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Encyclopedia > Mussolini
Benito Mussolini created a state through the use of propaganda, total control of the media and disassembly of the working democratic government.
Benito Mussolini created a fascist state through the use of propaganda, total control of the media and disassembly of the working democratic government.

Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (Predappio near Forlì, July 29, 1883 – Giulino di Mezzegra near Como, April 28, 1945) led Italy from 1922 to 1943. He created a fascist state through the use of state terror and propaganda. Using his charisma, total control of the media and intimidation of political rivals, he disassembled the existing democratic government system. His entry into World War II on the side of Nazi Germany made Italy a target for Allied attacks and ultimately led to his downfall and death. In November 2004 he was voted the 34th greatest Italian in a television poll. Benito Mussolini File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... Forlì (44°13′ N 12°02′ E)is a town in Emilia-Romagna, Italy. ... July 29 is the 210th day (211th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 155 days remaining. ... 1883 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... For the suburb of Perth in Australia, see Como, Western Australia. ... April 28 is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 247 days remaining. ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1922 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1943 is a common year starting on Friday. ... Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... State terrorism is a controversial term that is separate from the more common term state sponsored terrorism. ... North Korean propaganda showing a soldier destroying the United States Capitol building. ... The term democracy indicates a form of government where all the states decisions are exercised directly or indirectly by a majority of its citizenry through a fair elective process. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km (over 11 miles) into the air. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...

Contents

Early years

Mussolini was born in a small village named Predappio in the province of Forlì, in Emilia-Romagna. His father, Alessandro, was a blacksmith. His mother, Rosa Maltoni, was a teacher who believed education was extremely important. He was named Benito after Mexican reformist President Benito Juárez. Like his father, Benito became a socialist. By age eight, he was banned from his mother's church, and a few years later he was expelled from school, due to stabbing a fellow student and throwing an ink pot at a teacher. He did get good grades though.He qualified as an elementary schoolmaster in 1901. In 1902 he emigrated to Switzerland. Unable to find a permanent job there and arrested for vagrancy, he was expelled and returned to Italy to do his military service. After further trouble with the police, he joined the staff of a newspaper in the Austrian town of Trento in 1908. At this time he wrote a novel, subsequently translated into English as The Cardinal's Mistress. Mussolini had a brother, Arnaldo, who would later become the editor of Il Popolo d'Italia, the official newspaper of Benito Mussolini's regime. Forlì (44°13′ N 12°02′ E)is a town in Emilia-Romagna, Italy. ... Emilia-Romagna is an administrative region of Northern Italy comprising the two historic regions of Emilia and Romagna. ... Blacksmith Blacksmith at work Blacksmith at work Blacksmiths fire Hot metal work from a blacksmith A blacksmith is an artisan specializing in the hand-wrought manufacture of metal objects, such as wrought iron gates, grills, railings, light fixtures, furniture, sculpture, weapons, decorative and religious items, cooking utensils and tools. ... In education, teachers are those who teach students or pupils, often a course of study or a practical skill, including learning and thinking skills. ... Benito Juárez Benito Juárez (March 21, 1806 – July 18, 1872) was a Zapotec Indian who served two terms (1861-1863 and 1867-1872) as President of Mexico. ... The color red and particularly the red flag are traditional symbols of Socialism. ... A vagrant is a person without a home, or regular work. ... A view of Trento from Castello del Buonconsiglio. ... Editor has four major senses: a person who obtains or improves material for a publication; a film editor, a person responsible for the flow of a motion picture or television program from scene to scene a sound editor, a person responsible for the flow and choice of music, voice, and...


Birth of Fascism

The word "Fascio" had existed in Italian politics for some time. A section of revolutionary syndicalists broke with the Socialists over the issue of Italy's entry into the First World War. Mussolini agreed with them. These syndicalists formed a group called Fasci d'azione rivoluzionaria internazionalista in October 1914. Massimo Rocca and Tulio Masotti asked Mussolini to settle the contradiction of his support for interventionism and still being the editor of Avanti and an official party functionary in the Socialist Party. (1) Two weeks later, he joined the Milan fascio. In November, 1914, supported by his then mistress Margherita Sarfatti, he founded a new newspaper, Il Popolo d'Italia, (The Italian People) and the prowar group Fasci d'Azione Rivoluzionaria. Mussolini was attracted to fasces, the ancient Roman symbol of the life-and-death power of the state, bundles of the lictors' rods of chastisement which, when bound together, were stronger than when they were apart — reflecting the intellectual debt that fascism owed to socialism and presaging the symbolism of the renewed Roman imperium Mussolini promised to bring about. Mussolini claimed that it would help strengthen a relatively new nation (which had been united only in the 1860s in the Risorgimento), although some would say that he wished for a collapse of society that would bring him to power. Italy was a member of the Triple Alliance, thereby allied with Imperial Germany and the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It did not join the war in 1914 but did in 1915 — as Mussolini wished — on the side of Britain and France. Fascio (plural: fasci) is an Italian word which in the 1890s came to refer to radical political groups. ... Syndicalism is a political and economic ideology which advocates giving control of both industry and government to labor union federations. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... 1914 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... Location within Italy Piazza della Scala Milan (Italian: Milano; Milanese dialect: Milán) is the main city in northern Italy, and is located in the plains of Lombardy, the most populated and developed of Italian regions. ... November is the eleventh month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of four Gregorian months with the length of 30 days. ... 1914 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... Margherita Sarfatti (1880 - 1961) was an Italian journalist, art critic, patron, collector, socialite, and one of Mussolinis mistresses. ... Fasces on the reverse of the US dime A statue of Cincinnatus returning the Roman fasces Fasces consist of a bundle of wooden rods tied together as a cylinder around an axe. ... The lictor, derived from the Latin ligare (to bind), was a member of a special class of Roman civil servant, with special tasks of attending magistrates of the Roman Republic and Empire who held imperium. ... For information on mainstream political parties using the term Socialist, see Social democracy and Democratic socialism,For the governments of the USSR, the PRC, and others, see: Communist state, Other variants of Socialism include Marxism, Communism, and Libertarian Socialism. ... Italy has shaped the cultural and social development of the whole Mediterranean area, deeply influencing European culture as well. ... The Triple Alliance (Dreibund) was the treaty by which Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy pledged (May 20, 1882) to support each other militarily in the event of an attack against any of them by two or more great powers. ... Official languages Latin, German, Hungarian Established church Roman Catholic Capital & Largest City Vienna pop. ... 1914 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... 1915 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...

Benito Mussolini

Called up for military service, Mussolini was wounded in grenade practice in 1917 and returned to edit his paper. Fascism became an organized political movement following a meeting in Milan on March 23, 1919 (Mussolini founded the Fasci di Combattimento on February 23, however). After failing in the 1919 elections, Mussolini at last entered parliament in 1921 as a right-wing member. The Fascisti formed armed squads of war veterans to terrorize socialists and communists. The government seldom interfered. In return for the support of a group of industrialists and agrarians, Mussolini gave his approval (often active) to strikebreaking, and he abandoned revolutionary agitation. When the liberal governments of Giovanni Giolitti, Ivanoe Bonomi, and Luigi Facta failed to stop the spread of anarchy, and after Fascists had organised the demonstrative and threatening Marcia su Roma ("March on Rome") (October 28th 1922), Mussolini was invited by Vittorio Emanuele III to form a new government. He became the youngest Premier in the history of Italy on October 31. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Politics is the process and method of decision-making for groups of human beings. ... Location within Italy Piazza della Scala Milan (Italian: Milano; Milanese dialect: Milán) is the main city in northern Italy, and is located in the plains of Lombardy, the most populated and developed of Italian regions. ... March 23 is the 82nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (83rd in Leap years). ... 1919 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... February 23 is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1921 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... March on Rome was the name given to the coup of State by which Benito Mussolini came to power in Italy in late October 1922. ... October 28 is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 64 days remaining. ... 1922 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Victor Emmanuel III Victor Emmanuel III (Italian: Vittorio Emanuele III) (November 11, 1869 - December 28, 1947), nicknamed The Soldier, was the King of Italy (July 29, 1900 - May 9, 1946), and claimed the titles Emperor of Ethiopia (1936 - 1943) and King of Albania (1939 - 1943). ... October 31 is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 61 days remaining, as the final day of October. ...


Mussolini's Fascist state, established nearly a decade before Adolf Hitler's rise to power, would provide a model for Hitler's later economic and political policies. Both a movement and a historical phenomenon, Italian Fascism was, in many respects, an adverse reaction to both the perceived failure of laissez-faire economics and fear of international Bolshevism (a short-lived Soviet was established in Bavaria just about this time), although trends in intellectual history, such as the breakdown of positivism and the general fatalism of postwar Europe were also factors. Fascism was a product of a general feeling of anxiety and fear among the middle-class of postwar Italy, arising out of a convergence of interrelated economic, political, and cultural pressures. Italy had no long-term tradition of parliamentary compromise, and public discourse took on an inflammatory tone on all sides. Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889–April 30, 1945) was the Führer und Reichskanzler (Leader and Imperial chancellor) of Germany from 1933 to his death. ... Laissez-faire is short for laissez faire, laissez passer, a French phrase meaning to let things alone, let them pass. First used by the eighteenth century Physiocrats as an injunction against government interference with trade, it is now used as a synonym for strict free market economics. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... Intellectual history means either: the history of intellectuals, or: the history of the people who create, discuss, write about and in other ways propagate ideas. ... Positivism can have several meanings. ...


Under the banner of this authoritarian and nationalist ideology, Mussolini was able to exploit fears in an era in which postwar depression, the rise of a more militant left, and a feeling of national shame and humiliation stemming from its 'mutilated victory' at the hands of the World War I peace treaties seemed to converge. Italian influence in the Aegean and abroad seemed impotent and disregarded by the greater powers, and Italy lacked colonies. Such unfulfilled nationalistic aspirations tainted the reputation of liberalism and constitutionalism among many sectors of the Italian population. In addition, such democratic institutions had never grown to become firmly rooted in the young nation-state. And as the same postwar depression heightened the allure of Marxism among an urban proletariat even more disenfranchised than their continental counterparts, fear regarding the growing strength of trade unionism, communism, and socialism proliferated among the elite and the middle class . Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... In the context of international relations and diplomacy, power (sometimes clarified as international power, national power, or state power) is the ability of one state to influence or control other states. ... Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century German philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... A union (labor union in American English; trade union in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a group of workers who act collectively to address common issues. ... This article is about communism as a form of society built around a gift economy, as an ideology that advocates that form of society, and as a popular movement. ... For information on mainstream political parties using the term Socialist, see Social democracy and Democratic socialism,For the governments of the USSR, the PRC, and others, see: Communist state, Other variants of Socialism include Marxism, Communism, and Libertarian Socialism. ...


Fascism emerged as a "third way" — as Italy's last hope to avoid imminent collapse of 'weak' Italian liberalism or communist revolution. While failing to outline a coherent program, it evolved into new political and economic system that combined corporatism, totalitarianism, nationalism, and anti-communism in a state designed to bind all classes together under a capitalist system, but a new capitalist system in which the state seized control of the organization of vital industries. The appeal of this movement, the promise of a more orderly capitalism during an era of interwar depression, however, was not isolated to Italy, or even Europe. The term corporatism has different meanings in different contexts. ... A totalitarian régime or state attempts to control nearly every aspect of personal, economic, and political life. ... Nationalism is an ethno-political ideology that sustains the concept of a nation-identity for an exclusive group of people. ...


Fascist dictatorship

At first Mussolini was supported by the Liberals in parliament. With their help, he introduced strict censorship and altered the methods of election so that in 19251926 he was able to assume dictatorial powers and dissolve all other political parties. Skillfully using his absolute control over the press, he gradually built up the legend of Il duce, a man who never slept, was always right, and could solve all the problems of politics and economics. He introduced the Press Laws in 1925 which stated that all journalists must be registered Fascists. However, not all newspapers were taken into public ownership and Corriere della Sera sold on average 10 times as many copies as the leading Fascist newspaper 'Il Popolo D'Italia'. Italy was soon a police state. The assassination of the prominent Socialist Giacomo Matteotti in 1924, began a prolonged political crisis in Italy, which did not end until the beginning of 1925 when Mussolini asserted his personal authority over both country and party to establish a personal dictatorship. Mussolini's skill in propaganda was such that he had surprisingly little opposition to suppress. 1925 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1926 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... A police state is a political condition where the government maintains strict control over society, particularly through suspension of civil rights and often with the use of a force of secret police. ... The color red and particularly the red flag are traditional symbols of Socialism. ... Giacomo Matteotti (22 May 1885 - 10 June 1924) was an Italian politician. ...


At various times after 1922, Mussolini personally took over the ministries of the interior, of foreign affairs, of the colonies, of the corporations, of the army and the other armed services, and of public works. Sometimes he held as many as seven departments simultaneously, as well as the premiership. He was also head of the all-powerful Fascist party (formed in 1921) and the armed local Fascist militia, the MVSN or Blackshirts that terrorized incipient resistances in the cities and provinces. He would later form an institutionalised militia that carried official state support, the OVRA. In this way he succeeded in keeping power in his own hands and preventing the emergence of any rival. But it was at the price of creating a regime that was overcentralized, inefficient, and corrupt. 1922 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1921 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The Blackshirts (Italian: camicie nere) were Fascist paramilitary groups in Italy during the period immediately following World War I and until the end of World War II. Inspired by Garibaldis Redshirts, the Blackshirts were organized by Benito Mussolini due to his disgust with the corruption and apathy of the... The OVRA (Organizzazione di Vigilanza Repressione dellAntifascismo, English: Organisation for Vigilance Against Anti-Fascism) was the secret police of Benito Mussolini in Fascist Italy. ...

Mussolini was a passionate public speaker
Mussolini was a passionate public speaker

Most of his time was spent on propaganda, whether at home or abroad, and here his training as a journalist was invaluable. Press, radio, education, films — all were carefully supervised to manufacture the illusion that fascism was the doctrine of the 20th century, replacing liberalism and democracy. The principles of this doctrine were laid down in the article on fascism, written by Giovanni Gentile and signed by Mussolini that appeared in 1932 in the Enciclopedia Italiana. In 1929, a concordat with the Vatican was signed, by which the Italian state was at last recognized by the Roman Catholic Church, and the independence of Vatican City was recognized by the Italian state. Mussolini giving a speech File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Giovanni Gentile in his earlier years. ... 1932 is a leap year starting on a Friday. ... The first volume of the Enciclopedia Italiana di scienze, lettere ed arti or Italian Encyclopaedia of Science, Letters, and Arts was published in 1925. ... 1929 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Saint Peters Basilica in Rome. ...


Under the dictatorship, the effectiveness of parliamentary system was virtually abolished though its forms were publicly preserved. The law codes were rewritten. All teachers in schools and universities had to swear an oath to defend the Fascist regime. Newspaper editors were all personally chosen by Mussolini himself, and no one could practice journalism who did not possess a certificate of approval from the Fascist party. The trade unions were also deprived of any independence and were integrated into what was called the "corporative" system. The aim (never completely achieved), inspired by medieval guilds, was to place all Italians in various professional organizations or "corporations", all of them under governmental control. A parliamentary system, or parliamentarism, is distinguished by the executive branch of government being dependent on the direct or indirect support of the parliament, often expressed through a vote of confidence. ... The concept of the corporate state developed under the context of Fascism in Mussolinis Italy as a means of regulating industrial relations. ...


Mussolini played up to his financial backers at first by transferring a number of industries from public to private ownership. But by the 1930s he had begun moving back to the opposite extreme of rigid governmental control of industry. A great deal of money was spent on highly visible public works, and on international prestige projects such as the The Rex Blue Riband ocean liner [1] (http://www.greatoceanliners.net/rex.html), but the economy suffered from his strenuous efforts to make Italy self-sufficient. A concentration on heavy industry proved problematic, because Italy lacked the basic resources. The Blue Riband is an award held by the ship with the record for a transatlantic crossing. ... An autarky is an economy that does no trade with the outside world, or an ecosystem not affected by influences from its outside, and relies entirely on its own resources. ...


In foreign policy, Mussolini soon shifted from the pacifist anti-imperialism of his lead-up to power, to an extreme form of aggressive nationalism. An early example of this was his bombardment of Corfu in 1923. Soon after this he succeeded in setting up a puppet regime in Albania and in ruthlessly consolidating Italian power in Libya, loosely a colony since 1912. It was his dream to make the Mediterranean mare nostrum ("our sea" in Latin). In 1935, at the Stresa Conference, he helped create an anti-Hitler front in order to defend the independence of Austria. But his successful war against Abyssinia (Ethiopia) in 1935–1936 was opposed by the League of Nations, and he sought an alliance with Nazi Germany, which had withdrawn from the League in 1933. His active intervention in 1936-1939 on the side of Franco in the Spanish Civil War ended any possibility of reconciliation with France and Britain. As a result, he had to accept the German annexation of Austria in 1938 and the dismemberment of Czechoslovakia in 1939. At the Munich Conference in September 1938 he posed as a moderate working for European peace. But his "axis' with Germany was confirmed when he made the "Pact of Steel" with Hitler in May 1939. Clearly the subordinate partner, Mussolini followed the Nazis in adopting a racial policy that led to persecution of the Jews and the creation of apartheid in the Italian empire. Before this, Jews were not specifically persecuted by Mussolini's government, and were permitted to be high members of the Party. + - Later, he would refuse to allow Jews to be deported to concentration camps until Germany occupied Italy during the war (a period depicted in the movie, The Garden of the Finzi-Continis). Members of TIGR, a Slovene anti-fascist group, plotted to kill Mussolini in Kobarid in 1938, but this was unsuccessful. Nationalism is an ethno-political ideology that sustains the concept of a nation-identity for an exclusive group of people. ... (This article is about the Greek island known in English as Corfu. ... The Mediterranean Sea is a part of the Atlantic Ocean almost completely enclosed by land, on the north by Europe, on the south by Africa, and on the east by Asia. ... The Stresa Conference (11-14 April 1935) was a meeting of French, British and Italian government representatives at Stresa in Italy. ... Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945, standard German pronunciation in the IPA) was the Führer (leader) of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) and of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. ... The League of Nations was an international organization founded after the First World War at the Congress of Vienna in 1919. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Francisco Franco Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde Salgado Pardo de Andrade (December 4, 1892 – November 20, 1975), abbreviated Francisco Franco Bahamonde and sometimes known as Generalísimo Francisco Franco, was dictator of Spain from 1939 until his death in 1975. ... History of Spain Series Prehistoric Spain Roman Spain Medieval Spain Age of Reconquest Age of Expansion Age of Enlightenment Reaction and Revolution First Spanish Republic The Restoration Second Spanish Republic Spanish Civil War The Dictatorship Modern Spain Topics Economic History Military History Social History The Spanish Civil War (July 1936... The Munich Agreement was an agreement regarding the Munich Crisis between the major powers of Europe after a conference held in Munich in Germany in 1938 and concluded on September 29. ... The Pact of Steel was an agreement between the governments of Italy and Germany signed on May 22, 1939 by Galeazzo Ciano and Joachim von Ribbentrop The pact was one of alliance in the event of international threats; of immediate aid and military support in the event of war, also... The Nazi party used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colors were said to represent Blut und Boden (blood and soil). ... TIGR is also an acronym for The Institute for Genomic Research TIGR, abbreviation for Trst (Trieste), Istra (Istria), Gorica (Gorizia) and Reka (Rijeka (Fiume)), was first antifascist national-defensive organization in Europe of Primorje Slovenes (Primorski Slovenci) active between 1927 and 1941. ... Area: 192. ...


The Axis of Blood and Steel

The term "Axis Powers" was coined by Mussolini, in November 1936, when he spoke of a Rome-Berlin axis in reference to the treaty of friendship signed between Italy and Germany on October 25, 1936. Later, in May 1939, Mussolini would describe the relationship with Germany as a "Pact of Steel", something he had earlier referred to as a "Pact of Blood". The Axis Powers is a term for those participants in World War II opposed to the Allies. ... October 25 is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 67 days remaining. ...


World War II

Benito Mussolini and
Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler

As World War II (WWII) approached, Mussolini announced his intention of annexing Malta, Corsica, and Tunis. He spoke of creating a "New Roman Empire" that would stretch east to Palestine and south through Libya and Egypt to Kenya. In April 1939, after a brief war, he annexed Albania, a campaign which strained his military. His armed forces are generally considered to have been unprepared for combat when the German invasion of Poland led to World War II. Mussolini thus decided to remain 'non-belligerent' until he was quite certain which side would win. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889–April 30, 1945) was the Führer und Reichskanzler (Leader and Imperial chancellor) of Germany from 1933 to his death. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km (over 11 miles) into the air. ... Capital Ajaccio Area 8,680 km² Regional President Camille de Rocca-Serra Population  - 2004 estimate  - 1999 census  - Density 272,000 260,196 30/km² Arrondissements 5 Cantons 52 Communes 360 Départements Corse-du-Sud Haute-Corse Corsica (Corsican: Corsica; French: Corse) is the fourth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea... Palestine (Latin: Syria Palæstina; Hebrew: פלשתינה Palestina, ארץ־ישראל Eretz Yisrael; Arabic: فلسطين Filasṭīn) is the region between the Mediterranean Sea and the banks of the Jordan River, plus various adjoining lands to the east. ... April is the fourth month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of four with the length of 30 days. ... 1939 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ...


On June 10, 1940, as the Germans under General Guderian reached the English Channel, Mussolini declared war on Britain and France. In October, Italy attacked Greece and lost in result 1/3 of Albania, until Germany attacked Greece as well. In June 1941, he declared war on the Soviet Union and in December he declared war on the United States. June 10 is the 161st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (162nd in leap years), with 204 days remaining. ... 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... General Heinz Guderian Heinz Wilhelm Guderian (17 June 1888-14 May 1954) was a military theorist and General of the German Army during the Second World War. ... The English Channel ( French:La Manche) is the part of the Atlantic Ocean that separates the island of Great Britain from northern France, and joins the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean. ...


Following Italian defeats on all fronts and the Anglo-American landing in Sicily in 1943, most of Mussolini's colleagues (Count Galeazzo Ciano, the foreign minister and also Mussolini's son-in-law, included) turned against him at a meeting of the Fascist Grand Council on July 25, 1943. King Vittorio Emanuele III called Mussolini to his palace and stripped the dictator of his power. Upon leaving the palace, Mussolini was swiftly arrested. He was then sent to Gran Sasso, a mountain recovery in central Italy (Abruzzo), in complete isolation. Sicily (Sicilia in Italian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,700 sq. ... 1943 is a common year starting on Friday. ... Galeazzo Ciano Galeazzo Ciano, Count of Cortellazzo (March 18, 1903 - January 11, 1944), was Benito Mussolinis Foreign Minister and son-in-law. ... July 25 is the 206th day (207th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 159 days remaining. ... 1943 is a common year starting on Friday. ... Victor Emmanuel III Victor Emmanuel III (Italian: Vittorio Emanuele III) (November 11, 1869 - December 28, 1947), nicknamed The Soldier, was the King of Italy (July 29, 1900 - May 9, 1946), and claimed the titles Emperor of Ethiopia (1936 - 1943) and King of Albania (1939 - 1943). ... Gran Sasso (Italian for great stone), a massif located in the Abruzzo region of central Italy, is the highest of the Apennines and the centerpiece of a national park (established 1991). ... Abruzzo, (also known as Abruzzi, an older obsolete plural denomination) is a region of south central Italy, formerly a part of the Abruzzi e Molise region (with Molise). ...


Mussolini was replaced by the Maresciallo d'Italia Gen. Pietro Badoglio, who immediately declared in a famous speech "La guerra continua a fianco dell'alleato germanico" ("The war shoulder to shoulder with our Germanic allies continues"), but was instead working to negotiate a surrender; in a few days (September the 8th) Badoglio would sign an armistice with Allied troops. Pietro Badoglio (September 28, 1871 - November 1, 1956) was an Italian soldier and politician. ... September 8 is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years). ...


Rescued by the Germans several months later in a spectacular raid led by General Kurt Student, Mussolini set up the Italian Social Republic, a Republican Fascist state (RSI, Repubblica Sociale Italiana) in northern Italy with him living in Gargnano. But he was little more than a puppet under the protection of the German Army. In this "Republic of Salò", Mussolini returned to his earlier ideas of socialism and collectivization. He also executed some of the Fascist leaders who had abandoned him, including his son-in-law, Galeazzo Ciano. During this period he wrote his memoirs entitled My Rise and Fall. Kurt Student Kurt Student (May 12, 1890-July 1, 1978) was a German Luftwaffe General who fought as a pilot on the Eastern Front during the First World War and as the commander of the German parachute troops during the Second World War. ... The Italian Social Republic (Repubblica Sociale Italiana in Italian), also known as the Republic of Salò, was a fascist puppet state in German-occupied northern Italy. ... A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ... Galeazzo Ciano Galeazzo Ciano, Count of Cortellazzo (March 18, 1903 - January 11, 1944), was Benito Mussolinis Foreign Minister and son-in-law. ... A memoir, as a literary genre, forms a sub-class of autobiography. ...


On April 27, 1945, in the afternoon, near the village of Dongo (Como Lake), just before the Allied armies reached Milan, Mussolini, along with his mistress Claretta Petacci, were caught by the Italian partisans as he headed for Chiavenna to board a plane for escape to Switzerland. The day after, April 28, they were both executed along with their sixteen-man train, mostly ministers and officials of the Italian Social Republic. The next day their bodies were hung, upside down, in Piazzale Loreto (Milan) along with those of other fascists, to be abused by the crowds. Mussolini's body was then buried in an unmarked grave in a Milan cemetery until the 1950s, when his body was moved back to Predappio. It was actually stolen briefly in the late '50s, then again returned to Predappio. Here he was buried in a crypt (the only posthumous honor granted to Mussolini; his tomb is flanked by marble fasces and a large idealized marble bust of himself sits above the tomb.) April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Location within Italy Piazza della Scala Milan (Italian: Milano; Milanese dialect: Milán) is the main city in northern Italy, and is located in the plains of Lombardy, the most populated and developed of Italian regions. ... Clara Petacci Clara Petacci (Claretta Petacci) (28 February 1912 - 28 April 1945) was a young Roman girl from an upper-class family who became Benito Mussolinis mistress. ... Partisans parading in Milan The Italian resistance movement was a partisan force during World War II. It became massive after the capitulation of the Italian Royal Army on September 8, 1943. ...


According to an investigation made by some journalists, among whom the American Peter Tomkins who was an OSS agent in Milano (Italy) during WW II, and aired on August 2004 by the Italian national TV network Rai Tre, Mussolini was killed on April 28, 1945 in the morning, by some British secret agents on their attempt to take possession of the Churchill-Mussolini exchange of letters. These documents might have been awkward to Churchill, given that some speculate the two statesmen were discussing an anti-Soviet separate peace, despite the agreements previously stipulated between the Allies. The investigation is backed also by the witness of Bruno Giovanni Lonati, on that time an Italian communist partisan member of the "Brigate Garibaldi" in Milan. [2] (http://italy.indymedia.org/news/2004/08/610637.php) [3] (http://www.larchivio.org/xoom/bonzanigo.htm)
Rai Tre is part of RAI, the Italian government broadcasting agency, which owns other channels, such as Rai Uno, Rai Due and Rai Tre (amongst others). ... Partisans parading in Milan The Italian resistance movement was a partisan force during World War II. It became massive after the capitulation of the Italian Royal Army on September 8, 1943. ...


This version is in contrast with the report of "Colonnello Valerio" the partisan commander charged by the CLN (National Liberation Committee) with the task to execute the death sentence issued against Mussolini. According to Colonnello Valerio, Benito Mussolini and Claretta Petacci were executed on April 28, in the afternoon, in the village of Giulino di Mezzegra.


The Duce was survived by his wife, Donna Rachele, by two sons, Vittorio and Romano Mussolini, and his daughter Edda, the widow of Count Ciano. A third son, Bruno, had been killed in an air accident while testing a military plane. Mussolini's granddaughter Alessandra, daughter of Romano Mussolini, is currently a deputy in the Republican Chamber and Member of the European Parliament for the fascist party Alternative Sociale. Romano Mussolini (born in Forlì on September 26, 1927) is the third and youngest son of Benito Mussolini; he has never been involved in politics. ... Galeazzo Ciano Galeazzo Ciano, Count of Cortellazzo (March 18, 1903 - January 11, 1944), was Benito Mussolinis Foreign Minister and son-in-law. ... Alessandra Mussolini (born December 30, 1962) is an Italian (former?) actress, has a degree in Medicine and Surgery (1992), [1], and is currently a right wing politician. ... Romano Mussolini (born in Forlì on September 26, 1927) is the third and youngest son of Benito Mussolini; he has never been involved in politics. ... The European Parliament is the parliamentary body of the European Union (EU), directly elected by EU citizens once every five years. ...


Mussolini was the inspiration for the character of Benzino Napaloni in Charlie Chaplin's movie The Great Dictator. Chaplin in his costume as The Tramp Sir Charles Spencer Chaplin, (April 16, 1889 – December 25, 1977) was the most famous actor in early to mid Hollywood cinema, and later also a notable director. ... The Great Dictator is a film directed by and starring Charlie Chaplin. ...

Wikimedia Commons has more media related to:
Benito Mussolini

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ...

References

  1. The Birth of Fascist Ideolofgy, From Cultural Rebellion to Political Revolution, Zeev Sternhell, with Mario Sznajder and Maia Asheri, trans. by David Maisel, Princeton University Press, NJ, 1994. pg 214.

Zeev Sternhell is the Léon Blum Professor of Political Science at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. ...

Writings of Mussolini

  • Giovanni Hus (Jan Hus), il verdico Rome (1913) Published in America under John Hus (New York: Albert and Charles Boni, l929) Republished by the Italian Book Co., NY (1939) under John Hus, the Veracious.
  • The Cardinal's Mistress (trans. Hiram Motherwell, New York: Albert and Charles Boni, 1928)

Renaissance portrait of Jan Hus Jan Hus (1369 Husinec, Southern Bohemia – July 6, 1415 Constance) was a religious thinker and reformer. ...

See also

This page is intended to serve as a focal point for studying Italian military history during the WWII-era. ... Gabriele DAnnunzio Julius Evola Giuseppe Bottai Enrico Corradini Carlo Costamagna Giovanni Gentile Guido de Giorgio Asvero Gravelli Telesio Interlandi Giorgio Locchi Curzio Malaparte Filippo Marinetti Benito Mussolini Sergio Panunzio Giovanni Preziosi Edmondo Rossoni Ugo Spirito ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations by or about:



Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ... The term corporatism has different meanings in different contexts. ...

Preceded by:
Luigi Facta
Prime Minister of Italy
1922–1943
Succeeded by:
Pietro Badoglio
Preceded by:
none
Head of State and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Italian Social Republic
1943-1945
Succeeded by:
none


Luigi Facta (November 16, 1861 November 5, 1930) was an Italian politician. ... This is a list of Prime Ministers of Italy. ... Pietro Badoglio (September 28, 1871 - November 1, 1956) was an Italian soldier and politician. ... Though a term originally coined for Republican presidents, a head of state or chief of state is now universally known as the chief public representative of a nation-state, federation or commonwealth, whose role generally includes personifying the continuity and legitimacy of the state and exercising the political powers, functions... A minister for foreign affairs, or foreign minister, is a cabinet minister that helps to form foreign policy for sovereign nations. ... The Italian Social Republic (Repubblica Sociale Italiana in Italian), also known as the Republic of Salò, was a fascist puppet state in German-occupied northern Italy. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Benito Mussolini: First World War (3055 words)
Mussolini was active in the socialist movement but moved to right in 1914 when the Italian government failed to support the Triple Alliance.
Mussolini headed a coalition of fascists and nationalists and parliamentary government continued until the murder of the socialist leader, Giacomo Matteotti in 1924.
Mussolini, with mistress, Clara Petacci, and twelve members of his Cabinet, were executed by partisans in a village on Lake Como yesterday afternoon, after being arrested in an attempt to cross the Swiss frontier.
Mussolini - MSN Encarta (1502 words)
However, Mussolini’s overriding ambition was to seize power, and the opportunity came in the form of the Italian political crises of 1922.
Mussolini thus began his rule as the legal head of government even though the Fascist party had never obtained more than 15 percent of the national vote.
All of this was possible, Mussolini claimed, because he had overcome the class conflicts and ideological schisms of the liberal era, and had unified the Italian people behind him.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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