calder. Created in 1953 it is unknown why he named his sculpture after Myxomatosis.

Philip Arthur Larkin, CH, CBE, FRSL, (9 August 1922 – 2 December 1985) was an English poet, novelist and jazz critic. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... The subject of this article may not satisfy the notability guideline or one of the following guidelines for inclusion on Wikipedia: Biographies, Books, Companies, Fiction, Music, Neologisms, Numbers, Web content, or several proposals for new guidelines. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Hail to the Thief (subtitled The Gloaming) is the sixth studio album by English rock band Radiohead, released on 9 June 2003 in the United Kingdom and June 10, 2003 in the United States. ... Radiohead are an English rock band. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... Flux Of Pink Indians was a anarcho-punk/Post punk band that originated from Bishops Stortford, Hertfordshire, England. ... T.Rex (originally known as Tyrannosaurus Rex, also occasionally spelt T Rex or T-Rex), were an English rock band fronted by Marc Bolan. ... Radiohead are an English rock band. ... Benjamin Charles Elton (born 3 May 1959) is an English comedian, writer and director. ... Jive Bunny and the Mastermixers were a novelty pop act who were the third band to have their first three releases go to number one on the UK singles chart, a feat they achieved between July and December 1989. ... The cover of The Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy, from a late 1990s US printing. ... This article is about the animal. ... The Ferals was an Australian childrens comedy television series produced by the ABC. The show, which ran from 1994 to 1995, featured a mixture of real people and animal puppets known as the ferals. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... The Australian Broadcasting Corporation or ABC is Australias national non-profit public broadcaster. ... For other persons named Richard Adams, see Richard Adams (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Watership Down (disambiguation). ... Terence Alan Milligan KBE (16 April 1918–27 February 2002), known as Spike Milligan, was an Irish comedian, writer, musician, poet and playwright. ... Meet The Feebles (1989) is a black comedy film by director Peter Jackson. ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... Tim Minchin Tim Minchin (born 7 October 1975) is an Australian comedian, actor, composer, songwriter, pianist, musical director and self-proclaimed rock n roll megastar. Born in Western Australia, he attended the University of Western Australia before launching onto the world stage at the 2005 Edinburgh Fringe Festival, winning the... For the fictional character, see Donald Darko. ... The Australian Broadcasting Corporation or ABC is Australias national non-profit public broadcaster. ... Tim Minchin Tim Minchin (born 7 October 1975) is an Australian comedian, actor, composer, songwriter, pianist, musical director and self-proclaimed rock n roll megastar. Born in Western Australia, he attended the University of Western Australia before launching onto the world stage at the 2005 Edinburgh Fringe Festival, winning the... For the fictional character, see Donald Darko. ... For other persons named Alexander Calder, see Alexander Calder (disambiguation). ...

References

  1. ^ Carter, G.R.; Wise, D.J. (2006). Poxviridae. A Concise Review of Veterinary Virology. Retrieved on 2006-06-13.

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Society & Animals Journal of Human-Animal Studies, Volume 9, Number 2, 2001
  • An interview with Frank Fenner
  • Coalition against Myxomatosis - an organisation campaigning for legalization of vaccine in Australia.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Myxomatosis (223 words)
Myxomatosis is a disease which infects only rabbits.
Genetic resistance to myxomatosis was observed soon after the first release and most rabbits acquired partial immunity in the first two decades.
Myxomatosis is spread by fleas and mosquitos, so attempt to keep pet rabbits away from these pests.
Myxomatosis Essay (3636 words)
Myxomatosis is a highly lethal disease affecting rabbits, caused by the myxoma virus, a member of the large Poxvirus group about 280nm in length.
Myxomatosis is accompanied by a profuse ocular discharge as well as a discharge from the skin lesions, both of which are rich in virus.
After myxomatosis was released in Australia the wool clip reached a record figure in 1953 and it was estimated that a 24 million pound fraction of the gained revenue was due to the decreased rabbit population
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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