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Encyclopedia > Muskox
Muskox

Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Family: Bovidae
Subfamily: Caprinae
Genus: Ovibos
Blainville, 1816
Species: O. moschatus
Binomial name
Ovibos moschatus
(Zimmermann, 1780)
Range map. Blue indicates areas where the muskox has been successfully implanted in the 20th century. Red indicates established range.
Range map. Blue indicates areas where the muskox has been successfully implanted in the 20th century. Red indicates established range.

The muskox (Ovibos moschatus) is an arctic mammal of the Bovidae family, noted for its thick coat and for the strong odor emitted by males, from which its name derives. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species continuing to survive either in the present day or the future. ... Image File history File links Status_iucn2. ... Least Concern (LC) is an IUCN category assigned to extant species or lower taxa which have been evaluated but do not qualify for any other category. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes Subphylum Urochordata - Tunicates Ascidiacea Thaliacea Larvacea Subphylum Cephalochordata - Lancelets Subphylum Myxini - Hagfishes Subphylum Vertebrata - Vertebrates Petromyzontida - Lampreys Placodermi (extinct) Chondrichthyes - Cartilaginous fishes Acanthodii (extinct) Actinopterygii - Ray-finned fishes Actinistia - Coelacanths Dipnoi - Lungfishes Amphibia - Amphibians Reptilia - Reptiles Aves - Birds Mammalia - Mammals Chordates (phylum Chordata) include the vertebrates, together with... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including those that produce milk, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... Families Suidae Hippopotamidae Tayassuidae Camelidae Tragulidae Moschidae Cervidae Giraffidae Antilocapridae Bovidae The even-toed ungulates form the mammal order Artiodactyla. ... Subfamilies Bovinae Cephalophinae Hippotraginae Antilopinae Caprinae A bovid is any of almost 140 species of cloven-hoofed mammals belonging to the family Bovidae. ... Genera Capricornis Nemorhaedus Rupicapra Oreamnos Budorcas Ovibos Hemitragus Ammotragus Pseudois Capra Ovis Pantholops A goat antelope is any of the species of mostly medium-sized herbivores that make up the subfamily Caprinae or the single species in subfamily Panthalopinae. ... Henri Marie Ducrotay de Blainville Henri Marie Ducrotay de Blainville (September 12, 1777 - May 1, 1850) was a French zoologist and anatomist. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Eberhard August Wilhelm von Zimmermann (August 17, 1743 - July 4, 1815) was a German geographer and zoologist. ... 1780 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, commonly used to define the Arctic region border Artificially coloured topographical map of the Arctic region The Arctic is the region around the Earths North Pole, opposite the Antarctic region around the South Pole. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including those that produce milk, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... Subfamilies Bovinae Cephalophinae Hippotraginae Antilopinae Caprinae A bovid is any of almost 140 species of cloven-hoofed mammals belonging to the family Bovidae. ...

Contents

Physical characteristics

As a part of the Bovidae family, muskoxen are more closely related to sheep and goats than to oxen, but are in their own genus, Ovibos. Both sexes have long curved horns. Muskoxen are usually around 2.5 m (8.2 ft) long and 1.4 m (4.6) high at the shoulder. Adults usually weigh at least 200 kg (440 lb) and can exceed 400 kg (880 lb). Their coat, a mix of black, gray, and brown, includes long guard hairs that reach almost to the ground. Rare "white muskox" have been spotted in the Queen Maud Gulf Migratory Bird Sanctuary[1] Muskox wool, or qiviut (an Inuit word), is highly prized for its softness, length, and insulative value. Prices for yarn range between $50 and $100 per ounce. Subfamilies Bovinae Cephalophinae Hippotraginae Antilopinae Caprinae A bovid is any of almost 140 species of cloven-hoofed mammals belonging to the family Bovidae. ... Species See text. ... This article is about the domestic species. ... Binomial name Bos taurus Linnaeus, 1758 Cattle are domesticated ungulates, a member of the subfamily Bovinae of the family Bovidae. ... Highland cow, a very old long-horned breed from Scotland. ... Guard hairs are the longest, thickest hairs in a mammals coat, forming the topcoat (or outer coat). ... For other uses, see Wool (disambiguation). ... A small piece of qiviut wool Qiviut (less commonly spelt qiviuq, and pronounced kiv-ee-yuk) is the wool of the musk ox. ... For other uses, see Inuit (disambiguation). ...


During the summer, muskoxen live in wet areas, such as river valleys, moving to higher elevations in the winter to avoid deep snow. They graze on grasses, reeds, sedges, and other ground plants, digging through snow in the winter to reach their food. Grazing is the regular consumption of part of one organism without killing it by another organism. ... For other uses, see Grass (disambiguation). ... Genera See text The family Cyperaceae, or the Sedge family, is a taxon of monocot flowering plants that superficially resemble grasses or rushes. ...


Muskoxen are social and live in herds, usually of around 10–20 animals, but sometimes over 400. Winter herds consist of adults of both sexes as well as young animals. During the mating season, which peaks in mid-August, males compete for dominance, and one dominant bull drives other adult males out of the group. Non-breeding males will often form male only herds of 3-10 or wander the tundra alone. During this period all males are extremely aggressive. Bulls will even charge birds if they are close by. A herd of Wildebeest A gaggle of Canada geese For other uses, see Herd (disambiguation). ... Estrus (also spelled œstrus) or heat in female mammals is the period of greatest female sexual responsiveness usually coinciding with ovulation. ...

A molting muskox
A molting muskox

Females are sexually mature at two years of age, and males reach sexual maturity after five years. The gestation period is eight or nine months. Almost all pregnancies yield single calves. The young nurse for a year, but may start to eat grasses as soon as a week after birth. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2304x1728, 1703 KB) Musk Ox (Ovibos Moschatus), taken at the Pavillon de la Faune, Stratford, Quebec, by myself File links The following pages link to this file: Musk Ox ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2304x1728, 1703 KB) Musk Ox (Ovibos Moschatus), taken at the Pavillon de la Faune, Stratford, Quebec, by myself File links The following pages link to this file: Musk Ox ... In birds, moulting or molting is the routine shedding of old feathers. ... Gestation is the carrying of an embryo or fetus inside a female viviparous animal. ...


Muskoxen have a distinctive defensive behavior: when the herd is threatened, the bulls and cows will face outward to form a stationary ring around the calves. This is an effective defense against predators such as wolves, but makes them an easy target for human hunters. This snapping turtle is trying to make a meal of a Canada goose, but the goose is too wary. ... Wolf Wolf Man Mount Wolf Wolf Prizes Wolf Spider Wolf 424 Wolf 359 Wolf Point Wolf-herring Frank Wolf Friedrich Wolf Friedrich August Wolf Hugo Wolf Johannes Wolf Julius Wolf Max Franz Joseph Cornelius Wolf Maximilian Wolf Rudolf Wolf Thomas Wolf As Name Wolf Breidenbach Wolf Hirshorn Other The call...


The muskox, or its ancestor, is believed to have migrated to North America between 200,000[2] and 90,000 years ago.[3] It is agreed however that the muskox was alive in the Pleistocene period[4] making it a contemporary of the Mammoth. It is thought that the muskox was able to survive the last ice age (Wisconsin glaciation) by finding ice free areas away from prehistoric peoples[3]. The muskox gradually moved across North America and arrived in Greenland during the late Holocene[5]. North America North America is a continent [1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) on the geologic timescale is the period from 1,808,000 to 11,550 years BP. The Pleistocene epoch had been intended to cover the worlds recent period of repeated glaciations. ... This article is about the genus Mammuthus. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... The Wisconsin (in North America), Devensian (in the British Isles), Midlandian (in Ireland), Würm (in the Alps), and Weichsel (in northern central Europe) glaciations are the most recent glaciations of the Pleistocene epoch, which ended around 10,000 BCE. The general glacial advance began about 70,000 BCE, and... The Holocene epoch is a geological period, which began approximately 11,550 calendar years BP (about 9600 BC) and continues to the present. ...

Muskox in Dovrefjell-Sunndalsfjella National Park, Norway.
Muskox in Dovrefjell-Sunndalsfjella National Park, Norway.

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 572 pixel Image in higher resolution (1488 × 1064 pixel, file size: 476 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Picture taken on 30 October 2004 in Dovrefjell National Park, Norway File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 572 pixel Image in higher resolution (1488 × 1064 pixel, file size: 476 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Picture taken on 30 October 2004 in Dovrefjell National Park, Norway File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this... Overview Dovrefjell in late fall Dovre-Sunndalsfjella National Park was founded in 2002 to replace Dovrefjell National Park, founded 1974. ...

Habitat and range

Muskoxen are native to the Arctic areas of Canada, Greenland, and Alaska. The Alaska population was wiped out in the late nineteenth or early twentieth century, but muskoxen have since been reintroduced to Alaska. The United States Fish & Wildlife introduced muskox onto the Nunivak Island in 1935 as a means for sustenance living.The species has also been reintroduced from Banks Island to northern Europe, including Sweden, Estonia, the Dovre region of Norway, and Russia and from Ellesmere island to Eastern Canada, in the province of Quebec. Muskoxen were close to extinction at one point, but have recovered after being protected from hunting. The world population is estimated at between 80,000[6] and 125,000[7], with an estimated 68,788 living on Banks Island.[8] The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, commonly used to define the Arctic region border Artificially coloured topographical map of the Arctic region The Arctic is the region around the Earths North Pole, opposite the Antarctic region around the South Pole. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... Reintroduction is the deliberate release of animals from captivity into the wild. ... Nunivak Island is the second largest island in the Bering Sea, 48 km (30 miles) offshore from the delta of the Yukon and Kuskokwim rivers, at about 60° North latitude. ... Like most farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa, this Cameroonian man cultivates at the subsistence level. ... Banks Island, Northwest Territories. ... Northern Europe Northern Europe is the northern part of the European continent. ... The Dovre region is a landscape in Norway consisting of the municipalities of Dovre, Folldal, and Oppdal. ... Banks Island, Northwest Territories. ...


The last known muskox population outside North America lived on the Taymyr Peninsula of Siberia, and died out about 2,000 years ago[4]. Taymyr Peninsula is a peninsula in Siberia that forms the most northern part of mainland Asia. ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ...


References

Nunivak Island, Alaska muskoxen 1930's. Shown here in defensive formation.
Nunivak Island, Alaska muskoxen 1930's. Shown here in defensive formation.
  1. ^ Search for the Legendary White Musk-ox
  2. ^ Wildlife Management Advisory Council (North Slope) fact sheet
  3. ^ a b Hinterland Who's Who ISBN 0-660-13637-6
  4. ^ a b Science Daily
  5. ^ Cambridge Journals Abstract
  6. ^ Robert G. White Large Animal Research Station, University of Alaska
  7. ^ Muskox, (Ovibos moschatus) US Fish & Wildlife Service
  8. ^ Annual Report of Research and Monitoring in National Parks of the Western Arctic 2003, Parks Canada

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Nunivak Island is the second largest island in the Bering Sea, 48 km (30 miles) offshore from the delta of the Yukon and Kuskokwim rivers, at about 60° North latitude. ... The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ...

External links

Wikispecies has information related to:
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Muskox

Image File history File links Wikispecies-logo. ... Wikispecies is a wiki-based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation that aims to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species (including animalia, plantae, fungi, bacteria, archaea, and protista). ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The University of Alaska Fairbanks, located in Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, is the second largest campus of the University of Alaska System, and is abbreviated as UAF. UAF is a land-grant, sea-grant, and space-grant institution, as well as participating in the sun-grant program through Oregon State University. ...


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