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Encyclopedia > Mussel
Mussel
Marine mussels behind some Goose barnacles
Marine mussels behind some Goose barnacles
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Bivalvia
Subclasses

Pteriomorpha (marine mussels)
Palaeoheterodonta (freshwater mussels)
Heterodonta (zebra mussels) Mussels (public domain from [1]) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Binomial name Pollicipes polymerus Ref: ITIS 89755 The Gooseneck Barnacle (Pollicipes polymerus) is a species of filter-feeding crustacean that lives attached to hard surfaces of rocks and flotsam in the ocean intertidal zone. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Classes Caudofoveata Aplacophora Polyplacophora Monoplacophora Bivalvia Scaphopoda Gastropoda Cephalopoda † Rostroconchia † Helcionelloida † ?Bellerophontida The molluscs (British spelling) or mollusks (American spelling) are members of the very large and diverse phylum Mollusca. ... Subclasses Anomalosdesmata Cryptodonta Heterodonta Paleoheterodonta Palaeotaxodonta Pteriomorphia and see text Mussels in the intertidal zone in Cornwall, England. ... Orders Arcoida Mytiloida Ostreoida Pterioida Pteriomorpha is a Mollusc Subclass in the Class Bivalvia and containing the orders Arcoida, Mytiloida, Ostreoida, and Pterioida. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Orders †Cycloconchidae Hippuritoida †Lyrodesmatidae Myoida †Redoniidae Veneroida Heterodonta is a mollusc subclass in the class Bivalvia and contains the orders †Cycloconchidae, Hippuritoida, †Lyrodesmatidae, Myoida, †Redoniidae, and Veneroida (cockles). ...

The common name mussel is used for members of several different families of clams or bivalve molluscs, from both saltwater and freshwater habitats. For other uses, see Clam (disambiguation). ... Orders Subclass Protobranchia Solemyoida Nuculoida Subclass Pteriomorphia - oysters Arcoida Mytiloida Pterioida Subclass Paleoheterodonta - mussels Trigoinoida Unionoida Subclass Heterodonta - clams, zebra mussels Veneroida Myoida Subclass Anomalosdesmata Pholadomyoida Animals of the Class Bivalvia are known as bivalves because they typically have two-part shells, with both parts being more or less symmetrical. ... Classes Caudofoveata Aplacophora Polyplacophora - Chitons Monoplacophora Bivalvia - Bivalves Scaphopoda - Tusk shells Gastropoda - Snails and Slugs Cephalopoda - Squids, Octopuses, etc. ...


"Mussel" is historically applied to bivalves of the marine family Mytilidae, most of which live exposed in the intertidal zone, attached by means of strong byssal threads to a firm substrate. Bivalves referred to as "clams" generally live buried in a soft material, and communicate to the surface by means of a tube or siphon. In most marine mussels the shell is longer than it is wide, being wedge-shaped or asymmetrical. The external color of the shell is dark blue, blackish, or brown, while the interior is silvery and somewhat nacreous. "Mussel" is also used for larger freshwater bivalves, more exactly called "clams", given their mode of existence. Marine mussel species live in intertidal and subtidal areas along coastlines worldwide. A few species have colonized hydrothermal vents associated with deep ocean ridges. Freshwater mussel species inhabit lakes, ponds, rivers, creeks, canals, and similar habitats. Marine is an umbrella term for things relating to the ocean, as with marine biology, marine geology, and as a term for a navy, etc. ... It has been suggested that Intertidal ecology, Foreshore and Littoral be merged into this article or section. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...


Freshwater mussels (several allied families, the largest being the Unionidae) and saltwater mussels (family Mytilidae) are not closely related. They are taxonomically grouped in different subclasses, despite some superficial similarities in appearance. Genera See text for genera and species. ... Genera See text. ... Look up taxonomy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In biology, a subclass is one level below a class. ...


The freshwater Zebra mussels and their relatives in the family Dreissenidae are not related to either of the previously mentioned groups, even though they resemble many Mytilus species in shape, and live attached to rocks and other hard surfaces in a similar manner. They are classified with the Heterodonta, the taxonomic group which includes most of the bivalves commonly referred to as "clams". Binomial name Dreissena polymorpha Pallas, 1771 The Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) is a bivalve mussel native to freshwater lakes of southeast Russia. ... Genus Dreissenida Mytilopsis Congeria Dreissenidae Morphology. ... Orders †Cycloconchidae Hippuritoida †Lyrodesmatidae Myoida †Redoniidae Veneroida Heterodonta is a mollusc subclass in the class Bivalvia and contains the orders †Cycloconchidae, Hippuritoida, †Lyrodesmatidae, Myoida, †Redoniidae, and Veneroida (cockles). ... For other uses, see Clam (disambiguation). ...

A freshwater mussel from the Netherlands, Unio pictorum (from the family Unionidae), commonly known as the "Painter's mussel". Individual shell valves of this species were used by painters as a small dish in which to mix pigments.
A freshwater mussel from the Netherlands, Unio pictorum (from the family Unionidae), commonly known as the "Painter's mussel". Individual shell valves of this species were used by painters as a small dish in which to mix pigments.

Contents

Anatomy

Marine blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, showing some of the inner anatomy. The white posterior adductor muscle is visible in the upper image, and has been cut in the lower image to allow the valves to open fully
Marine blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, showing some of the inner anatomy. The white posterior adductor muscle is visible in the upper image, and has been cut in the lower image to allow the valves to open fully

The mussel's external shell is composed of two hinged halves or "valves". The valves are joined together on the outside by a ligament, and are closed when necessary by strong internal muscles. Mussel shells carry out a variety of functions, including support for soft tissues, protection from predators and protection against desiccation.


The shell is made of three layers. In the pearly mussels there is an inner iridescent layer of nacre (mother-of-pearl) composed of calcium carbonate that is continuously secreted by the mantle; the prismatic layer, a middle layer of chalky white crystals of calcium carbonate in a protein matrix; and the periostracum, an outer pigmented layer resembling a skin. The periostracum is composed of a protein called conchin, and its function is to protect the prismatic layer from abrasion and dissolution by acids (especially important in freshwater forms where decay of leaf materials produce acids). “Mother of Pearl” redirects here. ... Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound, with the chemical formula CaCO3. ... The periostracum is a thin organic coating forming the outer-most layer of the shell of many mollusks. ... Conchiolin (sometimes referred to as conchin) and perlucin are complex proteins which are secreted by a molluscs outer epithelium (the mantle). ...


Like most bivalves, mussels have a large organ called a foot. In freshwater mussels the foot is large, muscular, and generally hatchet-shaped. It is used to pull the animal through the substrate (typically sand, gravel, or silt) in which it lies partially buried. It does this by repeatedly advancing the foot through the substrate, expanding the end so it serves as an anchor, and then pulling the rest of the animal with its shell forward. It also serves as a fleshy anchor when the animal is stationary.


In marine mussels the foot is smaller, tongue-like in shape, with a groove on the ventral surface which is continuous with the byssus pit. In this pit a viscous secretion is exuded, entering the groove and hardening gradually upon contact with sea water. This forms an extremely tough byssus thread that secures the mussel to its substrate. The byssus thread is also used by mussels as a defensive measure to tether predatory molluscs, such as dog whelks, that invade mussel beds, immobilising and starving them to death. The term byssus (sometimes byssal thread, or byssus thread) denotes strong threads secreted by mussels to attach to rocks and large, generally heavy objects in the intertidal zone. ... The term byssus (sometimes byssal thread, or byssus thread) denotes strong threads secreted by mussels to attach to rocks and large, generally heavy objects in the intertidal zone. ... Binomial name Nucella lapillus Linnaeus, 1758 The dog whelk or dogwhelk, Nucella lapillus, is a carnivorous rocky shore gastropod mollusc found around the coasts of Europe, between the 0°C and 20°C isotherms. ...


Life habits

Feeding

Both marine and freshwater mussels are filter feeders; they feed on plankton and other microscopic sea creatures which are free-floating in seawater. A mussel draws water in through its incurrent siphon. The water is then brought into the branchial chamber by the actions of the cilia located on the gills for cilliary-mucus feeding. The wastewater exits through the excurrent siphon. The labial palps finally funnel the food into the mouth, where digestion begins. Filter feeders (also known as suspension feeders) are animals that feed by straining suspended matter and food particles from water, typically by passing the water over a specialized structure, such as the baleen of baleen whales. ... For the SpongeBob SquarePants character, see Plankton (SpongeBob SquarePants). ... cross-section of two cilia, showing 9+2 structure A cilium (plural cilia) is a fine projection from a eukaryotic cell that constantly beats in one direction. ... For other uses, see Gill (disambiguation). ...


Marine mussels are usually found clumping together on wave-washed rocks, each attached to the rock by its byssus. The clumping habit helps hold the mussels firm against the force of the waves. At low tide mussels in the middle of a clump will undergo less water loss because of water capture by the other mussels. Look up sessile in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The term byssus (sometimes byssal thread, or byssus thread) denotes strong threads secreted by mussels to attach to rocks and large, generally heavy objects in the intertidal zone. ...


Reproduction

Both marine and freshwater mussels are gonochoristic, with separate male and female individuals. In marine mussels, fertilization occurs outside the body, with a larval stage that drifts for three weeks to six months, before settling on a hard surface as a young mussel. There, it is capable of moving slowly by means of attaching and detaching byssal threads to attain a better life position.


Freshwater mussels also reproduce sexually. Sperm released by the male directly into the water enters the female via the incurrent siphon. After fertilization, the eggs develop into the larval stage called glochidia. The glochidia grow in the gills of the female where they are constantly flushed with oxygen-rich water. For a time, these glochidia are parasitic on fish, attaching themselves to the fish's fins or gills. Glochidia are generally species-specific, and will only live if they find the correct fish host. Once the larval mussels attach to the fish, the fish body reacts to cover them with cells forming a cyst, where the glochidia remain for two to five weeks (depending on temperature). They grow, break free from the host, and drop to the bottom of the water. If they land in a suitable location, they will continue development and begin an independent life. A cyst (soft c, rhymes with list) is a cloed sac having a distinct membrane and division on the nearby tissue. ...


Reproduction in the Dreissenidae (zebra mussels and their relatives) is similar to marine mussels.


Predators

A starfish consuming a mussel.
A starfish consuming a mussel.

Marine mussels are eaten by humans, seastars, and by numerous different species of predatory marine gastropods in the family Muricidae, such as the Dog whelk, Nucella lapillus. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1632 × 1224 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1632 × 1224 pixel, file size: 1. ... Orders many Sea stars or starfish are animals belonging to phylum Echinodermata, class Asteroidea. ... This snapping turtle is trying to make a meal of a Canada goose, but the goose is too wary. ... Subclass Subclass Eogastropoda     Patellogastropoda Subclass Orthogastropoda   Superorder Cocculiniformia   Superorder Hot Vent Taxa     Neomphaolida   Superorder Vetigastropoda   Superorder Neritaemorphi     Neritopsina   Superorder Caenogastropoda     Architaenioglossa     Sorbeoconcha   Superorder Heterobranchia     Heterostropha     Opisthobranchia     Pulmonata The gastropods, or univalves, are the largest and most successful class of mollusks, with 60,000-75,000 species, and second largest class... Subfamilies Muricinae Muricopsinae Ocenebrinae Ergalataxinae Typhinae Tripterotyphinae Trophoninae Rapaninae (=Thaidinae) Muricidae is a large family within the gastropod superfamily Muricoidea. ... Binomial name Nucella lapillus Linnaeus, 1758 The dog whelk or dogwhelk, Nucella lapillus, is a carnivorous rocky shore gastropod mollusc found around the coasts of Europe, between the 0°C and 20°C isotherms. ...


Freshwater mussels are eaten by otters, by racoons, and by some ducks and geese. This article is about the carnivorous mammals. ... Racoon is a Dutch rock band, formed in 1997. ... Subfamilies Dendrocygninae Oxyurinae Anatinae Aythyinae Merginae Duck is the common name for a number of species in the Anatidae family of birds. ... Other uses: Goose (disambiguation) Genera Anser Branta Chen Cereopsis † see also: Swan, Duck Anatidae Goose (plural geese) is the general English name for a considerable number of birds, belonging to the family Anatidae. ...


Distribution and habitat

A stamp from the Faroe Islands showing Modiolus modiolus, the horse mussel, with various other marine invertebrates living on its shell.
A stamp from the Faroe Islands showing Modiolus modiolus, the horse mussel, with various other marine invertebrates living on its shell.

Marine mussels are abundant in the low and mid intertidal zone in temperate seas globally.


Other species of marine mussel live in tropical intertidal areas, but not in the same huge numbers as in temperate zones.


Certain species of marine mussels prefer salt marshes or quiet bays, while others thrive in pounding surf, completely covering wave-washed rocks. Some species have colonized abyssal depths near hydrothermal vents. Hydrothermal vents are fissures in a planets surface from which geothermally heated water issues. ...


Freshwater mussels inhabit permanent lakes, rivers, canals and streams throughout the world except polar regions. They require a constant source of cool, clean water, with bottoms that are not muddy. They prefer water with a substantial mineral content, using calcium carbonate to build their shells.


Cultivation

Bouchots are vertical pilings planted at sea for growing mussels. Here, bouchots are demonstrated at an agriculture salon.
Bouchots are vertical pilings planted at sea for growing mussels. Here, bouchots are demonstrated at an agriculture salon.

Freshwater mussels are used as host animals for the cultivation of freshwater pearls. Some species of marine mussel, including the Blue Mussel (Mytilus edulis) and the New Zealand green-lipped mussel (Perna canaliculus), are also cultivated as a source of food. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (715x2462, 344 KB) Demonstration bouchot pilings supporting mussels photographed by myself at the Paris Agriculture Salon, 2004 Copyright © 2004 David Monniaux File links The following pages link to this file: Mussel ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (715x2462, 344 KB) Demonstration bouchot pilings supporting mussels photographed by myself at the Paris Agriculture Salon, 2004 Copyright © 2004 David Monniaux File links The following pages link to this file: Mussel ... Freshwater pearls are a kind of pearl that comes from freshwater mussels. ... Binomial name Mytilus edulis L., 1758 The Blue Mussel (Mytilus edulis) is an edible bivalve. ... Binomial name Perna canaliculus Gmelin, 1791 The New Zealand Green-lipped mussel, also know as the New Zeland mussel or the Greenshell mussel is an economially important mussel species native to New Zealand. ...


There are a variety of techniques for growing mussels.

  • Intertidal growth technique, or bouchot technique: pilings, known in French as bouchots, are planted at sea; ropes, on which the mussels grow, are tied in a spiral on the pilings; some mesh netting prevents the mussels from falling away. This method needs an extended tidal zone.
  • Mussels are cultivated extensively in New Zealand, where the most common method is to attach mussels to ropes which are hung from a rope back-bone supported by large plastic floats. The most common species cultivated in New Zealand is the New Zealand green-lipped mussel.

The foreshore, also called the intertidal or littoral zone, is that part of a beach that lies between average high tide and average low tide. ... Binomial name Perna canaliculus Gmelin, 1791 The New Zealand Green-lipped mussel, also know as the New Zeland mussel or the Greenshell mussel is an economially important mussel species native to New Zealand. ...

Mussels as food

Cooked mussels can be orange, or of a pale yellow.
Cooked mussels can be orange, or of a pale yellow.

There is archaeological evidence that humans have utilised mussels as a source of food for thousands of years. Nowadays marine mussels remain a popular seafood, especially in Belgium and the Netherlands, where they are consumed with french fries ("mosselen met friet" or "moules frites"). In Italy they are popular, often mixed with other sea food, or eaten with pasta. In Turkey mussels are either covered with flour and fried on shishs ('midye tava'), or filled with rice and served cold ('midye dolma'). Mussels are usually consumed with alcohol (mostly with raki or beer). In France the Éclade des Moules is a mussel bake popular along the beaches of the Bay of Biscay. In Cantonese cuisine, mussels are cooked in a broth of garlic and fermented black bean. In New Zealand they are commonly served in a chili based vinaigrette. During the Second World War in the United States, mussels were commonly served in diners. This was due to the unavailability of red meat related to wartime rationing.[1] In Ireland and among the Irish Community in the West of Scotland they are popular. Boiled and seasoned with vinegar, with the "bray" or boiling water as a supplementary hot drink. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2055x1485, 320 KB) Cooked mussels Photo taken by myself Copyright © 2004 David Monniaux File links The following pages link to this file: Mussel ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2055x1485, 320 KB) Cooked mussels Photo taken by myself Copyright © 2004 David Monniaux File links The following pages link to this file: Mussel ... Spaghetti with seafood (Spaghetti allo scoglio). ... French fried potatoes, commonly known as French fries or fries (North America) or chips (United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland and Commonwealth) are pieces of potato that have been chopped into batons and deep fried. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Rakı becomes cloudy white when mixed with water. ... Seafood boil is the generic term for any number of different kinds of social events in which shellfish is the central element. ... Map of the Bay of Biscay. ... Yue cuisine Chinese: Cantonese (Yue) cuisine originates from Guangdong Province in Southern China, or more precisely, the area around Guangzhou (Canton). ... The word vinaigrette (from the French language) can refer to: An emulsion of vinegar (or sometimes lemon juice) and vegetable oil, often flavored with herbs, spices, and other ingredients. ... Gas ration stamps being printed as a result of the 1973 oil crisis Rationing is the controlled distribution of resources and scarce goods or services: it restricts how much people are allowed to buy or consume. ... Emigrants Leave Ireland, engraving by Henry Doyle (1827-1892), from Mary Frances Cusacks Illustrated History of Ireland, 1868 // The Irish diaspora (Irish: Diaspóra na nGael) consists of Irish emigrants and their descendants in countries such as the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Argentina, Mexico, New Zealand... This article is about the country. ...


In India mussels are popular in Kerala, Bhatkal, and Goa. They are either prepared with drumsticks, bread fruit or other vegetables , or filled with rice and coconut paste with spices and served hot. , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... , Bhatkal is a port town in Uttara Kannada district of Karnataka, India. ... For other uses, see Goa (disambiguation). ... A drum stick is an item used to hit percussion instruments to produce sound. ... Binomial name Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis, Family Moraceae) is a tree (and its fruit) native to the East Indian and Pacific islands, which has also been widely planted in tropical regions elsewhere. ...


Mussels can be smoked, boiled, steamed or fried in batter. As for all shellfish, mussels should be alive just before they are cooked because they quickly become toxic after they die. A simple criterion is that live mussels, when in the air, will tightly shut when disturbed. Open unresponsive mussels are dead and should be discarded. Closed mussel shells that are unusually heavy should be discarded as well, because usually contain only mud and can be tested by slightly moving the two shells away from each other. Mussel shells open by themselves when the mussels are cooked, revealing the cooked soft parts. Wikibooks Cookbook has more about this subject: Smoking Smoking is the process of preserving, cooking, or flavoring food by exposing it to the smoke from burning or smoldering plant materials, most often wood. ... Boiling, a type of phase transition, is the rapid vaporization of a liquid, which typically occurs when a liquid is heated to its boiling point, the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid is equal to the pressure exerted on the liquid by the surrounding atmospheric pressure. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Plantains frying in vegetable oil. ... Batter is a thick or thin liquid mixture, usually based on flour, water or milk, and egg. ... Cooked mussels Shellfish is a term used to describe shelled molluscs and crustaceans used as food. ...

Commercial mussel fishermen unloading the cargo of mussels in Donegal, Ireland.
Commercial mussel fishermen unloading the cargo of mussels in Donegal, Ireland.

In Belgium, mussels are often served with fresh herbs and flavorful vegetables in a stock of butter and white wine. Frites/Frieten and Belgian beer are popular accompaniments. Months with an "R" in their name (September to April) are said to be the "in" season for mussels.[2] French fried potatoes, commonly known as French fries or fries (North America) or chips (United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland and Commonwealth) are pieces of potato that have been chopped into batons and deep fried. ... Belgian beer varies from the popular pale lager to the esoteric appeal of lambic beer and Flemish red. ...


In the Netherlands, mussels are sometimes served fried in batter or breadcrumbs, particularly at take-out food outlets or other informal settings. Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain... A crouton is a small piece of dry or fried bread, often seasoned, that is used to add texture and flavour to salads, notably the Caesar salad, and in soups. ... Take-out, carry-out ( in American English ) or take-away ( in British English ) is food purchased at a restaurant but eaten elsewhere. ...


Although mussels are valued as food, mussel poisoning due to toxic planktonic organisms can be a danger along some coastlines. For instance, mussels should be avoided along the west coast of the United States during the warmer months. This poisoning is usually due to a bloom of dinoflagellates (red tides), which contain toxins. The dinoflagellates and their toxin are harmless to mussels, even when concentrated by the mussel's filter feeding, but if the mussels are consumed by humans, the concentrated toxins cause serious illness, such as paralytic shellfish poisoning. Usually the US government monitors the levels of toxins throughout the year at fishing sites. See Red Tide. Classes Dinophyceae Noctiluciphyceae Syndiniophyceae The dinoflagella are a large group of flagellate protists. ... 4 distinct shellfish-poisoning syndromes have been identified: Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) Neurologic shellfish poisoning (NSP) Diarrheal shellfish poisoning (DSP) Amnestic shellfish poisoning (ASP) All 4 syndromes share some common features and primarily are associated with bivalve mollusks (eg, mussels, clams, oysters, scallops). ... A red tide off the coast of La Jolla, California. ...


Freshwater mussels nowadays are generally considered to be unpalatable, though the native peoples in North America utilized them extensively.


Inter-tidal herbivorous shellfish such as mussels and clams can help people reach a healthy balance of omega-3 and omega-6 fats in their diets, compared with current 'Western' diets.[3] For an explanation of n and numerical nomenclature (such as n−3 or 18:3), see Nomenclature of fatty acids. ...


Gallery

See also

Binomial name Mytilus californianus K.M. White, 1937 The California mussel (Mytilus californianus) is a saltwater bivalve native to the west coast of North America from northern Mexico to the Aleutian Islands of Alaska. ... For other uses, see Clam (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Alasmidonta heterodon I. Lea, 1830 The Dwarf wedgemussel (Alasmidonta heterodon) is an endangered species of freshwater mussel. ... For other uses, see Oyster (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Dreissena polymorpha Pallas, 1771 The Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) is a bivalve mussel native to freshwater lakes of southeast Russia. ...

References

  1. ^ Alton Brown, Good Eats
  2. ^ 'Jeannie Bastian'. The Mussels from Brussels. Accessed November 15, 2006.
  3. ^ Shellfish view of omega-3 and sustainable fisheries Nature 444, 1002 (21 December 2006) | doi:10.1038/4441002d; Published online 21 December 2006. Retrieved 2008-02-25.

Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Mussel
Wikibooks
Wikibooks Cookbook has an article on
Look up Mussel in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Fishing from a Pier Fishing is both the recreation and sport of catching fish (for food or as a trophy), and the commercial fishing industry of catching or harvesting seafood (either fish or other aquatic life-forms, such as shellfish). ... Salmon for sale at a marketplace The Fishing industry is the commercial activity of fishing and producing fish and other seafood products. ... The crew of the oceanographic research vessel Princesse Alice, of Albert Grimaldi (later Prince Albert I of Monaco) pose while flensing a catch. ... Subsistence fishing in Bangladesh. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Natural Heritage Program - Dwarf Wedge Mussel (850 words)
Freshwater mussels again began to be harvested commercially and the shells exported to Japan.
At the end of the parasitic stage, the juvenile mussels detach themselves from their host, leaving the fish unharmed, and sink to the bottom of the stream where they continue to develop.
The decline of the Dwarf Wedge Mussel is mainly due to degradation of its habitat.
Blue Mussel (1286 words)
Mussel aquaculture involves placing small ("seed") mussels (3/4 to 2 inches long) in an area where growing conditions are optimum and where the culturist has exclusive rights to the harvest.
These mussels grow very fast and are of the highest quality, but the process is labor intensive and the mussels are vulnerable to storms and ice damage.
Mussel regulations were implemented in 1988 by the Department of Marine Resources in response to concerns within the industry and legislature that the intensity of the fishery that existed at that time was leading towards resource problems and conflicts between users.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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