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Encyclopedia > Myoglobin
Myoglobin

Model of helical domains in myoglobin.
Gene code: HGNC symbol: MB[1]
Structure: molecular structure[2]
Recent publications: role in human pathologies,[3]
gene knockout[4]
protein type: Hemoprotein
Functions: oxygen storage/transport
Domains: globin[5]
Diseases: kidney disease, vasospasm
Taxa expressing: many metazoan phyla,
Archaea?[6]
protozoan/eubacterial?[7]
Cell types: muscle cells
Subcellular localization: cytoplasm
covalent modifications glycation?[8]
phosphorylation in whales?[9]
Other names: myoglobin-like proteins in microorganisms[10]
Molecular interactions oxygen,
heme,
carbon monoxide,
nitric oxide
related articles: X-ray crystallography,
Secondary structure
An X-ray diffraction image for the protein myoglobin.
An X-ray diffraction image for the protein myoglobin.

Myoglobin is a single-chain globular protein of 153 amino acids, containing a heme (iron-containing porphyrin) prosthetic group in the center around which the remaining apoprotein folds. With a molecular weight of 16,700 daltons, it is the primary oxygen-carrying pigment of muscle tissues.[11] Unlike the blood-borne hemoglobin, to which it is structurally related,[12] this protein does not exhibit cooperative binding of oxygen, since positive cooperativity is a property reserved for multimeric proteins. Instead, the binding of oxygen by myoglobin is unaffected by the oxygen pressure in the surrounding tissue. Myoglobin is often cited as having an "instant binding tenacity" to oxygen given its hyperbolic oxygen dissociation curve. In 1958, John Kendrew and associates successfully determined the structure of myoglobin by high-resolution X-ray crystallography.[13] For this discovery, John Kendrew shared the 1962 Nobel Prize in chemistry with Max Perutz.[14] Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Download high resolution version (695x702, 67 KB)Image created by uploader from PDB file: Source: Sperm whale (Physeter catodon) Authors: S.E.V. Phillips Reference: Structure and refinement of oxymyoglobin at 1. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... A hemoprotein (also haemoprotein), or heme protein, is a metalloprotein containing a heme prosthetic group, either covalently or noncovalently bound to the protein itself. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... This article is about the medical term. ... The kidneys are organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... Vasospasm refers to a condition in which blood vessels spasm, leading to constriction. ... A taxon (plural taxa), or taxonomic unit, is a grouping of organisms (named or unnamed). ... Phyla Subkingdom Parazoa Porifera (sponges) Subkingdom Agnotozoa Placozoa Orthonectida Rhombozoa Subkingdom Metazoa Radiata Cnidaria Ctenophora - Comb jellies Bilateria Protostomia Acoelomorpha Platyhelminthes - Flatworms Nemertina - Ribbon worms Gastrotricha Gnathostomulida - Jawed worms Micrognathozoa Rotifera - Rotifers Acanthocephala Priapulida Kinorhyncha Loricifera Entoprocta Nematoda - Roundworms Nematomorpha - Horsehair worms Cycliophora Mollusca - Mollusks Sipuncula - Peanut worms Annelida - Segmented... Phylum (plural: phyla) is a taxon used in the classification of animals, adopted from the Greek phylai the clan-based voting groups in Greek city-states. ... Phyla Crenarchaeota Euryarchaeota Korarchaeota Nanoarchaeota ARMAN The Archaea (), or archaebacteria, are a major group of microorganisms. ... There are about 210 distinct human cell types. ... A top-down view of skeletal muscle Muscle (from Latin musculus little mouse [1]) is contractile tissue of the body and is derived from the mesodermal layer of embryonic germ cells. ... It has been suggested that Cytoplast be merged into this article or section. ... Covalent bonding is a form of chemical bonding that is characterized by the sharing of pairs of electrons between atoms, or sometimes between atoms and other covalent bonds. ... A phosphorylated serine residue Phosphorylation is the addition of a phosphate (PO4) group to a protein or a small molecule or the introduction of a phosphate group into an organic molecule. ... 3D (left and center) and 2D (right) representations of the terpenoid molecule atisane. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... Structure of Heme b A heme or haem is a prosthetic group that consists of an iron atom contained in the center of a large heterocyclic organic ring called a porphyrin. ... Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. ... R-phrases , , , , S-phrases , , , Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... X-ray crystallography, also known as single-crystal X-ray diffraction, is the oldest and most common crystallographic method for determining the structure of molecules. ... A representation of the 3D structure of the Myoglobin protein. ... Image File history File links Summary From a US government website. ... Image File history File links Summary From a US government website. ... X-ray crystallography is a technique in crystallography in which the pattern produced by the diffraction of x-rays through the closely spaced lattice of atoms in a crystal is recorded and then analyzed to reveal the nature of that lattice. ... In biochemistry, the tertiary structure of a protein is its overall shape. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Phenylalanine is one of the standard amino acids. ... Structure of Heme b A heme or haem is a prosthetic group that consists of an iron atom contained in the center of a large heterocyclic organic ring called a porphyrin. ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... Structure of porphine, the simplest porphyrin. ... A prosthetic group is a non-protein (non-amino acid) component of a conjugated protein. ... An apoprotein is a protein without its characteristic prosthetic group. ... The unified atomic mass unit (u), or Dalton (Da), is a small unit of mass used to express atomic and molecular masses. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... Natural Ultramarine pigment in powdered form. ... A top-down view of skeletal muscle Muscle (from Latin musculus little mouse [1]) is contractile tissue of the body and is derived from the mesodermal layer of embryonic germ cells. ... Structure of hemoglobin. ... In biochemistry, a macromolecule has cooperative binding if when binding a ligand, the affinity of the ligand for the molecule changes depending on the amount of ligand already bound. ... Dissociation in chemistry and biochemistry is a general process in which complexes, molecules, or salts separate or split into smaller molecules, ions, or radicals, usually in a reversible manner. ... Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... X-ray crystallography, also known as single-crystal X-ray diffraction, is the oldest and most common crystallographic method for determining the structure of molecules. ... This is a list of Nobel Prize laureates in Chemistry from 1901 to 2006. ... Max Ferdinand Perutz, OM (May 19, 1914 – February 6, 2002) was an Austrian-British molecular biologist. ...


Meat color

Myoglobin forms pigments responsible for making meat red. The color that meat takes is partly determined by the charge of the iron atom in myoglobin and the oxygen attached to it. In its raw state, the iron atom has a charge of +2 and is bound to O2, an oxygen molecule. Meat cooked well done is brown because the iron atom has a charge of +3, having lost an electron, and is now bound to a water molecule (H2O). Under some conditions, meat can also remain pink all through cooking, despite being heated to high temperatures. If meat has been exposed to nitrites, it will remain pink because the iron atom is bound to NO, nitric oxide (true of, e.g., corned beef or cured hams). Grilled meats can also take on a pink "smoke ring" that comes from the iron binding a molecule of carbon monoxide.[15] Natural Ultramarine pigment in powdered form. ... Red meat in culinary terminology refers to meat which is red-colored when raw, while in nutritional terminology, it refers to meat from mammals. ... Temperature, or doneness, is a description of how thoroughly cooked a cut of meat is based on the color, juiciness and internal temperature when served. ... In inorganic chemistry nitrites are salts of nitrous acid HNO2. ... R-phrases , , , , S-phrases , , , Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Corned beef is a cut of beef (usually brisket, but sometimes round) cured or pickled in a seasoned brine. ... Ham with cloves Technically, ham is the thigh and rump of any animal that is slaughtered for meat, but the term is usually restricted to a cut of pork, the haunch of a pig or boar. ... Human blown smoke ring. ...


Role in disease

Myoglobin is released from damaged muscle tissue (rhabdomyolysis), which has very high concentrations of myoglobin. The released myoglobin is filtered by the kidneys but is toxic to the renal tubular epithelium and so may cause acute renal failure.[16] Rhabdomyolysis is the breakdown of skeletal muscle due to injury, either mechanical, physical or chemical. ... Kidneys viewed from behind with spine removed The kidneys are bean-shaped excretory organs in vertebrates. ...


Myoglobin is a sensitive marker for muscle injury, making it a potential marker for heart attack in patients with chest pain.[17] Its lack of specificity and the cost of the analysis has prevented its widespread use. Acute myocardial infarction (AMI or MI), more commonly known as a heart attack, is a disease state that occurs when the blood supply to a part of the heart is interrupted. ... In medicine, chest pain is a symptom of a number of conditions and is generally considered a medical emergency, unless the patient is a known angina pectoris sufferer and the symptoms are familiar (appearing at exertion and resolving at rest, known as stable angina). When the chest pain is not...


Structure and bonding

Myoglobin consists of a porphyrin ring with an iron center. There is a proximal histidine group attached directly to the iron center, and a distal histidine group on the opposite face, not bonded to the iron. Structure of porphine, the simplest porphyrin. ... Histidine is one of the 20 most common natural amino acids present in proteins. ...


Many functional models of myoglobin have been studied. One of the most important are that of picket fence porphyrin by James Collman. This model was used to show the importance of the distal prosthetic group. It serves three functions: A prosthetic group is a non-protein (non-amino acid) component of a conjugated protein. ...

  1. to form hydrogen bonds with the dioxygen moiety, increasing the O2 binding constant
  2. to prevent the binding of carbon monoxide, whether from within or without the body. Carbon monoxide binds to iron in an end-on fashion, and is hindered by the presence of the distal histidine, which forces it into a bent conformation. CO binds to heme 23,000 times better than O2, but only 200 times better in hemoglobin and myoglobin. Oxygen binds in a bent fashion, which can fit with the distal histidine.[18]
  3. to prevent irreversible dimerization of the oxymyoglobin with another deoxymyoglobin species

An example of a quadruple hydrogen bond between a self-assembled dimer complex reported by Meijer and coworkers. ... Dioxygen, O2, is the most common form of the element oxygen in normal conditions. ... Look up moiety in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. ... Histidine is one of the 20 most common natural amino acids present in proteins. ... Structure of hemoglobin. ... Sucrose, or common table sugar, is composed of glucose and fructose. ...

See also

Structure of hemoglobin. ... Neuroglobin is a member of the vertebrate globin family involved in cellular oxygen homeostasis. ... A hemoprotein (also haemoprotein), or heme protein, is a metalloprotein containing a heme prosthetic group, either covalently or noncovalently bound to the protein itself. ...

References

  1. ^ Symbol Report: MB. Retrieved on 2006-05-20.
  2. ^ Takano, T. "Structure of myoglobin refined at 2-0 A resolution. II. Structure of deoxymyoglobin from sperm whale". J. Mol. Biol. 110: 569-584. 
  3. ^ Reeder, BJ; Svistunenko DA, Cooper CE, Wilson MT (Dec 2004). "The radical and redox chemistry of myoglobin and hemoglobin: from in vitro studies to human pathology". Antioxid Redox Signal 6 (6): 954-66. PMID 15548893. 
  4. ^ Schlieper, G; Kim JH, Molojavyi A, Jacoby C, Laussmann T, Flogel U, Godecke A, Schrader J (Apr 2004). "Adaptation of the myoglobin knockout mouse to hypoxic stress". Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 286 (4): R786-92. PMID 14656764. 
  5. ^ globin, with user query added. NCBI. Retrieved on 2006-05-20.
  6. ^ ST1818 hypothetical myoglobin [Sulfolobus tokodaii str. 7 GeneID: 1459874 Locus tag: ST1818]. NCBI (03-Dec-2005). Retrieved on 2006-05-20.
  7. ^ glbN Probable hemoglobin glbN [Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv GeneID: 886402 Locus tag: Rv1542c]. NCBI (21-Mar-2006). Retrieved on 2006-05-20.
  8. ^ Roy, A; Sen S, Chakraborti AS (Feb 2004). "In vitro nonenzymatic glycation enhances the role of myoglobin as a source of oxidative stress". Free Radic Res. 38 (2): 139-46. PMID 15104207. 
  9. ^ Stewart, JM; Blakely JA, Karpowicz PA, Kalanxhi E, Thatcher BJ, Martin BM (Mar 2004). "Unusually weak oxygen binding, physical properties, partial sequence, autoxidation rate and a potential phosphorylation site of beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) myoglobin". Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 137 (3): 401-12. PMID 15050527. 
  10. ^ Wu, G; Wainwright LM, Poole RK (2003). "Microbial globins". Adv Microb Physiol 47: 255-310. PMID 14560666. 
  11. ^ George A. Ordway and Daniel J. Garry (2004). "Myoglobin: an essential hemoprotein in striated muscle". Journal of Experimental Biology 207: pages 3441–3446. doi:10.1242/jeb.01172. 
  12. ^ Harvey Lodish, Arnold Berk, Lawrence S. Zipursky, Paul Matsudaira, David Baltimore and James Darnell (2000). "Evolutionary tree showing the globin protein family members myoglobin and hemoglobin", Molecular Cell Biology, Fourth Edition, W. H. FREEMAN. ISBN 0-7167-3136-3. 
  13. ^ JC Kendrew, G Bodo, HM Dintzis, RG Parrish, H Wyckoff, and DC Phillips (1958). "A Three-Dimensional Model of the Myoglobin Molecule Obtained by X-Ray Analysis". Nature 181 (4610): pages 662-666. doi:10.1038/181662a0 PMID 13517261. 
  14. ^ The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1962
  15. ^ McGee, H: "On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen, page 148. Scribner: New York, 2004. ISBN 0-684-80001-2
  16. ^ Toshio Naka, Daryl Jones, Ian Baldwin, Nigel Fealy, Samantha Bates, Hermann Goehl, Stanislao Morgera, Hans H. Neumayer and Rinaldo Bellomo (2005). "Myoglobin clearance by super high-flux hemofiltration in a case of severe rhabdomyolysis: a case report". Critical Care 9: pages R90–R95. doi:10.1186/cc3034. 
  17. ^ M. Weber, M. Rau, K. Madlener, A. Elsaesser, D. Bankovic, V. Mitrovic and C. Hamm (2005). "Diagnostic utility of new immunoassays for the cardiac markers cTnI, myoglobin and CK-MB mass". Clinical Biochemistry 38: pages 1027–1030. Entrez PubMed 16125162. 
  18. ^ J. P. Collman, J. I. Brauman and K. M. Doxsee (1979). "Carbon Monoxide Binding to Iron Porphyrins". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 76 (12): 6035-6039. 

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The Entrez logo The Entrez Global Query Cross-Database Search System allows access to databases at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) website. ... The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, usually referred to as PNAS, is the official journal of the United States National Academy of Sciences. ...

Further reading

  • J. P. Collman, R. Boulatov, C. J. Sunderland and L. Fu (2004). "Functional Analogues of Cytochrome c Oxidase, Myoglobin, and Hemoglobin". Chem. Rev. 104 (2): 561-588. DOI:10.1021/cr0206059. 

Chemical Reviews (usually abbreviated as ), is a peer-reviewed scientific journal, published since 1900 by the American Chemical Society. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: Myoglobin - urine (571 words)
Urine myoglobin is a test to detect the presence of myoglobin in urine.
Myoglobin is a protein in heart and skeletal muscles.
Myoglobin has oxygen bound to it, thus providing an extra reserve of oxygen so that the muscle can maintain a high level of activity for a longer period of time.
Myoglobin Test: Encyclopedia of Medicine (659 words)
Myoglobin tests are done to evaluate a person who has symptoms of a heart attack (myocardial infarction) or other muscle damage.
Myoglobin is one of the first tests done to determine if a person with chest pain is having a heart attack, as it may be one of the first blood tests to become abnormal.
Myoglobin levels and levels of other cardiac markers are usually considered before finally confirming a diagnosis of heart attack.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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