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Encyclopedia > Muzio Clementi

Muzio Clementi (January 24, 1752March 10, 1832) was a classical composer, and acknowledged as the first to write specifically for the piano. He is best known for his collection of piano studies, Gradus ad Parnassum. January 24 is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1752 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (70th in leap years). ... 1832 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of, European art, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ... A composer is a person who writes music. ... A grand piano, with the lid up. ... Gradus, or Gradus ad Parnassum (a step to Parnassus), is a Latin (or Greek) dictionary, in which the quantities of the vowels of the words are marked. ...

Contents

Life

Muzio Clementi
Muzio Clementi

Clementi was born in Rome in 1752, the first of seven children, to Nicolò Clementi, a highly respected silversmith and Roman by heritage, and Magdalena Kaiser, who was Swiss. His musical talent became clear at an early age: by age seven he was in musical instruction, and was such a good student that by age nine he gained a position as a church organist. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Nickname: The Eternal City Motto: SPQR: Senatus PopulusQue Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Mayor Walter Veltroni Area    - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi...


In 1766, Sir Peter Beckford (1740-1811), a wealthy Englishman and cousin of the eccentric William Beckford, took an interest in the boy's musical talent, and struck a deal with Nicolò to take Muzio to his estate of Steepleton Iwerne, just north of Blandford Forum in Dorset, England — where Beckford agreed to provide quarterly payments to sponsor Muzio's musical education. In return for this education, he was expected to provide musical entertainment at the estate. It was here that he spent the next seven years in devoted study and practice at the harpsichord. His compositions from this early period, however, are few, and they have almost all been lost. William Beckford (1709 – June 21, 1770) was a well-known political figure in 18th century London, and twice held the office of Lord Mayor of London. ... Map sources for Blandford Forum at grid reference ST881064 The town hall Blandford Forum, or Blandford is a town on the River Stour in Dorset, England. ... Dorset (pronounced DOR-sit or [dÉ”.sÉ™t], and sometimes in the past called Dorsetshire) is a county in the south-west of England, on the English Channel coast. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2006 est. ... Harpsichord in Flemish style; for more info, click the image. ...


In 1770, Clementi made his first public performance as a pianist. The audience was very impressed with his playing, beginning what at the time was one of the most successful concert pianist careers in history. In 1774, Clementi was freed from his obligations to Peter Beckford, and he moved to London, where among other accomplishments he made several public appearances as a solo harpsichordist at benefit concerts for a singer and a harpist, and served as "conductor" — from the keyboard — at the King's Theatre, Haymarket for at least part of this period. His popularity grew in 1779 and 1780, due at least in part to the popularity of his newly-published Opus 2 Sonatas. His fame and popularity rose quickly, and he was considered by many in musical circles to be the greatest piano virtuoso in the world. This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Instrumentalists who play the harpsichord are known as harpsichordists. ... A benefit concert is a concert featuring musicians, comedians, or other performers that is held for a charitable purpose, often directed at a specific and immediate humanitarian crisis. ... The Haymarket is a street in the St Jamess district of the City of Westminister in London, England. ... A virtuoso (from Italian virtuoso, late Latin virtuosus, Latin virtus meaning: skill, manliness, excellence) is an individual who possesses outstanding technical ability at singing or playing a musical instrument. ...


Clementi started a European tour in 1781, when he travelled to France, Germany, and Austria. In Vienna, Clementi agreed with Emperor Joseph II to enter a musical duel with Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart for the entertainment of the Emperor and his guests. Each performer was called upon to improvise and perform selections from his own compositions. The ability of both these composer-virtuosi was so great that the Emperor was forced to declare a tie. World map showing Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of the Earth. ... Inhabitants according to official census figures: 1800 to 2005 Vienna in 1858 Vienna (German: Wien ) is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ... Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II Joseph II (Joseph Benedict August Johannes Anton Michel Adam) (March 13, 1741 – February 20, 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790 and ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780 to 1790. ... Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (baptized as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart; January 27, 1756 – December 5, 1791) was a prolific and highly influential composer of Classical music. ...


On January 12, 1782, Mozart wrote to his father: "Clementi never played well, as far as execution with the right hand goes. His greatest strength lies in his passages in 3rds. Apart from that, he has not a kreuzer 's worth of taste or feeling — in short he is a mere mechanicus" (that is, Latin for automaton or robot). In a subsequent letter, he even went so far as to say "Clementi is a charlatan, like all Italians. He marks a piece presto but plays only allegro." Clementi's impressions of Mozart, by contrast, were all rather enthusiastically positive. But the main theme of Clementi's B-Flat Major sonata captured Mozart's imagination, and ten years later he used it in the overture to his opera Die Zauberflöte (The Magic Flute). This so embittered Clementi that every time this sonata was published, he made certain that it included a note explaining that it had been written ten years before Mozart began writing Zauberflöte. January 12 is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1782 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... In musical terminology, tempo (Italian for time) is the speed or pace of a given piece. ... Die Zauberflöte (en: The Magic Flute) is an opera in two acts composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart to a German libretto by Emanuel Schikaneder. ...


A likely reason that these later works were not published in Clementi's lifetime is that he kept revising and tinkering with them. Starting in 1782, and for the next twenty years Clementi stayed in England playing the piano, conducting, and teaching. Two of his students attained a fair amount of fame for themselves: Johann Baptist Cramer and John Field (who, in his turn, would become a major influence on Frédéric Chopin). Clementi also began manufacturing pianos, but in 1807 his factory was destroyed by a fire. That same year, Clementi struck a deal with Ludwig van Beethoven, one of his greatest admirers, that gave him full publishing rights to all of Beethoven's music. His stature in music history as an editor and interpreter of Beethoven's music is certainly not less than as being a composer himself (although also criticised for some less docile editorial work, e.g., making harmonic "corrections" to some of Beethoven's music). That Beethoven in his later life started to compose (mostly chamber music) specifically for the British market might have been related to the fact that his publisher was based there. In 1810, Clementi ceased his concerts to devote all of his time to composition and piano making. On January 24, 1813, in London, Clementi, who with a group of professional musicians, banded together to put matters right, founded the "Philharmonic Society of London" which became the Royal Philharmonic Society in 1912. In 1830 he moved to live outside Lichfield and then spent his final, less exciting years in Evesham, where he died at age eighty. He was buried at Westminster Abbey. He had been married three times. Johann Baptist Cramer (February 24, 1771, Mannheim - April 16, 1858, London), was an English musician of German extraction. ... John Field (July 26, 1782 – January 23, 1837) was an Irish composer and pianist. ... The only known photograph of Frédéric Chopin (commonly mistaken for a daguerreotype), believed to have been taken by Louis-Auguste Bisson in 1849. ... 1820 portrait by Joseph Karl Stieler Beethoven redirects here. ... Editing is the process of preparing language, images, or sound for presentation through correction, condensation, organization, and other modifications. ... For other uses, see Chamber music (disambiguation). ... January 24 is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1813 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Royal Philharmonic Society is a British music society, formed in 1813. ... The West Front of Lichfield Cathedral, June 2005 Lichfield (Welsh: Caerlwytgoed) is a small city and civil parish in Staffordshire, 110 miles northwest of London and 14 miles north of Birmingham. ... The Market Place in Evesham, circa 1904. ... The Abbeys western façade The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west...


Music

Clementi is best known for his collection of piano studies, Gradus ad Parnassum, to which Debussy's piece Doctor Gradus ad Parnassum (the first movement of his suite Children's Corner) makes playful allusion. Similarly his sonatinas would remain a must for piano students everywhere. Erik Satie, a contemporary of Debussy, would spoof these sonatinas (specifically the sonatina Op. 36 N° 1) in his Sonatine Bureaucratique. Achille-Claude Debussy (IPA ) (August 22, 1862 – March 25, 1918) was a French composer. ... Childrens Corner is a suite for solo piano by Claude Debussy, completed in 1908. ... Sonata (From Latin and Italian sonare, to sound), in music, literally means a piece played as opposed to cantata (Latin cantare, to sing), a piece sung. ... Selfportrait of Erik Satie. ... Sonatine Bureaucratique or Bureaucratic sonatina is a piano composition by Erik Satie, that spoofs the Sonatina Op. ...


Clementi composed almost 110 piano sonatas. Some of the earlier and easier ones were reissued as sonatinas after the success of his Sonatinas Op. 36, and continue to be popular practice pieces in piano education. His sonatas are rarely performed in public concerts, largely because they are seen as nonchallenging educational music. Some of Clementi's sonatas are more difficult to play than those of Mozart, who wrote in a letter to his sister that he would prefer her not to play Clementi's sonatas due to their jumped runs, and wide stretches and chords, that he thought might induce injury. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Sonata (From Latin and Italian sonare, to sound), in music, literally means a piece played as opposed to cantata (Latin cantare, to sing), a piece sung. ...


In addition to the piano solo repertoire, Clementi wrote a great deal of other music, including several recently pieced together, long worked on but slightly unfinished symphonies that are gradually becoming accepted by the musical establishment as being very fine works. While Clementi's music is hardly ever played in concerts, it is becoming increasingly popular in recordings.


Mozart's evident disrespect for Clementi (and perhaps Italians in general) has led some to call them "arch rivals." But the animosity was not as far as we know reciprocated by Clementi, and in any case Mozart's letters are full of irreverent jibes which he never expected to become public. Russian pianist Vladimir Horowitz developed a special fondness for Clementi's work after his wife, Wanda Toscanini bought him Clementi's complete works. Horowitz even compared some of them to the best works of Beethoven. The restoration of Clementi's image as an artist to be taken seriously is not least due to his efforts. Portrait of Vladimir Horowitz, captured from the documentary The Last Romantic. ... Wanda Giorgina Toscanini (December 7, 1907 – August 21, 1998) was the daughter of the famous Italian conductor Arturo Toscanini and the wife of Russian pianist Vladimir Horowitz, whom she married in 1933. ...


Clementi is a highly underrated figure in the music world. He is widely regarded by scholars as the creator of both the modern piano as an instrument, and the father of modern piano-playing.


Being a contemporary of the greatest classical piano composers such as Mozart and Beethoven cast a large shadow on his own work (making him one of the "lesser gods"), at least in concert practice, despite the fact that he had a central position in the history of piano music, and in the development of the sonata form. Sonata form is a musical form that has been used widely since the early Classical period. ...


Recordings

Further reading

  • Tyson, Alan (1967). Thematic catalogue of the works of Muzio Clementi. Tutzing: Schneider. OCLC 457741.  [1]

External links

  1. ^ K. D. (1968). "Review of Alan Tyson's Thematic Catalogue of the works of Muzio Clementi". Music & Letters 49 (3): 231-233. Retrieved on 2007-01-10.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Muzio Clementi - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1094 words)
Muzio Clementi (January 24, 1752 – March 10, 1832) was a classical composer, and acknowledged as the first to write specifically for the piano.
Clementi was born in Rome in 1752, the first of seven children, to Nicolò Clementi, a highly respected silversmith and Roman by heritage, and Magdalena Kaiser, who was Swiss.
Clementi's sonatas are often more difficult to play than those of Mozart, who wrote in a letter to his sister that he would prefer she not play Clementi's sonatas due to their jumped runs, wide fingerspacing, and chords that he thought would cause injury for her to try to play.
Muzio Clementi: Composer & Pianist (1752-1832) (2987 words)
Muzio Clementi is commonly called the father of modern piano playing, but it may be that this accolade should be properly shared between Clementi and C.P.E. Bach, a composer whose works Clementi studied with great care and whose works influenced Clementi's own style greatly.
Muzio Clementi was born in Rome, Italy, in 1752 as the eldest of the seven children of Nicolò Clementi, a successful silversmith, and Magdalena Kaiser.
Clementi was asked by the Emperor Josef II to enter a musical playing contest with Mozart on December 24, 1781, for the amusement of the Emperor's guests, the Grand Duke (later Tsar Paul I) and Duchess of Russia.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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