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Encyclopedia > Musk
Moschus moschiferus, Siberian musk deer
Moschus moschiferus, Siberian musk deer

Musk is the name originally given to a substance with a penetrating odor obtained from a gland of the male musk deer, which is situated between its stomach and genitals. The substance has been used as a popular perfume fixative since ancient times and is one of the most expensive animal products in the world. The name, originated from Sanskrit muṣká meaning "testicle" (as in a 'single' testicle), has come to encompass a wide variety of substances with somewhat similar odors although many of them are quite different in their chemical structures. They include glandular secretions from animals other than the musk deer, numerous plants emitting similar fragrances, and artificial substances with similar odors.[1] Image File history File links Moschustier. ... Image File history File links Moschustier. ... Binomial name Moschus mosciferus Linnaeus, 1758 The Siberian musk deer (Moschus moschiferus) is a musk deer found in the mountain forests of Northeast Asia. ... Aroma redirects here. ... Human submaxillary gland. ... The four species of musk deer make up the family Moschidae. ... For other uses, see Perfume (disambiguation). ... A fixative is a liquid, similar to varnish, which is usually sprayed over a finished piece of artwork to better preserve it and prevent smudging. ... “Ancient” redirects here. ... Animal products are either produced by an animal or taken from the body of an animal. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Chemical structure refers to the spatial arrangement of atoms in a molecule and the chemical bonds that hold the atoms together. ...


Until the late 19th century the fragrance was only obtained from natural sources.[2] Now synthesized compounds are used almost exclusively.[2] The organic compound primarily responsible for the characteristic odor of musk is muscone. Benzene is the simplest of the arenes, a family of organic compounds An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon. ... Muscone is an organic compound that is the primary contributor to the odor of musk. ...

Contents

Natural sources

Musk deer

"Musk-cat", woodcut from Hortus Sanitatis, 1490
"Musk-cat", woodcut from Hortus Sanitatis, 1490

Musk was unknown in classical antiquity and reference to it does not appear until the 6th century, when the Greek explorer Cosmas Indicopleustes mentioned it as a product obtained from India.[3] Soon afterwards Arab and Byzantine perfume makers began to use it, and it acquired a reputation as an aphrodisiac.[3] Under the Abbasid Empire of Arabs it was highly regarded, and the caliphs of Baghdad used it lavishly. In the early 9th century, Al-Kindi included it in a large number of his perfume recipes and it became one of the important luxury items brought by Arabian ships from the East.[3] The etymology of the name musk, originating from Sanskrit muṣká via Middle Persian mušk, Late Greek μόσχος (moschos), Late Latin muscus, Middle French musc and Middle English muske,[1][4] hints at its trade route. Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD... Cosmas Indicopleustes (literally Mr. ... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... This article is about agents which increase sexual desire. ... Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid (Arabic: العبّاسيّون, AbbāsÄ«yÅ«n) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Islamic empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... For the Christian theologian, see Abd al-Masih ibn Ishaq al-Kindi. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Pahlavi is a term that refers: (1) to a script used in Iran derived from the Aramaic script, and (2) more broadly, to Middle Persian, the Middle Iranian language written in this script. ... Vulgar Latin (in Latin, sermo vulgaris) is a blanket term covering the vernacular dialects of the Latin language spoken mostly in the western provinces of the Roman Empire until those dialects, diverging still further, evolved into the early Romance languages — a distinction usually assigned to about the ninth century. ... Middle French (French: ) is a historical division of the French language which covers the period from (roughly) 1340 to 1611 [1]. It is a period of transition during which: the French language becomes clearly distinguished from the other competing Oïl languages which are sometimes subsumed within the concept of... Middle English is the name given by historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of 1066 and the mid-to-late 15th century, when the Chancery Standard, a form of London-based English, began to become widespread, a process aided by the...


The musk deer belongs to the family Moschidae and lives in Pakistan, India, Tibet, China, Siberia and Mongolia. To obtain the musk, the deer is killed and its gland, also called "musk pod", is removed. It is dried either in the sun, on a hot stone, or by immersion in hot oil. Upon drying, the reddish-brown paste turns into a black granular material called "musk grain", which is used for alcoholic solutions. The aroma of the tincture becomes more intense during storage and gives a pleasant odor only after it is considerably diluted. No other natural substance has such a complex aroma associated with so many contradictory descriptions; however, it is usually described abstractly as animalic, earthy and woody[2] or something akin to the odor of baby's skin.[5] The four species of musk deer make up the family Moschidae. ... This article is about the administrative region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... A granular material is a conglomeration of discrete solid, macroscopic particles characterized by a loss of energy whenever the particles interact (the most common example would be friction when grains collide). ... Making a saline water solution by dissolving table salt (NaCl) in water This article is about chemical solutions. ... In medicine, a tincture is an alcoholic extract (e. ...


Good musk is of a dark purplish color, dry, smooth and unctuous to the touch, and bitter in taste. It dissolves in boiling water to the extent of about one-half; alcohol takes up one-third of the substance, and ether and chloroform dissolve still less. The grain of musk will distinctly scent millions of cubic feet of air without any appreciable loss of weight, and its scent is not only more penetrating but more persistent than that of any other known substance. In addition to its odoriferous principle, it contains ammonia, cholesterol, fatty matter, a bitter resinous substance, and other animal principles. This article is about a general class of chemical compounds. ... R-phrases , , , S-phrases , Flash point Non-flammable U.S. Permissible exposure limit (PEL) 50 ppm (240 mg/m3) (OSHA) Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... It has been suggested that Thousand Cubic Feet be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ... Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The best quality is Tonkin musk from Tibet and China, followed by Assam and Nepal musk, while Carbadine musk from Russian and Chinese Himalayan regions are considered inferior.[5] Obtaining one kilogram (2.2 lb) of musk grains requires between thirty and fifty deer, making musk tinctures highly expensive. At the beginning of the 19th century, Tonkin musk grains cost about twice their weight in gold.[5] Tonkin, also spelled Tongkin or Tongking, is the northernmost part of Vietnam, south of Chinas Yunnan and Guangxi Provinces, east of northern Laos, and west of the Gulf of Tonkin. ... , Assam (  ) (Assamese: অসম Ôxôm) is a north eastern state of India with its capital at Dispur, a suburb of the city Guwahati. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ...


Musk has been a key constituent in many perfumes since its discovery, being held to give a perfume long-lasting power as a fixative. Despite its high price, musk tinctures were used in perfumery until 1979, when musk deers were protected as an endangered species by the Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES). Today the trade quantity of the natural musk is controlled by CITES but illegal poaching and trading continues.[5] An illegal shipment of 700 kilograms (1,500 lb) of Chinese musk from the musk deer was seized in Japan in 1987, an amount corresponding to approximately 100,000 deer killed.[6] The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ... The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) is an international agreement between Governments, drafted as a result of a resolution adopted in 1963 at a meeting of members of the World Conservation Union (IUCN). ... For other uses, see Poaching (disambiguation). ...


Other animals

Ondatra zibethicus, the muskrat

Muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus), a rodent native to North America, has been known since the 17th century to secrete a glandular substance with a musky odor.[3] A chemical means of extracting it was discovered in the 1940s, but it did not prove commercially worthwhile.[3] Image File history File links Common_Muskrat_FWS.jpg Summary This is a cropped version of the image described below. ... Image File history File links Common_Muskrat_FWS.jpg Summary This is a cropped version of the image described below. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1766) Muskrat range (native range in red, introduced range in green) The muskrat or musquash (Ondatra zibethicus), the only species in genus Ondatra, is a medium-sized semi-aquatic rodent native to North America, and introduced in parts of Europe, Asia, and South America. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1766) Muskrat range (native range in red, introduced range in green) The muskrat or musquash (Ondatra zibethicus), the only species in genus Ondatra, is a medium-sized semi-aquatic rodent native to North America, and introduced in parts of Europe, Asia, and South America. ... North American redirects here. ...


Glandular substances with musk-like odor are also obtained from the Musk Duck (Biziura lobata) of southern Australia, the musk shrew, the musk beetle (Aromia moschata), the musk turtle, the alligator of Central America, and from several other animals. Binomial name Biziura lobata (Shaw, 1796) Musk Ducks (Biziura lobata) are highly aquatic, stiff-tailed ducks native to southern Australia. ... Species See text. ... Binomial name Aromia moschata (Linnaeus, 1758) The musk beetle (Aromia moschata) is a species of longhorn beetle with a somewhat coppery tint. ... Musk turtle is the common name given to two genera of aquatic turtles: Sternotherus just known as musk turtles, and Staurotypus, the giant musk turtles. ... For other uses, see Alligator (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ...


In crocodiles, there are two pairs of musk glands, one pair situated at the corner of the jaw and the other pair in the cloaca.[7] Musk glands are also found in snakes. For other uses, see Crocodile (disambiguation). ... In zoological anatomy, a cloaca is the posterior opening that serves as the only such opening for the intestinal, urinary, and genital tracts of certain animal species. ...


Plants

Some plants such as Angelica archangelica or Abelmoschus moschatus produce musky smelling macrocyclic lactone compounds. These compounds are widely used in perfumery as substitutes for natural musk or to alter the smell of a mixture of other musks. Binomial name Angelica archangelica Linnaeus Garden Angelica (Angelica archangelica) is a biennial plant from the umbelliferous family Apiaceae. ... Binomial name Abelmoschus moschatus Medik Abelmoschus moschatus (Ambrette seeds, Annual hibiscus, Bamia Moschata, Galu Gasturi, Muskdana, Musk mallow, Musk okra, Musk seeds, Ornamental okra, Rose mallow seeds, Tropical jewel hibiscus, Yorka okra; syn. ...


The plant sources include musk flower (Mimulus moschatus), the muskwood (Olearia argophylla) of the Guianas and West Indies, and the seeds of Abelmoschus moschatus (musk seeds). Species See text. ... The term Guianas refers to an area comprising three different countries in the north-eastern part of South America; Guyana, French Guiana, and Suriname. ... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ... Binomial name Abelmoschus moschatus Medik Abelmoschus moschatus (Ambrette seeds, Annual hibiscus, Bamia Moschata, Galu Gasturi, Muskdana, Musk mallow, Musk okra, Musk seeds, Ornamental okra, Rose mallow seeds, Tropical jewel hibiscus, Yorka okra; syn. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Artificial compounds

Musk scented incense. Most modern musk-scented products consist primarily of synthetic musk.
Musk scented incense. Most modern musk-scented products consist primarily of synthetic musk.

Since obtaining the deer musk requires killing the endangered animal, nearly all musk fragrance used in perfumery today is synthesis, or called "white musk". They can be divided into three major classes — aromatic nitro musks, polycyclic musk compounds, and macrocyclic musk compounds.[2] The first two groups have broad uses in industry ranging from cosmetics to detergents. However, the detection of the first two chemical groups in human and environmental samples as well as their carcinogenic properties initiated a public debate on the use of these compounds and a ban or reduction of their use in many regions of the world. As an alternative, macrocyclic musk compounds are expected to replace them since these compounds appear to be safer.[2] The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ... Make-up redirects here. ... Laundry detergents are just one of many possible uses for detergents Detergent is a compound, or a mixture of compounds, intended to assist cleaning. ...


Nitro-musks

An artificial musk was obtained by Baur in 1888 by condensing toluene with isobutyl bromide in the presence of aluminium chloride, and nitrating the product. It was discovered accidentally as a result of Baur's attempts at producing a more effective form of trinitrotoluene. It appears that the odour depends upon the symmetry of the three nitro groups. Following the discovery of Musk Baur, the first nitro-musk, many similar preparations have been made. Notable nitro-musks include Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Toluene, also known as methylbenzene or phenylmethane is a clear, water-insoluble liquid with the typical smell of paint thinners, redolent of the sweet smell of the related compound benzene. ... Aluminium chloride (AlCl3) is a compound of aluminium and chlorine. ... R-phrases S-phrases Related Compounds Related compounds picric acid hexanitrobenzene Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is a chemical compound with the formula C6H2(NO2)3CH3. ...

  • Musk Baur (Tonquinol)
  • Musk Ketone
  • Musk Xylene
  • Musk Ambrette
  • Moskene

Polycyclic musks

Galaxolide, a polycyclic musk
Galaxolide, a polycyclic musk

An artificial musk that contains more than one ring in its molecular structure. These musks became popular after World War II and slowly supplanted the nitro-musks in popularity due to the latter's toxicity and molecular instability. However it was discovered in the 1990s that polycyclic musks are also potentially harmful in that they can disrupt cellular metabolism and may potentially be mutagenic. Many of these musks were used in large quantities to scent laundry detergents. Commonly used polycyclic musks include Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... A few of the metabolic pathways in a cell. ...

  • Galaxolide (HHCB)
  • Tonalide (Musk Plus, AHTN)
  • Phantolide
  • Celestolide (Crysolide)
  • Traesolide

Macrocyclic musks

Muscone, a macrocyclic musk
Muscone, a macrocyclic musk

A class of artificial musk consisting of a single ring composed of more than 6 carbons (often 10-15). Of all artificial musks, these most resemble the primary odoriferous compound from Tonkin musk in its "large ringed" structure. While the macrocyclic musks extracted from plants consists of large ringed lactones, all animal derived macrocyclic musks are ketones.[5] Macrocyclic ketone musks were not widely produced until the late 1990s due to difficulties in their synthesis. About half the human population are anosmics to [unable to smell] macrocyclic musks, possibly due to its high molecular weight. Common macrocyclic musks include Image File history File links Muscone. ... Image File history File links Muscone. ... Muscone is an organic compound that is the primary contributor to the odor of musk. ... A lactone is a cyclic ester in organic chemistry. ... Ketone group A ketone (pronounced as key tone) is either the functional group characterized by a carbonyl group (O=C) linked to two other carbon atoms or a chemical compound that contains this functional group. ... The molecular mass of a substance (less accurately called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW) is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ...

  • Ethylene Brassilate
  • Globalide (Habanolide)
  • Ambrettolide
  • Muscone
  • Thibetolide (Exaltolide)
  • Velvione

Notes

  1. ^ a b Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary: musk. Merriam-Webster. Retrieved on 2007-04-07.
  2. ^ a b c d e Rimkus, Gerhard G. (Ed.); Cornelia Sommer (2004). "The Role of Musk and Musk Compounds in the Fragrance Industry", Synthetic Musk Fragrances in the Environment (Handbook of Environmental Chemistry). Springer. ISBN 3540437061. 
  3. ^ a b c d e Groom, Nigel (1997). New Perfume Handbook. Springer, p. 219-220. ISBN 0751404039. 
  4. ^ Chantraine, Pierre (1990). Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue grecque. Klincksieck, p. 715. ISBN 2-252-03277-4. 
  5. ^ a b c d e Rowe, David J. (Ed.); Philip Kraft (2004). "Chapter 7. Aroma Chemicals IV: Musks", Chemistry and Technology of Flavours and Fragrances. Blackwell. ISBN 084932372X. 
  6. ^ Edmonds, Richard Louis (Ed.); James Harkness (2000). "Recent Trends in Forestry and Conservation of Biodiversity in China", Managing the Chinese Environment (Studies on Contemporary China). Oxford University Press, p. 191. ISBN 0198296355. 
  7. ^ Wareham, D.C. (2005). Elsevier's Dictionary of Herpetological and Related Terminology. Elsevier Science, p. 129. ISBN 0444518630. 

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. Merriam-Webster, originally known as the G. & C. Merriam Company of Springfield, Massachusetts, is a United States company that publishes reference books, especially dictionaries that are descendants of Noah Websters An American Dictionary of the English Language (1828). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Springer Science+Business Media or Springer (IPA: ) is a worldwide publishing company based in Germany which focuses on academic journals and books in the fields of science, technology, mathematics, and medicine. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Musk - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (418 words)
Musk is the name originally given to a perfume obtained from the strong-smelling substance, secreted by the testicles of the musk deer, and hence applied to other animals, and also to plants, possessing a similar odor.
In the vegetable kingdom it is present in the common musk (Mimulus inoschalus), the musk wood of the Guianas and West Indies, and in the seeds of Hibiscus Abelmoschus (musk seeds).
To obtain the perfume from the musk deer, the animal is killed and the gland completely removed and dried, either in the sun, on a hot stone, or by immersion in hot oil.
TRAFFIC Factfile: Musk Deer (655 words)
The Siberian Musk Deer Moschus moschiferus occurs in China, Mongolia, North and South Korea, Russia, Kazakhstan and Kyrgystan.
Musk is also produced synthetically and used widely in non-medicinal products such as cosmetics, personal hygiene preparations, shampoos and detergents.
During 1995-1997, illicit international trade in musk deer pods or medicines containing musk was uncovered in a variety of countries, including Belgium, Germany, Hong Kong, Nepal, the Netherlands, South Korea, the UK and USA.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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