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Encyclopedia > Mutation theory

Mutationism refers to the concept briefly held by some in the early 20th century — but now discredited — that mutations are the main mechanism of evolution. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... This article is about mutation in biology, for other meanings see: mutation (disambiguation). ... Charles Darwin, the father of evolutionary theory Although generally, evolution is taken to mean any process of change over time, in the context of life science, evolution is a change in the traits of living organisms over generations, including the emergence of new species. ...


Overview

The concept of mutationism was first proposed by the pioneer Hugo de Vries in 1900. It was particularly associated with Mendelism, which was opposed by by the biometricians led by Karl Pearson who held that natural selection was the primary cause of evolution and that large inherited characters of Mendelian genetics could not occur. Hugo Marie de Vries (16th February 1848-21st May 1935) was a Dutch biologist who in 1901 rediscovered the work of Gregor Mendel External links http://www. ... 1900 is a common year starting on Monday. ... Mendelian inheritance (or Mendelian genetics or Mendelism) is a set of primary tenets that underlie much of genetics developed by Gregor Mendel in the latter part of the 19th century. ... Karl Pearson (March 27, 1857 – April 27, 1936) was a major contributor to the early development of statistics as a serious scientific discipline in its own right. ... Mendelian inheritance (or Mendelian genetics or Mendelism) is a set of primary tenets that underlie much of genetics developed by Gregor Mendel in the latter part of the 19th century. ...


The 1920s and 1930s in the modern evolutionary synthesis, population geneticists showed that continuous variation could be caused by Mendelian inheritance and that selection could act on such characters. It was also demonstrated that levels of mutation necessary to cause significant evolution were not present in the environment and would cause sterility; e.g., in fruit flies. Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century Decades: 1870s 1880s 1890s 1900s 1910s - 1920s - 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s Years: 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 Referred to as the Roaring 20s. ... Events and trends Technology Jet engine invented Science Nuclear fission discovered by Otto Hahn, Lise Meitner and Fritz Strassmann Pluto, the ninth planet from the Sun, is discovered by Clyde Tombaugh British biologist Arthur Tansley coins term ecosystem War, peace and politics Socialists proclaim The death of Capitalism Rise to... The modern evolutionary synthesis (often referred to simply as the modern synthesis), neo-Darwinian synthesis or neo-Darwinism, brings together Charles Darwins theory of the evolution of species by natural selection with Gregor Mendels theory of genetics as the basis for biological inheritance. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Sterility is the quality or state of being unable to reproduce. ... Species Drosophila melanogaster Drosophila subobscura Drosophila is a genus of small flies whose members are often called fruit flies or more appropriately vinegar flies, wine flies, pomace flies, grape flies, and picked fruit-flies. ...


Mutations however are the initial source of genetic variation, but selection and/or genetic drift must increase their frequency in a population. Mutation-selection balance acts to keep deleterious alleles out of a population. The gene pool of a species or a population is the complete set of unique alleles that would be found by inspecting the genetic material of every living member of that species or population. ... Genetic drift is a mechanism of evolution that acts in concert with natural selection to change the characteristics of species over time. ...


With regard to probability, mutations are (effectively) stochastic, contrasting with natural selection a "mechanism for generating an exceedingly high degree of improbability"; i.e., non-randomness, necessary to prevent the system from falling into dissaray. The word probability derives from the Latin probare (to prove, or to test). ... Stochastic, from the Greek stochos or goal, means of, relating to, or characterized by conjecture; conjectural; random. ... Alternative meaning Natural Selection (computer game). ...


The concept of mutationism has been used by some creationists to create a straw man (or perhaps misunderstanding) of evolutionary theory, to say that the theory predicts that evolution happens only or primarily through mutations. Creationism is generally the belief that the universe was created by a deity, or alternatively by one or more powerful and intelligent beings. ... A straw man or man of straw is a dummy in the shape of a human created by stuffing straw into clothes. ...


External links

  • http://books.nap.edu/books/0309058775/html/2.html

  Results from FactBites:
 
Synthetic Theory of Evolution: Mutation (430 words)
In order for a mutation to be inherited, it must occur in the genetic material of a sex cell.
However, some mutations are extremely serious and can result in death before birth, when an individual is still in the embryonic or early fetal stages of development.
Even when mutations produce recessive alleles that are seldom expressed in phenotypes, they become part of a vast reservoir of hidden variability that can show up in future generations.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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