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Encyclopedia > Muslim League
All India Muslim League
Leader Aga Khan III (first Honorary President)
Founded 30 December 1906, Dhaka
Headquarters Lucknow (first headquarters)
Official ideology/
political position
Political rights for Muslims

The All India Muslim League (Urdu: مسلم لیگ), founded at Dhaka in 1906, was a political party in British India that developed into the driving force behind the creation of Pakistan as a Muslim state from British India on the Indian subcontinent.[1] After the independence of India and Pakistan, the League continued as a minor party in India, especially in Kerala, where it is often in government within a coalition with others. In Pakistan, the League formed the country's first government, but disintegrated during the 1950s following an army coup. One or more factions of the Muslim League have been in power in most of the civilian governments of Pakistan since 1947. In Bangladesh, the party was revived in 1976 and won 14 seats in 1979 parliamentary election. Since then it eventually became a party of insignificant importance. Aga Khan III Sir Sultan Mahommed Shah, The Aga Khan III (Persian: آغا خان الثالث), GCSI, GCMG, GCIE, GCVO, PC, (November 2, 1877 – July 11, 1957) was the 48th Imam of the Shia Ismaili Muslims. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Dhaka (previously Dacca; Bengali: Ḍhākā; IPA: ) is the capital of Bangladesh and the principal city of Dhaka District. ... , Lucknow ( , Hindi: लखनऊ, Urdu: لکھنؤ, ) is the capital city of Uttar Pradesh, the most populous state of India. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ... Dhaka (previously Dacca; Bengali: Ḍhākā; IPA: ) is the capital of Bangladesh and the principal city of Dhaka District. ... Anthem God Save The Queen/King British India, circa 1860 Capital Calcutta (1858-1912), New Delhi (1912-1947) Language(s) Hindi, Urdu, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1877-1901 Victoria  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - January-December 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ...

Contents

Background

Islamic rule was established across northern India between the 7th and the 14th centuries. The Muslim Mughal Empire ruled most of India from Delhi from the early 16th century until its power was broken by the British in the 19th century. This left a disempowered and discontented Muslim minority, afraid of being swamped by the Hindu majority. Muslims represented about 23% of the population of British India, and constituted the majority of the population in Baluchistan, Bengal, Kashmir, North-West Frontier Province, Punjab and the Sindh region of the Bombay Presidency. Dark green region marks the approximate extent of northern India while the regions marked as light green lies within the sphere of north Indian influence. ... The 7th century is the period from 601 - 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... Capital Delhi / Agra Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai; later also Urdu) Government Monarchy List of Mughal emperors  - 1526-1530 Babur  - 1530–1539 and after restoration 1555–1556 Humayun  - 1556–1605 Akbar  - 1605–1627 Jahangir  - 1628–1658 Shah Jahan  - 1659–1707 Aurangzeb History  - Established April 21, 1526  - Ended September 21... For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Chief Commissioners Province of Baluchistan was a former province of Pakistan located in the northern parts of modern Balochistan province. ... Bengal (Bengali: বঙ্গ Bôngo, বাংলা Bangla, বঙ্গদেশ Bôngodesh or বাংলাদেশ Bangladesh), is a historical and geographical region in the northeast of South Asia. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... For the 1959 British film see Northwest Frontier The North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) (Urdu: shemaal maghribi sarhadi soobe شمال مغربی سرحدی صوبہ) is the smallest of the four main provinces of Pakistan. ... This article is about the geographical region. ... Sindh (SindhÄ«: سنڌ, UrdÅ«: سندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhis. ... Bombay Presidency was a former province of British India. ...


A turning point came in 1900 when the British administration in the largest Indian state, the United Provinces (now Uttar Pradesh), acceded to Hindu demands and made Hindi, written in the Devanagari script, the official language. This seemed to aggravate Muslim fears that the Hindu majority would seek to suppress Muslim culture and religion in an independent India. A British official, Sir Percival Griffiths, wrote of "the Muslim belief that their interest must be regarded as completely separate from those of the Hindus, and that no fusion of the two communities was possible." United Provinces, 1903 A province of the British Raj, which corresponds to modern Uttar Pradesh state of India. ... , Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: , Urdu: , translation: Northern Province, IPA: ,  ), [often referred to as U.P.], located in central-south Asia and northern India, is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Republic of India. ... Hindi ( , Devanagari: or , IAST: , IPA: ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is also used for central government administrative purposes , along with English. ... Rigveda manuscript in Devanagari (early 19th century) DevanāgarÄ« (देवनागरी — in English pronounced ) (ISCII – IS13194:1991) [1] is an abugida alphabet used to write several Indian languages, including Sanskrit, Hindi, Marathi, Kashmiri, Sindhi, Bihari, Bhili, Konkani, Bhojpuri and Nepali from Nepal. ... An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Sir Percival Joseph Griffiths (15 January 1899 – 14 July 1992), was a prominent businessman who also worked for the Indian Civil Service. ...


In the late 19th century an Indian nationalist movement developed, with the Indian National Congress being founded in 1885. Although the Congress made efforts to enlist the Muslim community in its struggle for Indian independence, most of the Muslims remained reluctant to join the Party. Muhammad Ali Jinnah joined the Muslim league in 1913, but until that time he was member of the Congress Party. Muhammad Ali Jinnah criticized it as a "Hindu-dominated" organization, and Muslims felt that an independent united India would inevitably be "ruled by Hindus." Although some Muslims were active in the Congress, the majority of Muslim leaders did not trust the Hindu majority. Indian National Congress, (also known as the Congress Party and abbreviated INC) is a major political party in India. ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Indian National Congress (also known as the Congress Party) is the largest subscription-based organisation in the world. ... Muhammad Ali Jinnah (Urdu:  ) (December 25, 1876 – September 11, 1948) was an Indian Muslim politician and leader of the All India Muslim League who founded Pakistan and served as its first Governor-General. ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ...


Foundation

The founding meeting of the party was held on 30 December 1906 at the occasion of the annual All India Muhammadan Educational Conference in Shahbagh, Dhaka that was hosted by Nawab Salimullah Khan. The meeting was attended by three thousand delegates and presided over by Nawab Viqar-ul-Mulk. The resolution was moved by Nawab Salimullah which was seconded by Hakim Ajmal Khan. Nawab Viqar-ul-Milk declared:[2] The All India Muhammadan Educational Conference was an organisation promoting modern, liberal education for the Muslim community in India. ... Shahbag (also Shahbaugh, Bengali: Shabag; IPA: ) is a major neighbourhood and a police precinct or Thana in Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. ... Khwaja Salimullah was Nawab of Dhaka and a pioneer Muslim leader of Bengal. ... Nawab Mushtaq Hussain Viqar-ul-Mulk (March 24, 1841-January 27, 1917), also known as Mushtaq Hussain, was a Muslim politician and one of the founders of All India Muslim League. ... Dr Hakim Ajmal Khan was an Indian freedom fighter, a Muslim doctor and educationalist. ...

The musalmans are only a fifth in number as compared with the total population of the country, and it is manifest that if at any remote period the British government ceases to exist in India, then the rule of India would pass into the hands of that community which is nearly four times as large as ourselves …our life, our property, our honour, and our faith will all be in great danger, when even now that a powerful British administration is protecting its subjects, we the Musalmans have to face most serious difficulties in safe-guarding our interests from the grasping hands of our neighbors.

Early years

Sir Sultan Mahommed Shah, The Aga Khan III was appointed the first Honorary President of the Muslim League. The headquarters were established at Lucknow. There were also six vice-presidents, a secretary and two joint secretaries initially appointed for a three-years term, proportionately from different provinces.[3] The principles of the League were espoused in the "Green Book," which included the organisation's constitution, written by Maulana Mohammad Ali. Its goals at this stage did not include establishing an independent Muslim state, but rather concentrated on protecting Muslim liberties and rights, promoting understanding between the Muslim community and other Indians, educating the Muslim and Indian community at large on the actions of the government, and discouraging violence. Aga Khan III Sir Sultan Mahommed Shah, The Aga Khan III (Persian: آغا خان الثالث), GCSI, GCMG, GCIE, GCVO, PC, (November 2, 1877 – July 11, 1957) was the 48th Imam of the Shia Ismaili Muslims. ... , Lucknow ( , Hindi: लखनऊ, Urdu: لکھنؤ, ) is the capital city of Uttar Pradesh, the most populous state of India. ... Maulana Mohammad Ali Jouhar (1878 - 4 January 1931), was an Indian Muslim journalist and poet, and was among the leading figures of the Khilafat Movement. ...


The idea of a Muslim political party was not new, but Sir Syed Ahmed Khan's advice to stand aloof from separatist ideas had previously persuaded Indian Muslims to avoid political mobilisation. Among those Muslims in the Congress who did not initially join the AIML was Muhammed Ali Jinnah, a prominent Bombay lawyer. This was because the first article of the League's platform was "To promote among the Mussalmans [Muslims] of India, feelings of loyalty to the British Government." Jinnah did not join the League until 1913, when it changed its platform to one of Indian independence as a reaction against the British decision to reverse the 1905 Partition of Bengal, which the League regarded as a betrayal of the Bengali Muslims. At this stage Jinnah believed in Muslim-Hindu co-operation to achieve an independent, united India, although he argued that Muslims should be guaranteed one-third of the seats in any Indian Parliament. Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah of Pakistan Mohammad Ali Jinnah (referred to in Pakistan as Quaid-e-Azam, or Great Leader, which is a legally defined title) (December 25, 1876 - September 11, 1948) was an Indian Muslim nationalist, who led the movement demanding a separate homeland for Muslims in... This article or section should be merged with Mumbai Mumbai (previously known as Bombay) is the worlds most populous conurbation, and is the sixth most populous agglomeration in the world. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Partition of Bengal, 1905 was made on 16 October 1905 by then Indian vice roy Lord Curzon. ...


With a few years the League had become the sole representative body of Indian Muslims. Jinnah became its president in 1916, and negotiated the Lucknow Pact with the Congress, in which Congress conceded the principle of separate electorates and weighted representation for the Muslim community. But Jinnah broke with the Congress in 1920 when the Congress leader, Mohandas Gandhi, launched a Non-Cooperation Movement against the British, which Jinnah disapproved of. Jinnah also became convinced that the Congress would renounce its support for separate electorates for Muslims, which indeed it did in 1928. Jinnah had little liking for either the Hindu asceticism of Gandhi or the secular socialism of the other major Congress leader, Jawaharlal Nehru. 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... In 1916, Mohammed Ali Jinnah a member of Indian National Congress was owned by saif aljashamy he negotiated with Muslim League to reach an agreement to pressurise British Government to have a more liberal approach to India and give Indians more authority to run their country. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948) (Devanagari: मोहनदास करमचन्द गांधी), called Mahatma Gandhi, was the charismatic leader who brought the cause of Indias independence from British colonial rule to... ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community[1] for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ... Jawaharlal Nehru (Hindi: , IPA: , from Persian Javâher-e Laal, meaning Red Jewel) (November 14, 1889 – May 27, 1964) was a political leader of the Indian National Congress, a pivotal figure in the Indian independence movement and the first Prime Minister of Independent India. ...


The search for a solution

Sir Dr. Muhammad Iqbal (Popularly known as Allama Iqbal)
Sir Dr. Muhammad Iqbal (Popularly known as Allama Iqbal)

Jinnah became disillusioned with politics after the failure of his attempt to form a Hindu-Muslim alliance, and he spent most of the 1920s in Britain. The leadership of the League was taken over by Sir Muhammad Iqbal, who in 1930 first put forward the demand for a separate Muslim state in India. The "Two-Nation Theory," the belief that Hindus and Muslims were two different nations who could not live in one country, gained popularity among Muslims. The two-state solution was rejected by the Congress leaders, who favoured a united, secular, and democratic India. Iqbal's policy of uniting the North-West Frontier Province, Baluchistan, Punjab, and Sindh into a new Islamic state united the many factions of the League. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Sir Muhammad Iqbāl (Urdu/Persian: ‎ ) (November 9, 1877 – April 21, 1938) was an Indian Muslim poet, philosopher and politician, whose poetry in Persian and Urdu is regarded as among the greatest in modern times. ... Sir Muhammad Iqbāl (Urdu/Persian: ‎ ) (November 9, 1877 – April 21, 1938) was an Indian Muslim poet, philosopher and politician, whose poetry in Persian and Urdu is regarded as among the greatest in modern times. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


In 1927 the British proposed a constitution for India as recommended by the Simon Commission, but they failed to reconcile all parties. The British then turned the matter over to the League and the Congress, and in 1928 an All-Parties Congress was convened in Delhi. The attempt failed, but two more conferences were held. At the Bombay conference in May, it was agreed that a small committee should work on the constitution. The respected Congress leader Motilal Nehru (father of Jawaharlal) headed the committee, which included two Muslims, Syed Ali Imam and Shoaib Quereshi. Year 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Indian Statutory Commission was a group of seven British Members of Parliament that had been dispatched to India in 1927 to study constitutional reform in that colony. ... For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... This article or section should be merged with Mumbai Mumbai (previously known as Bombay) is the worlds most populous conurbation, and is the sixth most populous agglomeration in the world. ... The family of Motilal Nehru, who is seated in the centre. ...


The League, however, rejected the proposal that the committee returned (called the Nehru Report), arguing that it gave too little representation (one quarter) to Muslims – the League had demanded at least one-third representation in the legislature. Jinnah reported a "parting of the ways" after reading the report, and relations between the Congress and the League began to sour. The Nehru Report (1928) was a memorandum outlining a proposed new Dominion (see dominion status) constitution for India. ...


The election in Britain of Ramsay MacDonald's Labour government in 1929 fuelled new hopes for progress towards self-government in India. Gandhi traveled to London, claiming to represent all Indians and criticising the League as sectarian and divisive. Round-table talks were held, but these achieved little, since Gandhi and the League were unable reach a compromise. The fall of the Labour government in 1931 ended this period of optimism. James Ramsay MacDonald (12 October 1866 – 9 November 1937) was a British politician and three times Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... The Labour Party is a centre-left or social democratic political party in Britain (see British politics), and one of the United Kingdoms three main political parties. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... First Round Table Conference was held in November 1930 was attended by eighty-nine delegates from different religious, political groups and princely states. ...


Sir Muhammad Zafrulla Khan presided at the Delhi Meeting of the All India Muslim League in 1931 and advocated the cause of the Indian Muslims through his presidential address. Sir Muhammad Zafrulla Khan (1893 1985) was a Pakistani diplomat, renowned international jurist and a scholar of the worldwide Ahmadiyya Muslim Community. ...


In the 1935 Government of India Act, the British for the first time proposed to hand over substantial power to elected Indian provincial legislatures, with elections to be held in 1937. Jinnah returned to India and resumed leadership of the League, which now perceived the Hindu majority as a "threat." After the elections the League took office in Bengal and Punjab, but the Congress won office in most of the other Indian states, and refused to share power with the League in states with large Muslim minorities. The term Government of India Act refers to several Acts passed by the British Parliament to regulate the government of British India, in particular: Government of India Act 1833 (also known as the Charter Act 1833), which created a Governor-General of India Government of India Act 1858, under which... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Campaign for Pakistan

Muslim League Working Committee at the Lahore session

At a League conference in Lahore in 1940, Jinnah said: "Hindus and the Muslims belong to two different religions, philosophies, social customs and literature... It is quite clear that Hindus and Muslims derive their inspiration from different sources of history. They have different epics, different heroes and different episodes... To yoke together two such nations under a single state, one as a numerical minority and the other as a majority, must lead to growing discontent and final destruction of any fabric that may be so built up for the government of such a state." Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the province of Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ...


At Lahore the League formally recommitted itself to creating an independent Muslim state called Pakistan, including Sindh, Punjab, the North West Frontier Province and Bengal, that would be "wholly autonomous and sovereign." The resolution guaranteed protection for non-Muslim religions. The Lahore Resolution was adopted on March 23, 1940, and its principles formed the foundation for Pakistan's first constitution. Talks between Jinnah and Gandhi in 1944 in Bombay failed to achieve agreement. This was the last attempt to reach a single-state solution. Minar-e-Pakistan, where Pakistan Resolution was passed The Lahore Resolution, commonly known as the Pakistan Resolution,[1] was the National documentation and a formal political statement adopted by the All India Muslim League at the occasion of its three-day general session on 22-24 March 1940 that called... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section should be merged with Mumbai Mumbai (previously known as Bombay) is the worlds most populous conurbation, and is the sixth most populous agglomeration in the world. ...

Chaudhry Khaliquzzaman seconding the Resolution with Jinnah presiding the session

In the 1940s Jinnah emerged as the recognised leader of the Indian Muslims and was popularly known as Quaid-e-Azam (Great Leader). In the Constituent Assembly elections of 1946, the League won 425 out of 496 seats reserved for Muslims (and about 89.2% of Muslim votes) on a policy of creating an independent state of Pakistan, and with an implied threat of secession if this was not granted. Gandhi and Nehru, who with the election of another Labour government in Britain in 1945 saw independence within reach, were adamantly opposed to dividing India. They knew that the Hindus, who saw India as one indivisible entity, could never agree to such a thing. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A constituent assembly is a body elected with the purpose of drafting, and in some cases, adopting a constitution. ... The Labour Party is a centre-left or social democratic political party in Britain (see British politics), and one of the United Kingdoms three main political parties. ...


By 1946 the British had neither the will, nor the financial or military power, to hold India any longer, and Jinnah knew that independence was imminent. Political deadlock ensued in the Constituent Assembly, and Britain's Prime Minister, Clement Attlee, sent a special mission to India to mediate the situation. When the talks broke down, Attlee sent Earl Mountbatten, India's last Viceroy, to negotiate the partition of India and immediate British withdrawal. Mountbatten told Gandhi and Nehru that if they did not accept partition there would be civil war. Civil war did in fact break out in Punjab and other areas of mixed population. Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, KG, OM, CH, PC (3 January 1883 – 8 October 1967) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1945 to 1951. ... The British Cabinet Mission of 1946 to India aimed to discuss and finalize plans for the transfer of power from the British Raj to Indian leadership, providing India with independence under Dominion status in the Commonwealth of Nations. ... Admiral of the Fleet Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas George Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma, KG, GCB, OM, GCSI, GCIE, GCVO, DSO, PC (25 June 1900–27 August 1979) was a British admiral and statesman and an uncle of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. ...


The Muslim League survived as a minor party in India after partition, but later splintered into several groups, the most important of which is the Indian Union Muslim League.


The League in Pakistan

In Pakistan, Jinnah became Governor-General, and another League leader, Liaquat Ali Khan became Prime Minister. All India Muslim League was disbanded in December 1947 and succeeded by two organisations i.e. Pakistan Muslim League and Indian Union Muslim League. Jinnah resigned as the president of the Muslim League on 17th December and the two Muslim Leagues respectively elected Ch. Khaliquzzaman as President for Pakistan Muslim League and Nawab Muhammad Ismail as the president for Indian Union Muslim League. Governor-General (or Governor General) is a term used both historically and currently to designate the appointed representative of a head of state or their government for a particular territory, historically in a colonial context, but no longer necessarily in that form. ... Liaquat Ali Khan Liaquat Ali Khan Nawabzaada Khan Liaquat Ali Khan (October 1, 1896 – October 16, 1951) was the first Prime Minister of Pakistan. ...


Jinnah died in September 1948 and Liaquat was assassinated in October 1951. Robbed of its two senior leaders, the League began to disintegrate. By 1953 dissensions within the League had led to the formation of several different political parties. Liaquat was succeeded by Khawaja Nazimuddin, a Bengali, who was forced from office in April 1953. Pakistan was racked by riots and famine, and at the first national elections in May 1955 (held by a system of indirect voting) the League was heavily defeated. Khawaja Nazimuddin Khawaja Nazimuddin (Urdu: خواجہ ناظم الدین) (Bengali: খাজা নাজিমুদ্দীন)(July 19, 1894 - 1964) was the second Governor-General of Pakistan, and later the second Prime Minister of Pakistan as well. ...


In October 1958 the Army seized power and the martial law regime of Muhammad Ayub Khan banned all political parties. This was the end of the old Muslim League. The name still held great prestige, however, and Ayub Khan later formed a new party, the Convention Muslim League. The opposition faction became known as the Council Muslim League. This latter group joined a united front with other political parties in 1967 in opposition to the regime. But when the military regime of Agha Mohammad Yahya Khan fell in December 1971, and Pakistan's first genuine free elections were held, both factions of the League were swept out of power, in West Pakistan by the Pakistan People's Party of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and in East Pakistan by the Awami League of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman. Field Marshal Ayub Khan Ayub Khan (May 14, 1907 - April 19, 1974) during the mid-1960s, was a Field Marshal and the political leader of Pakistan. ... Agha Muhammad Yahya Khan (February 4, 1917 _ August 10, 1980) was the President of Pakistan from 1969_71, following the resignation of Ayub Khan. ... The Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) is a mainstream political party in Pakistan. ... Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (Urdu:ذوالفقار علی بھٹو) (January 5, 1928 – April 4, 1979) was a Pakistani politician who served as the President of Pakistan from 1971 to 1973 and as the Prime Minister from 1973 to 1977. ... The Bangladesh Awami League (বাংলাদেশ আওয়ামী লীগ Bāŋlādeś Āowāmī Līg) or the Bangadesh Peoples League is the main opposition party in Bangladesh. ... Sheikh Mujibur Rahman (Bangla: শেখ মুজিবর রহমান Shekh Mujibur Rôhman) (March 17, 1920 – August 15, 1975) was a Bengali political leader in East Pakistan and the founding leader of Bangladesh. ...


After the death of Pakistan's next dictator, Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq, in 1988, a new Muslim League was formed under the leadership of Nawaz Sharif, but it had no connection with the original Muslim League. Sharif was Prime Minister from 1990 to 1993 and again from 1997 to 1999, when he was ousted in Pakistan's third military coup. At the stage-managed elections held by the military regime of Pervez Musharraf in October, five different parties using the name Muslim League contested seats. The largest of these, the Pakistan Muslim League (Quaid-e-Azam), won 69 seats out of 272, and the Pakistan Muslim League (Nawaz), loyal to Nawaz Sharif, won 19 seats. General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq (Urdu: ) (b. ... Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif (Urdu: میاں محمد نواز شریف ) (born December 25, 1949 in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan) is a Pakistani politician. ... General Pervez Musharraf (Urdu: ) (born August 11, 1943) serves as President of Pakistan and the Chief of Army Staff of the Pakistan Army. ... The Pakistan Muslim League (Q), or PML-Q, is a centrist political party in Pakistan, dervied from the original Pakistan Muslim League which had laid foundation of the state of Pakistan. ... The Pakistan Muslim League (N) (Urdu: پاکستان مسلم لیگ ن) is a political party in Pakistan. ...


Current factions

The Pakistan Muslim League (J) is a political party in Pakistan. ... The Pakistan Muslim League (Jinnah) (Urdu: پاکستان مسلم لیگ جناح) is a political party in Pakistan. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... The Pakistan Muslim League (N) (Urdu: پاکستان مسلم لیگ ن) is a political party in Pakistan. ... The Pakistan Muslim League (Q), or PML-Q, is a centrist political party in Pakistan, dervied from the original Pakistan Muslim League which had laid foundation of the state of Pakistan. ... General Pervez Musharraf (Urdu: ) (born August 11, 1943) serves as President of Pakistan and the Chief of Army Staff of the Pakistan Army. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ...

Muslim League in post-Partition India

see Indian Union Muslim League IUML banner Indian Union Muslim League is an Islamic nationalist political party in India. ...


References

  1. ^ Jalal, Ayesha (1994) The Sole Spokesman: Jinnah, the Muslim League and the Demand for Pakistan. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521458504
  2. ^ The Statesman: The All India Muslim League, Government of Pakistan website. Retrieved on 11 May 2007
  3. ^ Establishment of All India Muslim League, Story of Pakistan website. Retrieved on 11 May 2007

Government of Pakistan (Urdu: حکومتِ پاکستان)The Constitution of Pakistan provides for a Federal Parliamentary System of government, with a President as the Head of State and an indirectly-elected Prime Minister as the chief executive. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

See also

Direct Action Day, also known as the Affirmative Action Plan, the Calcutta Riots, the Great Calcutta killings, and The Week of the Long Knives [1][2], started on August 16, 1946. ... The Indian Independence Movement was a series of revolutions empowered by the people of India put forth to battle the British Empire for complete political independence, beginning with the Rebellion of 1857. ... Indian Muslim nationalism refers to the political and cultural expression of nationalism, founded upon the religious tenets and identity of Islam, of the Muslims of the Indian subcontinent. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Indian National Congress, (also known as the Congress Party and abbreviated INC) is a major political party in India. ... Pakistan Movement or Tehrik-e-Pakistan (Urdu: تحریک پاکستان) is a name given to the Movement carried out by the Muslims of British India to create a separate homeland. ...

External links

  • Pakistan Muslim League (N) website
  • PML(Q)
  • Government of Pakistan website
  • Muslim League riot accusations
  • The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan
  • Chronicles Of Pakistan
  • Jinnah at a Meeting of the Muslim League 16-second QuickTime film clip
  • Colloquium on the One Hundred Years of Muslim League at the University of Chicago, Nov 4, 2006

 v  d  e                         Creation of Pakistan                QuickTime is a multimedia framework developed by Apple Inc. ... Download high resolution version (434x724, 35 KB) This work is copyrighted. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Image File history File links Jinnah1. ... Pakistan Movement or Tehrik-e-Pakistan (Urdu: تحریک پاکستان) is a name given to the Movement carried out by the Muslims of British India to create a separate homeland. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

History: General History - British East India Company - Indian rebellion of 1857 - Aligarh Movement - Urdu movement - Partition of Bengal - Lucknow Pact - Khilafat Movement - Nehru Report - Fourteen Points of Jinnah - Allahabad Address - Now or Never pamphlet - Two-Nation Theory - Indian Round Table Conferences - Pakistan Resolution - Indian Muslim Nationalism - Cabinet Mission - Indian Independence Act - Radcliffe Line - Pakistan - Objectives Resolution - Yaum e Azadi
Organisations: Muslim League - Unionist Muslim League - Jamaat-e-Islami - All India Muslim Students Federation - Khaksars
Leaders: Sir Syed Ahmed Khan - Sir Muhammad Iqbal - Muhammad Ali Jinnah - Liaquat Ali Khan - Bahadur Yar Jung - Abdur Rab Nishtar - Fatima Jinnah - Choudhary Rahmat Ali - Muhammad Ali Jouhar - Shaukat Ali - A. K. Fazlul Huq - Sir Sikandar Hyat Khan - Zafar Ali Khan - Khawaja Nazimuddin - Abdul Qayyum Khan - Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy - Begum Ra'ana Liaquat Ali Khan - more...
Activists: Z. A. Suleri - Hameed Nizami - M. A. Zuberi - Altaf Husain - Yusuf Khattak - Shaukat Hayat Khan - more...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Muslim League - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2372 words)
Aga Khan III, one of the founders of the Muslim League
Muslim rule was established across northern India between the 7th century and the 14th centuries.
Muslims were about 23% of the population of British India, and were the majority of the population in Baluchistan, Bengal, Kashmir, North-West Frontier Province, Punjab and the Sindh region of the Bombay Presidency.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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