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Encyclopedia > Mycotoxin

Mycotoxin (from Gk. μύκης (mykes, mukos) "fungus") is a toxin produced by an organism of the fungus family, which includes mushrooms, molds and yeasts. Most fungi are aerobic (use oxygen), are found almost everywhere in extremely small quantities because of their spores, and are most commonly microscopically small. They consume organic matter, wherever humidity and temperature are sufficient, indoors or out. Toxins are enzymes or proteins. The venom of the black widow spider is a potent latrotoxin. ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Glomeromycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota Deuteromycota For the fictional character, see Fungus the Bogeyman. ... Basidiocarps (mushrooms) of the fungus Leucocoprinus sp. ... Moldy cream cheese Molds (British English: moulds) are various fungi that cover surfaces as fluffy mycelium and usually produce masses of asexual, sometimes sexual spores. ... Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a yeast used in both baking and brewing. ... Look up Aerobic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The term spore has several different meanings in biology. ... A microscope (Greek: micron = small and scopos = aim) is an instrument for viewing objects that are too small to be seen by the naked or unaided eye. ... Organic may refer to: Look up organic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Humidity is the concentration of water vapor in the air. ... Fig. ...


Where conditions are right, fungi [[prolif'Bold text'Bold textInsertformulahere mkjkljljljlkjerate]], grow colonies, and mycotoxin levels become high. Toxins vary greatly in their severity. Some fungi produce severe toxins only at specific levels of moisture, temperature or oxygen in the air. Some toxins are lethal, some cause identifiable diseases or health problems, some weaken the immune system without producing symptoms specific to that toxin, some act as allergens or irritants, and some have no known effect on the human organism. Some mycotoxins cause death more among the farm animal population than in humans. Some mycotoxins hurt other micro-organisms such as other fungi or even bacteria. See penicillin. This article refers to a colony in politics and history. ... Penicillin nucleus Penicillin (sometimes abbreviated PCN) refers to a group of β-lactam antibiotics used in the treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible, usually Gram-positive, organisms. ...


Mycotoxins appear in the food chain as a result of fungal infection of the crop. If an infected crop is not eaten by humans, the mycotoxin is still dangerous to human health, because the crop may be given as animal feed to farm animals. Mycotoxins greatly resist decomposition or being broken down in digestion, so they remain in the food chain in meat and dairy products. Even temperature treatments, such as cooking and freezing, do not destroy mycotoxins. For example Fusarium ear diseases in cereals, or the infection of stored products. Ethanol (ethyl alcohol or grain alcohol) is produced when some yeasts (e.g. Saccharomyces cerevisiae) consume sugars under low oxygen levels. toes infection brown with white markings ... Agrarian redirects here. ... In agriculture, fodder or animal feed is any foodstuff that is used specifically to feed livestock, such as cattle, sheep, chickens and pigs. ... Fusarium is a genus of filamentous fungi widely distributed on plants and in the soil. ... Cereal crops are mostly grasses cultivated for their edible seeds (actually a fruit called a grain, technically a caryopsis). ... Ethanol, also known as ethyl alcohol or grain alcohol, is a flammable, colorless, slightly toxic chemical compound with a distinctive perfume-like odor, and is the alcohol found in alcoholic beverages. ... Binomial name Saccharomyces cerevisiae Meyen ex E.C. Hansen PPOOOOOOP is a species of budding yeast. ...


Buildings are another source of mycotoxins. Public concern over mycotoxins increased following multi-million dollar toxic mold settlements in the 1990s. The negative health effects of mycotoxins are a function of the concentration, the duration of exposure and the subject's sensitivities. The concentrations experienced in a normal home, office or school are often too low to trigger a health response in occupants. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Mold. ... In chemistry, concentration is the measure of how much of a given substance there is mixed with another substance. ...


Food-based mycotoxins have been studied extensively worldwide throughout the 20th century. In Europe, statutory levels of a range of mycotoxins permitted in food and animal feed are set by a range of European directives and Commission regulations. Europe at its furthest extent, reaching to the Urals. ... A statute is a formal, written law of a country or state, written and enacted by its legislative authority, perhaps to then be ratified by the highest executive in the government, and finally published. ... The legislative acts of the European Union (EU) can have different forms: regulations, directives, decisions, recommendations and opinions. ... The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive body of the European Union. ...

Contents

Major groups of food toxins

Aflatoxins are produced by Aspergillus species, and are largely associated with commodities produced in the tropics and sub-tropics, such as groundnuts, other edible nuts, figs, spices and maize. Aflatoxin B1, the most toxic, is a potent carcinogen and has been associated with liver cancer. Chemical structure of Aflatoxin B1 Aflatoxins are naturally occurring mycotoxins that are produced by many species of Aspergillus, a fungus, most notably Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. ... Species Aspergillus caesiellus Aspergillus candidus Aspergillus carneus Aspergillus clavatus Aspergillus deflectus Aspergillus flavus Aspergillus fumigatus Aspergillus glaucus Aspergillus nidulans Aspergillus niger Aspergillus ochraceus Aspergillus oryzae Aspergillus parasiticus Aspergillus penicilloides Aspergillus restrictus Aspergillus sojae Aspergillus sydowi Aspergillus terreus Aspergillus ustus Aspergillus versicolor Aspergillus is a genus of around 200 fungi (moulds... The word commodity has a different meaning in business than in Marxian political economy. ... The tropics are the geographic region of the Earth centered on the equator and limited in latitude by the two tropics: the Tropic of Cancer in the northern hemisphere and the Tropic of Capricorn in the southern hemisphere. ... This article is about peanut, the food. ... In general terms, eating is the process of consuming something edible. ... Hazelnuts from the Common Hazel Chestnut Carya ovata nut anatomy Walnuts A nut can be both a seed and a fruit. ... Species About 800, including: Ficus altissima Ficus americana Ficus aurea Ficus benghalensis - Indian Banyan Ficus benjamina - Weeping Fig Ficus broadwayi Ficus carica - Common Fig Ficus citrifolia Ficus drupacea Ficus elastica Ficus godeffroyi Ficus grenadensis Ficus hartii Ficus lyrata Ficus macbrideii Ficus microcarpa - Chinese Banyan Ficus nota Ficus obtusifolia Ficus palmata... External links Wikibooks Cookbook has more about this subject: Spice Food Bacteria-Spice Survey Shows Why Some Cultures Like It Hot Citat: ...Garlic, onion, allspice and oregano, for example, were found to be the best all-around bacteria killers (they kill everything). ... Corn redirects here. ... Toxic redirects here, but this is also the name of a song by Britney Spears; see Toxic (song) Look up toxic and toxicity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The term carcinogen refers to any form of substance, radionuclide or radiation which is an agent in the promotion or direct involvement in the facilitation of cancer or genomic instability due to the disruption or damage of cellular metabolic changes. ... Hepatic tumors are tumors or growths on or in the liver (medical terms pertaining to the liver often start in hepato- or hepatic from the Greek word for liver, hepar). ...


Ochratoxin A is produced by Penicillium verrucosum, which is generally associated with temperate climates, and Aspergillus species which grows in warm humid conditions. Aspergillus ochraceus is found as a contaminant of a wide range of commodities including cereals and their products, fruit and a wide range of beverages and spices. Aspergillus carbonarius is the other main species associated in warm humid conditions found mainly on vine fruit and dried vine products particularly in the Mediterranean basin. It causes kidney damage in humans and is a potential carcinogen. Ochratoxin A, B, and C are mycotoxins produced by some Aspergillus species and Penicilium species, like A. ochraceus or P. viridicatum, with ochratoxin A as the most prevalent and relevant fungal toxin of this group. ... In geography, temperate latitudes of the globe lie between the tropics and the polar circles. ... Humidity is the quantity of moisture in the air. ... The Lachine Canal, in Montreal, is badly polluted Pollution is the release of harmful environmental contaminants, or the substances so released. ... Cereal crops are mostly grasses cultivated for their edible seeds (actually a fruit called a grain, technically a caryopsis). ... The word drink is primarily a verb, meaning to ingest liquids, see Drinking. ... External links Wikibooks Cookbook has more about this subject: Spice Food Bacteria-Spice Survey Shows Why Some Cultures Like It Hot Citat: ...Garlic, onion, allspice and oregano, for example, were found to be the best all-around bacteria killers (they kill everything). ... Humidity is the quantity of moisture in the air. ... A curling tendril A vine is any plant of genus Vitis (the grape plants) or, by extension, any similar climbing or trailing plant. ... The kidneys are bean-shaped excretory organs in vertebrates. ... The term carcinogen refers to any form of substance, radionuclide or radiation which is an agent in the promotion or direct involvement in the facilitation of cancer or genomic instability due to the disruption or damage of cellular metabolic changes. ...


Patulin is associated with a range of fungal species and is found in moldy fruits, vegetables, cereals and other foods. It is destroyed by fermentation and so is not found in alcoholic drinks. It may be carcinogenic and is reported to damage the immune system and nervous systems in animals. Popular Japanese fashion magazine throughout the 1990s; the photography of which has recently been reissued in two collections from Phaidon press. ... Vegetables on a market Vegetable is a nutritional and culinary term denoting any part of a plant that is commonly consumed by humans as food, but is not regarded as a culinary fruit, nut, herb, spice, or grain. ... Yeast fermenting the wort at Makers Mark distillery, a step in the production of a distilled beverage. ... Bottles of cachaça, a Brazilian alcoholic beverage. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single human lymphocyte. ... The nervous system of an animal coordinates the activity of the muscles, monitors the organs, constructs and processes input from the senses, and initiates actions. ...


Fusarium toxins are produced by several species of the genus Fusarium which infect the grain of developing cereals such as wheat and maize. They include a range of mycotoxins including the fumonisins, which affect the nervous systems of horses and cause cancer in rodents, the trichothecenes, including deoxynivalenol, and zearalenone, the last two of which are very stable and can survive cooking. The trichothecenes are acutely toxic to humans, causing sickness and diarrhea and potentially death. Fusarium is a genus of filamentous fungi widely distributed on plants and in the soil. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 For the indie rock group see: Wheat (band). ... Corn redirects here. ... Fumonisins can refer to: Fumonisin B1 Fumonisin B2 Category: ... The nervous system of an animal coordinates the activity of the muscles, monitors the organs, constructs and processes input from the senses, and initiates actions. ... horse, see Horse (disambiguation). ... Families Many, see text The order Rodentia is the most numerous of all the branches on the mammal family tree. ... Chemical structure of Trichothecenes Trichothecenes are a group of sesquiterpenes produced by various Fusarium species like F. graminearum, F. sporotrichioides, F. poae or F. equiseti. ... Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin) is a type B trichothecene, an epoxy-sesquiter-penoid. ... Zearalenone, also known as RAL and F-2 mycotoxin, is a potent estrogenic metabolite produced by some Fusarium species. ... Cooking is the act of applying heat to food in order to prepare it to eat. ... Look up acute in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Stachybotrys and Penicillium Species Penicillium notatum Penicillium glaucum Penicillium candida Penicillium roqueforti Penicillium marneffei Penicillium bilaiae Penicillium, commonly known as bread mold, is a genus of fungus that includes: Penicillium notatum, which produces the penicillin antibiotic. ...


Mycotoxin binding agents/Mycotoxin Deactivators

In the feed and food industry it had become common practice to add mycotoxin binding agents. To reverse the adverse effects of mycotoxins, the following criteria are used to evaluate the functionality of any binding additive:

  1. Efficacy of active component verified by scientific data
  2. A low effective inclusion rate
  3. Stability over a wide pH range
  4. High capacity to adsorb high concentrations of mycotoxins
  5. High affinity to adsorb low concentrations of mycotoxins interactions between toxins
  6. Affirmation of chemical interaction between mycotoxin and adsorbent
  7. Proven in-vivo data with all major mycotoxins
  8. Non toxic, environmentaly friendly component

Since not all mycotoxins can be bound to such agents, the latest approach to mycotoxin control is mycotoxin deactivation. By means of enzymes (esterase, expoxidase), yeast (Trichosporon mycotoxinvorans) or bacterial strains (Eubacterium BBSH 797), mycotoxins are detoxified to non-toxic metabolites. An esterase is an hydrolase enzyme that splits esters into a acid and an alcohol in a chemical reaction with water called hydrolysis. ... Typical divisions Ascomycota Saccharomycotina (true yeasts) Taphrinomycotina Schizosaccharomycetes (fission yeasts) Basidiomycota Basidiomycotina (club fungi) Urediniomycetes Sporidiales Yeasts are unicellular, eukaryotic microorganisms classified in the kingdom Fungi. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ...


Mycotoxins killing pets

Since the 1990s it has been widely acknowledged that pet food can also contain mycotoxins [citation needed].


Mycotoxins in fiction

A fictional application of a mycotoxin occurs in William Gibson's seminal novel Neuromancer, in which Case, the anti-hero, is punished by some of his business partners for stealing from them by being administered a "Russian mycotoxin", which alters his nervous tissue and renders him unable to access cyberspace. William Ford Gibson (born March 17, 1948, Conway, South Carolina) is an American-born science fiction author resident in Canada since 1968. ... Neuromancer by William Gibson is the most famous early cyberpunk novel and won the so-called science-fiction triple crown (the Nebula Award, the Philip K. Dick Memorial Award, and the Hugo Award) after being published in 1984. ...


Control

  1. On farm management, rapid drying and good storage can effectively prevent mould growth in moisture.
  2. Rapid assay at sheller intake by TLC, immunoassay and HPLC.
  3. Sorting after shelling, discolored kernels (strains) usually contaminated.

In animal husbandry the use of mycotoxin deactivators and mycotoxin binders in feedstuffs has become common practice. Separation of black ink on a TLC plate. ... An immunoassay is a biochemical test that measures the level of a substance in a biological liquid, typically serum or urine, using the reaction of an antibody or antibodies to its antigen. ... Chromatography is a family of analytical chemistry techniques for the separation of mixtures. ...


External links

  • Mycotoxicoses in farmed animals
  • Detailed information on different mycotoxins
  • Microbiology of Animal Feeds
  • Results of a 5 year study on corn and mycotoxins
  • Mycological products for collectors and amateurs

  Results from FactBites:
 
Mycotoxin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (818 words)
Mycotoxins appear in the food chain as a result of fungal infection of the crop.
The negative health effects of mycotoxins are a function of the concentration, the duration of exposure and the subject's sensitivities.
They include a range of mycotoxins including the fumonisins, which affect the nervous systems of horses and cause cancer in rodents, the trichothecenes, including deoxynivalenol, and zearalenone, the last two of which are very stable and can survive cooking.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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