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Encyclopedia > Muzaffarids
History of Iran
Elamite Empire
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The Muzaffarids were a Sunni Arab family that came to power in Iran following the breakup of the Ilkhanate in the 14th century. The history of Iran covers thousands of years, from the kingdom of Elam to the modern Islamic Republic of Iran. ... An Elamite Man in Persepolis The ancient Elamite Empire (تمدن عیلام in Persian) lay to the east of Sumer and Akkad, in what is now southwestern Iran. ... This article incorporates text from the public domain 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica. ... Achaemenid empire in its greatest extent The Achaemenid Dynasty (Hakamanishiya in the Avestan language) was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius the Great and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly encompassing some... Seleucid empire in its greatest extent After the death of Alexander the Great in the afternoon of 11 June 323 BCE, his empire was divided by his generals, the so-called Diadochi. ... Parthian Empire at its greatest extent The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Parthia was the arch-enemy of the Roman Empire in the East and it limited... Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate... Tomb of Ghaboos ebne Voshmgir, built in 1007AD, rises 160 ft from its base. ... The Samanid dynasty (819-999) was a Persian dynasty in Central Asia, named after its founder Saman Khuda. ... The Buwayhids were a Shiite Muslim tribal confederation from the southern shore of the Caspian Sea. ... The Ghaznavid Empire was a state in the region of todays Afghanistan that existed from 963 to 1187. ... The Seljuk Turks (Turkish: Selçuk; Arabic: سلجوق Saljūq, السلاجقة al-Salājiqa; Persian: سلجوقيان Saljūqiyān; also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that occupied parts of Central Asia and the Middle East from the 11th to 14th centuries. ... The Khwarezmid Empire (also known as the Khwarezmian Empire) was a Muslim state formed by Oghuz Turks in the 11th century in Khwarezmia that lasted until the Mongol invasion in 1220. ... The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... Timurids Map The Timurids were a dynasty of Iran established by the Emir of Kesh (Shahrisabz), known to history as Timur (Tamerlane). ... The Safavids were a long-lasting Turkic-speaking Iranian dynasty that ruled from 1501 to 1736, established Shia Islam as Irans official religion and united its provinces under a single Iranian sovereignty, thereby reigniting a pre-Islamic Persian identity and acting as a bridge to modern Iran. ... Tomb of Nader Shah Afshar, a popular tourist attraction in Mashad. ... The Zand dynasty ruled southern and central Iran in the eighteenth century. ... The Qajar dynasty was the ruling family of Persia from 1796 to 1925. ... The Pahlavi dynasty was the ruling dynasty of Iran from 1925 to 1979, from which two Shahs were drawn. ... Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... The definition of who an Arab is has three main aspects: Political: whether they live in a country which is a member of the Arab League (or, more vaguely, the Arab world); this definition covers more than 300 million people. ... The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... (13th century - 14th century - 15th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 14th century was that century which lasted from 1301 to 1400. ...

Contents

Rise to Power

The Muzaffarids originated in Khorasan but fled to Yazd during the Mongol invasion. Serving under the Il-Khans, they gained prominence when Sharaf al-Din Muzaffar was made governor of Maibud, a town near Yazd. He was tasked with crushing the robber-bands that were roaming around the country. Khorasan (also spelled Khurasan and Khorassan; خراسان in Persian) is an area, located in eastern and northeastern Iran. ... Yazd or Yezd (In Persian: یزد), is one of the most ancient and historical cities of Iran. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ...


Sharaf al-Din's son, Mubariz ad-Din Muhammad, was brought up at the Il-Khan's court but returned to Maibud upon the death of the Il-Khan Öljeitü. After some time, he defeated the ruler of Yazd and gained control of the city. Following this, he came in conflict with the Neguderis, a Mongol tribal group. He managed to face this crisis with a minimum of loss, and ended up in possession of Kirman. Thereafter, he gained a prime opportunity for expansion against the Injuids, who controlled Shiraz and Isfahan. The expansionist dreams of Injuid leader Abu Ishaq regarding Kirman led him to start a conflict with the Muzaffarids in 1347. He unsuccessfully sieged Yazd (1350-1351). Thereafter, his fortunes declined rapidly and he was defeated on the field in 1353, forced to take refuge in Shiraz and finally surrender. He managed to escape from Shiraz and fled to Isfahan, but Mubariz al-Din pursued him, took the city and executed Abu Ishaq. Fars and western Iran were now under his control. Öljeitü was the brother son of Arghun and succesor of Ghazan on the throne of the Ilkhanate between 1304 and 1316. ... Geography Shirāz (شیراز in Persian) is a city in southwest Iran [Persia] with 1,050,000 inhabitants (1996 census). ... Part of Shah Abbas large urban project in his new capital, the Chahār Bāgh Four Gardens, is a four-kilometer avenue in the city of Isfahan. ... -1... Events Hayam Wuruk becomes ruler of the Majapahit Empire The Black Death ravages Europe (1347-1351) Births Manuel II Palaeologus, future Byzantine Emperor John Montacute, 3rd Earl of Salisbury (approximate date). ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Suko of Japan, third of the Northern Ashikaga Pretenders Start of the reign of Emperor Go-Kogon of Japan, fourth of the Northern Ashikaga Pretenders May 1 Zürich joins the Swiss Confederation. ... Events The Decameron was finished by Giovanni Boccaccio. ...


With Injuid power broken, the Muzaffarids were now a power in Iran, and Shiraz was made their capital. Mubariz al-Din pushed on into Azerbaijan, where the Golden Horde was having difficulties holding on to recent conquests. He defeated the Golden Horde governor Akhichuq and occupied Tabriz, but realized that he could not hold his position against the Jalayirid troops marching from Baghdad and soon retreated. The Jalayirids would therefore maintain a hold on Tabriz, despite further attempts by the Muzaffarids to take it. Mubariz al-Din was known as a cruel ruler, and soon afterwards 1358, his son Abu'l Fawaris Shah Shuja blinded and imprisoned him. A temporary reconciliation was reached, but it failed to last and he died, again in prison, in 1363. This article refers to the Mongol state in what is now Russia. ... Tabriz City Hall, built in 1895, by Arfaol molk, with the aid of German engineers. ... Events Births August 24 - King John I of Castile September 25 - Ashikaga Yoshimitsu, Ashikaga shogun Deaths 25 January - Isabella of France (wife of King Edward II of England) June 7 - Ashikaga Takauji, Ashikaga shogun August 16 - Duke Albert II of Austria Categories: 1358 ... Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Decades: 1310s 1320s 1330s 1340s 1350s - 1360s - 1370s 1380s 1390s 1400s 1410s Years: 1358 1359 1360 1361 1362 - 1363 - 1364 1365 1366 1367 1368 See also: 1363 state leaders Events Magnus II, King of Sweden, is deposed by Albert of Mecklenburg. ...


The Reign of Shah Shuja

Shah Shuja proved to be a less of a tyrannic figure, but he was constantly fighting with his brothers, causing a long period of instability. In 1363 he marched against his first brother Shah Mahmud of Isfahan, and a peace was brokered. However, the next year Shah Mahmud, with the support of his father-in-law Shaikh Uvais of the Jalayirids, invaded Fars and captured Shiraz. Shah Shuja would not be able to reconquer his capital until 1366. Shah Mahmud would continue to play and influential role in Iranian politics, using his marriage alliance to claim Tabriz from the Jalayirids after Shaikh Uvais died in 1374. He occupied the city but soon gave up after he was struck by illness. He died the next year, allowing Shah Shuja to occupy Isfahan. Events Births Anne of Bohemia, Queen consort of Richard II of England. ... Tabriz City Hall, built in 1895, by Arfaol molk, with the aid of German engineers. ... Events King Gongmin is assassinated and King U ascends to the Goryeo throne Births Thomas Holland, 1st Duke of Surrey. ...


Shah Shuja then marched on Tabriz himself, but was forced to turn back when internal conditions in Fars deteriorated. His second brother Shah Muzaffar's son, Shah Yahya, rose in revolt in Isfahan. Having to make peace with the Jalayirids, Shah Shuja offered to marry his son Zain Al-Abidin to a sister of the Jalayirid ruler Husain. The Jalayirids refused the offer and invaded, although Shah Shuja managed to prevent them from getting any further than Sultaniyya. Before dying in 1384, he named his son Zain al-Abidin his successor and his third brother 'Imad ad-Din Ahmad as governor of Kirman. Not satisfied with the arrangement, Shah Yahya advanced against Shiraz, but was expelled from Isfahan by the city's populace and was forced to flee to Yazd. On his deathbed, Shah Shuja wrote a letter to Timur, who was then campaigning in Azerbaijan, in which he gave his sons' loyalty to the conqueror. Events May / September 3 - Siege of Lisbon by the Castilian army, during the 1383-1385 Crisis Births Deaths December 31 - John Wyclif, theologian Categories: 1384 ... MIKESH PATEL IS GOD< AMEN ...


Muzaffarid Decline

When Zain Al-Abidin succeeded his father, he quickly ignored the declaration of loyalty. Timur therefore marched into the Muzaffarid lands. He came to Isfahan, where the governor gave him control of the city, but a rebellion in the city killed any goodwill Timur had, resulting in a slaughter of the populace. Zain Al-Abidin fled from Shiraz in an attempt to make it to the Jalayirids in Baghdad, who were enemies of Timur. However, he encountered Shah Yahya's brother Shah Mansur, who imprisoned him. Shiraz soon fell to Timur. Shah Mansur and 'Imad ad-Din Ahmad, along with other Muzaffarid princes, went to Shiraz to declare their loyalty, whereupon Timur restored them to their positions. The conqueror soon after returned to Transoxiana; Shiraz was given to Shah Yahya. Transoxiana (sometimes spelled Transoxania) is the largely obsolete name used for the portion of Central Asia corresponding approximately with modern-day Uzbekistan and southwest Kazakhstan. ...


Unfortunately, the Muzaffarids soon began to resume their local feuding. Shah Mansur began by expelling Shah Yahya from Shiraz, whereupon Shah Yahya again fled to Yazd. Shah Mansur then conquered Arbaquh, but failed to take Isfahan. Meanwhile, Zain al-Abidin escaped from prison and reached Isfahan. An alliance was then formed between Azin al-Abidin, Shah Yahya and 'Imad ad-Din Ahmad against Shah Mansur. The alliance proved to be unstable, however, and when they met Shah Mansur's army at Furg, Shah Yahya failed to show and 'Imad ad-Din Ahmad quickly retreated. The latter met Shah Mansur again, this time at Fasa, but lost and was captured in Ray. He was blinded and imprisoned. Shah Mansur then approached Kirman, where Sultan Ahmad and Shah Yahya had gone after the events at Furg. He offered a common alliance against Timur, but was rebuffed and thereafter returned to Shiraz. Ray, also spelled Rayy or Rages (ری in Persian) is the most historic city in the province of Tehran, Iran. ...


Timur, who while campaigning elsewhere took note of these events, decided in 1392 that a campaign against Shah Mansur was in order. Shah Mansur gained the Sarbadar Muluk as his ally; Muluk was sent to defend Kashan and the Muzaffarid northern front. By March 1393 Timur had advanced down to Shushtar and Dizful, installing a Sarbadar as governor there. He also freed 'Imad-Din Ahmad from imprisonment. Shah Mansur fled Shiraz, but then turned around and met Timur's forces. With an army weakened by desertions, he fought bravely but was forced to retreat. Attempting to reach Shiraz, he was captured by forces of prince Shah Rukh and was decapitated. The other Muzaffarid princes then again swore alliegence to Timur. They were received honorably by the conqueror, but on May 22 in Qumisha they were executed. Only Zain al-Abidin and Sultan Shibli (another son of Shah Shuja) survived the purge; they were sent to Samarkand. Events Korean founder of the Joseon Dynasty General Yi Seonggye leads a coup détat, overthrowing the kingdom of Goryeo and founding the kingdom of Joseon Afyonkarahisar in western Turkey is conquered by Sultan Beyazid I Louis de Valois is created the 1st Duke of Orléans, the second time... Tabatabaei House, early 1800s , Iran. ... Events Ottoman Turks occupy Veliko Turnovo in north-central Bulgaria. ... Shah Rukh ( Shah Rokh, Shahrokh ) is the name of many princes. ... May 22 is the 142nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (143rd in leap years). ... Samarkand (Samarqand or Самарқанд in Uzbek, in Persian سمرقند) (population 400,000) is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan, capital of the Samarkand region (Samarqand Wiloyati). ...


Muzaffarid Rulers

  • Mubariz ad-Din Muhammad ibn al-Muzaffar (1314-1358)
  • Abu'l Fawaris Djamal ad-Din Shah Shuja (Yazd, then Shiraz 1353) (1335-1364, 1366-1384) with...
  • Qutb Al-Din Shah Mahmud (at Isfahan) (1358-1366) d. 1375
  • Mujahid ad-Din Zain Al-Abidin 'Ali (1384-1387)
  • To the Timurid Empire...
    • 'Imad ad-Din Sultan Ahmad (at Kerman)........1387-1391 with...
    • Mubariz ad-Din Shah Yahya (at Shiraz)........1387-1391 and...
    • Sultan Abu Ishaq (in Sirajan)................1387-1391
    • Shah Mansur (at Isfahan).....................1391-1393

See also

The following is a comprehensive list of all Persian empires and their rulers: Elamite Empire, 2700 BCE-660 BCE The Elamites were a people located in Susa, in what is now Khuzestan province. ...

References

  • Peter Jackson (1986). The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume Six: The Timurid and Safavid Periods. ISBN 0521200946

  Results from FactBites:
 
14th Century (1300-1399) C.E. (2131 words)
In the Muzaffarids empire, On the disintegration of the II Khan rule Mubarazud Din Muhammad established the rule of the Muzaffarid dynasty.
In the Muzaffarids empire, Death of Mubarazuddin Muhammad; accession of Shah Shuja.
In the Muzaffarids empire, Death of the poet Hafiz Shirazi.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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