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Mut
in hieroglyphs

Mut was an ancient Egyptian mother goddess with multiple aspects that changed over the thousands of years of the culture. The rulers of Egypt supported her worship in their own way to emphasize their own authority and right to rule through a association with Mut. It has been suggested that Hieroglyph (French Wiki article) be merged into this article or section. ... Mut may mean: Mixed-breed dog Mut (mother) in Egyptian mythology. ... Khafres Pyramid (4th dynasty) and Great Sphinx of Giza (c. ... A Cucuteni culture statuette, 4th millennium BC. A mother goddess is a goddess, often portrayed as the Earth Mother, who serves as a general fertility deity, the bountiful embodiment of the earth. ...

Contents

Changes of mythological position

Schist statuette of Mut. Late Period, Dynasty XXVI, c. 664-525.
Schist statuette of Mut. Late Period, Dynasty XXVI, c. 664-525.

Mut (also spelled Mout), meaning mother, was originally a title of the primordial waters of the cosmos, Naunet, in the Ogdoad cosmogony. However, the distinction between motherhood and cosmic water later diversified and lead to the separation of these identities, and Mut gained aspects of a creator goddess, since she was the mother from which the cosmos emerged. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 209 × 597 pixelsFull resolution (540 × 1543 pixel, file size: 479 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 209 × 597 pixelsFull resolution (540 × 1543 pixel, file size: 479 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... ôľĎÚ The Late Period of Egypt refers to the last flowering of native Egyptian rulers after the Third Intermediate Period, and before the Persian conquests. ... The Saite or Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt was the last native dynasty to rule Egypt before the Persian conquest (although others followed), and had its capital at Sais. ... In Egyptian mythology, Naunet (or Nunet) is the goddess of the primordial, watery abyss of the underworld and one of the Ogdoad. ... In Egyptian mythology, the Ogdoad are the eight deities worshipped in Hermopolis. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ...


The hieroglyph for Mut's name, and for mother itself, was that of a white vulture, which the Egyptians believed were very maternal creatures. Indeed, since Egyptian white vultures have no significant differing markings between female and male of the species, bring without sexual dimorphism, the Egyptians believed there were all females, and so they did not reproduce, but were conceived by the wind herself. Consequently, they held that Mut had no parents, but was created from nothing, and that she could not have children, and so adopted one instead. Orders Falconiformes (Fam. ... Female (left) and male Common Pheasant, illustrating the dramatic difference in both color and size, between the sexes Sexual dimorphism is the systematic difference in form between individuals of different sex in the same species. ... The term conception can refer to more than one meaning: Concept Fertilisation This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Making up a complete triad of deities for the later pantheon of Thebes, it was said that Mut had adopted Menthu, god of war. This choice of completion for the triad should have proved popular, but because the isheru, the sacred lake outside Mut's temple in Karnak at Thebes, was the shape of a crescent moon, Chons, the moon god eventually replaced Menthu as Mut's adopted son. In Egyptian mythology, Menthu was a hawk-god, of war. ... Map of Karnak, showing major temple complexes Interior of Temple First pylon of precinct of Amun viewed from the west Al-Karnak (Arabic الكرنك, in Ancient Egypt was named Ipet Sut, the most venerated place) is a small village in Egypt, located on the banks of the River Nile some 2. ... This article is about Earths moon. ... Chons In Egyptian mythology, Chons (alternately Khensu, Khons, Khonsu or Khonshu) is an ancient lunar deity, from before formal structure was given to a pantheon. ...


Lower and upper Egypt both already had a patron deities–Wadjet and Nekhbet–respectively, indeed they also had lioness protector deities–Bast and Sekhmet–respectively. When Thebes rose to greater prominence, Mut absorbed these warrior goddesses as some of her aspects. First, Mut became Mut-Wadjet-Bast, then Mut-Sekhmet-Bast (Wadjet having merged into Bast), then Mut also assimilated Menhit, who was also a lioness goddess, and her adopted son's wife, becoming Mut-Sekhmet-Bast-Menhit, and finally becoming Mut-Nekhbet. Map of Lower and Upper Egypt Lower Egypt is the northern-most section of Egypt. ... Map of Upper and Lower Egypt Ancient Egypt was divided into two kingdoms, known as Upper and Lower Egypt. ... In Egyptian mythology, Buto (papyrus colored--referring to the color of the cobra) was a snake (especially cobra) goddess and patron of the oracle in the city of the same name. ... In Egyptian mythology, Nekhbet (of Nekheb) was an early, predynastic, local vulture-goddess, patron of the city of Nekheb. ... In Egyptian mythology, Bast (also spelt Ubasti, and Pasht) is an ancient goddess, worshipped at least since the Second Dynasty, for whom the centre of her cult was in Per-Bast (Bubastis in greek), which was named after her. ... For other uses, see Sekhmet (disambiguation). ... In Egyptian mythology, Menhit (she who massacres; also Menchit) was a lion-goddess of war. ...


Later in ancient Egyptian mythology deities of the pantheon were identified as equal pairs, female and male counterparts, having the same functions. In the later Middle Kingdom, when Thebes grew in importance, its patron, Amun also became more significant, and so his wife Amaunet, who had been his female counterpart, was replaced with a more substantial mother-goddess, namely Mut. In that phase, Mut and Amun had a son, Khonsu, another moon deity. The Middle Kingdom is a period in the history of ancient Egypt stretching from the establishment of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Fourteenth Dynasty, roughly between 2030 BC and 1640 BC. The period comprises two phases, the 11th Dynasty, which ruled from Thebes and the 12th Dynasty... Thebes Thebes (, Thēbai) is the Greek designation of the ancient Egyptian niwt (The) City and niwt-rst (The) Southern City. It is located about 800 km south of the Mediterranean, on the east bank of the river Nile (). Thebes was the capital of Waset, the fourth Upper Egyptian nome... Amun (also spelled Amon, Amoun, Amen, and rarely Imen, Greek Ἄμμων Ammon, and Ἅμμων Hammon, Egyptian Yamanu) was the name of a deity, in Egyptian mythology, who gradually rose to become one of the most important deities in Ancient Egypt, before fading into obscurity. ... In Egyptian mythology, Amaunet is a mother and fertility goddess and representative of the northern wind. ... In Egyptian mythology, Chons (alternately Khensu, Khons, Khonsu or Khonshu) is a lunar deity, and a son of Amun and Mut. ...


The authority of Thebes waned later and Amun was assimilated into Ra. Mut, the doting virgin mother, was assimilated into Hathor, the cow-goddess and mother of Horus who had become identified as Ra's wife. Subsequently, when Ra assimilated Atum, the Ennead was absorbed as well, and so Mut-Hathor became identified as Isis (either as Isis-Hathor or Mut-Isis-Nekhbet), the most important of the females in the Ennead (the nine}, and the patron of the queen. The Ennead proved to be a much more successful identity and the compound of Mut, Hathor and Isis, became known as Isis alone. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Horus (disambiguation). ... History Atum (alternatively spelt Tem, Temu, Tum, and Atem) is an early deity in Egyptian mythology, whose cult centred on the Ennead of Heliopolis. ... The Ennead (a word derived from Greek, meaning the nine) is a grouping of nine deities, most often used in the context of Egyptian mythology. ... Isis is a goddess in Egyptian mythology. ...


Depictions

In art, Mut was pictured as a woman with the wings of a white vulture, holding an ankh, wearing the united crown of Upper and Lower Egypt and a dress of bright red/blue, with the feather of the goddess Ma'at at her feet. This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... Orders Falconiformes (Fam. ... For other uses, see Ankh (disambiguation). ... Crown names several entities associated with monarchy: A crown (headgear), the headgear worn by a monarch, other high dignitaries, divinities etcetera. ... Two feathers Feathers are one of the epidermal growths that form the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on birds. ... The goddess Maat Maat, reconstructed to have been pronounced as * (Muh-aht),[1] was the Ancient Egyptian concept of order—law, morality, and justice[2] which was deified as a goddess. ...


Alternatively, as a result of her assimilations, Mut is sometimes depicted as a cobra, a cat, a cow, or as a lioness as well as the white vulture. Some of Mut's many titles included World-Mother, Eye of Ra, Queen of the Goddesses, Lady of Heaven, Mother of the Gods, and She Who Gives Birth, But Was Herself Not Born of Any. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Binomial name Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms Felis lybica invalid junior synonym The cat (or domestic cat, house cat) is a small carnivorous mammal. ... COW is an acronym for a number of things: Can of worms The COW programming language, an esoteric programming language. ... For other uses, see Lion (disambiguation). ...


In Karnak

There are temples dedicated to Mut all over modern-day Egypt and Sudan, reflecting the wide-spread worship of her, but the center of her cult became the temple in Karnak. That temple had the statue that was regarded as an embodiment of her real ka. Her devotions included daily rituals by the Pharaoh and her priestesses. Interior reliefs depict scenes of priestesses, currently the only known example of worship in ancient Egypt that was exclusively administered by women. Usually the queen, who always carried the royal lineage among the rulers of Egypt, served as the chief priestess in the temple rituals. The pharaoh participated also and would become a deity after death. In the case when the pharaoh was female, records of one example indicate that she had her daughter serve as the high priestess in her place. Often priests served in the administration of temples and oracles. The rituals included music and drinking. In Egyptian mythology, the human soul is made up of seven parts: the Ren, Sekhem, the Akh, the Ba, the Ka, the Sheut, and the Sekhu. ...


The pharaoh Hatshepsut had the temple built in Karnak. Previous excavators had thought that Amenhotep III had the temple built because of the hundreds of statues of Sekhmet that bore his name. However, Hatshepsut, who completed an enormous number of temples and public buildings, had completed the work 75 years earlier. She began the custom of depicting Mut with the crown of both Upper and Lower Egypt. It is thought that Amenhotep III removed most signs of her, while taking credit for the projects she had built. Maatkare[1] Truth is the Ka of Re Nomen Khnumt-Amun Hatshepsut[1] Joined with Amun, Foremost of Noble Ladies Horus name Wesretkau [1] Mighty of Kas Nebty name Wadjrenput[1] Flourishing of years Golden Horus Netjeretkhau [1] Divine of appearance Consort(s) Thutmose II Issue Neferure Father Thutmose I... Map of Karnak, showing major temple complexes Interior of Temple First pylon of precinct of Amun viewed from the west Al-Karnak (Arabic الكرنك, in Ancient Egypt was named Ipet Sut, the most venerated place) is a small village in Egypt, located on the banks of the River Nile some 2. ... Nebmaatre The Lord of Truth is Re[2] Nomen Amenhotep Hekawaset Amun is Satisfied, Ruler of Thebes[1] Horus name Kanakht Emkhaimaat The strong bull, appearing in truth Nebty name Semenhepusegerehtawy One establishing laws, pacifying the two lands Golden Horus Aakhepesh-husetiu Great of valour, smiting the Asiatics Consort(s... For other uses, see Sekhmet (disambiguation). ...


Hatshepsut was a pharaoh who brought Mut to the fore, identifying strongly with the goddess. She stated that she was a descendant of Mut. She also associated herself with the image of Sekhmet, as the more aggressive aspect of the goddess, having served as a very successful warrior during the early portion of her reign as pharaoh.


Akhenaten suppressed the worship of Mut as well as the other deities when he promoted the monotheistic worship of his sun god, Aten. Tutankhamun re-established her worship and his successors continued to associate themselves with Mut afterward. For other uses, see Akhenaten (disambiguation). ... [1] Aten (or Aton) was the disk of the sun in ancient Egyptian mythology, and originally an aspect of Ra. ...


Ramesses II added more work on the Mut temple, as well as rebuiding an earlier temple in the same area, rededicating it to Amun and himself. He placed it so that people had to pass his temple on their way to that of Mut. Usermaatre-setepenre The Justice of Re is Powerful, Chosen of Re Nomen Ramesses (meryamun) Born of Re, (Beloved of Amun) Horus name [2] Kanakht Merymaa Golden Horus [2] Userrenput-aanehktu[1] Consort(s) Henutmire, Isetnofret, Nefertari Maathorneferure Issue Bintanath, Khaemweset, Merneptah, Amun-her-khepsef, Meritamen see also: List of children...


Kushite pharaohs expanded the Mut temple and modified the Ramesses temple for use as the shrine of the celebrated the birth of Amun and Khonsu, trying to integrate themselves into divine succession. They also installed their own priestesses among the ranks of the priestesses who officiated at the temple of Mut. For the son of Rama and Sita from Indian epic of Ramayana, go to Kush (hindu). ... This article refers to the historical Pharaoh. ...


The Greek Ptolemaic dynasty added its own decorations and priestesses at the temple as well and used the authority of Mut to emphasize their own interests. Later, the Roman emperor Tiberius rebuilt the site after a severe flood and his successors supported the temple until it fell into disuse sometime around the third century A.D. Some of the later Roman officials used the stones from the temple for their own building projects, often without altering the images carved upon them. cleopatra ruled seneca for 10 years before she ruled Egypt. ... For other persons named Tiberius, see Tiberius (disambiguation). ...


References

  • Jennifer Pinkowski - Egypt's Ageless Goddess (Archaeology magazine September/October 2006)

External links

  • Mut Article on Pantheon.org

  Results from FactBites:
 
Mut - Crystalinks (1507 words)
Mut (Maut) was the mother goddess, the queen of the gods at Waset (Thebes), arising in power with the god Amen.
She was either depicted as a woman, sometimes with wings, or a vulture, usually wearing the crowns of royalty - she was often shown wearing the double crown of Egypt or the vulture headdress of the New Kingdom queens.
During the Festival of Mut in Waset, a statue of the goddess was placed on a boat and sailed around the small crescent shaped sacred lake at her temple at Ipet-Isut (Karnak).
MUT Malta Union Of Teachers Website (1409 words)
The MUT is reserving the right to take all the necessary actions to safeguard the professional interests of its members in State Schools.
As the legitimate representative of educators, the MUT expects to be consulted prior to the issue of any rules and regulations by education authorities, let alone by an autonomous organization.
The MUT was never given the impression that this occasion would lend itself to an evening Parents' Day where teachers would have to attend to parents on a one-to-one basis.
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