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Encyclopedia > Muslim history

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Islam
For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...



Image File history File links Mosque02. ...

Beliefs
Aqidah (sometimes spelled as Aqeeda, Aqida or Aqeedah) (Arabic: عقيدة) is an Islamic term meaning creed. ...

Allah · Oneness of God
Muhammad · Prophets of Islam Allah is the Arabic language word for God. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Islam reveres the one God, who is considered the only Creator and Lord of the Universe. The main fundamental creed (shahadah) of Islam is There is but (one) God, and Muhammad is the Messenger of God. The Arabic word for The God is Allah (الله); Muslims consider him the same deity... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Prophets of Islam are male human beings who are regarded by Muslims to be prophets chosen by God. ...

Practices

Profession of Faith · Prayer
Fasting · Charity · Pilgrimage The Five Pillars of Islam (Arabic: أركان الإسلام) is the term given to the five duties incumbent on every Muslim. ... White flag featuring the Shahada text as used by the Taliban. ... Salat redirects here. ... Sawm (Arabic: صوم) is an Arabic word for fasting regulated by Islamic jurisprudence. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic economical jurisprudence. ... A supplicating pilgrim at Masjid Al Haram, the mosque which was built around the Kaaba (the cubical building at center). ...

History & Leaders
Islamic religious leaders have traditionally been persons who, as part of the clerisy, mosque, or government, performed a prominent role within their community or nation. ...

Timeline of Muslim history
Ahl al-Bayt · Sahaba
Rashidun Caliphs · Shi'a Imams There is much more to Muslim history than military and political history; this particular chronology is almost entirely of military and political history. ... Ahl al-Bayt (Arabic: ) is a phrase meaning People of the House, or family. ... In Islam, the SÌ£aḥābah (Arabic: ‎ companions) were the companions of Muhammad. ... The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs ( transliteration: ) is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the first four Caliphs. ... This article is about the Shia concept, for the more general Islamic term, see Imam. ...

Texts & Laws
// Quran Text Surahs Ayah Commentary/Exegesis Tafsir ibn Kathir (by Ibn Kathir) Tafsir al-Tabari (by Tabari) Al Kordobi Tafseer-e-kabir (by Imam Razi) Tafheem-al-Quran (by Maulana Maududi) Sunnah/Hadith Hadith (Traditions of The Prophet) The Siha-e-Sitta al-Bukhari (d. ... This article is about Islamic religious law. ...

Qur'an · Sunnah · Hadith
Fiqh · Sharia
Kalam · Tasawwuf (Sufism) The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Sunnah(t) () literally means “trodden path”, and therefore, the sunnah of the prophet means “the way of the prophet”. Terminologically, the word ‘Sunnah’ in Sunni Islam means those religious actions that were instituted by Muhammad(PBUH) during the 23 years of his ministry and which Muslims initially received through consensus... Hadith ( transliteration: ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about Islamic religious law. ... Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ... Sufism is a mystic tradition within Islam that encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to Divine love and the cultivation of the elements of the Divine within the individual human being. ...

Major branches
The religion of Islam has many divisions, sects, schools, traditions, and related faiths. ...

Sunni · Shi'a

Culture & Society
Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Muslim culture is a term primarily used in secular academia to describe all cultural practices common to historically Islamic peoples. ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ...

Academics · Animals · Art
Calendar · Children · Demographics
Festivals · Mosques · Philosophy
Politics · Science · Women Islamic Studies is the academic discipline which focuses on Islamic issues. ... This article is about the attitudes of Islam regarding animals. ... The Taj Mahal, Agra. ... The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري; at-taqwÄ«m al-hijrÄ«; Persian: تقویم هجري قمری ‎ taqwÄ«m-e hejri-ye qamari; also called the Hijri calendar) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate... This article discusses childrens rights given by Islam, childrens duties towards their parents, parents treatment of their children, both males and females, biological and foster children, also discussed are some of the differences regarding rights with respect to different schools of thoughts. ... Muslim percentage of population by country Distribution of Islam per country. ... Muslim holidays generally celebrate the events of the life of Islams main prophet, Muhammad, especially the events surrounding the first hearing of the Kuran. ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... Islamic philosophy (الفلسفة الإسلامية) is a branch of Islamic studies, and is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between philosophy (reason) and the religious teachings of Islam (faith). ... Islam as a political movement has a diverse character that has at different times incorporated elements of many other political movements, while simultaneously adapting the religious views of Islamic fundamentalism, particularly the view of Islam as a political religion. ... In the history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under the Islamic civilisation between the 8th and 15th centuries (the Islamic Golden Age). ... The complex relationship between women and Islam is defined by both Islamic texts and the history and culture of the Muslim world. ...

Islam & other religions
This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Christianity · Jainism
Judaism · Sikhism

See also
This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Jainism and Islam came in close contact with each other following the Islamic Conquest from Central Asia and Persia in the seventh to the twelfth centuries when much of north and central India came under the rule of the Delhi Sultanate, and later the Mughal dynasty. ... This article is about the historical interaction between Islam and Judaism. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ...

Criticism of Islam · Islamophobia
Glossary of Islamic terms (Arguments critical to religion in general, or specific to Monotheism, such as the Existence of God, not dealt with here. ... Islamophobia is a controversial[1][2] though increasingly accepted[3][4] term that refers to prejudice or discrimination against Islam or Muslims. ... The following list consists of concepts that are derived from both Islamic and Arab tradition, which are expressed as words in the Arabic language. ...

Islam Portal  v  d  e 

Muslim history began in Arabia with Muhammad's first recitations of the Qur'an in the 7th century. Islam's historical development has affected political, economic, and military trends both inside and outside the Islamic world. As with Christendom, the concept of an Islamic world is useful in looking at different periods of human history; similarly useful is an understanding of the identification with a quasi-political community of believers, or ummah, on the part of Islam's practitioners down the centuries. The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... The 7th century is the period from 601 - 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... The Islamic world is the world-wide community of those who identify with Islam, known as Muslims, and who number approximately one-and-a-half billion people. ... This T-and-O map, which abstracts the known world to a cross inscribed within an orb, remakes geography in the service of Christian iconography. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Contents

Background

Within a century of Muhammad's final recitations of the Qur'an, an Islamic state stretched from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to Central Asia in the east. This new polity soon broke into a civil war known to Islamic historians as the Fitna, and later affected by a Second Fitna. Through its history, there would be rival dynasties claiming the caliphate, or leadership of the Muslim world, and many Islamic states and empires offered only token obedience to a caliph unable to unify the Islamic world. The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Fitna (فتنة) is an Arabic word, generally regarded as very difficult to translate but at the same time is considered to be an all encompassing word referring to schism, secession, upheaval and anarchy at once. ... The Second Fitna, or Second Islamic civil war, was a period of general political and military disorder that afflicted the Islamic world during the early Umayyad dynasty, following the death of the caliph Muawiya I. There seems to be a lack of solid consensus on the exact range of years... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ...


The subsequent empires of the Ummayyads, Abbasids, the Mughals, and the Seljuk Turk, Safavid Persia and Ottomans were among the largest and most powerful in the world. People in the Islamic world made many centers of culture and science and produced notable scientists, astronomers, mathematicians, doctors and philosophers during the Golden Age of Islam. Technology flourished; there was much investment in economic infrastructure, such as irrigation systems and canals; stress on the importance of reading the Qur'an produced a comparatively high level of literacy in the general populace. The Umayyad dynasty (Arabic,بنو أمية ) (Banu Umayyah), whose name derives from Umayya ibn Abd Shams, the great-grandfather of Muawiyah I, was the first dynasty of the Muslim Caliphate, 661–750. ... Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid was the dynastic name generally given to the caliphs of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Muslim empire. ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq;in Turkish Selçuklu, in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān ; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa;) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turkics and a dynasty that ruled parts of Central Asia and the Middle East from the 11th to 14th... The Safavids were a long-lasting Turkic-speaking Iranian dynasty that ruled from 1501 to 1736 and first established Shiite Islam as Persias official religion. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Ottoman redirects here. ... Islamic philosophy (الفلسفة الإسلامية) is a branch of Islamic studies, and is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between philosophy (reason) and the religious teachings of Islam (faith). ... Architecture is one of several fields that blossomed during the Golden Age of Islam. ...


In the 18th and 19th centuries A.D., Islamic regions fell under the sway of European imperial powers. Following World War I, the remnants of the Ottoman empire were parcelled out as European protectorates. Since then, no major widely-accepted claim to the caliphate (which had been last claimed by the Ottomans) remained. Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell See The Protectorate. ...


Although affected by various ideologies, such as communism, during much of the twentieth century, Islamic identity and Islam's salience on political questions have arguably increased during the late twentieth century and early twenty-first century. Rapid growth, western interests in Islamic regions, international conflicts and globalization influenced Islam's importance in shaping the world of the twenty-first century. This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s The 20th century lasted from 1901 to 2000 in the Gregorian calendar (often from (1900 to 1999 in common usage). ... (20th century - 21st century - 22nd century - other centuries) Definition In calendars based on the Christian Era or Common Era, such as the Gregorian calendar, the 21st century is the current century, as of this writing, lasting from 2001-2100. ... The rise of multinational corporations and outsourcing have played a crucial part in globalization. ... (20th century - 21st century - 22nd century - other centuries) Definition In calendars based on the Christian Era or Common Era, such as the Gregorian calendar, the 21st century is the current century, as of this writing, lasting from 2001-2100. ...


Note on early Islamic historiography

There are several Muslim versions of early Islamic history as written by the Sunni, Shi'a, and Ibadi sects. Nineteenth century Western scholars tended to privilege the Sunni versions; the Sunni are the largest sect, and their books and scholars were easily available. Over the last hundred years, Western scholars have become much more willing to question the orthodox view and to advance new theories and new narratives. The historiography of early Islam is the study of how various historians have treated the events of the first two centuries of Islamic history. ... The historiography of early Islam is the study of how various historians have treated the events of the first two centuries of Islamic history. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... Al-Ibāḍiyyah (Arabic الاباضية) is a form of Islam distinct from the Shiite and Sunni denominations. ...


Muhammad

By his death in 632, Muhammad had managed to unite the entire Arabian peninsula.
Main article: Muhammad

Arabia before Muhammad was scantily populated by various Arabic-speaking people. Some were Bedouin, pastoral nomads organized in tribes. Some were agriculturalists, living either in oases in the north, or in the more fertile and thickly settled areas to the south (now Yemen and Oman). At that time the majority of Arabs followed polytheistic religions, although a few tribes followed Judaism, Christianity (including Nestorians) or Zoroastrianism. The city Mecca was a religious center for some of the northern Arabian polytheists, as it contained the sacred well of Zamzam and a small temple, the Ka'aba. Adaptation of existing location maps by user Asim Led. ... Adaptation of existing location maps by user Asim Led. ... Events Abu Bakr becomes first caliph or Successor of the Prophet, leader of Islam Abu Bakr defeats Mosailima in the Battle of Akraba. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... A Bedouin man on a hillside at Mount Sinai Bedouin, (from the Arabic (), is a desert-dwelling Arab nomadic pastoralist, found throughout most of the desert belt extending from the Atlantic coast of the Sahara via the Western Desert, Sinai, and Negev to the Arabian Desert. ... For the 2006 historical epic set in Kazakhstan, see Nomad (2006 film). ... Polytheism is belief in, or worship of, multiple gods or divinities. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Nestorianism is the doctrine that Jesus exists as two persons, the man Jesus and the divine Son of God, or Logos, rather than as a unified person. ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... Drinking the water from Zamzam spring. ... The Kaaba (Arabic: ; IPA: ) , also known as (), ( The Primordial House), or ( The Sacred House), is a large cuboidal building located inside the mosque known as al-Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. ...


Muhammad was born on the outskirts of Mecca in the Year of the Elephant. Most Muslims equate this with the Gregorian year 570 but a few prefer 571. He was orphaned at an early age and was raised by his uncle Abu Talib, and taught by Waraqah ibn Nawfal, Khadijah's cousin. He became a merchant, married a wealthy widow and could have looked forward to a life of ease and prosperity. The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري; at-taqwīm al-hijrī; Persian: تقویم هجري قمری ‎ taqwīm-e hejri-ye qamari; also called the Hijri calendar) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate... This limestone statue of a Boddhisattva was probably created in the Henan province of China around 570, in the Northern Qi Dynasty. ... Events The Monophysites again reject the Council of Chalcedon, causing another schism. ... Abu Talib ibn Abd al-Muttalib (d. ...


However, when he was some forty years old, he received a revelation while he was meditating in a cave outside Mecca. This would have been in 610 C.E. After an initial period of doubt and fear, he started to preach to his kinfolk and then in public, to all Meccans.


Muhammad claimed that he had been chosen by God, like the Abrahamic religions prophets (Moses, Elijah, etc.) before him, to preach the absolute oneness of God, repentance, submission to God, and a coming day of judgment. He said he was not preaching a new religion, just reviving the old and pure tradition which the Christians and Jews had debased. This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... This is a table containing prophets of the modern Abrahamic religions. ...


In 615 C.E. a band of Muslims were counseled by Muhammad to escape persecution in Mecca and travel to Ethiopia, which was ruled by a Christian king. In 622 Muhammad and many of his followers fled to the neighboring city of Yathrib, which later became known as Medina. This migration is called the Hijra; it was the first year of Muhammad's reign as a political as well as a religious leader. Following the custom of the time, later historians took that year as the start of the Muslim calendar. This article is about the Saudi city of Medina. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... For other uses, see Hijra. ... The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar is the calendar used to date events in predominately Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate Muslim holy days. ...


The two cities of Mecca and Medina went to war. Muhammad and his followers won one battle (Battle of Badr) and managed to stalemate a Meccan attack in the Battle of the Trench. Through conquest and conversion, Muhammad was able to unite the surrounding tribes behind him and eventually assembled such a large force that Mecca capitulated without a fight. By the time Muhammad died, on June 8, 632, he and his followers had united the entire Arabian peninsula under Islam, and had started to expand into the areas now known as Syria and Iraq. Combatants Muslims of Medina Quraish of Mecca Commanders Muhammad Amr ibn Hishām Strength 300-350 <900-1000 Casualties 14 killed 50-70 killed 43-70 captured The Battle of Badr (Arabic: ), fought March 17, 624 CE (17 Ramadan 2 AH in the Islamic calendar) in the Hejaz of western... Combatants Muslims Quraysh-led Coalition Commanders Muhammad Abu Sufyan ibn Harb Strength 3,000 10,000 Casualties only few few hundreds or more The Battle of the Trench or Battle of the Ditch (Arabic غزوة الخندق), also known as or Battle of Confederates (Arabic غزوة الاحزاب) was an attack by the non-Muslim Ahzab... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Abu Bakr becomes first caliph or Successor of the Prophet, leader of Islam Abu Bakr defeats Mosailima in the Battle of Akraba. ... Arabia redirects here. ...

Conquests of Muhammad and the Rashidun.

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 675 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1006 × 893 pixels, file size: 227 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 675 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1006 × 893 pixels, file size: 227 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ...

Early Caliphate

After Muhammad died, a series of Caliphs governed the Islamic State: Abu Bakr, Umar, Usman, and Ali. These first Caliphs are popularly known as the "Rashidun" or "rightly-guided" Caliphs. After the Rashidun, a series of Caliphates were established. Each caliphate was like a monarchy, developed its own unique laws and adopted a particular sect of Islam as a State religion. Until the ninth century the Muslim World would remain a single political entity under the leadership of one Caliph. The early Caliphate is also known as the Arab Empire or Islamic Empire. A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... The Arab Empire at its greatest extent The Arab Empire usually refers to the following Caliphates: Rashidun Caliphate (632 - 661) Umayyad Caliphate (661 - 750) - Successor of the Rashidun Caliphate Umayyad Emirate in Islamic Spain (750 - 929) Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in Islamic Spain (929 - 1031) Abbasid Caliphate (750-1258... During the Islamic Golden Age, usually dated from the 8th century to the 13th century,[1] engineers, scholars and traders of the Islamic world contributed enormously to the arts, agriculture, economics, industry, literature, navigation, philosophy, sciences, and technology, both by preserving and building upon earlier traditions and by adding many... The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs ( transliteration: ) is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the first four Caliphs. ... The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs ( transliteration: ) is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the first four Caliphs. ... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... The Arab Empire at its greatest extent The Arab Empire usually refers to the following Caliphates: Rashidun Caliphate (632 - 661) Umayyad Caliphate (661 - 750) - Successor of the Rashidun Caliphate Umayyad Emirate in Islamic Spain (750 - 929) Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in Islamic Spain (929 - 1031) Abbasid Caliphate (750-1258...


Timeline


Al-Rashidun - "The Rightly-Guided Khalifahs"

Main articles: Rashidun and Muslim conquests
The Rashidun made significant conquests, and brought large areas under the fold of Islam.

With Muhammad's death in 632, there was a moment of confusion about who would succeed to leadership of the Muslim community. With a dispute flaring between the Medinese Ansar and the Meccan Muhajirun as to who would undertake this task, Umar ibn al-Khattab, a prominent companion of Muhammad, nominated Abu Bakr: Muhammad's intimate friend and collaborator.[1][2] Others added their support and Abu Bakr was made the first Khalifah, literally "successor", leader of the community of Islam. The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs ( transliteration: ) is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the first four Caliphs. ... Age of the Caliphs  Expansion under the Prophet Muhammad, 622-632  Expansion during the Patriarchal Caliphate, 632-661  Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661-750 The initial Muslim conquests (632–732), also referred to as the Islamic conquests or Arab conquests,[1] began after the death of the Islamic prophet... Image File history File links Rashidmap. ... Image File history File links Rashidmap. ... Events Abu Bakr becomes first caliph or Successor of the Prophet, leader of Islam Abu Bakr defeats Mosailima in the Battle of Akraba. ... Ansar (Arabic: الأنصار, meaning aiders, or patrons) refer to a class of warriors who are renouned for there arsenal of weapons and the speed and mobility of there arabian horse. ... Muhajirun (Arabic: المهاجرون; The Emigrants) are the early Muslims who followed Muhammad in the Migration from Mecca to Medina. ... For other uses of the name, see Umar (disambiguation). ... In Islam, the SÌ£aḥābah (Arabic: ‎ companions) were the companions of Muhammad. ... Abu Bakr As Siddiq (Arabic &#1575;&#1576;&#1608; &#1576;&#1603;&#1585; &#1575;&#1604;&#1589;&#1583;&#1610;&#1602;, alternative spellings, Abubakar, Abi Bakr, Abu Bakar) (c. ...


Abu Bakr's immediate task was to avenge the recent stalemate between the Muslims and the Byzantine Empire forces of the Eastern Roman Empire, although a more potent threat soon surfaced in the form of a number of Arab tribes who were in revolt after having learned of the death of Muhammad. Some of these tribes refused to pay the Zakat tax to the new caliph, while other tribes touted individuals claiming to be prophets. Abu Bakr swiftly declared war upon, and subdued these tribes, in the period of time known as the Ridda wars, or "Wars of Apostasy".[1] Byzantine redirects here. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic economical jurisprudence. ... President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs a declaration of war against the Empire of Japan on December 8, 1941, one day after the attack on Pearl Harbor. ... The Ridda wars (also known as the Riddah wars and the Wars of Apostasy) were a set of military campaigns against apostasy and rebellion against the Caliph Abu Bakr during 632 and 633 AD, following the death of Muhammad(S). ...


Abu Bakr's death in 634 resulted in the succession of Umar as the caliph, and after him, Uthman ibn al-Affan, and then Ali ibn Abi Talib. These four are known as the "khulafa rashidūn" ("Rightly Guided Caliphs").[3] Under them, the territory under Muslim rule expanded greatly. The decades of warring between the neighboring Persian and Byzantine empires during the Roman-Persian Wars had rendered both sides weakened and exhausted.[4] Not only that, it had also caused them to underestimate the strength of the growing new power, especially their excellent military leaders, Khalid ibn al-Walid and ‘Amr ibn al-‘As, as well as the Arabs' superior military horsemanship. This, coupled with the precipitation of internal strife within Byzantium and its exposure to a string of barbarian invasions, made conditions somewhat favorable for the Muslims. Events The Arabs invade Palestine. ... Uthman ibn Affan (Arabic: &#1593;&#1579;&#1605;&#1575;&#1606; &#1576;&#1606; &#1593;&#1601;&#1575;&#1606;) (c. ... Ali ibn Abu Talib (Arabic: علي بن أبي طالب translit: ‘AlÄ« ibn Abu Ṭālib Persian: علی پسر ابو طالب) ‎ (599 – 661) is an early Islamic leader. ... The Four Rightly Guided Caliphs (Arabic: ‎ transliterated: ) is a term used in Sunni Islam and in general around the world to refer to the first four caliphs who are seen as being model leaders. ... Persia redirects here. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... Combatants Roman Republic, succeeded by Roman Empire and Eastern Roman Empire later Persian Empire projected through Parthian and Sassanid dynasties Commanders Lucullus, Pompey, Crassus, Mark Antony, Trajan, Valerian I, Julian, Belisarius, Heraclius Surena, Shapur I, Shapur II, Kavadh I, Khosrau I, Khosrau II, Shahin, Shahrbaraz, Rhahzadh The Roman-Persian Wars... Khālid ibn al-WalÄ«d (592-642) (Arabic: خالد بن الوليد) also known as Sayf-Allah al-Maslul (the Drawn Sword of God or Sword of Allah), was one of the two famous Arab generals during the Muslim conquests of the 7th Century. ... ˤAmr ibn al-ˤĀs (Arabic: عمرو بن العاص) (born c. ... A modern-day knight in late medieval style plate armor, demonstrating jousting at a Renaissance Fair. ... Byzantium (Greek: Βυζάντιον) was an ancient Greek city, which, according to legend, was founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas or Byzantas (Βύζας or Βύζαντας in Greek). ...


At the Battle of Yarmuk (636), Muslim armies led by Khalid ibn al-Walid won a crushing victory over the Byzantines, thus paving the way for the conquest of Roman Syria and Palestine (634—640) and Roman Egypt (639642). After a decisive victory over the Sassanid Empire at the Battle of al-Qādisiyyah in 637, Muslims conquered the Persian Empire, including Iraq. Five years later, after a revolt during the Battle of Nihawānd, the conquest of Persia was effectively complete.[4][5] Conquest also included the lands of Armenia (642) and even as far as Transoxiana and Chinese Turkestan.[4] Depopulation and decline caused by the Plague of Justinian may have contributed to the success of the Arabs.[1] Combatants Byzantine Empire Muslim Arabs Commanders Theodore the Sacellarius Baänes Khalid ibn Walid Strength About 200,000 About 24,000 Casualties Very Heavy,About 50,000 Unknown,Relativly low The Battle of Yarmuk (also spelled Yarmuq or Hieromyax) took place between the Muslim Arabs and the Byzantine Empire in... Khālid ibn al-WalÄ«d (592-642) (Arabic: خالد بن الوليد) also known as Sayf-Allah al-Maslul (the Drawn Sword of God or Sword of Allah), was one of the two famous Arab generals during the Muslim conquests of the 7th Century. ... Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered around its capital in Constantinople. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Muslim Arabs (Rashidun and Umayyad Caliphates) The Age of the Caliphs The Muslim conquest of Syria occured in the first half of the 7th century. ... A 2003 satellite image of the region. ... Events May 28 - Severinus becomes pope, but dies the same year. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Muslim Arabs (Rashidun and Umayyad Caliphates) At the commencement of the Muslim conquest of Egypt, Egypt was part of the Byzantine Empire with its capital in Constantinople. ... Events Dagobert I succeeded by Clovis II as king of the Franks in Neustria and Burgundy During the Islamic conquest of Persia, Susa is destroyed Births Deaths Pippin I of Landen, father of Gertrude of Nivelles Categories: 639 ... Events August 5 - In the Battle of Maserfield, Penda king of Mercia defeats and kills Oswald, king of Bernicia. ... The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty (Persian: []) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian Empire (226–651). ... Combatants Rashidun Caliphate Sassanid Persian Empire Commanders Sa`d ibn AbÄ« Waqqās Rostam Farrokhzād â€  Strength 30,000[1] 120,000[1] Casualties 6,000 [2] 40,000 [3] The Battle of al-Qādisiyyah (Arabic: ; transliteration, Marakat al-Qādisiyyah; Persian: ; alternate spellings: Qadisiyya, Qadisiyyah, Kadisiya) was... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Islamic conquest of Afghanistan. ... Combatants Muslim Arabs Sassanid Empire The Battle of Nihawānd was fought in 642 between Arab and Sassanid. ... Events August 5 - In the Battle of Maserfield, Penda king of Mercia defeats and kills Oswald, king of Bernicia. ... Map showing modern Transoxiana. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... The Plague of Justinian was a pandemic that afflicted the Byzantine Empire, including its capital Constantinople, in the years 541–542 AD. It has been speculated that this pandemic marked an early recorded incidence of bubonic plague, which centuries later became infamous for either causing or contributing to the Black... Combatants Byzantine Empire,[1] Arab Ghassanids, Bulgarian Empire (later) Muslim Arabs (Rashidun, Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphates) Syria was just the start of Arab expansion. ...


The First Fitna

Despite the military successes of the Muslims at this time, the political atmosphere was not without controversy. With Umar assassinated in 644, the election of Uthman as successor was met with gradually increasing opposition.[6] He was subsequently accused of nepotism, favoritism and of introducing reprehensible religious innovations, though in reality the motivations for such charges were economic.[6] Like Umar, Uthman too was then assassinated, in 656. Ali then assumed the position of caliph, although tensions soon escalated into what became the "First Fitna" (first civil war) when numerous companions of Muhammad, including Uthman's relative Muawiyah (who was assigned by Uthman as governor of Syria) and Muhammad's wife Aisha, sought to avenge the slaying of Uthman. Ali's forces defeated the latter at the Battle of the Camel, but the encounter with Muawiyah proved indecisive, with both sides agreeing to arbitration. Ali retained his position as caliph but had been unable to bring Mu'awiyah's territory under his command.[7] When Ali was fatally stabbed by a Khawarijite dissenter in 661, Mu'awiyah was ordained as the caliph, marking the start of the hereditary Ummayad caliphate.[8] The First Islamic civil war, 656–661 CE, followed the assassination of the caliph Uthman ibn Affan, continued during the brief caliphate of Ali ibn Abu Talib, and was ended, on the whole, by Muawiyas assumption of the caliphate. ... The Tang dynasty of China begins invasion of Koguryo. ... When `Umar was wounded by Abu Luluah and he saw that it was difficult for him to survive because of the deep wound, he formed a consultative committee and nominated for it `Ali ibn Abi Talib, `Uthman ibn `Affan, `Abd ar-Rahman ibn `Awf, az-Zubayr ibn al... Look up nepotism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Elitism is the belief or attitude that the people who are considered to be the elite — a selected group of persons with outstanding personal abilities, wealth, specialised training or experience, or other distinctive attributes — are the people whose views on a matter are to be taken the most seriously, or... In the Arabic language, Bidah means innovation. ... Oswiu of Northumbria annexes Mercia // Battle of Bassorah (also known as Battle of the Camel) between Ali and Aisha, part of the first civil war in Islam; taken place in modern-day Basra, Iraq. ... The First Fitna, 656–661 CE, followed the assassination of the caliph Uthman ibn Affan, continued during the brief caliphate of Ali ibn Abu Talib, and was ended, on the whole, by Muawiyas assumption of the caliphate. ... Muawiyah I (602 - May 6, 680), early Muslim leader and founder of the great Umayyad Dynasty of caliphs. ... For other uses, see Aisha (disambiguation). ... In 655 a Muslim force led by Caliph Ali defeated a superior force of rebel Arabs in the Battle of Bassorah (Bassorah = Basra). ... Combatants Ummayyad Dynasty; Muawiyah I Rashidun Dynasty; Ali ibn Abi Talib Commanders Amr ibn al-Aas Ali ibn Abi Talib Malik ibn Ashter Strength 120,000 (approx) 90,000 (approx) Casualties 45,000 (approx) 25,000 (approx) The Battle of Siffin (May-July 657 CE) occurred during the First Fitna... Kharijites were members of an Islamic sect in late 7th and early 8th century AD, concentrated in todays southern Iraq. ... Events Caliph Ali Ben Abu Talib is assassinated. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ...


Umayyads

Main article: Umayyad
The territory of the Caliphate in the year 750

The first Ummayad caliph, Muawiya I, was able to conquer much of North Africa, mainly through the efforts of Muslim general Uqba ibn Nafi.[9] There was much contention surrounding Mu'awiyah's assignment of his son Yazid as successor upon the eve of his death in 680,[10] drawing protest from Husayn bin Ali, grandson of Muhammad, and Ibn az-Zubayr, a companion of Muhammad. Both led separate and ultimately unsuccessful revolts, and Ummayad attempts to pacify them became known as the "Second Fitna". Thereafter, the Ummayad dynasty continued rulership for a further seventy years (with caliph Umar II's tenure especially notable[11]), and were able to conquer the Maghrib (699705), as well as Spain and the Narbonnese Gaul at a similar date.[4] The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Download high resolution version (1229x1028, 292 KB)Middle East and Europe - The Caliphate in 750 (293K) The Califate in 750. ... Download high resolution version (1229x1028, 292 KB)Middle East and Europe - The Caliphate in 750 (293K) The Califate in 750. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Muawiyah I (602 - May 6, 680), early Muslim leader and founder of the great Umayyad Dynasty of caliphs. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Uqba ibn Nafi (Arabic: ‎ translit: ) (also referred to as Uqba bin Nafe, Uqba Ibn al Nafia, or Akbah) (622–683) was an Arab general under the Umayyad dynasty, who began the Islamic conquest of the Maghreb, including present-day western Algeria and Morocco in North Africa. ... Yazid Ibn Muawiyah Ibn Abu Sufyan (July 23, 645 - 683) (Arabic: يزيد بن معاوية بن أبي سفيان) was the second Caliph of the Umayyad dynasty. ... Events October 10 - Battle of Kerbela November 12 - The Sixth Ecumenical Council opens in Constantinople The Bulgars subjugate the country of current-day Bulgaria Pippin of Herstal becomes Mayor of the Palace Umayyad caliph Muawiyah I succeeded by Yazid I ibn Muawiyah Erwig deposes Wamba to become king of the... Imaginary portrait of Husayn ibn Ali, by contemporary Iranian artist. ... Abd Allah al-Zubayr or Ibn Zubayr or Abdullah ibn az-Zubayr (624 - 692) (Arabic: عبد الله بن الزبير) was a sahabi whose father was Zubayr ibn al-Awwam the nephew of Khadija, wife of Muhammad, and whose mother was Asma bint Abu Bakr, daughter of the first Caliph Abu Bakr. ... The Second Fitna, or Second Islamic civil war, was a period of general political and military disorder that afflicted the Islamic world during the early Umayyad dynasty, following the death of the caliph Muawiya I. There seems to be a lack of solid consensus on the exact range of years... Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz (c. ... The Arab Maghreb Union This article is about the region. ... Events Umayyad general Hajjaj suppresses a rebellion by Ibn al-Ashath. ... Alternate meaning: Area code 705 Events End of the short-lived Zhou Dynasty in China Umayyad caliph Abd al-Malik succeeded by al-Walid I ibn Abd al-Malik. ... Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis, 120 AD Gallia Narbonensis was a Roman province located in what is now Languedoc and Provence, in southern France. ...


Under the Ummayads, the Muslim world expanded into North Africa and Iberia in the West, and Central Asia in the East. According to Jonathan Bloom and Sheila Blair, "The Muslims, no longer Arab merchants from the heartland of Arabia, became masters of the economic and cultural heartland of the Near East, and their faith, Islam, was no longer an obscure Arabian cult but the religion of an imperial elite."[12]  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711&#8211;1492). ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...


Much of the population of this new empire was non-Muslim, and aside from a protection tax (jizya) and other restrictions, the conquered people found their religions tolerated. Indeed, Muslim authorities often discouraged conversions. Nevertheless, most of the population eventually converted to Islam, which created tension as greater numbers of non-Arabs (mostly Persians) converted. The tensions increased when Shiites joined the protest against Ummayad rule.[13] In states ruled by Islamic law, jizya or jizyah (Arabic: جزْية; Ottoman Turkish: cizye) is a per capita tax imposed on able bodied non-Muslim men of military age. ... This article is about dhimmi in the context of Islamic law. ... Shi&#699;a Islam (Arabic &#1588;&#1610;&#1593;&#1609; follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%&#8211;35% of all Muslim. ...


Umayyad rule was interrupted by a second civil war (the Second Fitna) in the early 680s, re-established, then ended in 750. The Second Fitna, or Second Islamic civil war, was a period of general political and military disorder that afflicted the Islamic world during the early Umayyad dynasty, following the death of the caliph Muawiya I. There seems to be a lack of solid consensus on the exact range of years...


Abbasids - "Islamic Golden Age"

Main articles: Abbasid and Islamic Golden Age

The gains of the Ummayad empire were consolidated upon when the Abbasid dynasty rose to power in 750, with the conquest of the Mediterranean islands including the Balearics and Sicily.[4] The new ruling party had been instated on the wave of dissatisfaction propagated against the Ummayads, cultured mainly by the Abbasid revolutionary, Abu Muslim.[14][15] Under the Abbasids, Islamic civilization flourished. Most notable was the development of Arabic prose and poetry, termed by The Cambridge History of Islam as its "golden age."[16] This was also the case for commerce and industry (considered a Muslim Agricultural Revolution), and the arts and sciences (considered a Muslim Scientific Revolution), which prospered, especially under the rule of Abbasid caliphs al-Mansur (ruled 754775), Harun al-Rashid (ruled 786809), al-Ma'mun (ruled 809813), and their immediate successors.[17] Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... During the Islamic Golden Age, usually dated from the 8th century to the 13th century,[1] engineers, scholars and traders of the Islamic world contributed enormously to the arts, agriculture, economics, industry, literature, navigation, philosophy, sciences, and technology, both by preserving and building upon earlier traditions and by adding many... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... Events Last Umayyad caliph Marwan II (744-750) overthrown by first Abbasid caliph, Abu al-Abbas al-Saffah Bold textItalic textLink title GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM... This is a list of islands in the Mediterranean Sea: // == Australia is the biggest island!! == This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... Capital Palma de Mallorca Official languages Catalan and Castilian Area  - total  - % of Spain Ranked 17th 4 992 km² 1,0% Population  - Total (2003)  - % of Spain  - Density Ranked 14th 916 968 2,2% 183,69/km² Demonym  - English  - Catalan  - Spanish Balearic balear balear Statute of Autonomy March 1, 1983 ISO 3166... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... The ruling party in a parliamentary system is the party or coalition of the majority in parliament. ... Abu Muslim Abd al-Rahman ibn Muslim al-Khurasani (Persian:أبو مسلم خراساني)(Arabic:أبو مسلم عبد الرحمن بن مسلم الخراساني) (ca. ... Arabic literature (Arabic ,الأدب العربي ) Al-Adab Al-Arabi, is the writing produced, both prose and poetry, by speakers of the Arabic language. ... Arabic poetry is poetry composed and written down in the Arabic language either by Arab people or non-Arabs. ... Architecture is one of several fields that blossomed during the Golden Age of Islam. ... The Islamic Golden Age from the 8th century to the 13th century witnessed a fundamental transformation in agriculture known as the Muslim Agricultural Revolution,[1] Arab Agricultural Revolution,[2] or Green Revolution. ... Islamic tilework of the Shrine of Hadhrat Masoumah, first built in the late 8th century. ... In the history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under the Islamic civilisation between the 8th and 15th centuries (the Islamic Golden Age). ... pooperson he was the first bisexual man to have a heshe baby This article is abliph Al Mansur of Baghdad. ... Events Pope Stephen III crowns Pepin the short King of the Franks at St. ... Estimation: Baghdad, capital of the Abbasid Empire, becomes the largest city of the world, taking the lead from Changan, capital of China. ... Bold textItalic text == Headline text ==He was born a 4 headed man but 3 of his 4 heads died along with all but one of his 90 hearts. ... Events September 14 - Harun al-Rashid becomes the Abbasid caliph upon the death of his brother al-Hadi, and appoints Salim Yunisi as the Abbasid governor of Sindh and the Indus Valley A council is organized in Constantinople, but disturbed by soldiers Beatus of Liébana, Spanish monk, publishes his... Events Saga succeeds Heizei as emperor of Japan. ... Abu Jafar al-Mamun ibn Harun (also spelled Almanon and el-Mâmoûn) (786 – October 10, 833) (المأمون) was an Abbasid caliph who reigned from 813 until his death in 833. ... Events Saga succeeds Heizei as emperor of Japan. ... Events June 22 - Byzantine Emperor Michael I is defeated in a war against the Bulgarians. ...

Abbasid Caliphate and contemporary states and empires in 820.

Baghdad was made the new capital of the caliphate (moved from the previous capital, Damascus) due to the importance placed by the Abbasids upon eastern affairs in Persia and Transoxania.[17] It was at this time, however, that the caliphate showed signs of fracture and the uprising of regional dynasties. Although the Ummayad family had been killed by the revolting Abbasids, one family member, Abd ar-Rahman I, was able to flee to Spain and establish an independent caliphate there, in 756. In the Maghreb region, Harun al-Rashid appointed the Arab Aghlabids as virtually autonomous rulers, although they continued to recognise the authority of the central caliphate. Aghlabid rule was short lived, as they were deposed by the Shiite Fatimid dynasty in 909. By around 960, the Fatimids had conquered Abbasid Egypt, building a new capital there in 973 called "al-Qahirah" (meaning "the planet of victory", known today as Cairo). Similar was the case in Persia, where the Turkic Ghaznavids managed to snatch power from the Abbasids.[18][19] Whatever temporal power of the Abbasids remained had eventually been consumed by the Seljuq Turks (a Muslim Turkish clan which had migrated into mainland Persia), in 1055.[17] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x600, 41 KB) Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x600, 41 KB) Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... Tahir, the son of a slave, is rewarded with the governorship of Khurasan because he have supported the caliphate. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Abd ar-Rahman I Arabic: (عبد الرحمن الداخل), (known as the Falcon of Andalus or The Falcon of the Quraish)[1] (born 731; ruled from 756 through his death circa 788) was the founder of a Muslim dynasty that ruled the greater part of Iberia for nearly three centuries. ... Events Abd-ar-rahman I conquers Iberia and establishes a new Umayyad dynasty. ... An Aghlabid cistern in Kairuan The Aghlabid dynasty of emirs, members of the Arab tribe of Bani Tamim, ruled Ifriqiya (northern Africa), nominally on behalf of the Abbasid Caliph, for about a century, until overthrown by the new power of the Fatimids. ... Shi&#8216;as (the adjective in Arabic is &#1588;&#1610;&#1593;&#1609; shi&#8216;i; English has traditionally used Shiite) which mean follower in Arabic make up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%-35% of all Muslim. ... The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-FātimiyyÅ«n (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ... This article is for the year 909. ... Events Edgar the Peaceable crowned King of England. ... Events Edgar of England is crowned king by Saint Dunstan Births September 15 - Al_Biruni, mathematician (&#8224; 1048) Abu al-Ala al-Maarri, poet Deaths May 7 - Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor Categories: 973 ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... The Ghaznavid Empire was a state in the region of todays Afghanistan that existed from 977 to 1186. ... By the expression temporal power is commonly indicated the political and governmental activity of the Popes of the Roman Catholic Church, as distinguished from their spiritual and pastoral activity (also called eternal power). ... The Seljuqs (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuk, sometimes also Seljuq Turks; in Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a Muslim dynasty of originally Oghuz Turkic descent[1][2][3][4] that ruled parts of Central Asia and the Middle East... Events January 11 - Theodora becomes Reigning Empress of the Eastern Roman Empire. ...


During this time, expansion continued, sometimes by military warfare, sometimes by peaceful proselytism.[4] The first stage in the conquest of India began just before the year 1000. By some 200 (from 11931209) years later, the area up to the Ganges river had been conquered. In sub-Saharan West Africa, it was just after the year 1000 that Islam was established. Muslim rulers are known to have been in Kanem starting from sometime between 1081 to 1097, with reports of a Muslim prince at the head of Gao as early as 1009. The Islamic kingdoms associated with Mali reached prominence later, in the 13th century.[4] This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Muslim conquest of the Indian subcontinent took place during the ascendancy of the Rajput Kingdoms in North India, during the 7th to the 12th centuries. ... Europe in 1000 The year 1000 of the Gregorian Calendar was the last year of the 10th century as well as the last year of the first millennium. ... // Saladin dies, and the lands of the Kurdish Ayyubid dynasty of Egypt and Syria are split among his descendants. ... Events Albigensian Crusade against Cathars (1209-1218) the Franciscans are founded. ... This article is about the river. ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ... Kanem is one of the 18 regions of Chad, corresponding to the former prefecture of Kanem. ... Events Corfu taken from Byzantine Empire by Robert Guiscard, Italy Byzantine emperor Nicephorus III is overthrown by Alexius I Comnenus, ending the Middle Byzantine period and beginning the Comnenan dynasty Alexius I helps defend Albania from the Normans (the first recorded mention of Albania), but is defeated at the Battle... Events Edgar I deposes Donald III to become king of Scotland. ... For other uses, see Gao (disambiguation). ... Events February 14: First known mention of Lithuania, in the annals of the monastery of Quedlinburg. ... Extent of the Mali Empire (ca. ...


During the Abbasid reign, Baghdad became one of the greatest cultural centers of the world. The Abbasids were said to be descendents of Abbas the uncle of Muhammad claiming that they were the 'messiha' or saviours of the people under the Ummayad rule. Abbasid caliphs Harun al-Rashid and Al-Mamun were great patrons of arts and sciences, and enabled these domains to flourish. Islamic philosophy also developed as the Shariah was codified, and the four Madhabs were established and built. This era also saw the rise of classical Sufism. The greatest achievement, however, was completion of the canonical collections of Hadith of Sahih Bukhari and others.[20] Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid was the dynastic name generally given to the caliphs of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Muslim empire. ... The Umayyad Dynasty (Arabic &#1575;&#1604;&#1571;&#1605;&#1608;&#1610;&#1608;&#1606; / &#1576;&#1606;&#1608; &#1571;&#1605;&#1610;&#1577; umawiyy; in Turkish, Emevi) was the first dynasty of caliphs of the Prophet Muhammad who were not closely related to Muhammad himself, though they were of the same Meccan tribe, the... Bold textItalic text == Headline text ==He was born a 4 headed man but 3 of his 4 heads died along with all but one of his 90 hearts. ... Abu Jafar al-Mamun ibn Harun (786 - 833) (&#1575;&#1604;&#1605;&#1571;&#1605;&#1608;&#1606;) was an Abbasid caliph who reigned from 813 until his death in 833. ... Sharia (Arabic &#1588;&#1585;&#1610;&#1593;&#1577; also Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is traditional Islamic law. ... Madhhab(مذهب) (Madhahib, pl) is an Islamic term that refers to a school of thought or religious jurisprudence (fiqh) within Sunni Islam. ... Sufism is a mystic tradition within Islam that encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to Divine love and the cultivation of the elements of the Divine within the individual human being. ... Hadith ( transliteration: ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. ... The authentic collection (Arabic: الجامع الصحيح, al-Jaami al-Sahih [1]) or popularly al-Bukharis authentic (Arabic: صحيح البخاري, Sahih al-Bukhari) is one of the Sunni six major Hadith collections (Hadith are oral traditions recounting events in the lives of the Islamic prophet Muhammad ). Sunni view this as their most trusted collection. ...


Regional powers

The Abbasids soon became caught within a three-way rivalry of Arabs, Persians and the immigrant Turks.[21] In addition, the cost of running a large empire became too great.[22] The political unity of Islam began to disintegrate. The Emirates, still recognizing the theoretical leadership of the caliphs, drifted into independence, and a brief revival of control was ended with the establishment of rival caliphates. Eventually the Abbasids ruled as puppets for the Buwayhid emirs. During this time, great advancements were made in the areas of astronomy, poetry, philosophy science and mathematics. The Buwayhids or Buyyids or Āl-i Buyeh, were a Yazdani tribal confederation from Daylam, a region on the southern shore of the Caspian Sea. ...


Spain & the Umayyads

Main articles: Al-Andalus and Caliphate of Córdoba

The Arabs first began their conquest of southern Spain or al-Andalus in 710 and created a province under the Caliphate which extended as far as the north of the peninsula.[23] After the Abbasids came to power, some Ummayads fled to Muslim Spain and established themselves in Córdoba. By the end of the 10th century, the ruler Abd al-Rahman III (912-61) took over the title of caliph, and established with it a caliphate parallel to the one in Baghdad. A large number of Berbers from Morocco migrated to Andalus, but also large numbers of Jews and Christians lived alongside Muslims. Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711&#8211;1492). ... ... Location Coordinates : , , Time zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer : CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Córdoba (Spanish) Spanish name Córdoba Founded 8th century BC Postal code 140xx Website http://www. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ...


"Toleration, a common language and a long tradition of separate rule all helped to create a distinctive Andalusian consciousness and society. Its Islamic religious culture developed on rather different lines from those of the eastern countries."[24]


During the 11th century, the Umayyad kingdom of al-Andalus broke down into over forty Taifas, which in the end built the preconditions for the Christian reconquest.[25] The latter re-established Christian rule more and more southwards, ending all Muslim rule in 1492 with the reconquest of the kingdom of Granada.[26] The Spanish and Portuguese term taifa (from Arabic: taifa, plural طوائف tawaif) in the history of Iberia refers to an independent Muslim-ruled principality, an emirate or petty kingdom, of which a number formed in the Al-Andalus (Moorish Iberia) after the final collapse of the Umayyad Caliphate of... For other senses of this word, see Reconquista (disambiguation). ...


The Fatimids

The Fatimids, (Fatimid Caliphate), who are believed to be the descendants of Fatima, is the Shi'a Ismaili dynasty that ruled from 5 January 910 to 1171. The ruling elite of the state belonged to the Ismaili branch of Shi'ism. The leaders of the dynasty were also Shia Ismaili Imams, hence, they had a religious significance to Ismaili Muslims. The Fatimid Empire or Fatimid Caliphate ruled North Africa from A.D. 909 to 1171. ... Fatima may refer to: Fatima (name) a female personal name (see that article for a list of other people with the name) Fatima Zahra, daughter of prophet Muhammad, and wife of Ali, the 1st Imam of Shia Islam. ... The Ismāʿīlī (Urdu: اسماعیلی Ismāʿīlī, Arabic: الإسماعيليون al-Ismāʿīliyyūn; Persian: اسماعیلیان Esmāʿīliyān) branch of Islam is the second largest part of the Shīa community, after the Twelvers (Ithnāʿashariyya). ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Foundation of the Benedictine monastery of Cluny Chinese Zhou dynasty monarch &#25087;&#29579; yi4 wang2 is succeeded by &#23389;&#29579; xiao4 wang2 Hashavarman I succeeds Yasovarman I as ruler of the Khmer empire Gabriel I of Alexandria becomes Pope of the Coptic Orthodox Church Garcia I of Leon becomes... Events Saladin abolishes the Fatimid caliphate, restoring Sunni rule in Egypt. ... The Ismāʿīlī (Urdu: اسماعیلی Ismāʿīlī, Arabic: الإسماعيليون al-Ismāʿīliyyūn; Persian: اسماعیلیان Esmāʿīliyān) branch of Islam is the second largest part of the Shīa community, after the Twelvers (Ithnāʿashariyya). ... This is a sub-article to Imamah (Shia doctrine). ...


The Fatimids established sovereignty over Egypt, North Africa, Sicily and Syria. Under the Fatimids, the city of Cairo was established and built into an imperial military and cultural center. The Fatimid Empire or Fatimid Caliphate ruled North Africa from A.D. 909 to 1171. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ...


The Fatimid territories of Syria and Palestine fell to the invading Seljuks in the late eleventh century. They would, however, continue to rule in Egypt until its conquest by Saladin in the late twelfth century. The Seljuk Turks (Turkish: Selçuk; Arabic: &#1587;&#1604;&#1580;&#1608;&#1602; Salj&#363;q, &#1575;&#1604;&#1587;&#1604;&#1575;&#1580;&#1602;&#1577; al-Sal&#257;jiqa; Persian: &#1587;&#1604;&#1580;&#1608;&#1602;&#1610;&#1575;&#1606; Salj&#363;qiy&#257;n; also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq) were a major branch of... Saladin, properly known as Salah al-DÄ«n Yusuf ibn Ayyub (Arabic: , Kurdish: ) (c. ...


The Seljuks

A series of new invasions swept over the Islamic world. The newly converted Seljuk Turks swept across and conquered most of Islamic Asia, Syria and Palestine. The Seljuks made religion an instrument of the state, while giving the clergy significant say over the affairs of the government. They also put an end to Caliphal institutions. These policies would be carried out by successive governments of Nur al-Din, Saladin and Mamluks. The Seljuk coat of arms was a double headed eagle The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان Saljūqiyān; in Arabic سلجوق Saljūq, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that ruled parts of... Nur ad-din Abu al-Qasim Mahmud Ibn Imad ad-Din Zangi (also Nur ed-Din, Nur al-Din, or Nureddin) (1118 - May 15, 1174) was a member of the Zengid dynasty, and ruled Syria from 1146 to 1174. ... Saladin, properly known as Salah al-Dīn Yusuf ibn Ayyub (Arabic: , Kurdish: ) (c. ... An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (or Mameluks) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: &#1605;&#1605;&#1604;&#1608;&#1603; plural: &#1605;&#1605;&#1575;&#1604;&#1610;&#1603;) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim Caliphs and the Ottoman Empire, and who on more than one occasion seized power for...


Shortly after, they won a decisive victory over the Byzantines, at the Battle of Manzikert, paving the way for further conquest of Christian Anatolia. Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered around its capital in Constantinople. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Great Seljuk Sultanate Commanders Romanus IV #, Nikephoros Bryennios, Theodore Alyates, Andronikos Doukas Alp Arslan Strength ~ 20,000 [1] (40,000 initial) ~ 20,000 [2] - 70,000[1] Casualties ~ 8,000 [3] Unknown The Battle of Manzikert, or Malazgirt was fought between the Byzantine Empire and Seljuk Turkic... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ...


The Crusaders

Main article: The Crusades

Beginning in the 8th century the Christian kingdoms of Spain had begun the Reconquista aimed at retaking Al-Andalus from the Moors. In 1095, Pope Urban II, inspired by the perceived holy wars in Spain and implored by the eastern Roman emperor to help defend Christianity in the East, called for the First Crusade from Western Europe which captured Edessa, Antioch, Tripoli and Jerusalem. The Christian Kingdom of Jerusalem emerged and for a time controlled many holy sites of Islam. Saladin, however, restored unity, defeated the Fatimids and put an end to the Kingdom of Jerusalem in 1187. Other crusades were launched with at least the nominal intent to recapture the holy city and other holy lands, but hardly more was ever accomplished than the errant looting and occupation of Christian Constantinople, leaving the Eastern Roman, or Byzantine, Empire severely weakened and ripe for later conquest. However, the crusaders did manage to weaken Muslim territories preventing them from further expansion into Christendom. This article is about historical Crusades . ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... For other senses of this word, see Reconquista (disambiguation). ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711&#8211;1492). ... For other uses, see moor. ... Events The country of Portugal is established for the second time. ... Pope Urban II (1042 – July 29, 1099), born Otho of Lagery (alternatively: Otto or Odo), was a Pope from 1088 to July 29, 1099. ... Emperor Alexios I Komnenos Alexios I Komnenos or Alexius I Comnenus (Greek: ; Latin: ; 1048 – August 15, 1118), Byzantine emperor (1081–1118), was the son of John Komnenos and Anna Dalassena and the nephew of Isaac I Komnenos (emperor 1057–1059). ... Combatants Christendom, Catholicism West European Christians, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia Seljuks, Arabs and other Muslims The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II with the dual goals of liberating the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslims and freeing the Eastern Christians from Muslim... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Antakya. ... Tripoli (Arabic: طرابلس Tarābulus) is the capital city of Libya. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... The kingdom of Jerusalem and the other Crusader states (in shades of green) in the context of the Near East in 1135. ... For other uses, see Holy Land (disambiguation). ... Saladin, properly known as Salah al-Dīn Yusuf ibn Ayyub (Arabic: , Kurdish: ) (c. ... // Events May 1 - Battle of Cresson - Saladin defeats the crusaders July 4 - Saladin defeats Guy of Lusignan, King of Jerusalem, at the Battle of Hattin. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ...


The Mamluks

In 1250, the short-lived Ayyubid dynasty (established by Saladin) was overthrown by slave regiments, and a new dynasty - the Mamluks - was born. The Mamluks soon expanded into Palestine, expelled the remaining Crusader states and repelled the Mongols from invading Syria. Thus they united Syria and Egypt for the longest period of time between the Abbasid and Ottoman empires (1250-1517).[27] The Ayyubid Dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Egypt, Iraq in the 12th and 13th centuries. ... Saladin, properly known as Salah al-DÄ«n Yusuf ibn Ayyub (Arabic: , Kurdish: ) (c. ... An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (or Mameluks) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: &#1605;&#1605;&#1604;&#1608;&#1603; plural: &#1605;&#1605;&#1575;&#1604;&#1610;&#1603;) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim Caliphs and the Ottoman Empire, and who on more than one occasion seized power for...


Islam in Africa

Main article: Islam in Africa

The first continent outside of Arabia to have an Islamic history was Africa beginning with the hijirah to Ethiopia. Islam in Ethiopia can be dated back to the founding of the religion; in 615, when a band of Muslims were counseled by Muhammad to escape persecution in Mecca and travel to Ethiopia, which was ruled by, in Muhammad's estimation, a pious Christian king. Moreover, Islamic tradition states that Bilal, one of the foremost companions of Muhammad, was from Ethiopia. Approximately 40% of all Africans are Muslims, in contrast to another 40% being Christians and 20% being non-religious or adherents to African religions. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


Islam in Maghreb

The Maghreb meaning "place of sunset" or "western" in Arabic, is the region of Africa north of the Sahara Desert and west of the Nile — specifically, coinciding with the Atlas Mountains. Geopolitically, the area includes Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya, Western Sahara, and sometimes Mauritania, which is often placed in West Africa instead. This part of Islamic territory has independent governments during most part of history of Islam. There were some great governments. A composite image showing the terminator dividing night from day, running across Europe and Africa. ... A compass rose with west highlighted This article refers to the cardinal direction; for other uses see West (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... The Nile (Arabic: , transliteration: , Ancient Egyptian iteru, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing river in Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world. ... Map showing the location of the Atlas Mountains (colored red) across North Africa The Atlas Mountains (Arabic: ‎) are a mountain range in northwest Africa extending about 2,400 km (1,500 miles) through Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia, and including The Rock of Gibraltar. ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ...


Idrisid dynasty The Idrisids were the first Arab dynasty in the western Maghreb, ruling from 788 to 985. The dynasty is named after its first sultan Idris I. The Idrisids were the first Arab dynasty in the western Maghreb, ruling from 788 to 985, and can be thought of as the originators of an independent Morocco. ... The Arab Maghreb Union This article is about the region. ... Events Charlemagne conquers Bavaria. ... Events Barcelona sacked by Al-Mansur Greenland colonized by Icelandic Viking Erik the Red (the date is according to legend but has been established as at least approximately correct &#8211; see History of Greenland) Lady Wulfruna founded the town that later became the city of Wolverhampton Births Al-Hakim bi... For other uses, see Sultan (disambiguation). ... This article is about Idris I of Morocco. ...


Almoravid dynasty was a Berber dynasty from the Sahara that flourished over a wide area of North-Western Africa and the Iberian peninsula during the 11th century. Under this dynasty the Moorish empire was extended over present-day Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania, Gibraltar, Tlemcen (in Algeria) and a great part of what is now Senegal and Mali in the south, and Spain and Portugal in the north. Almoravid Dynasty in its Greatest Extent The Almoravids (In Arabic المرابطون al-Murabitun, sing. ... Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... For the terrain type see Moor Moors is used in this article to describe the medieval Muslim inhabitants of al-Andalus and the Maghreb, whose culture is often called Moorish. For other meanings look at Moors (Meaning) or Blackamoors. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Almohad Dynasty or "the Unitarians," were a Berber Muslim religious power which founded the fifth Moorish dynasty in the 12th century, and conquered all northern Africa as far as Egypt, together with Al-Andalus. Almohad Dynasty in its Greatest Extent, IN WRONG MAP The Almohad Dynasty (From Arabic الموحدون al-Muwahhidun, i. ... Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. ... Various Religious symbols, including (first row) Christian, Jewish, Hindu, Bahai, (second row) Islamic, tribal, Taoist, Shinto (third row) Buddhist, Sikh, Hindu, Jain, (fourth row) Ayyavazhi, Triple Goddess, Maltese cross, pre-Christian Slavonic Religion is the adherence to codified beliefs and rituals that generally involve a faith in a spiritual... For the terrain type see Moor Moors is used in this article to describe the medieval Muslim inhabitants of al-Andalus and the Maghreb, whose culture is often called Moorish. For other meanings look at Moors (Meaning) or Blackamoors. ... // For other uses, see Dynasty (disambiguation). ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711&#8211;1492). ...


Islam in East Africa

There were Islamic governments in Tanzania. The people of Zayd were allegedly the first muslims to immigrate to East Africa. Islam came to east Africa mainly through trade routes. the African peoples that lived along these routes became converts due to the close contact they had to Arabs traders in areas like Tabora, from which they affected the manners of muslims. this led to eventual conversion without encouragement nor discouragement of the muslim Arabs. In pre-colonial east Africa, the structure of islamic authority was held up through the 'Ulama (wanawyuonis, in Swahili). Their base was mainly in Zanzibar. These leaders had some degree of authority over most of the muslims in East Africa at this time; specially before the territorial boudaries were established. this is due to the fact that the majority of muslims lived within the sphere of influence of the Sultanate in Zanzibar, the chief Qadi there was recognized for having the final religious authority. Reference: August H. Nimtz, Jr.Islam and Politics in East Aftrica. the Sufi Order in Tanzania. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, 1980.


Islam in West Africa

Usman dan Fodio after the Fulani War, found himself in command of the largest state in Africa, the Fulani Empire. Dan Fodio worked to establish an efficient government, one grounded in Islamic law. Already aged at the beginning of the war, dan Fodio retired in 1815 passing the title of Sultan of Sokoto to his son Muhammed Bello. Shaihu Usman dan Fodio (Arabic: عثمان بن فودي ، عثمان دان فوديو‎) (also referred to as Shaikh Usman Ibn Fodio , Shehu Uthman Dan Fuduye, or Shehu Usman dan Fodio, 1754 - 1817) was a writer and Islamic reformer. ... Fulani war 1804-1810 also know as Fulani Holy War or Jihad of Usman dan Fodio was a military conquest in present day Nigeria. ... The Fulani Empire was one of the most powerful states in sub-Saharan Africa in the years prior to European colonization. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Son and aide of Usman Dan Fodio. ...


Islam in Asia

Main article: Islam in Asia

Islam started in Asia with the life of the Prophet Muhammad. ...

Indian Subcontinent

See also: Islam in India, Islam in Pakistan

Islamic rule came to the region in the 8th century, when Muhammad bin Qasim conquered Sindh, (Pakistan). Muslim conquests were expanded under Mahmud and the Ghaznavids until the late twelfth century, when the Ghurids overran the Ghaznavids and extended the conquests in northern India. Qutb-ud-din Aybak, conquered Delhi in 1206 and began the reign of the Delhi Sultanates. The Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent mainly took place from the 13th to the 16th centuries, though earlier Muslim conquests made limited inroads into the region, beginning during the period of the ascendancy of the Rajput Kingdoms in North India, from the 7th century onwards. ... Islam in India is the second-most practiced religion after Hinduism. ... Over 98% of 166 million peoples of Pakistan are Muslims and Islam is the State religion of Pakistan. ... Muhammad bin Qasim Al-Thaqafi (Arabic: محمد بن قاسم) (c. ... Sindh (SindhÄ«: سنڌ, UrdÅ«: سندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhis. ... Mahmud and Ayaz The Sultan is to the right, shaking the hand of the sheykh, with Ayaz standing behind him. ... The Ghaznavid Empire was a state in the region of todays Afghanistan that existed from 977 to 1186. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Ghurids (or Ghorids; self-designation: ShansabānÄ«) (Persian: ) were a Sunni Muslim dynasty in Khorasan, most likely of Eastern Persians (Tajiks)[1][2] origin. ... Qutb-ud-din Aybak was a ruler of Medieval India, the first Sultan of Delhi and founder of the Slave dynasty (also known as the Mamluk dynasty). ... The Delhi Sultanate (دلی سلطنت), or Sulthanath-e-Hind (سلطنتِ ہند) / Sulthanath-e-Dilli (سلطنتِ دلی) refers to the various Muslim dynasties that ruled in India from 1210 to 1526. ...


In the fourteenth century, Alauddin Khilji extended Muslim rule south to Gujarat, Rajasthan and Deccan. Various other Muslim dynasties also formed and ruled across India from the 13th to the 18th century such as the Qutb Shahi and the Bahmani, but none rivalled the power and extensive reach of the Mughal Empire at its peak. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is for the Indian state. ... , Rājasthān (DevanāgarÄ«: राजस्थान, IPA: )   is the largest state of the Republic of India in terms of area. ... The Deccan Plateau is a vast plateau in India, encompassing most of Central and Southern India. ... The Qutb Shahi dynasty was the ruling family of the kingdom of Golconda in southern India. ... The Bahmani Sultanate was a Muslim state of the India. ... Capital Delhi / Agra Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai, Turkish; later also Urdu) Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1526-1530 Babur  - 1530–1539 and after restoration 1555–1556 Humayun  - 1556–1605 Akbar  - 1605–1627 Jahangir  - 1628–1658 Shah Jahan  - 1659–1707 Aurangzeb History  - Established April 21, 1526  - Ended September 21, 1857 Area...


China

Main article: Islam in China

During the lifetime of Muhammad, Arab merchants reached China via the Silk Road and introduced Islam. Then, in 650, the third Caliph, Uthman ibn Affan, sent an official delegation to the Tang dynasty. The Chinese emperor ordered the establishment of the first Chinese mosque in the city of Chang'an, and this event is considered to be the birth of Islam in China. By the early ninth century Islam had reached as far south as Hangzhou. China has some of the oldest Muslim history, dating back to as early as 650, when the uncle of the Prophet Muhammad, Sa`ad ibn Abi Waqqas, was sent as an official envoy to Emperor Gaozong. ... The Silk Road extending from Southern Europe through Arabia, Egypt, Persia, India till it reaches China. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... For other uses of the name, see Uthman. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... For other uses, see Changan (disambiguation). ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Postal map spelling: Hangchow) is a sub-provincial city located in the Yangtze River Delta in the Peoples Republic of China, and the capital of Zhejiang province. ...


The Mongol invasions of China and Persia, brought the two regions under a single political entity. This led to increased contacts and cultural exchange between China and the Muslim world. Following the Mongols, the succeeding Ming dynasty was also tolerant of Muslims. During its reign, many Muslim attained high posts. These policies were, however, reversed by the Qing dynasty, when it came to power.[28] For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ...


Southeast Asia

See also: The spread of Islam in Indonesia (1200 to 1600)

Islam reached the islands of Southeast Asia through Indian Muslim traders near the end of the 13th century.[19] Soon, many Sufi missionaries translated classical Sufi literature from Arabic and Persian into Malay. Coupled with the composing of original Islamic literature in Malay, this led the way to the transformation of Malay into an Islamic language.[29] By 1292, when Marco Polo visited Sumatra, most of the inhabitants had converted to Islam. The Sultanate of Malacca was founded by Parameswara, a Srivijayan Prince in the Malay peninsula. Through trade and commerce, Islam spread to Borneo and Java, Indonesia. By late 15th century, Islam had been introduced to the Philippines.[citation needed] Islam is thought to have first been adopted by Indonesians sometime during the eleventh century, although Muslims had visited Indonesia early in the Muslim era. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Islam in India is the second-most practiced religion after Hinduism. ... Sufism (Arabic &#1578;&#1589;&#1608;&#1601; tas&#803;awwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... Sufi poetry has been written in many languages, both for private devotional reading and as lyrics for music played during worship, or dhikr. ... Not to be confused with the Malayalam language, spoken in India. ... Islamic literature is a field that includes the study of modern and classical Arabic and the litarature written in those languages. ... Marco Polo (September 15, 1254[1] – January 9, 1324 at earliest but no later than June 1325[2]) was a Venetian trader and explorer who gained fame for his worldwide travels, recorded in the book Il Milione (The Million or The Travels of Marco Polo). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... People by name Parameshwara: The fourteenth century Indian mathematician. ... Borneo is the third largest island in the world and is located at the centre of Maritime Southeast Asia. ... View of the Puncak area in West Java Java (Indonesian: Jawa) is the most populous of Indonesias islands, and the site of its capital city, Jakarta. ...


As Islam spread, three main Muslim political powers emerged. Aceh, the most important Muslim power, was based firmly in Northern Sumatra. It controlled much of the area between Southeast Asia and India. The Sultunate also attracted Sufi poets. The second Muslim power was the Sultanate of Malacca on the Malay peninsula. The Sultanate of Demak was the third power emerged in Java, where the Muslim emerging forces defeated the local Majapahit kingdom in the early 16th century.[30] Although the sultanate managed to expand its territory somewhat, its rule remained brief.[19] Aceh (pronounced , generally Anglicized as IPA: ) is a special territory (daerah istimewa) of Indonesia, located on the northern tip of the island of Sumatra. ... Sufism (Arabic &#1578;&#1589;&#1608;&#1601; tas&#803;awwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... Demak is a main town in Central Java, Indonesia. ... Java (Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese: Jawa) is an island of Indonesia, and the site of its capital city, Jakarta. ... The Majapahit Empire was based in eastern Java and ruled much of the southern Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sumatra, and Bali from about 1293 to around 1500. ...


Portuguese forces captured Malacca in 1511 under the naval general Afonso de Albuquerque. With Malacca subdued, Aceh Sultanate and Brunei established themself as the centre of Islam in Southeast Asia. Brunei sultanate remains intact even to this day.[19] Year 1511 (MDXI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Afonso de Albuquerque (or Afonso dAlbuquerque - disused) (pronounced ) (treated with a Don by some although his birth didnt grant him that treatment) (1453, Alhandra - Goa, December 16, 1515) was a Portuguese fidalgo, or nobleman, a naval general officer whose military and administrative activities conquered and established the Portuguese... Aceh was a sultanate in the region of what is today Aceh Province of Indonesia. ...


Mongol Invasions

See also: Ilkhanate and Golden Horde

The wave of Mongol invasions, which had initially commenced in the early 13th century under the leadership of Genghis Khan, marked a violent end to the Abbasid era. The Mongol Empire had spread rapidly throughout Central Asia and Persia: the Persian city of Isfahan had fallen to them by 1237. With the election of Khan Mongke in 1251, sights were set upon the Abbasid capital, Baghdad. Mongke's brother, Hulegu, was made the head of the Mongol Army assigned with the task of subduing Baghdad. This was achieved at the Battle of Baghdad (1258), which saw the Abbasids overrun by the superior Mongol army. The last Abbasid caliph, al-Musta'sim, was captured and killed; and Baghdad was ransacked and subsequently destroyed. The cities of Damascus and Aleppo fell shortly afterwards, in 1260. Any prospective conquest of Egypt was temporarily delayed due to the death of Mongke at around the same time.[19] Khanates of Mongolian Empire: Il-Khanate, Chagatai Khanate, Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Ordyn Uls; Turkish: ; Tatar: ; Russian: ) is a Russian designation for the Mongol[1][2][3][4] — later Turkicized[3] — khanate established in the western part of the Mongol Empire upon its breakup in the 1240s: present-day Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and the Caucasus. ... Mongol invasions can refer to: 1205–1209 invasion of Western China 1211–1234 invasion of Northern China 1218–1220 invasion of Central Asia 1220-1223, 1235-1330 invasions of Georgia and the Caucasus 1220–1224 of the Cumans 1223–36 invasion of Volga Bulgaria 1231–1259 invasion of Korea 1237... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... This article is about the person. ... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Historical map of the Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire, also known as the Mongolian Empire (Mongolian: , Mongolyn Ezent Güren; 1206–1405) was the largest contiguous empire in history and for sometime was the most feared in Eurasia. ... Naghsh-i Jahan Square, Isfahan This article is about the city of Isfahan. ... // Events Thomas II of Savoy becomes count of Flanders. ... Möngke Khan (1208-1259, also transliterated as Mongke, Mongka, Möngka, Mangu) was the fourth khan of the Mongol Empire. ... Events First Shepherds Crusade Births Deaths Monarchs/Presidents Aragon - James I King of Aragon and count of Barcelona (reigned from 1213 to 1276) Castile - Ferdinand III, the Saint King of Castile and Leon (reigned from 1217 to 1252) Categories: 1251 ... Hulagu Khan (also known as Hülegü, and Hulegu) (1217&#8211;8 February 1265) was a Mongol ruler who conquered much of Southwest Asia. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Combatants Mongols Abbasid Caliphate Commanders Hulagu Khan Guo Kan Caliph Al-Mustasim Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown, but believed minimal Military, 50,000(est. ... Al-Mustasim (d. ... Location of the governorate of Aleppo within Syria Aleppo (Arabic: [ḥalab], ) is a city in northern Syria, capital of the Aleppo Governorate. ... The magnificent Cathedral of Chartres was dedicated in 1260. ...


With Mongol conquest in the east, the Ayyubid dynasty ruling over Egypt had been surpassed by the slave-soldier Mamluks in 1250. This had been done through the marriage between Shajar al-Durr, the widow of Ayyubid caliph al-Salih Ayyub, with Mamluk general Aybak. Military prestige was at the center of Mamluk society, and it played a key role in the confrontations with the Mongol forces. After the assassination of Aybak, and the succession of Qutuz in 1259, the Mamluks challenged and decisively routed the Mongols at the Battle of Ain Jalut in late 1260. This signalled an adverse shift in fortunes for the Mongols, who were again defeated by the Mamluks at the Battle of Homs a few months later, and then driven out of Syria altogether.[19] With this, the Mamluks were also able to conquer the last of the crusader territories.[citation needed] The Ayyubid or Ayyoubid Dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Kurdish[1] origins which ruled Egypt, Syria, Yemen (except for the Northern Mountains), Diyar Bakr, Mecca, Hejaz and northern Iraq in the 12th and 13th centuries. ... Mamluk Flag Eastern Mediterranean 1450 Capital Cairo Language(s) Arabic, Kipchak Turkic[1] Religion Islam Government Monarchy History  - As-Salih Ayyub Death 1250  - Battle of Ridanieh 1517 Today part of  Egypt  Saudi Arabia  Syria  Palestine  Israel  Lebanon  Jordan  Turkey  Libya A Mamluk cavalryman, drawn in 1810 A mamluk (Arabic: مملوك (singular... // April 30 - King Louis IX of France released by his Egyptian captors after paying a ransom of one million dinars and turning over the city of Damietta. ... Shajar al-Durr (? - 1257) grew up a slave in the harem of the Caliph in Baghdad. ... Al-Malik as-Salih Najm al-Din Ayyub (died November 1249) was the Ayyubid ruler of Egypt from 1240 to 1249. ... Aybak was the first of the Mameluke sultans of Egypt. ... Saif ad-Din Qutuz (died October 24, 1260) was the Mamluk sultan of Egypt from 1259 until his death. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... Combatants Egyptian Mamluks Mongols Commanders Saif ad-Din Qutuz, Baibars C * Kitbuqa + Strength About 20,000-30,000 About 10,000-20,000 The Battle of Ain Jalut (or Ayn Jalut, in Arabic: عين جالوت, the Eye of Goliath or the Spring of Goliath) took place on September 3, 1260 between the... Homs (Arabic: , transliteration: ) is a western city in Syria and the capital of the Homs Governorate. ...


Three Muslim empires

In the 15th century and 16th centuries three major Muslim empires were created: the aforementioned Ottoman Empire in much of the Middle East, Balkans and Northern Africa; the Safavid Empire in Greater Iran; and the Mughul Empire in Greater India. These new imperial powers were made possible by the discovery and exploitation of gunpowder, and more efficient administration.[31] By the end of the 19th century, all three had declined significantly, and by the early 20th century, with the Ottomans' defeat in World War I, the last Muslim empire collapsed. (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Balkan redirects here. ... Categories: Africa geography stubs | North Africa ... The Safavids were a long-lasting Turkic-speaking Iranian dynasty that ruled from 1501 to 1736 and first established Shiite Islam as Persias official religion. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      Greater Iran (in Persian: Irān-e Bozorg, or Irān-zamÄ«n; the Encyclopedia Iranica uses the term Iranian Cultural Continent[1]) is a term for the Iranian plateau in addition to... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... It has been suggested that Undivided India be merged into this article or section. ... Gunpowder (also called black powder) is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot solids and gases which can be used as a propellant in firearms and fireworks. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century &#8212; 19th century &#8212; 20th century &#8212; more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Mughal Empire

Main article: Mughal Empire

The Mughal Empire was a product of various Central Asian invasions into the Indian subcontinent. It was founded by the Timurid prince Babur in 1526 with the destruction of the Delhi sultanate, with its capital in Agra. Babur's death some years later, and the indecisive rule of his son, Humayun, brought a degree of instability to Mughal rule. The resistance of the Afghani Sher Shah, through which a string of defeats had been dealt to Humayun, significantly weakened the Mughals. Just a year before his death, however, Humayun managed to recover much of the lost territories, leaving a substantial legacy for his son, the 13 year old Akbar (later known as Akbar the Great), in 1556. Under Akbar, consolidation of the Mughal Empire occurred through both expansion and administrative reforms.[32][19] Capital Delhi / Agra Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai, Turkish; later also Urdu) Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1526-1530 Babur  - 1530–1539 and after restoration 1555–1556 Humayun  - 1556–1605 Akbar  - 1605–1627 Jahangir  - 1628–1658 Shah Jahan  - 1659–1707 Aurangzeb History  - Established April 21, 1526  - Ended September 21, 1857 Area... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... Timurid can refer to several entities, related to Timur: Timurid Dynasty Timurid Empire Timurid Emirates This is a disambiguation page &#8212; a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Zāhir ud-DÄ«n Mohammad, commonly known as Bābur (February 14, 1483 – December 26, 1530) (Chaghatay/Persian: ; also spelled ), was a Muslim Emperor from Central Asia who founded the Mughal dynasty of India. ... The Delhi Sultanate (دلی سلطنت), or Sulthanath-e-Hind (سلطنتِ ہند) / Sulthanath-e-Dilli (سلطنتِ دلی) refers to the various Muslim dynasties that ruled in India from 1210 to 1526. ... For other uses, see Agra (disambiguation). ... Nasiruddin Humayun (March 6, 1508 – February 22, 1556), second Mughal Emperor, ruled in India from 1530–1540 and 1555–1556. ... Afghani can refer to: Afghani (currency) is the currency used in Afghanistan. ... For the recipient of the Victoria Cross, see Sher Shah (VC). ... For other uses, see Akbar (disambiguation). ... Events January 16 - Abdication of Emperor Charles V. His son, Philip II becomes King of Spain, while his brother Ferdinand becomes Holy Roman Emperor January 23 - The Shaanxi earthquake, the deadliest earthquake in history, occurs with its epicenter in Shaanxi province, China. ...


The empire ruled most of present-day India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan for several centuries, before it declined in the early 18th century, which led to India being divided into smaller kingdoms and princely states. The Mughal dynasty was eventually dissolved by the British Empire after the Indian rebellion of 1857.[33][19] It left a lasting legacy on Indian culture and architecture. Amongst the famous buildings built by the Mughals, include: Taj Mahal, Red Fort, Badshahi Mosque, Lahore Fort, Shalimar Gardens and Agra Fort. During the empire's reign of power, Muslim communities flourished all over India, particularly in Gujarat, Bengal and Hyderabad. Various Sufi orders from Afghanistan and Iran were very active throughout the region. Consequently, more than a quarter of the population converted to Islam.[34] The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Combatants Rebellious East India Company Sepoys, 7 Indian princely states, deposed rulers of Oudh, Jhansi and smaller states in region, Civilians from rebellious regions. ... Taj Mahal Location of the Taj Mahal within India The Taj Mahal (Devanagari: ताज महल, Nastaliq: تاج محل) is a mausoleum located in Agra, India. ... There used to be a redirect from the Red Fort in Delhi to Agra Fort in Agra. ... View from Minto Park The Badshahi Mosque (Urdu: بادشاھی مسجد), or the Emperors Mosque, was built in 1673 by the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb in Lahore, Pakistan. ... Alamgiri Gate - Main Entrance to Lahore Fort, with Hazuri Bagh Pavilion in foreground The Lahore Fort, locally referred to as Shahi Qila (شاہى قلعه) is the citadel of the city of Lahore, in modern day Pakistan. ... The Shalimar Gardens (Urdu: شالیمار باغ), sometimes written Shalamar Gardens, were built by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in Lahore, modern day Pakistan. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... This article is for the Indian state. ... For other uses, see Bengal (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...


Safavid Empire

Main article: Safavids

The Safavids (Persian: صفویان) were an Iranian dynasty from Iranian Azarbaijan that ruled from 1501 to 1736, and which established Shi'a Islam as Iran's official religion and united its provinces under a single Iranian sovereignty, thereby reigniting the Persian identity.
The Safavid Empire at its 1512 borders. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Long Live Azerbaijan. ... 1501 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 26 - Stanislaus I of Poland abdicates his throne. ... Shia Islam ( Arabic &#1588;&#1610;&#1593;&#1609; follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Persia redirects here. ...


Although claiming to be the descendants of Ali ibn Abu Talib, the Safavids were originally Sunni (the name "Safavid" comes from a Sufi order called Safavi). Their origins go back to Firuz Shah Zarrinkolah, an Iranian local dignitary from Iran's north. During their rule, the Safavids recognized Shiism as the State religion, thus giving Iran a separate identity from its Sunni neighbours. Ali ibn Abi Talib (&#1593;&#1604;&#1610; &#1576;&#1606; &#1571;&#1576;&#1610; &#1591;&#1575;&#1604;&#1576;) (c. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic &#1587;&#1606;&#1617;&#1577;) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Firuz Shah Zarrin Kolah was an Iranian dignitary and the seventh in the ancestoral line of Shaykh Safi Ardabili, the progenitor of the Safavid dynasty of Persia. ... Shi&#699;a Islam (Arabic &#1588;&#1610;&#1593;&#1609; follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%&#8211;35% of all Muslim. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic &#1587;&#1606;&#1617;&#1577;) is the largest denomination of Islam. ...


In 1524, Tahmasp acceded to the throne, initiating reviving arts in the region. Carpet making became a major industry, gaining new importance in Iran's cities. But the finest of all artistic revivals was the commissioning of the Shahnama. The Shahnama was meant to glorify the reign of the Shah through artistic means. The two-volume copy contained 258 large paintings to illustrate the works of Firdawsi, a Persian poet. The Shah also prohibited the drinking of wine, forbade the use of hashish and ordered the removal of gambling casinos, taverns and brothels. Tahmasp is the name of two Safavid shahs of Persia: Tahmasp I (1514 – 1576) Tahmasp II (c. ... Hakīm Abol-Qāsem Ferdawsī Ṭūsī (Persian: ‎ ) (more commonly transliterated Ferdowsi-ye Tusi, also known as Firdawsi, Firdausi, Firdousi, Ferdosi or Ferdusi) (935–1020) is perhaps the most revered Persian poet. ... Confiscated hashish. ...


Tahmasp's grandson, Shah Abbas I, also managed to increase the glory of the empire. Abbas restored the shrine of Imam Reza at Mashhad, and restored the dynastic shrine at Ardabil. Both shrines received jewelry, fine manuscripts and Chinese porcelains. Abbas also moved the empire's capital to Isfahan, revived old ports, and established thriving trade with the Europeans. Amongst Abbas's most visible cultural achievements was the construction of Naqsh-e Jahan Square ("Design of the World"). The plaza, located near a Friday mosque, covered twenty acres, thus dwarfing Piazza San Marco and St. Peter's Square.[35] Tahmasp is the name of two Safavid shahs of Persia: Tahmasp I (1514 – 1576) Tahmasp II (c. ... Shah Abbas I (&#1588;&#1575;&#1607; &#1593;&#1576;&#1575;&#1587; &#1575;&#1608;&#1604;) (January 27, 1571?-January 19, 1629?) was the most eminent ruler of the Safavid Dynasty. ... Imam Ali ar Rida (January 1, 766 - May 26, 818) was the Eighth Shia Imam. ... Ardabil (Persian: اردبیل; Azeri: اردبيل; also known as Ardebil; Old Persian: Artavil) is a historical city in north-western Iran. ... Part of Shah Abbas large urban project in his new capital, the Chahār Bāgh Four Gardens, is a four-kilometer avenue in the city of Isfahan. ... Naghsh-e Jahan Square (Persian: ميدان نقش جهان maidaan-e naqsh-e jehaan) situated at the center of Isfahan city, Iran. ... Piazza San Marco with the Basilica, by Canaletto, 1730, looking just as it does today. ... Berninis piazza was extended by the Via della Conciliazione, Mussolinis grand avenue of approach. ...


Ottoman Empire

Main article: Ottoman Empire

The Seljuk Turks fell apart rapidly in the second half of the 13th century, especially after the Mongol invasions in Anatolia.[36] This resulted in the establishment of multiple Turkish principalities, known as beyliks. Osman I, the founder of the Ottoman dynasty, assumed leadership of one of these principalities (Söğüt) in 1281, succeeding his father Ertuğrul. Declaring an independent Ottoman emirate in 1299, Osman I led it to a series of consecutive victories over the Byzantine Empire.[citation needed] By 1331, the Ottomans had captured Nicaea, the former Byzantine capital, under the leadership of Osman's son and successor, Orhan I.[37] Victory at the Battle of Kosovo against the Serbs in 1389 then facilitated their expansion into Europe. The Ottomans were firmly established in the Balkans and Anatolia by the time Bayezid I ascended to power in the same year, now at the helm of a swiftly growing empire.[38] Ottoman redirects here. ... Bey is the Turkish word for chieftain, traditionally applied to the leaders of small tribal groups In historical accounts, many Turkish and Persian leaders are titled bey, beg or beigh. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... The Ottoman Dynasty (or the Imperial House of Osman) ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1281 to 1923, beginning with Osman I (not counting his father, ErtuÄŸrul), though the dynasty was not proclaimed until 1383 when Murad I declared himself sultan. ... Söğüt was a Seljuk Turkish tribe in western Anatolia that later gave birth to the Ottoman Empire. ... For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... ErtuÄŸrul (أرطغل), also ErtoÄŸrul (with title ErtuÄŸrul Gazi), (1198-1281) was the father of Osman I, the founder of the Ottoman Empire. ... Events Osman I declares the independence of the Ottoman Principality The County of Holland is annexed by the County of Hainaut April 1, 1299 Kings Towne on the River Hull granted city status by Royal Charter of King Edward I of England. ... Events September 8 - Stefan Dusan declares himself king of Serbia Start of the reign of Emperor Kogon of Japan, first of the Northern Ashikaga Pretenders Births Coluccio Salutati, Florentine political leader (died 1406) Deaths January 14 - Odoric, Italian explorer October 27 - Abulfeda, Arab historian and geographer (born 1273) Categories: 1331... Iznik tiles inside the Selimiye Mosque in Edirne Ä°znik (which derives from the former Greek name Νίκαια, Nicaea) is a city in Turkey which is known primarily as the site of the First and Second Councils of Nicaea, the first and seventh Ecumenical councils in the early history of the Christian... Orhan (Turkish: also Orhan Gazi or Orkhan) (1284–1359), was the second bey (chief) of the newborn Ottoman Empire (at the time known as the Osmanli tribe) from 1326 to 1359. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire Serbia Bosnia Commanders Murad I †, Bayezid I, Yakub † Lazar Hrebeljanović †, Vuk Branković, Vlatko Vuković Strength ~ 27,000-40,000[9][10][11] ~ 12,000-30,000[9][10][11][12] Casualties moderate amount; Sultan Murad I killed as a result of a ruse Extremely high; most of... Serbs (in the Serbian language &#1057;&#1088;&#1073;&#1080;, Srbi) are a south Slavic people living chiefly in Serbia and Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Events February 24 - Margaret I defeats Albert in battle, thus becoming ruler of Denmark, Norway and Sweden June 28 - Battle of Kosovo between Serbs and Ottomans. ... Balkan redirects here. ... // Bayezid I (Ottoman: بايزيد الأول, Turkish: Beyazıt, nicknamed Yıldırım (Ottoman: ییلدیرم), the Thunderbolt; 1354–1403) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1389 to 1402. ...


Further growth was brought to a sudden halt, as Bayezid I had been captured by Mongol warlord Timur (also known as "Tamerlane") in the Battle of Ankara in 1402, upon which a turbulent period known as the Ottoman Interregnum ensued. This episode was characterized by the division of the Ottoman territory amongst Bayezid I's sons, who submitted to Timurid authority. When a number of the territories recently conquered by the Ottomans regained independent status, potential ruin for the Ottoman Empire became apparent. However, the empire quickly recovered, as the youngest son of Bayezid I, Mehmed I, waged offensive campaigns against his other ruling brothers, thereby reuniting Asia Minor and declaring himself the new Ottoman sultan in 1413.[19] For the similar-sounding word Timor, see Timor (disambiguation). ... // Combatants Timurid Empire Ottoman Empire Commanders Timur Beyazid I Strength 140,000 men 85,000 men [1] Casualties 15,000-25,000 killed and wounded[] 15,000-40,000 killed and wounded[] The Battle of Ankara or Battle of Angora, fought on July 20, 1402, took place at the field... Events September 14 - Battle of Homildon Hill. ... The Ottoman Interregnum (also known as the Ottoman Triumvirate; Fetret Devri in Turkish) was a period in the beginning of the 15th century when chaos reigned in the Ottoman Empire following the defeat of Sultan Bayezid I in 1402 by the Mongol warlord Tamerlane (Timur the Lame). ... Timurid Dynasty at its Greatest Extent The Timurids were a Central Asian Sunni Muslim Turco-Mongol dynasty whose empire included the whole of Central Asia and parts of modern Iran and modern Turkey, as well as large parts of Mesopotamia and Caucasus. ... Sultan Mehmet I Mehmed I Çelebi (nicknamed Kirisci, the Executioner) (1389 – May 26, 1421) was a sultan of the Ottoman Empire. ... Anatolia (Greek: &#945;&#957;&#945;&#964;&#959;&#955;&#951; anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... // March 21 - Henry V becomes King of England. ...

The Suleiman Mosque (Süleymaniye Camii) in Istanbul was built on the order of sultan Suleiman the Magnificent by the great Ottoman architect Sinan in 1557

At around this time the naval fleet of the Ottomans developed considerably, such that they were able to challenge Venice, traditionally a naval power. Focus was also directed towards reconquering the Balkans. By the time of Mehmed I's grandson, Mehmed II (ruled 14441446; 14511481), the Ottomans felt strong enough to lay siege to Constantinople, the capital of Byzantium. A decisive factor in this siege was the use of firearms and large cannons introduced by the Ottomans (adapted from Europe and improved upon), against which the Byzantines were unable to compete. The Byzantine fortress finally succumbed to the Ottoman invasion in 1453, 54 days into the siege. Mehmed II, entering the city victorious, renamed it to Istanbul. With its capital conceded to the Ottomans, the rest of the Byzantine Empire quickly disintegrated.[19] The future successes of the Ottomans and later empires would depend heavily upon the exploitation of gunpowder.[39] The Suleiman Mosque in Istanbul File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Suleiman Mosque in Istanbul File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Suleiman Mosque The Suleiman Mosque (Süleymaniye Camii) is a grand mosque in Istanbul. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... Suleiman I (Ottoman Turkish: Sulaymān, Turkish: ; formally Kanuni Sultan Süleyman in Turkish) (November 6, 1494 – September 5/6, 1566), was the tenth and longest‐serving Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, reigning from 1520 to 1566. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... For other uses, see Sinan (disambiguation). ... Events Spain is effectively bankrupt. ... Naval redirects here. ... Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796 Capital Venice Language(s) Venetian, Latin, Italian Religion Roman Catholic Government Republic Doge  - 1789–97 Ludovico Manin History  - Established 697  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797 * Traditionally, the establishment of the Republic is dated to 697. ... Mehmed II (Ottoman Turkish: محمد ثانى , Turkish: ), (also known as el-Fatih (الفاتح), the Conqueror, in Ottoman Turkish, or, in modern Turkish, Fatih Sultan Mehmet) (March 30, 1432 – May 3, 1481) was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire for a short time from 1444 to 1446, and later from 1451 to 1481. ... Events March 2 - Gjergj Kastriot Skanderbeg proclaimed commander of the Albanian resistance April 16 - Truce of Tours. ... Events Mehmed II Sultan of the Ottoman Empire is forced to abdicate in favor of his father Murad II by the Janissaries. ... // Events February 3 - Murad II, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire dies and is succeeded by his son Mehmed II. April 11 - Celje acquires market-town status and town rights by orders from the Celje count Frederic II. June 30 - French troops under the Comte de Dunois invade Guyenne and capture... Year 1481 was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar). ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Muskets and bayonets aboard the frigate Grand Turk. ... For other uses, see Cannon (disambiguation). ... Combatants  Byzantine Empire Ottoman Sultanate Commanders Constantine XI †, Loukas Notaras, Giovanni Giustiniani †[1] Mehmed II, ZaÄŸanos Pasha Strength 80,000[2] 80,000[1]-200,000[1][3] Casualties 4,000 dead[4] [5][6] unknown The Fall of Constantinople refers to the capture of the Byzantine Empires... April 2 - Mehmed II begins his siege of Constantinople (Ä°stanbul). ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... Gunpowder (also called black powder) is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot solids and gases which can be used as a propellant in firearms and fireworks. ...


In the early 16th century, the Shi'ite Safavid dynasty assumed control in Persia under the leadership of Shah Ismail I, upon the defeat of the ruling Turcoman federation Aq Qoyunlu (also called the "White Sheep Turkomans") in 1501. The Ottoman sultan Selim I quickly sought to repel Safavid expansion, challenging and defeating them at the Battle of Chaldiran in 1514. Selim I also deposed the ruling Mamluks in Egypt, absorbing their territories into the Ottoman Empire in 1517. Suleiman I (also known as Suleiman the Magnificent), Selim I's successor, took advantage of the diversion of Safavid focus against the Uzbeks on the eastern frontier and recaptured Baghdad, which had previously fallen under Safavid control. Despite this, Safavid power remained substantial, with their empire rivalling the Ottomans'. Suleiman I also advanced deep into Hungary following the Battle of Mohács in 1526reaching as far as the gates of Vienna thereafter, and signed a Franco-Ottoman alliance with Francis I of France against Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire 10 years later. Suleiman I's rule (15201566) signified the height of the Ottoman Empire, after which it fell into gradual decline.[19] Safavid Empire at its Greatest Extent After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Safavids (Persian: ; Azerbaijani: ) were an Iranian[1] Shia dynasty of mixed Azerbaijani[2] and Kurdish[3] origins, which ruled Persia from 1501/1502 to 1722. ... Shah or Shahzad is a Persian term for a monarch (ruler) that has been adopted in many other languages. ... Shah Ismail I, the founder of Safavid Dynasty of Iran pictured at battle against Abul-khayr Khan in a scene from the Tarikh-i alam-aray-i Shāh Ismāil Abul-Mozaffar bin Sheikh Haydar bin Sheikh Junayd SafawÄ« (Persian: - Azerbaijani: ) (July 17, 1487 - May 23, 1524), Shah... There are several meanings to Turkmen: Related to the country Turkmenistan Turkmen language Turkmen people A breed of horse called the Turkoman This is a disambiguation page &#8212; a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... ... 1501 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Selim I (Ottoman: سليم الأول, Turkish:) (also known as the Grim or the Brave, Yavuz in Turkish, the long name is Yavuz Sultan Selim)(October 10, 1465 – September 22, 1520) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1512 to 1520. ... The Battle of Chaldiran was a military conflict that occurred on 23 August 1514 and ended with a decisive military victory of the Ottoman Empire over the Safavids. ... 1514 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1517 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Suleiman the Magnificent Suleiman I (November 6, 1494 &#8211; September 5/6, 1566); in Turkish Süleyman , (nicknamed the Magnificent in Europe and the Lawgiver in the Islamic World, in Turkish Kanuni) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1520 to 1566 and successor to Selim I. He was... // Combatants Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Hungary Commanders Suleiman I Louis II of Hungary † Pál Tomori † György Zápolya Strength ~ 100,000 supported by 10,000 to 20,000 irregulars 160 to 300 cannons ~ 25,000 to 28,000 53 cannons (85 initial) John Zápolyas 8,000... January 14 - Treaty of Madrid. ... // Combatants Austria with Bohemian, German & Spanish mercenaries Ottoman Empire Commanders Nicholas, Graf von Salm Suleiman I Strength over 16,000 [1] 120,000 [1] Casualties Unknown Unknown The Siege of Vienna of 1529, as distinct from the Battle of Vienna in 1683, was the Ottoman Empires first attempt to... Francis I of France (French: François Ier) (September 12, 1494 – March 31, 1547), called the Father and Restorer of Letters (le Père et Restaurateur des Lettres), was crowned King of France in 1515 in the cathedral at Reims and reigned until 1547. ... For the Carlist claimant King Carlos V, see Infante Carlos, Count of Molina. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ... Year 1520 (MDXX) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Events January 7 - Pius V becomes Pope Selim II succeeds Suleiman I as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire Religious rioting in the Netherlands signifies the beginning of the Eighty Years War in the Netherlands. ...


Wahhabism

Main article: Wahhabism

During the 18th century, Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab (17031792) led a religious movement (Wahhabism) in Najd (central Arabia) that sought to purify Islam. Wahhab wanted to return Islam to what he thought were its original principles as taught by the as-salaf as-saliheen (the earliest converts to Islam) and rejected what he regarded as corruptions introduced by bid‘ah (religious innovation) and Shirk (polytheism). He allied himself with the House of Saud, which eventually triumphed over the Rashidis to control Central Arabia, and led several revolts against the Ottoman empire. Initial success (the conquest of Mecca and Medina) was followed by ignominious defeat, then a resurgence which culminated in the creation of Saudi Arabia. Wahhabism (Arabic: Al-WahhābÄ«yya الوهابية) or Wahabism is a conservative 18th century reform movement of Sunni Islam founded by Muhammad ibn Abd-al-Wahhab, after whom the movement is named. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab al-Tamimi (1703 C.E. – 1792 C.E.) (Arabic:محمد بن عبد الوهاب التميمى) was an Arab theologian born in the Najd, in present-day Saudi Arabia and the most famous scholar of the movement within Islam known as the Wahhabi movement. ... Events February 2 - Earthquake in Aquila, Italy February 4 - In Japan, the 47 samurai commit seppuku (ritual suicide) February 14 - Earthquake in Norcia, Italy April 21 - Company of Quenching of Fire (ie. ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Wahhabism (Arabic: Al-WahhābÄ«yya الوهابية) or Wahabism is a conservative 18th century reform movement of Sunni Islam founded by Muhammad ibn Abd-al-Wahhab, after whom the movement is named. ... Najd or Nejd (Arabic: Naǧd) is a region in central Saudi Arabia and the location of the nations capital, Riyadh. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... The House of Saud ( transliteration: ) is the royal family of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. ... The Rashidi were a historic house of the Arabian Peninsula they were the most formidable enemies of the House of Saud. ...


The 20th century

The modern age brought radical technological and organizational changes to Europe and Islamic countries found themselves less modern when compared to the many western nations. Europe's state-based government and rampant colonization allowed the West to dominate the globe economically and forced Islamic countries to question change.


Partitioning of the Ottoman Empire

See also: Ottoman Caliphate and Turkish War of Independence

By the end of the 19th century, the Ottoman empire had declined due to internal conflict and the failure to keep pace with European technological and economic development. Their decision to back Germany in World War I meant they shared the Central Powers' defeat in that war, which led directly to the overthrow of the Ottomans by Turkish nationalists led by Kemal Ataturk. Following World War I, its remnants were parceled out as European protectorates or spheres of influence.[citation needed] Ottoman successor states include today's Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Egypt, Greece, Iraq, Lebanon, Montenegro, Romania, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Syria, Jordan, Turkey, other Balkan states, North Africa and the north shore of Black sea.[40] Partitioning of the Ottoman Empire is direct consequence of the World War I with the Ottomans involvement in the Middle Eastern theatre. ... The Ottoman Empire, at its height, covered a significant portion of the Mediterranean World, including portions of three continents. ... Combatants   Turkish Revolutionaries United Kingdom Greece France Italy Armenia Ottoman Empire Georgia Commanders Mustafa Kemal Ä°smet Ä°nönü Kazım Karabekir Ali Fuat Cebesoy Fevzi Çakmak George Milne Henri Gouraud Papoulas Georgios Hatzianestis Drastamat Kanayan Movses Silikyan Süleyman Åžefik Pasha The Turkish War of Independence (Turkish: KurtuluÅŸ Savaşı or... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... This article is about states protected and/or dominated by a foreign power. ... For the astrodynamics term, see sphere of influence (astrodynamics). ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ...


Many Muslim countries sought to adopt European political organization and nationalism began to emerge in the Muslim world. Countries like Egypt, Syria, and Turkey organized their governments with definable policies and sought to develop national pride amongst their citizens. Other places, like Iraq, were not as successful due to a lack of unity. Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ...


Some Muslim countries, such as Turkey and Egypt, sought to separate Islam from the secular government. In other cases, such as Saudi Arabia, the new government brought out new religious expression in the re-emergence of the puritanical form of Sunni Islam known to its detractors as Wahhabism which found its way into the Saudi royal family. Wahhabism (Arabic: Al-Wahhābīyya الوهابية) or Wahabism is a conservative 18th century reform movement of Sunni Islam founded by Muhammad ibn Abd-al-Wahhab, after whom the movement is named. ... The House of Saud refers to the royal family of Saudi Arabia. ...


Partition of India and establishment of Pakistan

Main article: Partition of India

The partition of India refers to the creation in August 1947 of two sovereign states of India and Pakistan. The two nations were formed out of the former British Raj, including treaty states, when Britain granted independence to the area (see Undivided India). In particular, the term refers to the partition of Bengal and Punjab, the two main provinces of the would be Pakistan. This article is under construction. ... Anthem God Save The King The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (until 1912), New Delhi (after 1912) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy²  - 1858... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Greater India. ... For other uses, see Bengal (disambiguation). ... Punjab was a province of British India. ...


In 1947, after the partition of India, Pakistan became the largest Islamic Country in the world (by population) and the tenth largest post-WWII state in the modern world. In 1971, after a bloody war of independence the Bengal part of Pakistan became an independent state called Bangladesh.


Today, Pakistan is still the second largest Islamic country in the world. Pakistan is presently the only nuclear power of the Muslim world and is one of the more developed nations among the Muslim countries.


Indonesia is the largest Muslim country in the world, by population. India has the third largest Muslim population, followed by Bangladesh.


Arab-Israeli conflict

Main article: Arab-Israeli conflict

The Arab-Israeli conflict spans about a century of political tensions and open hostilities. It involves the establishment of the modern State of Israel as a Jewish nation state, the consequent displacement of the Palestinian people, as well as the adverse relationship between the Arab nations and the state of Israel (see related Israeli-Palestinian conflict). Despite initially involving the Arab states, animosity has developed between other Muslim nations and Israel. Many countries, individuals and non-governmental organizations elsewhere in the world feel involved in this conflict for reasons such as cultural and religious ties with Islam, Arab culture, Christianity, Judaism, Jewish culture or for ideological, human rights, or strategic reasons. While some consider the Arab-Israeli conflict a part of (or a precursor to) a wider clash of civilizations between the Western World and the Arab or Muslim world,[41][42] others oppose this view.[43] Animosity emanating from this conflict has caused numerous attacks on supporters (or perceived supporters) of each side by supporters of the other side in many countries around the world. Combatants Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel, Palestine and the... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ... Palestinian refugees in 1948 The Palestinian exodus (Arabic: الهجرة الفلسطينية al-Hijra al-Filasteeniya) refers to the refugee flight of Palestinian Arabs during the 1948 Arab-Israeli war. ... The Palestinian flag, adopted in 1948, is a widely recognized modern symbol of the Palestinian people. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Israel, with the West Bank, Gaza Strip and Golan Heights The Israeli-Palestinian conflict is an ongoing dispute between the State of Israel and Arab Palestinians. ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Secular Jewish culture embraces several related phenomena; above all, it is the culture of secular communities of Jewish people, but it can also include the cultural contributions of individuals who identify as secular Jews, or even those of religious Jews working in cultural areas not generally considered to be connected... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Cover of The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order The Clash of Civilizations is a theory, proposed by political scientist Samuel P. Huntington, that peoples cultural and religious identities will be the primary source of conflict in the post-Cold War world. ... Occident redirects here. ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ...


Oil wealth and petropolitics dominate the Middle East

Between 1953 and 1964, King Saud re-organized the government of the monarchy his father, Ibn Saud, had created. Saudi Arabia's new ministries included Communication (1953) Agriculture and Water (1953), Petroleum (1960), Pilgrimage and Islamic Endowments (1960), Labour and Social Affairs (1962) and Information (1963). He also put his Talal, one of his many younger brothers (by 29 years his younger) in charge of the Ministry of Transport. January 7 - President Harry S. Truman announces the United States has developed a hydrogen bomb. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ...


In 1958-59, Talal proposed the formation of a National Council. As he proposed it, it would have been a consultative body, not a legislature. Still, he thought of it as a first step toward broader popular participation in the government. Talal presented this proposal to the king when the Crown Prince was out of the country. Saud simply forwarded the proposal to the ulama asking them whether a National Council was a legitimate institution in Islam. The idea seems to have died in committee, so to speak. It would be revived more than three decades later. A Consultative Council came into existence in 1992. Ulema (, transliteration: , singular: , transliteration: , scholar) (The people of Islamic Knowledge) refers to the educated class of Muslim legal scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. ...


Meantime, the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries came into existence in 1960. For the first decade or more of its existence, it was ineffectual in terms of increasing revenue for member nations. But it would have its day. Tension between Faisal and Saud continued to mount until a final showdown in 1964. Saud threatened to mobilize the Royal Guard against Faisal and Faisal threatened to mobilize the National Guard against Saud. It was Saud who blinked, abdicating and leaving for Cairo, then Greece, where he would die in 1969. Faisal then became King. The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is made up of Algeria, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Venezuela; since 1965, its international headquarters have been in Vienna, Austria. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The 1967 war had other effects. It effectively closed the Suez canal, it may have contributed to the revolution in Libya that put Muammar al-Qaddafi in power, and it led in May 1970 to the closure of the "tapline" from Saudi Arabia through Syria to Lebanon. These developments had the effect of increasing the importance of the petroleum in Libya, which is a conveniently short (and canal-free) shipping distance from Europe. For other uses, see Suez (disambiguation). ... Muammar Abu Minyar al-Qaddafi 1 — pronounced Gaddafi — (Arabic: معمر القذافي ) (born c. ...


In 1970, it was Occidental Petroleum which constituted the first crack in the wall of oil company solidarity in dealing with the oil producing nations; specifically, in this case, with the demands for price increases of the new Qaddafi government. Oxy headquarters in Westwood, CA Occidental Petroleum Corporation (Oxy) NYSE: OXY is an international oil and gas exploration and production company with operations in the United States, Middle East/North Africa and Latin America regions. ...


In October 1973, another war between Israel and its Muslim neighbors, known as the Yom Kippur War, got underway just as oil company executives were heading to Vienna, Austria, site of a planned meeting with OPEC leaders. OPEC had been emboldened by the success of Libya's demands anyway, and the war strengthened the unity of their new demands. Combatants  Israel  Egypt,  Syria,  Iraq Commanders Moshe Dayan, David Elazar, Ariel Sharon, Shmuel Gonen, Benjamin Peled, Israel Tal, Rehavam Zeevi, Aharon Yariv, Yitzhak Hofi, Rafael Eitan, Abraham Adan, Yanush Ben Gal Saad El Shazly, Ahmad Ismail Ali, Hosni Mubarak, Mohammed Aly Fahmy, Anwar Sadat, Abdel Ghani el-Gammasy, Abdul Munim... This article is about the city and federal state in Austria. ... Not to be confused with APEC. OPEC Logo The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is an international cartel[1][2] made up of Algeria, Angola, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Venezuela, and Ecuador (which rejoined OPRC in November 2007) . The...


The Arab defeats in the Six Day and 1973 Arab-Israeli wars triggered the 1973 oil crisis. In response to the emergency re-supply effort by the West that enabled Israel to defeat Egyptian and Syrian forces, the Arab world imposed the 1973 oil embargo against the United States and Western Europe. Faisal agreed that Saudi Arabia would use some of its oil wealth to finance the "front-line states," those that bordered Israel, in their struggle. The 1967 Arab-Israeli War, also known as the Six-Day War or June War, was fought between Israel and its Arab neighbors Egypt, Jordan, and Syria. ... The Yom Kippur War (Hebrew: Milchemet Yom HaKipurim (&#1502;&#1500;&#1495;&#1502;&#1514; &#1497;&#1493;&#1501; &#1492;&#1499;&#1497;&#1508;&#1493;&#1512;&#1497;&#1501;), also known as the October War, the 1973 Arab-Israeli War, and the Ramadan War), was fought from October 6 (the day of Yom Kippur) to... The 1973 oil crisis began in earnest on October 17, 1973, when the members of Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC, consisting of the Arab members of OPEC plus Egypt and Syria) announced, as a result of the ongoing Yom Kippur War, that they would no longer ship petroleum... A compass rose with west highlighted This article refers to the cardinal direction; for other uses see West (disambiguation). ...


The centrality of petroleum, the Arab-Israeli Conflict and political and economic instability and uncertainty remain constant features of the politics of the region. Combatants Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel, Palestine and the...


Two Iranian revolutions

The Iranian Constitutional Revolution took place between 1905 and 1911. The revolution marked the beginning of the end of Iran's feudalistic society and led to the establishment of a parliament in Persia and restriction of the power of Shah (king). The first constitution of Iran was approved. But after the final victory of revolutionaries over Shah, the modernist and conservative blocks began to fight with each other. Then World War I took place and all of the combatants invaded Iran and weakened the government and threated the independence of Iran. The system of constitutional monarchy created by the decree of Mozzafar al-Din Shah that was established in Persia as a result of the Revolution was weakened in 1925 with the dissolution of the Qajar dynasty and the accession of Reza Shah Pahlavi to the throne. The Iranian Constitutional Revolution (also Persian Constitutional Revolution and Constitutional Revolution of Iran) took place between 1905 and 1911. ... For other uses, see 1905 (disambiguation). ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Feudalism comes from the Late Latin word feudum, itself borrowed from a Germanic root *fehu, a commonly used term in the Middle Ages which means fief, or land held under certain obligations by feodati. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Shah or Shahzad is a Persian term for a monarch (ruler) that has been adopted in many other languages. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Mozzafar-al-Din Shah (1853 - 1907) was the Shah of Persia between 1896 and 1907. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Qajar dynasty was the ruling family of Persia from 1796 to 1925. ... Shah Reza Pahlavi Reza Pahlavi (Persian: &#1585;&#1590;&#1575; &#1662;&#1607;&#1604;&#1608;&#1740;), (March 16, 1877&#8211;July 26, 1944), called Reza Shah the Great after his death, was Shah of Persia (later Iran) from December 15, 1925 to September 16, 1941. ...


In 1979 the Iranian Revolution (also called "The Islamic Revolution" ) transformed Iran from a constitutional monarchy, under Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, to a populist theocratic Islamic republic under the rule of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, a Shi`i Muslim cleric and marja. Following the Revolution, an Iranian referendum established the Islamic republic as a new government, and a new constitution was approved, electing Ruhollah Khomeini Supreme Leader of Iran. During the following two years, liberals, leftists, and Islamic groups fought with each other, and ultimately Islamics captured power. At the same time, the U.S., USSR, and most of the Arab governments of the Middle East feared that their dominance in the region was challenged by the new Islamic ideology, so they encouraged and supported Saddam Hussein to invade Iran, which resulted in the Iran-Iraq war. Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Iranian Revolution (also known as the Islamic Revolution,[1][2][3][4][5][6] Persian: انقلاب اسلامی, Enghelābe Eslāmi) was the revolution that transformed Iran from a monarchy under Shah Mohammad Reza... Shah of Iran redirects here. ... Shah or Shahzad is a Persian term for a monarch (ruler) that has been adopted in many other languages. ... Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran (Persian: ) (October 26, 1919, Tehran – July 27, 1980, Cairo), styled His Imperial Majesty, and holding the imperial titles of Shahanshah (King of Kings), and Aryamehr (Light of the Aryans), was the monarch of Iran from September 16, 1941 until the Iranian Revolution on February... Populism is a political ideology or rhetorical style that holds that the common person is oppressed by the elite in society, which exists only to serve its own interests, and therefore, the instruments of the State need to be grasped from this self-serving elite and instead used for the... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      For the metal band, refer to Theocracy (band). ... An Islamic republic, in its modern context, has come to mean several different things, some contradictory to others. ... For other uses, see Ayatollah (disambiguation). ... Grand Ayatullah Sayid Ruhullah Musawi Khomeini ( ) (Persian: RÅ«ullāh MÅ«sawÄ« KhumaynÄ« (September 21, 1900 [1]– June 3, 1989) was a senior Shi`i Muslim cleric, Islamic philosopher and marja (religious authority), and the political leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution which saw the overthrow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi... Shia Islam ( Arabic &#1588;&#1610;&#1593;&#1609; follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. ... Marja (Arabic/Persian: مرجع), also appearing as Marja Taqlid or Marja Dini (Arabic/Persian: مرجع تقليد / مرجع ديني), literally means Source of Emulation or Religious Reference. It is the label provided to Shia authority, a Grand Ayatollah with the authority to make legal decisions within the confines of Islamic law for followers and less-credentialed... An Islamic republic, in its modern context, has come to mean several different things, some contradictory to others. ... Ayatollah Sayyed Ali Khamenei, Supreme Leader of Iran. ... For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... Combatants  Iran Patriotic Union of Kurdistan Iraq Peoples Mujahedin of Iran Commanders Ruhollah Khomeini Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani Ali Shamkhani Mostafa Chamran â€  Saddam Hussein Ali Hassan al-Majid Strength 305,000 soldiers 500,000 Pasdaran and Basij militia 900 tanks 1,000 armored vehicles 3,000 artillery pieces 470 aircraft...


The 21st century

Islam in the world.(Green: Sunni, Red: Shia, Blue:Ibadi


Image File history File links Islam_by_country. ... Image File history File links Islam_by_country. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic &#1587;&#1606;&#1617;&#1577;) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Shi&#699;a Islam (Arabic &#1588;&#1610;&#1593;&#1609; follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%&#8211;35% of all Muslim. ... Al-Ibāḍiyyah (Arabic الاباضية) is a form of Islam distinct from the Shiite and Sunni denominations. ...


Islam in Turkey

Since the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, there has been a strong tradition of secularism in Turkey established by institutionalized byAtatürk's Reforms. Although the First Grand National Assembly of Turkey had rallied support from the population for the Independence War against the occupying forces on behalf of Islamic principles, Islam was gradually omitted from the public sphere after the Independence War. The principle of secularism was thus inserted in the Turkish Constitution as late as 1937. This legal action was assisted with stringent state policies against domestic Islamist groups and establishments to delete the strong appeal of Islam in the Turkish society. Even though an overwhelming majority of the population, at least nominally, adheres to Islam in Turkey; the state, which was established with the Kemalist ideology has no official religion nor promotes any and it actively monitors the area between the religions using the Presidency of Religious Affairs. The Republic Protests were a series of peaceful mass rallies by Turkish secular citizens that took place in Turkey in 2007. The target of the first protest was the possible presidential candidacy of the Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, afraid that if elected President of Turkey Erdoğan would alter the Turkish secularist state [44] The Sultan Ahmed Mosque, Istanbul, built in 1616 The Suleiman Mosque (Süleymaniye Camii) in Istanbul was built on the order of sultan Suleiman the Magnificent by the great Ottoman architect Sinan in 1557 The region comprising modern Turkey has a long and rich Islamic tradition stretching back to the... Over the last century, there has been a strong tradition of secularism in Turkey. ... Over the last century, there has been a strong tradition of secularism in Turkey. ... This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... The Sultan Ahmed Mosque, Istanbul, built in 1616 The Suleiman Mosque (Süleymaniye Camii) in Istanbul was built on the order of sultan Suleiman the Magnificent by the great Ottoman architect Sinan in 1557 The region comprising modern Turkey has a long and rich Islamic tradition stretching back to the... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A state religion (also called an established church or state church) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state. ... The Diyanet Ä°ÅŸleri BaÅŸkanlığı (en: Presidency of Religious Affairs) is the highest, islamic, religious authority in Turkey. ... The April 14, 2007 protest in Ankara crowding the Ceremonial Plaza of Anıtkabir, the mausoleum of the founder of modern Turkey, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Wikinews has news related to: Pro-secular Turks rally against Erdogans possible presidential candidacy Turkeys governing party names Abdullah Gül as... ErdoÄŸan redirects here. ... Over the last century, there has been a strong tradition of secularism in Turkey. ...


European Islam

Main article: European Islam.

Certain academics, such as Jorgen Nielsen (Towards a European Islam, London: Macmillan Press, 1999), suggest that there is currently emerging a new brand of Islam in Europe, which is often termed European Islam. While this new kind of Islam is not exactly defined, it could be described as combining on the one hand the religion's basic duties and on the other European culture, values and traditions (such as secularism, democracy, gender equality as perceived by the west, the European system of law, etc.). This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Jørgen Nielsen is a Danish professor in Islamic studies and deputy head of the Department of Theology and Religion at Birmingham University. ...

See also: Islam in Europe, Muslims in Western Europe.

This article deals with the history and the evolution of the Islamic religion in Europe. ... Minimum estimates of Muslim populations in Western Europe (EU15 plus Norway and Switzerland) as a percentage of total country population: (Source: The Economist, April 3, 2003) (Second Source: BBC ) The figures are minimum estimates, and not necessarily exactly comparable, due to differences in method of data collection and data presentation...

Chronology

Further information: Timeline of Islamic history

There is much more to Muslim history than military and political history; this particular chronology is almost entirely of military and political history. ...

Dynasties of Muslim Rulers

There are Muslim Dynsties which the can be found in list of dynasties of Muslim Rulers This is an incomplete list of Muslim Dynasties. ... The list gives the dynasties of Muslim Rulers in the Muslim history. ...


See also

Ibn Rushd, known as Averroes (1126 – December 10, 1198), was an Andalusian-Arab philosopher and physician, a master of philosophy and Islamic law, mathematics, and medicine. ... (Persian: ابن سينا) (c. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711&#8211;1492). ... Current political map of the Balkans. ... Age of the Caliphs  Expansion under the Prophet Muhammad, 622-632  Expansion during the Patriarchal Caliphate, 632-661  Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661-750 The initial Muslim conquests (632–732), also referred to as the Islamic conquests or Arab conquests,[1] began after the death of the Islamic prophet... During the Islamic Golden Age, usually dated from the 8th century to the 13th century,[1] engineers, scholars and traders of the Islamic world contributed enormously to the arts, agriculture, economics, industry, literature, navigation, philosophy, sciences, and technology, both by preserving and building upon earlier traditions and by adding many... Muslim percentage of population by country Distribution of Islam per country. ... This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... Scholars debate what exactly constitutes an Empire. ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ... There is much more to Muslim history than military and political history; this particular chronology is almost entirely of military and political history. ... There are a number of uncertainties and disputes over Islamic historical dates. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b Holt (1977a), p.57
  2. ^ Hourani (2003), p.22
  3. ^ Holt (1977a), p.74
  4. ^ Cite error 8; No text given.
  5. ^ Hart (1978), p. 274
  6. ^ a b Holt (1977a), p.67
  7. ^ Holt (1977a), pp.68-72
  8. ^ Holt (1977a), p.72
  9. ^ Holt (1977a), p.79
  10. ^ Holt (1977a), p.80
  11. ^ Holt (1977a), p.92
  12. ^ Bloom and Blair (2000), p. 50
  13. ^ Nasr (2003), p.119
  14. ^ Lewis (1993), p.84
  15. ^ Holt (1977a), p.105
  16. ^ Holt (1977b), pp.661-663
  17. ^ a b c "Abbasid Dynasty", The New Encyclopedia Britannica (2005)
  18. ^ "Islam", The New Encyclopedia Britannica (2005)
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Applied History Research Group. The Islamic World to 1600. University of Calagary. Retrieved on 2007-04-18.
  20. ^ Nasr (2003), p.121
  21. ^ Nasr (2003), p. 121-122
  22. ^ Lapidus (1988), p.129
  23. ^ Hourani, pg.41
  24. ^ Hourani, pg.43
  25. ^ Hourani, pg.85
  26. ^ Hourani, pg.86
  27. ^ Hourani, pg.85
  28. ^ Nasr (2003), p. 147
  29. ^ Nasr (2003), p. 143
  30. ^ Bloom and Blair (2000), p. 226-230
  31. ^ Armstrong (2000) p. 116
  32. ^ Bloom and Blair (2000), p. 211-219
  33. ^ Bloom and Blair (2000), p. 211-219
  34. ^ Bloom and Blair (2000), p. 211-219
  35. ^ Bloom and Blair (2000), p. 199-204
  36. ^ Holt (1977a), p.263
  37. ^ Koprulu (1992), p.109
  38. ^ Koprulu (1992), p.111
  39. ^ Armstrong (2000), p.116
  40. ^ Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History, vol.4, p.1402
  41. ^ Causes of Anti-Americanism in the Arab World: A Socio-Political Perspective by Abdel Mahdi Abdallah (MERIA Journal. Volume 7, No. 4 - December 2003
  42. ^ Arab-Israeli Conflict: Role of religion (Israel Science and Technology)
  43. ^ Arab-American Psychiatrist Wafa Sultan: There is No Clash of Civilizations but a Clash between the Mentality of the Middle Ages and That of the 21st Century
  44. ^ "Secular rally targets Turkish PM", BBC News, April 14, 2007.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References and further reading

Books and journals

  • Armstrong, Karen (2000). Islam: A Short History. Modern Library. ISBN 978-0679640400. 
  • Bloom and Blair (2000). Islam:A Thousand Years of Faith and Power. 
  • Esposito, John (2000b). Oxford History of Islam. Oxford University Press. 978-0195107999. 
  • Hart, Michael (1978). The 100:Ranking of the most influential persons in history. New York: Carol Publishing Group. ISBN 0-8065-1057-9. 
  • Holt, P. M.; Bernard Lewis (1977a). Cambridge History of Islam, Vol. 1. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521291364. 
  • Holt, P. M.; Ann K. S. Lambton, Bernard Lewis (1977b). Cambridge History of Islam, Vol. 2. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521291372. 
  • Hourani, Albert (2003). A History of the Arab Peoples. Belknap Press; Revised edition. ISBN 978-0674010178. 
  • Koprulu, Mehmed Fuad; Leiser, Gary (1992). The Origins of the Ottoman Empire. SUNY Press. ISBN 0791408191. 
  • Lapidus, Ira M. (1988). A History of Islamic societes. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-22552-3. 
  • Lewis, B. (1993). The Arabs in History. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-285258-2. 
  • Rahman, F. (1982). Islam & Modernity: Transformation of an Intellectual Tradition. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-70284-7. 
  • Nasr, Seyyed Hossein (2003). Islam:Religion, History and Civilization. New York: HarperCollins Publishers. ISBN 0-06-050714-4. 
  • Sonn, Tamara (2004). A Brief History of Islam. Blackwell Publishing Ltd. ISBN 1-4051-0900-9. 
  • Hourani, Albert, A History of the Arab Peoples, Faber & Faber, 2002, ISBN 0-571-21591-2

Encyclopedias Karen Armstrong (b. ... For the pianist named John Esposito, see John Esposito (pianist). ... For the founder of the River Island retail chain, see Bernard Lewis (entrepreneur). ... For the founder of the River Island retail chain, see Bernard Lewis (entrepreneur). ... Albert Habib Hourani (Arabic: ألبرت حبيب حوراني) (March 31, 1915 – January 17, 1993) was a prominent scholar of Middle Eastern history through much of the 20th century. ...

  • Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. Ed. P.J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. Brill Academic Publishers. ISSN 1573-3912. 
  • Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History. (2005). Ed. William H. McNeill, Jerry H. Bentley, David Christian. Berkshire Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0974309101. 
  • The New Encyclopedia Britannica. (2005). Encyclopedia Britannica, Incorporated; Rev Ed edition. ISBN 978-1593392369. 

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (EI) is the standard encyclopaedia of the academic discipline of Islamic studies. ...

External links

A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... During the Islamic Golden Age, usually dated from the 8th century to the 13th century,[1] engineers, scholars and traders of the Islamic world contributed enormously to the arts, agriculture, economics, industry, literature, navigation, philosophy, sciences, and technology, both by preserving and building upon earlier traditions and by adding many... Islamic religious leaders have traditionally been persons who, as part of the clerisy, mosque, or government, performed a prominent role within their community or nation. ... There is much more to Muslim history than military and political history; this particular chronology is almost entirely of military and political history. ... This article is about the Shia concept, for the more general Islamic term, see Imam. ... For other uses, see Sultan (disambiguation). ... Entrance to the emirs palace in Bukhara. ... The historiography of early Islam is the study of how various historians have treated the events of the first two centuries of Islamic history. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... The Succession to Muhammad concerns the different viewpoints and beliefs that are held in relation to the succession to the leadership of the Muslim community after the death of Muhammad. ... The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs ( transliteration: ) is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the first four Caliphs. ... Age of the Caliphs  Expansion under the Prophet Muhammad, 622-632  Expansion during the Patriarchal Caliphate, 632-661  Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661-750 The initial Muslim conquests (632–732), also referred to as the Islamic conquests or Arab conquests,[1] began after the death of the Islamic prophet... The First Islamic civil war, 656–661 CE, followed the assassination of the caliph Uthman ibn Affan, continued during the brief caliphate of Ali ibn Abu Talib, and was ended, on the whole, by Muawiyas assumption of the caliphate. ... The Second Fitna, or Second Islamic civil war, was a period of general political and military disorder that afflicted the Islamic world during the early Umayyad dynasty, following the death of the caliph Muawiya I. There seems to be a lack of solid consensus on the exact range of years... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... The Arab Empire at its greatest extent The Arab Empire usually refers to the following Caliphates: Rashidun Caliphate (632 - 661) Umayyad Caliphate (661 - 750) - Successor of the Rashidun Caliphate Umayyad Emirate in Islamic Spain (750 - 929) Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in Islamic Spain (929 - 1031) Abbasid Caliphate (750-1258... The Islamic Empire (بلاد الإسلامية ) or Rashidun Empire or Rashidun Caliphate ( خلافت راشدہ) is the term conventionally used to describe the Empire controlled by the first four successors of Muhammad (the Rightly Guided caliphs). ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-FātimiyyÅ«n (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... Capital Delhi / Agra Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai, Turkish; later also Urdu) Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1526-1530 Babur  - 1530–1539 and after restoration 1555–1556 Humayun  - 1556–1605 Akbar  - 1605–1627 Jahangir  - 1628–1658 Shah Jahan  - 1659–1707 Aurangzeb History  - Established April 21, 1526  - Ended September 21, 1857 Area... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711&#8211;1492). ... Territory under Muslim control in the Iberian Peninsula in 790, 900, 1100 and 1300 AD // Conquest (710–756) 710 - The Berber General Tariq ibn Ziyad takes Tangier. ... The interior of the Great Mosque in Córdoba, now a Christian cathedral. ... Almoravid Dynasty in its Greatest Extent The Almoravids (In Arabic المرابطون al-Murabitun, sing. ... Almohad Dynasty in its Greatest Extent, IN WRONG MAP The Almohad Dynasty (From Arabic الموحدون al-Muwahhidun, i. ... Marinid Dynasty in its Greatest Extent, this map its wrong! The Anglicised name used for this article derives from the Arabic Banu Marin (also BenÄ« MerÄ«n, which is the source of the Spanish name). ... The Nasrid dynasty was the last Muslim dynasty in Spain, founded by Mohammed ben Nasar. ... The Arab Maghreb Union This article is about the region. ... The Rustamid (or Rustumid, Rostemid) dynasty of Ibadi Kharijite imams ruled the central Maghreb for a century and a half from their capital Tahert, until destroyed by the Fatimids. ... An Aghlabid cistern in Kairuan The Aghlabid dynasty of emirs, members of the Arab tribe of Bani Tamim, ruled Ifriqiya (northern Africa), nominally on behalf of the Abbasid Caliph, for about a century, until overthrown by the new power of the Fatimids. ... The Idrisids were the first Arab dynasty in the western Maghreb, ruling from 788 to 985, and can be thought of as the originators of an independent Morocco. ... The Muhallabids were a dynasty of governers in Ifriqiya under the Abbasid Caliphate (771-793) Although subject to the Abbasids, they enjoyed a great deal of autonomy and were able to maintain Arab rule in the face of revolts by the Berbers. ... Almoravid Dynasty in its Greatest Extent The Almoravids (In Arabic المرابطون al-Murabitun, sing. ... Almohad Dynasty in its Greatest Extent, IN WRONG MAP The Almohad Dynasty (From Arabic الموحدون al-Muwahhidun, i. ... Hafsid dynasty in Ifriqiya (1229-1574) Significant Rulers: Abu Zakariyya Yahya I. (1229-1249) Muhammad I. al-Mustansir (1249-1277) Yahya II. al-Watiq (1277-1279) Ibrahim I. (1279-1283) Ibn Abi Umara (1283-1284) Abu Hafs Umar I. (1284-1295) Abu Bakr II. (1318-1346) Ishaq II. (1350-1369... Marinid Dynasty in its Greatest Extent, this map its wrong! The Anglicised name used for this article derives from the Arabic Banu Marin (also BenÄ« MerÄ«n, which is the source of the Spanish name). ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  This map its complete wrong! The Wattassids (وطاسيون waṭāsÄ«yÅ«n) or Banû Watâs (بنو الوطاس banÅ« al-waṭās) were a dynasty and Kingdom in the north of Morocco and part of Spain. ... The Saadi Dynasty of Saadi Empire began with the reign of Sultan Mohammed I in 1554, and ended in 1659 with the end of the reign of Sultan Ahmad II. The Saadi family claimed descent from the Islamic prophet Muhammad, through the line of Ali ibn Abi Talib and Fatima... Mashriq or Mashreq is the region of Arabic-speaking countries to the east of Egypt. ... The Tulunids were the first independent dynasty in Islamic Egypt (868-905). ... Hamdanid Dynasty: Muslim Arab dynasty of northern Iraq (Al-Jazirah) and Syria (905-1004). ... The Ikhshidid dynasty of Egypt (sometimes transliterated other ways) ruled Egypt from 935 to 969. ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  Uqaylid at its Greatest Extent The Uqailid or Uqaylid Dynasty was a Muslim Arab dynasty with several lines that ruled in various parts of Al-Jazira, northern Syria and Iraq in the late 10th and 11th centuries. ... The Zengid Dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Seljuk Turkish origin, which ruled parts of Northern Iraq and Syria during the 12th and 13th centuries. ... The Ayyubid Dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Egypt, Iraq in the 12th and 13th centuries. ... Puneet Bahri Bahri is a surname of Punjabi Khatri families. ... The Burji dynasty ruled Egypt from 1382 until 1517. ... An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (or Mameluks) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: &#1605;&#1605;&#1604;&#1608;&#1603; plural: &#1605;&#1605;&#1575;&#1604;&#1610;&#1603;) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim Caliphs and the Ottoman Empire, and who on more than one occasion seized power for... This article is about historical Crusades . ... A postage stamp of 1942 depicts the sultan and the capital city. ... Map of the Protectorate of South Arabia in 1965 Map of contemporary Yemen showing Al Mahrah governorate. ... The Federation of South Arabia was an organization of colonies under British rule. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... The Tahirid dynasty ruled the northeastern Persian region of Khorasan between AD 821-873. ... The Alavids (سلسله علویان طبرستان in Persian) were a Shia emirate based in Tabaristan of Iran. ... The Saffarid dynasty of Persia ruled a short-lived empire centred on Seistan, a border district between modern-day Afghanistan and Iran, between AD 861-1003. ... The Samanids (875-999) (in Persian: Samanian) were a Persian dynasty in Central Asia and eastern Iran, named after its founder Saman Khoda. ... The tomb of Ghaboos ebne Voshmgir, built in 1007AD, rises 160 ft from its base. ... The Buyid confederation existed within the Islamic empire from 945 to 1055. ... The Ghaznavid Empire was a state in the region of todays Afghanistan that existed from 977 to 1186. ... Ghauri or Ghori (Persian: غوری) can refer to: A resident of Ghaur province in Afghanistan. ... Seljuk Prince with Mongoloid features. ... Khwarezmid Empire Template:History of Greater Turkey The Khwarezmian Empire, more commonly known as the empire of the Khwarezm Shahs[1] (Persian: , KhwārezmÅ¡hāḥīān, Kings of Khwarezmia) was a Turkoman[2][3][4] Sunni Muslim dynasty of Turkic mamluk[5] origin which ruled Central Asia and Iran, first... Khanates of Mongolian Empire: Il-Khanate, Chagatai Khanate, Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... The Muzaffarid dynasty were sultans of Gujarat in western India from 1391 to 1583. ... The Chupanids, also known as the Chobanids, (سلسله امرای چوپانی, Amir Chupani), were descendants of a Mongol family that came to prominence in 14th century Persia. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  Pakistan  This box:      map of the division of the territory ruled by the Ilkhanate dynasty into the territories of the Chupanid and Jalayirid Dynasties The Jalayirids (آل جلایر) were a Mongol descendant dynasty which ruled over Iraq... Timurid can refer to several entities, related to Timur: Timurid Dynasty Timurid Empire Timurid Emirates This is a disambiguation page &#8212; a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Qara Qoyunlu or the Black Sheep Turkomans (Turkmen: Garagoýunly; Azeri: Qaraqoyunlu; Turkish: Karakoyunlu; Persian: قراقویونلو), were a tribal federation of Turkoman origin that ruled in what is today Eastern Anatolia, Armenia, Iranian Azerbaijan, and northern Iraq from 1375 to 1468. ... ... The Safavids were a long-lasting Turkic-speaking Iranian dynasty that ruled from 1501 to 1736 and first established Shiite Islam as Persias official religion. ... The Hotaki dynasty (1709-1736) was founded by Afghans (Pashuns) from the Ghilzai clan. ... Afsharid Dynasty (1723-1735) Bronze statue of Nader Shah, by Master Sadighi. ... The Zand dynasty ruled southern and central Iran in the eighteenth century. ... The Qajar dynasty was the ruling family of Persia from 1796 to 1925. ... The Pahlavi script was used broadly in the Sasanid Persian Empire to write down Middle Persian for secular, as well as religious purposes. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... During the middle ages, several Islamic regimes established empires in South Asia. ... The Delhi Sultanate (دلی سلطنت), or Sulthanath-e-Hind (سلطنتِ ہند) / Sulthanath-e-Dilli (سلطنتِ دلی) refers to the various Muslim dynasties that ruled in India from 1210 to 1526. ... The Deccan sultanates were five Muslim-ruled kingdoms–-Bijapur, Golconda, Ahmednagar, Bidar, and Berar of south-central India. ... Capital Delhi / Agra Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai, Turkish; later also Urdu) Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1526-1530 Babur  - 1530–1539 and after restoration 1555–1556 Humayun  - 1556–1605 Akbar  - 1605–1627 Jahangir  - 1628–1658 Shah Jahan  - 1659–1707 Aurangzeb History  - Established April 21, 1526  - Ended September 21, 1857 Area... The Bahmani Sultanate was a Muslim state of the Deccan in southern India. ... The Jaunpur sultanate was an independent kingdom of Northern India during the period from 1394 CE to 1479 CE, whose rulers ruled from Jaunpur of present day Uttar Pradesh. ... The Muzaffarid dynasty were sultans of Gujarat in western India from 1391 to 1583. ... The Gujarat Sultanate was an independent kingdom established in the early 15th century CE in Gujarat. ... Several Sultanates on the Comoros, an archipelago in the Indian Ocean with an ethnically complex mix, were founded after the introduction of Islam into the area in the 15th century. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... The evidence available on the spread of Islam in Southeast Asia is reliant on tombstones and scattered evidence. ... Islam is thought to have first been adopted by Indonesians sometime during the eleventh century, although Muslims had visited Indonesia early in the Muslim era. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Aceh was a sultanate in the region of what is today Aceh Province of Indonesia. ... The Banten Sultanate (Indonesian: Kasultanan Banten) was a sultanate in Banten, founded in the sixteenth century. ... The Sultanate of Maguindanao was a Muslim state that ruled parts of the island of Mindanao, in southern Philippines. ... For the province, see Sulu Location of Sulu in the Philippines Capital Jolo Language(s) Arabic (official), Tausug, Malay, Banguingui, Bajau languages Religion Islam Government Monarchy Sultan  - 1450-1480 Shariful Hashem Syed Abu Bakr  - 1884-1899 Jamal ul-Kiram I History  - Established 1450  - Annexed by USA 1899 The Sultanate... The Angoche Sultanate was established in 1485 along an achepeligo off the Northern Mozambique coastline. ... Aussa redirects here. ... Dar Sila is the name of the wandering sultanate of the Dar Sila Daju, a multi-tribal ethnic group in Chad and Sudan. ... Ifat was a Muslim state of eastern Shewa, located in modern day Ethiopia. ... The Baguirmi or Bagirmi Kingdom (1480s-1897) was an Islamic kingdom or sultanate that existed as an independent state during the 16th and 17th centuries southeast of Lake Chad in what is now the country of Chad. ... The Funj sultanate of Sinnar, also Sennar, was a sultanate in the north of Sudan, named Funj after the ethnic group of its dynasty or Sinnar (or Sennar) after its capital, which ruled a substantial area of northeast Africa between 1504 and 1821. ... Map of Zanzibars main island Zanzibar is situated off mainland Tanzania Coordinates: Country Tanzania Islands Unguja and Pemba Capital Zanzibar City Settled AD 1000 Government  - Type semi-autonomous part of Tanzania  - President Amani Abeid Karume Area  - Both Islands  637 sq mi (1,651 km²) Population (2002)  - Both Islands 981... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Aqidah (sometimes spelled as Aqeeda, Aqida or Aqeedah) (Arabic: عقيدة) is an Islamic term meaning creed. ... Allah is the Arabic language word for God. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Islam reveres the one God, who is considered the only Creator and Lord of the Universe. The main fundamental creed (shahadah) of Islam is There is but (one) God, and Muhammad is the Messenger of God. The Arabic word for The God is Allah (الله); Muslims consider him the same deity... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Prophets of Islam are male human beings who are regarded by Muslims to be prophets chosen by God. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Five Pillars of Islam (Arabic: أركان الإسلام) is the term given to the five duties incumbent on every Muslim. ... White flag featuring the Shahada text as used by the Taliban. ... Salat redirects here. ... Sawm (Arabic: صوم) is an Arabic word for fasting regulated by Islamic jurisprudence. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic economical jurisprudence. ... A supplicating pilgrim at Masjid Al Haram, the mosque which was built around the Kaaba (the cubical building at center). ... Islamic religious leaders have traditionally been persons who, as part of the clerisy, mosque, or government, performed a prominent role within their community or nation. ... There is much more to Muslim history than military and political history; this particular chronology is almost entirely of military and political history. ... Ahl al-Bayt (Arabic: ) is a phrase meaning People of the House, or family. ... In Islam, the SÌ£aḥābah (Arabic: ‎ companions) were the companions of Muhammad. ... The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs ( transliteration: ) is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the first four Caliphs. ... This article is about the Shia concept, for the more general Islamic term, see Imam. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Sunnah(t) () literally means “trodden path”, and therefore, the sunnah of the prophet means “the way of the prophet”. Terminologically, the word ‘Sunnah’ in Sunni Islam means those religious actions that were instituted by Muhammad(PBUH) during the 23 years of his ministry and which Muslims initially received through consensus... Hadith ( transliteration: ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. ... This article is about Islamic religious law. ... The religion of Islam has many divisions, sects, schools, traditions, and related faiths. ... Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Sufism is a mystic tradition within Islam that encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to Divine love and the cultivation of the elements of the Divine within the individual human being. ... Al-Ibāḍiyyah (Arabic الاباضية) is a form of Islam distinct from the Shiite and Sunni denominations. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Jainism and Islam came in close contact with each other following the Islamic Conquest from Central Asia and Persia in the seventh to the twelfth centuries when much of north and central India came under the rule of the Delhi Sultanate, and later the Mughal dynasty. ... This article is about the historical interaction between Islam and Judaism. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Muslim culture is a term primarily used in secular academia to describe all cultural practices common to historically Islamic peoples. ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ... Islamic Studies is the academic discipline which focuses on Islamic issues. ... This article is about the attitudes of Islam regarding animals. ... The Taj Mahal, Agra. ... The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري; at-taqwÄ«m al-hijrÄ«; Persian: تقویم هجري قمری ‎ taqwÄ«m-e hejri-ye qamari; also called the Hijri calendar) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate... This article discusses childrens rights given by Islam, childrens duties towards their parents, parents treatment of their children, both males and females, biological and foster children, also discussed are some of the differences regarding rights with respect to different schools of thoughts. ... Muslim percentage of population by country Distribution of Islam per country. ... Muslim holidays generally celebrate the events of the life of Islams main prophet, Muhammad, especially the events surrounding the first hearing of the Kuran. ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... Islamic philosophy (الفلسفة الإسلامية) is a branch of Islamic studies, and is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between philosophy (reason) and the religious teachings of Islam (faith). ... Islam as a political movement has a diverse character that has at different times incorporated elements of many other political movements, while simultaneously adapting the religious views of Islamic fundamentalism, particularly the view of Islam as a political religion. ... In the history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under the Islamic civilisation between the 8th and 15th centuries (the Islamic Golden Age). ... The complex relationship between women and Islam is defined by both Islamic texts and the history and culture of the Muslim world. ... This article lists various controversies related to Islam and Muslims. ... (Arguments critical to religion in general, or specific to Monotheism, such as the Existence of God, not dealt with here. ... This is a sub-article to Criticism of Islam. ... Muslims believe that the Quran is the literal word of God (Allah) as recited to Muhammad through the Angel Gabriel. ... This is a sub-article to Quran and Islamic view of miracles. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Apostasy in Islam (Arabic: ارتداد, irtidād or ridda) is commonly defined as the rejection of Islam in word or deed by a person who has been a Muslim. ... This article is about the relationship between Islam and antisemitism. ... The extent to which domestic violence is sanctioned or opposed by Islam is a matter of debate. ... This article is about political Islam For the religion of Islam, see Islam. ... Islamophobia is a controversial[1][2] though increasingly accepted[3][4] term that refers to prejudice or discrimination against Islam or Muslims. ... Islamist terrorism, sometimes called Islamic terrorism, is terrorism that is carried out to further the political and religious ambitions of a segment of the Muslim community. ... Conflicts between Muslims and non-Muslims made the persecution of both Muslims and non-Muslims a recurring phenomenon during the history of Islam. ... Qutbism (also Kotebism, Qutbiyya, or Qutbiyyah) is the radical strain of Islamic ideology and activism, based on the thought and writings of Sayyid Qutb, a celebrated Islamist and former leading member of the Muslim Brotherhood who was executed in 1966. ... This article is about Islamic religious law. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This is a sub-article of fiqh and Law and economics. ... Islamic banking refers to a system of banking or banking activity that is consistent with Islamic law (Sharia) principles and guided by Islamic economics. ... Riba is the (Arabic: ربا ) term for intrest, the charging of which is forbidden by the Quran here, among other places: And that which you give in gift (loan) (to others), in order that it may increase (your wealth by expecting to get a better one in return) from other... Murabaha is defined as a particular kind of sale, compliant with shariah, where the seller expressly mentions the cost he has incurred on the commodities to be sold and sells it to another person by adding some profit or mark-up thereon which is known to the buyer. ... // Takaful is an Islamic insurance concept which is grounded in Islamic muamalat (banking transactions), observing the rules and regulations of Islamic law. ... Sukuk is the Arabic name for a financial certificate but can be seen as an Islamic equivalent of bond. ... This is a sub-article to Islamic economical jurisprudence and inheritance. ... Islamic politics is the profession of Muslim politicians. ... Islamic leadership is what a Muslim leader is supposed to show, in order to lead in accordance to Islamic principles. ... This is a sub-article to Islamic jurisprudence and Marriage. ... When a couple decides to marry, they draw up a Marriage contract. ... A dowry is a gift of money or valuables given by the brides family to that of the groom to permit their marriage. ... Nikah or nikkah (Arabic: النكاح ), is the contract between a bride and bridegroom and part of an Islamic marriage, a strong covenant (mithaqun Ghalithun) as expressed in Quran 4:21). ... NikāhÌ£u’l-Mut‘ah, Nikah el Muta (Arabic: , also Nikah Mut‘ah literally, marriage[1] for pleasure[2]), or sigheh, is a fixed-time marriage which, according to the Usuli Shia schools of Shari‘a (Islamic law), is a marriage with a preset duration, after which the... Sexuality in Islam is largely described by the Quran, Islamic tradition, and religious leaders both past and present as being confined to marital relationships between men and women. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Istimna (استمناء) is the Arabic term for masturbation. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Islamic criminal jurisprudence is the Islamic criminal law. ... This article is about dhimmi in the context of Islamic law. ... In states ruled by Islamic law, jizya or jizyah (Arabic: جزْية; Ottoman Turkish: cizye) is a per capita tax imposed on able bodied non-Muslim men of military age. ... Zina (Arabic: الزناء) is extramarital sex in Islam. ... Hudud ( Arabic , also transliterated hadud, hudood; plural for hadd, , limit, or restriction) is the word often used in Islamic social and legal literature for the bounds of acceptable behaviour and the punishments for serious crimes. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This is a sub-article to Islamic jurisprudence and etiquette. ... This is a sub-article to Islamic jurisprudence and Sex segregation Islam discourages social interaction between men and women when they are alone but not all interaction between men and women. ... In Islamic sharia legal terminology, a mahram (Arabic محرم, also transcribed mahrim or maharem) is an unmarriageable kin with whom sexual intercourse would be considered incestuous, a punishable taboo. ... Many muslims when praying their daily prayers have to say the The Salat Ibrahimiya goes like this This translates to Oh God exalt Mohammad and his progeny as you have exalted Ibrahim and his progeny in these worlds as You are All Praiseworthy All Glorious. ... Islamic theological jurisprudence is the filed of Islamic jurisprudence specialized in theological issues. ... In Islamic legal terminology, Baligh or Bulugh refers to a person who has reached maturity or puberty and has full responsibility under Islamic law. ... This is a sub-article to fiqh and Hygiene Hygiene in Islam is a prominent topic but one which non-Muslims are not very familiar with. ... This is a sub-article to Islamic hygienical jurisprudence and cleanliness. ... This article is about Hygiene in Islam. ... Ghusl (غسل) is an Arabic term referring to the full Ablution in Islam. ... This article is about Hygiene in Islam. ... The miswak (miswaak, siwak) is a natural toothbrush made from the twigs of the Salvadora persica tree. ... This is a sub-article to Hygiene in Islam, Healthy diet and Food and cooking hygiene. ... DhabiÄ¥a (ذَبِيْحَة, dhabiha, zabiha) is the prescribed method of slaughtering all animals excluding fish and most sea-life as per Islam. ... In Islam, Alcohol is forbiden to drink, but is allowed to be used for medical and other purposes. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Haraam. ... This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... The rules and regulations concerning prisoners of war in Islam are covered in manuals of Islamic jurisprudence, based upon Islamic teachings, in both the Quran and hadith. ... Islamic Studies is the academic discipline which focuses on Islamic issues. ... The historiography of early Islam is the study of how various historians have treated the events of the first two centuries of Islamic history. ... Islamic philosophy (الفلسفة الإسلامية) is a branch of Islamic studies, and is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between philosophy (reason) and the religious teachings of Islam (faith). ... Early Muslim philosophy is considered influential in the rise of modern philosophy. ... There are many new trends in Islamic Philosophy and meanwhile some traditional schools are still very alive and active. ... Islamization of knowledge is a term which describes a variety of attempts and approaches to synthesize the ethics of Islam with various fields of modern thought. ... Islamic eschatology is concerned with the Qiyamah (end of the world; Last Judgement) and the final judgement of humanity. ... Theology is reasoned discourse concerning God (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, word or reason). It can also refer to the study of other religious topics. ... This article is about the relationship between Islam and science. ... In the history of mathematics, Islamic mathematics or Arabic mathematics refers to the mathematics developed by the Islamic civilization between 622 and 1600. ... In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine or Arabic medicine refers to medicine developed in the medieval Islamic civilisation and written in Arabic, the lingua franca of the Islamic civilization. ... Main articles: Islamic science and astrology Islamic astrology, in Arabic ilm al-nujum or ilm al-falak is the study of the heavens by early Muslims. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic science and astronomy. ... A significant number of inventions were produced in the Muslim world, many of them with direct implications for Fiqh related issues. ... Islamic pottery era started around 622. ... Islamic creationism is the belief that the universe (including humanity) was directly created by God as explained in the Quran or Genesis. ... The stylized signature (tughra) of Sultan Mahmud II of the Ottoman Empire was written in an expressive calligraphy. ... Islamic music is Muslim religious music, as sung or played in public services or private devotions. ... Islamic poetry is poetry written by Muslims on the topic of Islam. ... Islamic literature is a field that includes the study of modern and classical Arabic and the litarature written in those languages. ... Hagia Sophia, an Eastern Orthodox church converted into a mosque on the day of the Fall of Constantinople Conversion of non-Muslim houses of worship into mosques began during the life of Muhammad and continued during subsequent Islamic conquests and under the Muslim rule. ... Islamic sociology is a discipline of Islamic studies. ... Early Muslim sociology responded to the challenges of social organization of diverse peoples all under common religious organization in the Islamic caliphate, the Abbasid and later Mamluk period in Egypt. ... It has been suggested that Shuubiya be merged into this article or section. ... The interior of the Selimiye Mosque in Edirne. ... Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ...


 
 

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