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Encyclopedia > Muslim conquest of Egypt
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Please see the discussion on the talk page.
Muslim conquest of Egypt
Part of the Muslim conquests and Byzantine-Arab Wars
Date 639-654
Location Egypt, North Africa
Result Muslim victory
Territorial
changes
Egypt and parts of North Africa annexed by Muslims
Combatants
Byzantine Empire Muslim Arabs (Rashidun and Umayyad Caliphates)

At the commencement of the Muslim conquest of Egypt, Egypt was part of the Byzantine Empire with its capital in Constantinople. However, it had been occupied just a decade before by the Persian Empire under Khosrau II (616 to 629 AD). Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Age of the Caliphs The initial Muslim conquests (632–732), also referred to as the Islamic conquests or Arab conquests,[1] began after the death of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire[1], Arab Ghassanids, Bulgarian Empire (later) Muslim Arabs (Rashidun and Umayyad Caliphates) The Byzantine-Arab Wars was a long drawn-out war between the Byzantine Empire and the emerging Arab Empire. ... Events Dagobert I succeeded by Clovis II as king of the Franks in Neustria and Burgundy During the Islamic conquest of Persia, Susa is destroyed Births Deaths Pippin I of Landen, father of Gertrude of Nivelles Categories: 639 ... Events King Reccaswinth issues Visigothic law code. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ... The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs ( transliteration: ) is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the rightly guided Caliphs. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... For main article see: Caliphate First of all, this system is invalid and is unlawful Islamicly. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire[1], Arab Ghassanids, Bulgarian Empire (later) Muslim Arabs (Rashidun and Umayyad Caliphates) The Byzantine-Arab Wars was a long drawn-out war between the Byzantine Empire and the emerging Arab Empire. ... Combatants Muslim Arabs Eastern Roman Empire Christian Arabs Commanders Zayd ibn Harithah † Jafar ibn Abu Talib † Abdullah ibn Rawahah † Khalid ibn al-Walid Heraclius Theodorus Shurahbil ibn Amr al-Ghassani Strength 3,000 (Ibn Qayyim)[4][5] 3,000 (Ibn Hajar)[6][5] 100,000 according to Muslim sources... According to the ,Ar-raheeq Al-makhtum( the sealed nectar) the prize winning Biography of the noble prophet Mohammad (peace be upon him), the battle of Tabouk in the 9th year of the Muslim calendar (which started when Mohammad peace be upon him , migrated from Makkah to Madinah). ... Battle of Dathin was a minor battle between the Muslims and the Byzantines in February of 634. ... Combatants Muslim Arabs Roman Empire Persian Empire Christian Arabs Commanders Khalid ibn al-Walid Heraclius Yazdgerd III Strength 15,000[1] 100,000[2] Casualties Low 50,000[2] The Battle of Firaz was the last battle of the Muslim Arab commander Khalid ibn al-Walid (The Sword of Allah... Combatants Byzantine Empire Muslim Arabs (Rashidun and Umayyad Caliphates) The Age of the Caliphs The Muslim conquest of Syria occured in the first half of the 7th century. ... Combatants Muslims Christian Arabs Commanders Khalid ibn al-Walid  ? Strength 9000 unknown but less then muslims Casualties very Few Unknown but more then muslims. ... Combatants Muslim Arabs Roman Empire Ghassanids Commanders Khalid ibn al-Walid Heraclius Romanus Strength 4,000 infantry,[1] 1,500 cavalry[1] 12,000[1] Casualties 230[1] 8,000 Bosra was the first important town to be captured by the Muslims in Syria, as it was capital city of... Combatants Eastern Roman Empire Muslim Arabs Commanders Wardan, Governor of Emesa, Qubuqlar, Theodoros Khalid ibn al-Walid, Shurahbil, Yazid Ibn Abi Sufyan, Amr Ibn al-As, Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah Strength About 25,000[1] 50,000[2] Casualties 20,000 in two days of battle and while fleeing... Combatants Muslims Ghassanids Commanders Khalid ibn al-Walid  ? Strength 9000 5000-6000 Casualties none Few hundreds. ... Combatants Muslim Arabs Roman Empire Commanders Khalid ibn al-Walid Heraclius Saqalar Strength 30,000 80,000 Casualties Unknown 10,000 The Battle of Fahl was a Byzantine-Arab battle fought between the Muslim Arabs under Khalid ibn al-Walid (The Sword of Allah) and the Roman Empire under Heraclius... Combatants Rashidun Caliphate Byzantine empire. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... Combatants Rashidun Caliphate Byzantine empire. ... This battle took place between byzantine army and Khalid ibn al-Walids army near the city of hazir. ... Combatants Muslims Byzantine Empire Christian Arabs. ... The Battle of Heliopolis was a decisive battle between Arab Muslim armies and Byzantine forces for the control of Egypt. ... Combatants Muslims Roman (Byzantine) Empire Commanders Unknown Unknown Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown Unknown Battle between Arab Muslim troops under Amr ibn al-Aas, and Roman troops, in Egypt, in the Spring of 646. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Umayyad Caliphate The Umayyad conquest of North Africa continued the century of rapid Arab Muslim expansion following the death of Mohammed in 632 CE. By 640 the Arabs controlled Mesopotamia, had invaded Armenia, and were concluding their conquest of Byzantine Syria. ... Combatants Umayyad Caliphate Byzantine Empire Commanders Hassan bin al-Numan Ioannes the Patrician and Tiberius Apsimar Strength 40,000 Unknown Casualties Unknown total loss of a territory The Battle of Carthage was fought in 698 between the Byzantine Exarchate of Africa, and the armies of the Umayyad Caliphate. ... The Arab Empire at its greatest extent The Arab Empire usually refers to the following Caliphates: Rashidun Caliphate (632 - 661) Umayyad Caliphate (661 - 750) - Successor of the Rashidun Caliphate Umayyad Emirate in Islamic Spain (750 - 929) Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in Islamic Spain (929 - 1031) Abbasid Caliphate (750-1258... Anatolia and Europe Anatolia (Turkish: from Greek: Ανατολία - Anatolia) is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ... The 1453 Siege of Constantinople (painted 1499) There were at least 24 sieges of Constantinople during the history of the Byzantine Empire. ... Combatants Muslims Byzantine Empire Christian Arabs Commanders Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah Khalid ibn al-Walid Unknown Strength 17,000 40,000-50,000 Casualties Unknown but few hundreds. ... Combatants Roman (Byzantine) Empire Umayyad Caliphate Commanders Constantine IV Muawiyah I Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown Unknown The First Arab Siege of Constantinople in 674 was a major conflict of the Byzantine-Arab Wars, and only the second time Constantinoples defences were tested. ... Combatants Roman (Byzantine) Empire Umayyad Caliphate Commanders Unknown Unknown Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown Unknown The naval Battle of Syllaeum took place in 677 near Syllaeum and was fought between the Arabs and the Byzantine Empire in coordination with a series of land battles in Anatolia and Syria. ... Combatants Muslim Arabs (Rashidun Caliphate) Roman (Byzantine) Empire Commanders Unknown Unknown Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown Unknown Battle of That Al-Sawari was a naval battle between the Muslim Arabs and the Byzantine Empire. ... Combatants Umayyad Caliphate Byzantine Empire, First Bulgarian Empire Commanders Maslama, Admiral Suleiman Leo III, Khan Tervel Strength About 400,000 men, 1,800 ships 30,000 Byzantines, 50,000 Bulgarians Casualties 130,000-170,000 men, About 1,795 ships Unknown The Second Arab siege of Constantinople (717-718), was... The Battle of Akroinon was fought at Akroinon (also known as Acroinon or Acroinum, near modern Afyon) in Phrygia, on the western edge of the Anatolian plateau, in 739 between an Umayyad Arab army of Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik, led by his brother Sulayman, and Byzantine forces led by... The Islamic conquest and domination of Sicily (as well as parts of southern Italy) is a process whose origin must be traced back in the general expansion of Islam from the 7th century onwards (see Muslim conquests for more details). ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... Map of Constantinople. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... Khosrau II (sometimes called Parvez, the ever Victorious), King of Persia, son of Hormizd IV of Persia (579–590), grandson of Khosrau I of Persia (531–579). ... Events Eadbald succeeds Ethelbert as king of Kent. ... Events Jerusalem reconquered by Byzantine Empire from the Persian Empire (September). ... Dionysius Exiguus invented Anno Domini years to date Easter. ...


It was also religiously alienated. The orthodox Christianity of the Byzantines held to the doctrine of Christ having two natures, one divine and one human. In Egypt however the christological position of Miaphysitism prevailed, which supported the doctrine of Christ having only one nature, where Divinity and Humanity were united in one "nature" . Although the Christian Council of Chalcedon, held in 451, had ruled in favor of the orthodox position, Egypt had remained a hotbed of Miaphysite sentiment. So, with the restoration of Byzantine political control in 629, Emperor Heraclius began persecuting the Copts whom he considered Monophysites, expelling their patriarch (Oriental Orthodox are in fact miaphysites and not monophysites). ... Christology is that part of Christian theology that studies and defines who Jesus Christ is. ... Miaphysitism (sometimes called henophysitism) is the christology of the Oriental Orthodox Churches. ... The Council of Chalcedon was an ecumenical council that took place from October 8 to November 1, 451, at Chalcedon (a city of Bithynia in Asia Minor), today part of the city of Istanbul on the Asian side of the Bosphorus and known as the district of Kadıköy. ... Events April 7 - The Huns sack Metz June 20 - Attila, king of the Huns is defeated at Troyes by Aëtius in the Battle of Chalons. ... Events Jerusalem reconquered by Byzantine Empire from the Persian Empire (September). ... Heraclius and his sons Heraclius Constantine and Heraclonas. ...


It was in the context of this state of affairs that an army of some 4,000 Arabs, led by Amr ibn al-As, was sent by the Caliph Umar to spread Islam in the land of the ancient pharaohs. The Arabs crossed into Egypt from Palestine in December 639 and advanced rapidly into the Nile Delta. The imperial garrisons retreated into the walled towns, where they successfully held out for a year or more. But the Arabs sent for reinforcements and the invading army, joined by another 12,000 men in 640, defeated a Byzantine army at the Battle of Heliopolis. Amr next proceeded in the direction of Alexandria, which was surrendered to him by a treaty signed on November 8, 641. The Thebaid seems to have surrendered with scarcely any opposition. Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ... Amr ibn al-Ās (Arabic: عمرو بن العاص) (d. ... For main article see: Caliphate First of all, this system is invalid and is unlawful Islamicly. ... For other uses, see Umar (disambiguation). ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The Holy Land or Palestine Showing not only the Old Kingdoms of Judea and Israel but also the 12 Tribes Distinctly, and Confirming Even the Diversity of the Locations of their Ancient Positions and Doing So as the Holy Scriptures Indicate, a geographic map from the studio of Tobiae Conradi... Events Dagobert I succeeded by Clovis II as king of the Franks in Neustria and Burgundy During the Islamic conquest of Persia, Susa is destroyed Births Deaths Pippin I of Landen, father of Gertrude of Nivelles Categories: 639 ... NASA satellite photograph of the Nile Delta (shown in false colour) The Nile Delta (Arabic:دلتا النيل) is the delta formed in Northern Egypt where the Nile River spreads out and drains into the Mediterranean Sea. ... Events May 28 - Severinus becomes pope, but dies the same year. ... The Battle of Heliopolis was a decisive battle between Arab Muslim armies and Byzantine forces for the control of Egypt. ... Nickname: Alexandria on the map of Egypt Map of Alexandria Coordinates: , Country Egypt Founded 334 BC Government  - Governor Adel Labib Population (2001)  - City 3,500,000 Time zone EET (UTC+2)  - Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3) Twin Cities  - Baltimore  United States  - Cleveland  United States  - ConstanÅ£a  Romania  - Durban  South Africa... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Founding of the city of Fostat, later Cairo, in Egypt. ... The Thebaid is the region of ancient Egypt containing the thirteen southernmost nomes of Upper Egypt, from Abydos to Aswan. ...

The Age of the Caliphs
The Age of the Caliphs

The ease with which this valuable province was wrenched from the Byzantine Empire appears to have been due to the treachery of the governor of Egypt, Cyrus [1], Melchite (i.e., Byzantine/Chalcedonian Orthodox, not Coptic) Patriarch of Alexandria, and the incompetence of the generals of the Byzantine forces. Cyrus had persecuted the local Coptic Christians. He was also one of the authors of monothelism Image File history File links Age_of_Caliphs. ... Image File history File links Age_of_Caliphs. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... Cyrus of Alexandria was a Melchite patriarch of the Egyptian see of Alexandria in the seventh century, one of the authors of Monothelism and last Byzantine prefect of Egypt; died about 641. ... ... It has been suggested that Pope of the Coptic Orthodox Church be merged into this article or section. ... Jesus Christ in a Coptic icon. ... Monothelitism was the christological doctrine that Jesus had one will but two natures (divine and human). ...


An attempt was made in the year 645 to regain Alexandria for the Byzantine empire, but it was retaken by Amr in 646. In 654 an invasion fleet sent by Constans II was repulsed. From that time no serious effort was made by the Byzantines to regain possession of the country. Events End of the reign of Empress Kogyoku of Japan Emperor Kotoku ascends to the throne of Japan Byzantines recapture Alexandria from the Arabs Births Empress Jito of Japan Categories: 645 ... Events Byzantines reconquer Alexandria from the Muslims. ... Events King Reccaswinth issues Visigothic law code. ... Constans and his son Constantine. ...


The Muslims were assisted by some Copts, who found the Muslims more tolerant than the Byzantines, and of these some turned to Islam. In return for a tribute of money and food for the troops of occupation, the Christian inhabitants of Egypt were excused military service and left free in the observance of their religion and the administration of their affairs. Others sided with the Byzantines, hoping that they would provide a defense against the Arab invaders.[2]


During Amr's lifetime the churches and people were left in peace.


Of course some elements who had been defeated did also write their own version of things and events; they ignored all the excesses and corruption within the Byzantine Empire and squarely focused on the Muslim conquest of Alexandria. One such account is as follows (please note that Coptic Christians were not massacred by Amr bin Al Aas' Arab forces and and Coptic Christians continue to live in Alexandria till today): :

On the twentieth of Maskaram Theodore and all his troops and officers [the Byzantines] set out and proceeded to the island of Cyprus, and abandoned the city of Alexandria. And thereupon 'Amr the chief of the Moslem made his entry without effort into the city of Alexandria. And the inhabitants received him with respect; for they were in great tribulation and affliction... And 'Amr became stronger every day in every field of his activity. And he exacted the taxes which had been determined upon, but he took none of the property of the churches, and he committed no act of spoliation or plunder, and he preserved them throughout all his days. ... And he increased the taxes to the extent of twenty-two batr of gold till all the people hid themselves owing to the greatness of the tribulation, and could not find the wherewithal to pay.... And none could recount the mourning and lamentation which took place in that city: they even gave their children in exchange for the great sums which they had to pay monthly. And they had none to help them, and God destroyed their hopes, and delivered the Christians into the hands of their enemies. The Chronicle of John, Bishop of Nikiu Chapters CXX-CXXI

Arab Egypt developed from this point until 1517, when it became part of the Ottoman Empire. During the initial Islamic invasion in 639 AD, Egypt was ruled at first by governors acting in the name of the Ummayad Caliphs in Damascus but, in 747, the Ummayads were overthrown and the power of the Arabs slowly began to weaken. ... Year 1517 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Ottoman Empire, 1299]] Sultans  - 1281–1326...


References

  • Charles, R. H. The Chronicle of John, Bishop of Nikiu: Translated from Zotenberg's Ethiopic Text, 1916. Reprinted 2007. Evolution Publishing, ISBN 978-1-889758-87-9. [3]

See also

The Roman Empire ca. ... Aslim Taslam (Arabic: أسلم تسلم) (submit to Islam) is a phrase that was taken from the letters sent by the Prophet Muhammed to the chiefs of tribes in his times in which he urged them to convert to Islam to spare their lives. ... Age of the Caliphs The initial Muslim conquests (632–732), also referred to as the Islamic conquests or Arab conquests,[1] began after the death of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire[1], Arab Ghassanids, Bulgarian Empire (later) Muslim Arabs (Rashidun and Umayyad Caliphates) The Byzantine-Arab Wars was a long drawn-out war between the Byzantine Empire and the emerging Arab Empire. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Umayyad Caliphate The Umayyad conquest of North Africa continued the century of rapid Arab Muslim expansion following the death of Mohammed in 632 CE. By 640 the Arabs controlled Mesopotamia, had invaded Armenia, and were concluding their conquest of Byzantine Syria. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Egypt - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5741 words)
Egypt is predominantly Muslim, at approximately 90% of the population, with the majority being adherents of the Sunni branch of Islam.
Egypt is bordered by Libya on the west, Sudan on the south, and on Israel and Gaza Strip on the northeast.
Egypt's important role in geopolitics stems from its strategic position: a transcontinental nation, it possesses a land bridge (the Isthmus of Suez) between Africa and Asia, which in turn is traversed by a navigable waterway (the Suez Canal) that connects the Mediterranean Sea with the Indian Ocean via the Red Sea.
Muslim conquest of Egypt - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (729 words)
At the commencement of the Muslim conquest of Egypt, Egypt was part of the Byzantine Empire with its capital in Constantinople.
It was in the context of this state of affairs that an army of some 4,000 Arabs, led by Amr ibn al-As, was sent by the Caliph Umar to spread Islam in the land of the ancient pharaohs.
The ease with which this valuable province was wrenched from the Byzantine Empire appears to have been due to the treachery of the governor of Egypt, Cyrus [1], Melchite (i.e., Byzantine/Chalcedonian Orthodox, not Coptic) Patriarch of Alexandria, and the incompetence of the generals of the Byzantine forces.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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