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Encyclopedia > Mutual Broadcasting System

The Mutual Broadcasting System (MBS) was an American radio network, in operation from 1934 to 1999. Image File history File links MutualBroadcasting. ... A radio network is a network system which distributes radio programming to multiple radio stations. ... 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ...


The ancestor of Mutual was the Quality Network, founded in 1929 with four radio stations: WLS in Chicago, WOR in New York City, WLW in Cincinnati, and WXYZ in Detroit. With WGN Chicago replacing WLS, these were the same stations as those that started Mutual. 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards and appeal to a wider international audience, this article may require cleanup. ... WLS is a pioneer Chicago radio station. ... Flag Seal Nickname: The Windy City Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location Location in Chicagoland and northern Illinois Coordinates , Government Country State Counties United States Illinois Cook, DuPage Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 606. ... WOR-AM is a class A (nighttime clear channel), AM radio station located in New York, New York, USA, operating on 710kHz. ... Flag Seal Nickname: Big Apple Location Location in the state of New York Government Counties (Boroughs) Bronx (The Bronx) New York (Manhattan) Queens (Queens) Kings (Brooklyn) Richmond (Staten Island) Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,214. ... WLW is a radio station located in Cincinnati, Ohio, run by Clear Channel Communications and is located at 700 AM. The station runs under the talk format and is the flagship station for Americas Trucking Network (formerly The Truckin Bozo), a popular nationwide, overnight program especially for truckers. ... Flag Seal Nickname: The Queen City Location Location in Hamilton County, Ohio Coordinates , Government Country State County United States Ohio Hamilton Founded Incorporated 1788 1819 Mayor Mark L. Mallory (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 206. ... It has been suggested that WXYZ-AM be merged into this article or section. ... Flag Seal Nickname: Motor City, Motown, D-Town, The D, The Renaissance City, Detroit Rock City Motto: Speramus Meliora; Resurget Cineribus (Latin for, We Hope For Better Things; It Shall Rise From the Ashes) Location Location in Wayne County, Michigan Coordinates , Government Country State County United States Michigan Wayne County... WGN-AM is a radio station on 720 kHz in Chicago, co-owned with WGN-TV. WGN-AMs transmitter is located in Elk Grove Village, Illinois. ...

Contents


Origins

The Mutual Broadcasting System began in 1934 as a cooperative venture between WOR New York, WGN Chicago, WLW Cincinnati, and WXYZ Detroit. The truly unique point about Mutual was that it was true to its name: it was a completely cooperative venture between the parent companies of the radio stations who produced and shared the programming on the network. A cooperative (also co-operative or co-op) is an association of persons who join together or co-operate, to carry on an economic activity of mutual benefit. ...


Mutual's original owners were the Bamberger Broadcasting Service (WOR New York), the Continental Broadcasting division of the Chicago Tribune (WGN Chicago), the Crosley Radio Company (WLW Cincinnati), and King-Trendle Broadcasting (WXYZ Detroit). Each held an equal percentage of the shares in The Mutual Broadcasting System, Inc. The Chicago Tribune, formerly self-styled as the Worlds Greatest Newspaper, remains one of the principal daily newspapers of the midwestern United States. ...


The idea of a radio programming service operated cooperatively where all of the affiliates shared in the costs of the network (phone line rental costs for transmission of the audio, programming and promotional costs for the network) had been proposed by several groups in the 1920s. WOR and WGN had attempted such an arrangement in 1929 with the Quality Network. The effort failed, however, and the original Quality Network stopped functioning by September of 1929. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Social issues of the 1920s. ...


Some writers consider The Quality Network to be the direct predecessor of Mutual, but the two were different companies with only partially similar ownership and should be considered as separate entities. The Quality Network ceased operations almost 5 years before Mutual was founded.


There was at least one other Quality Network during this period, the Texas Quality Network. No direct connection has been established between The Quality Network and the Texas Quality Network.


Heyday in the 1940s

By the 1940s Mutual had more stations than any other radio network, but usually trailed 3rd or 4th in number of listeners and in advertising revenue. The network had over 500 affiliated stations in the United States [1]. The most popular Mutual shows were The Lone Ranger, Lum and Abner, The Green Hornet, and The Shadow. // Events and trends World War II was a truly global conflict with many facets: immense human suffering, fierce indoctrination, and the use of new, extremely devastating weapons such as the atomic bomb. ... The Lone Ranger. ... Lum and Abner was an American radio comedy which was on the air as a first-run network program from 1932 to 1954. ... The Green Hornet (above) and Kato (below). ... Who knows what evil lurks?—The Shadow, as seen on the cover of the July 15, 1939 issue of The Shadow Magazine. ...


The network also provided an early national outlet for iconoclastic and influential satirist Henry Morgan as well as conservative news commentator Fulton Lewis, Jr.. It afforded radio dramatist Wyllis Cooper an outlet when he brought the well-respected if short-lived suspense anthology, Quiet, Please to Mutual later in the 1940s. And, it aired actor Alan Ladd's short-lived but well-enough regarded crime drama about a disillusioned newspaper reporter finding an outlet for adventure writing turned to crime solving, Box 13, which Ladd's own production company produced. Henry Morgan (March 31, 1915 - May 19, 1994), born in New York City, was a comedian best remembered for having been a regular panelist on the CBS game show Ive Got a Secret. ... Wyllis Oswald Cooper (1899 - 1955) was a writer and director. ... Quiet, Please! was an old-time radio fantasy and horror program created by Wyllis Cooper, also known for creating Lights Out. ... Alan Walbridge Ladd (September 3, 1913 - January 29, 1964) was an American film actor. ... Box 13 was a syndicated radio series starring Alan Ladd as mystery novelist Dan Holiday. ...


Mutual's newscasts were well regarded. In the 1930s Mutual rebroadcast English-language news reports from the BBC in addition to other nations including Germany and Czechoslovakia. News is new information or current events. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC, sometimes also known as the Beeb or Auntie) is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world, founded in 1922. ...


By the 1940s King-Trendle (WXYZ) and WGN Continental Broadcasting had sold their shares in Mutual. Added to the mix were Thomas S. Lee Enterprises d/b/a The Don Lee Broadcasting System on the West Coast (where the network was known as "The Mutual/Don Lee Broadcasting System" on the air) and its network of owned and affiliated stations holding a 25% share in Mutual; and another 25% held by The Yankee Network division of the General Tire and Rubber Company and owning several stations in New England (including WNAC Boston). WOR served as the corporate headquarters and East Coast network operations center for Mutual at its studios at 1440 Broadway in New York City, and Don Lee's Los Angeles station KHJ served as the West Coast network center for programming coming out of Hollywood. // Events and trends World War II was a truly global conflict with many facets: immense human suffering, fierce indoctrination, and the use of new, extremely devastating weapons such as the atomic bomb. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... The General Tire and Rubber Company was founded in 1915 in Akron, Ohio by William ONeill. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... WRKO is an AM radio station based in Boston, Massachusetts, currently owned by Entercom and broadcasting on 680 kHz. ... Boston is a town and small port c. ... A view of Broadway in 1909 Broadway, as the name implies, is a wide avenue in New York City, and is the oldest north-south main thoroughfare in the city, dating to the first New Amsterdam settlement. ... Flag Seal Nickname: Big Apple Location Location in the state of New York Government Counties (Boroughs) Bronx (The Bronx) New York (Manhattan) Queens (Queens) Kings (Brooklyn) Richmond (Staten Island) Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,214. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... KHJ Radio in Los Angeles, California was one of Americas most formidable Top 40 radio stations in the 1960s and 1970s as 93 KHJ. KHJ went on the air in 1922 with a frequency of 930 kHz. ... ...


The 1950s and the rise of television

As television began its rise there was a short flirtation with the stations owning Mutual to start a Mutual Television network. Bamberger Broadcasting's WOR-TV New York (now WWOR) and WOIC-TV (now WUSA-TV) both had letterhead printed with "Mutual Television" as one of the subheadings, but there is no evidence that a cooperative television service was actually initiated, and thus Mutual became the only one of the former "Big Four" U.S. radio networks not to start, and eventually to be dominated and overshadowed by, a television network. WWOR-TV, channel nine, is currently the New York City affiliate station of the UPN television network. ... WUSA, W*USA 9 is the Washington, D.C. affiliate of the CBS television network. ...


In 1950 the R.H. Macy Company (operator of the Macy's Department Stores), which had purchased the L. Bamberger & Company department stores and Bamberger Broadcasting in 1929, decided it did not wish to own a broadcasting division and sold WOR, its share in Mutual, WOR-FM and the licenses for WOR-TV and WOIC-TV (Washington, DC) to Thomas S. Lee Enterprises d/b/a The Don Lee Broadcasting System. The name of the merged company was changed to General Teleradio, Inc. 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Macys is a mid-range chain of American department stores with its flagship store in Herald Square, New York City, which has been billed as the worlds largest store since completion of the Seventh Avenue addition in 1924. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United...


However, since Thomas S. Lee (the son of the original Don Lee who had died in 1936) died in 1948, the executors of Mr. Lee's estate finally decided to liquidate its interest in the broadcasting company and sold most of the stations, the West Coast radio network, the 50% share of Mutual (25% from Don Lee, 25% from Bamberger Broadcasting) and the Hollywood programming production center to General Tire and Rubber Company in 1951. The appropriately-named (by coincidence) General Teleradio, Inc. became a wholly-owned subsidiary of General Tire, and became the new name of General Tire's broadcasting division. 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... An executor is a person named by a maker of a will to carry out the directions of the will. ... 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ...


Since General Tire already owned 25% of Mutual through The Yankee Network division, Mutual essentially became a subsidiary of General Tire's broadcasting division, General Teleradio, when Yankee was merged into General Teleradio. This is the point where the "mutual" concept of Mutual Broadcasting ceased to exist. Since it was now majority-owned by one company, the network was restructured into a traditional radio network: the company would own and produce the programs while paying all distribution costs and the affiliated stations would pay for programming. The primary network operations center would remain at WOR in New York until Mutual was sold.


General Teleradio was renamed RKO General in 1958 after the acquisition of RKO Radio Pictures from Howard Hughes in 1955. General Tire sold the film studio production facilities to Desilu Productions for $6 million in 1956. 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The classic logo of RKO Radio Pictures. ... For other people named Howard Hughes, see Howard Hughes (disambiguation). ... 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Film refers to the celluloid media on which movies are printed. ... Desilu Productions was a company jointly owned by American actors Lucille Ball and Desi Arnaz. ... 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


For reasons that are not clear, General Tire decided to sell Mutual. This would not end General's radio networking business, since The Yankee Network continued to broadcast until 1967, but apparently Mutual did not fit into their plans for General Teleradio. Mutual was sold to Dr. Armand Hammer, then to Hal Roach Studios. During this time Alexander Guterma became the president of Mutual. He was involved in a deal with the Dominican Republic in which he promised the network would broadcast favorable propaganda for that country. (It was never proven the network actually did so.) Guterma was indicted and the network was floundering. It was quickly sold to John McCarthy, a Florida businessman. He put it through bankruptcy. Mutual commentator Robert F. Hurley became the president and finally found a buyer, the 3M Company, which purchased it in about 1960. About 1963 the network was sold to a privately held company headed by John P. Fraim. Amway bought the network on September 30, 1977. 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ... Dr. Armand Hammer Armand Hammer (May 21, 1898 – December 10, 1990) was an enigmatic Jewish-American industrialist and art collector. ... Harold Eugene Roach, Sr. ... U.S. propaganda poster from WWII depicting a Nazi stabbing a Bible. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,794 sq mi (170,451 km²)  - Width 162 miles (260 km)  - Length 497 miles (800 km)  - % water 17. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... This article is about the American company, for the Russian company involved in a pyramid scheme, see MMM (pyramid) 3M Company (NYSE: MMM) (originally Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company) is an American corporation with a worldwide presence that produces over 55,000 products, including adhesives, abrasives, laminates, electronic circuits and... 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1960 calendar). ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ... Amway is a multi-level marketing company founded in 1959 by Jay Van Andel and Rich DeVos. ... September 30 is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 92 days remaining. ... For the album by Ash, see 1977 (album). ...


Amway would attempt to run Mutual more like a traditional radio network, even going so far as purchasing WCFL-AM 1000 Chicago in 1979 from the Chicago Federation of Labor to serve as Mutual's flagship station, then adding WHN in New York as a second network-owned station the following year. The effort did not pan out because of changes during the 1980s in radio program production, distribution, and ownership. This page refers to the year 1979. ... The 1980s decade refers to the years from 1980 to 1989, inclusive, informally sometimes including the years 1979, 1990 and 1991. ...


Mutual did mark several achievements in its post-cooperative era. They appear to have pioneered the national call-in show format when they picked up Herb Jepko's KSL/Salt Lake City-based overnight program for the network in the 1960s; "Long John" Nebel's national tenure followed, then Larry King's. They were the first radio network to program specifically to a minority group with the Mutual Black Network in 1968; they were the first commercial radio network to convert completely to satellite transmission starting in 1979 (except for syndicated programming such as The Dick Clark National Music Survey, which continued to be distributed on vinyl records into the early-1990s); and the first commercial network to transmit regular stereo high-fidelity broadcasts, such as the National Symphony Orchestra concerts in 1982. Herb Jepko ( ? - March 31, 1995) was an influential radio talk show host from 1964 to 1990. ... KSL may mean: radio station KSL AM in Salt Lake City, Utah, USA TV station KSL-TV in Salt Lake City Kate Sharpley Library Knowledge Systems Laboratory This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise... Long John Nebel (1911-1978) (born John Zimmerman in Chicago, he adopted his radio name, Long John Nebel from the surname of his stepmother, Knebel) was a talk radio show host. ... Larry King hosts a nightly television program on CNN. Larry King, (born Lawrence Harvey Zeiger on November 19, 1933) is an award-winning American broadcaster. ... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1968 calendar). ... Dick Clark redirects here. ... The National Symphony Orchestra in Washington DC is a major symphony orchestra that performs at the Kennedy Center. ... 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The end of Mutual

Mutual was purchased by Westwood One in 1985 and continued to operate Mutual as a separate network program service into the 1990s. However, beginning with Westwood One's acquisition first by Infinity Radio in 1994 and then Infinity Radio's merger with CBS soon afterwards, Mutual ended up simply being a brand name for programming provided by Westwood One. The top-of-the-hour newscasts were written and read by CBS Radio Network news reporters and anchors in Mutual's final years. Westwood One discontinued using the Mutual name in favor of CNN radio in 1999 and the Mutual name passed permanently from use on the air. At the same time the Mutual Broadcasting System network operations center in the Crystal City section of Arlington, Virginia was disassembled, and its primary line operations now go through the CBS Broadcast Center in New York City. Westwood One, Inc. ... This article is about the year. ... See also 1990s, the band The 1990s decade refers to the years from 1990 to 1999, inclusive, sometimes informally including popular culture from 2000 and 2001. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal. // Events January Bill Clinton January 1 : North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) goes into effect. ... CBS (formerly an acronym for Columbia Broadcasting System, the former legal name of the network) is one of the largest television networks, and formerly one of the largest radio networks, in the United States. ... The CBS Radio Network provides news, sports and other programming to more than 1,000 radio stations throughout the United States. ... The Cable News Network, usually referred to as CNN, is a cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... Arlington County is a county located in the U.S. state of Virginia (which calls itself a commonwealth), directly across the Potomac River from Washington, DC. By an act of Congress July 9, 1846, the area south of the Potomac was returned to Virginia effective in 1847 As of 2000... Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  Ranked 35th  - Total 42,793 sq mi (110,862 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 7. ... CBS (formerly an acronym for Columbia Broadcasting System, the former legal name of the network) is one of the largest television networks, and formerly one of the largest radio networks, in the United States. ...


Radio shows

The following are some of the most popular and more influential radio programs from the Mutual network's heyday:

Family Theater was an old-time radio show which aired on the Mutual Broadcasting System from February 13, 1947 to September 11, 1957. ... Lum and Abner was an American radio comedy which was on the air as a first-run network program from 1932 to 1954. ... The Green Hornet (above) and Kato (below). ... The Lone Ranger. ... The New Adventures of Sherlock Holmes was an old-time radio show which aired from October 2, 1939 to July 7, 1947. ... Quiet, Please! was an old-time radio fantasy and horror program created by Wyllis Cooper, also known for creating Lights Out. ... Who knows what evil lurks?—The Shadow, as seen on the cover of the July 15, 1939 issue of The Shadow Magazine. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Mutual Broadcasting System - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1195 words)
The truly unique point about Mutual was that it was true to its name: it was a completely cooperative venture between the parent companies of the radio stations who produced and shared the programming on the network.
Mutual was purchased by Westwood One in 1985 and continued to operate Mutual as a separate network program service into the 1990s.
At the same time the Mutual Broadcasting System network operations center in the Crystal City section of Arlington, Virginia was disassembled, and its primary line operations now go through the CBS Broadcast Center in New York City.
Mutual - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (626 words)
Mutual describes a form of business enterprise which is owned by those who do business with it.
Eventually, it was agreed that federal taxation would be based on their share of business: for instance, in years in which mutual companies represented half of the business, they would be responsible for half of the taxes paid by the industry.
It is noted that other formerly mutual companies such as Washington Mutual, a former savings and loan association, have been allowed to demutualize and yet retain their names.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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