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Encyclopedia > Musical tuning

In music, there are two common meanings for tuning: For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ...

  • Tuning practice, the act of tuning an instrument or voice.
  • Tuning systems, the various systems of pitches used to tune an instrument, and their theoretical basis.

Contents

Tuning practice

Tuning is the process of adjusting the pitch of one or many tones from musical instruments to establish typical intervals between these tones. Tuning is usually based on a fixed reference, such as A = 440 Hz. Out of tune refers to a pitch/tone that is either too high or too low, or sharp or flat, respectively. While an instrument might be in tune in it self (relative tuning) but is not on A = 440 Hz when playing with a piano or other fixed-pitch instrument nobody will agree it is in tune as it fails to match the reference pitch. Some instruments get 'out of tune' with damage or age when they will no longer play true and have to be repaired. Figure 1. ... Figure 1. ...


Different methods of sound production require different methods of adjustment: Adjustment (from late Latin ad-juxtare, derived from juxta, near, but early confounded with a supposed derivation from Justus, right), regulating, adapting or settling; in commercial law, the settlement of a loss incurred at sea on insured goods. ...

  • Tuning to a pitch with one's voice is called matching pitch and is the most basic skill learned in ear training.
  • Manually turning the pegs to increase or decrease the tension on the strings so as to control the pitch.
  • with a tuning wrench (harp, piano, harpsichord)
  • Modifying the length or width of the tube of a wind instrument, brass instrument, pipe, bell, or similar instrument to adjust the pitch.

Some instruments produce a sound which contains irregular overtones harmonic series, and are known as inharmonic. This makes their tuning complicated, and usually compromised. The tuning of bells, for instance, is extremely involved. Ear training is what musicians do to improve their ability to identify, relatively, chords, intervals, rhythms, and other elements of music. ... Tuning Peg is a small peg that is used to hold a string for a stringed instrument. ... Tension is a reaction force applied by a stretched string (rope or a similar object) on the objects which stretch it. ... A wind instrument is a musical instrument that contains some type of resonator (usually a tube), in which a column of air is set into vibration by the player blowing into (or over) a mouthpiece set at the end of the resonator. ... Image of a trumpet, foreground, a piccolo trumpet behind, and a flugelhorn in background. ... Pan pipes (also known as the panflute or the syrinx or quills) is an ancient musical instrument based on the principle of the stopped pipe, consisting usually of ten or more pipes of gradually increasing length. ... A bell is a simple sound-making device. ... Pitched musical instruments are usually based on a harmonic oscillator such as a string or a column of air. ... In music, inharmonicity is the degree to which the frequencies of the overtones of a fundamental differ from whole number multiples of the fundamentals frequency. ...


Tuning may be done aurally by sounding two pitches and adjusting one of them to match or relate to the other. A tuning fork or electronic tuning device may be used as a reference pitch, though in ensemble rehearsals often a piano is used (as its pitch cannot be adjusted for each rehearsal). Symphony orchestras tend to tune to an A provided by the principal oboist. A tuning fork is a simple metal two-pronged fork with the tines formed from a U-shaped bar of elastic material (usually steel). ... Pianoforte redirects here. ... La or A is the sixth note (submediant) in the C Major scale. ... For other uses, see Oboe (disambiguation). ...


Interference beats are used to objectively measure the accuracy of tuning. As the two pitches approach a harmonic relationship, the frequency of beating decreases. When tuning a unison or octave it is desired to reduce the beating frequency until it cannot be detected. For other intervals, this is dependent on the tuning system being used. In acoustics, a beat is an interference between two sounds of slightly different frequencies, perceived as periodic variations in volume whose rate is the difference between the two frequencies. ...


Harmonics may be used to check the tuning of strings which are not tuned to the unison. For example, lightly touching the highest string of a cello at halfway down its length (at a node) while bowing produces the same pitch as doing the same one third of the way down its second highest string. This article is about the components of sound. ... A standing wave. ...


Open strings

In music, the term open string refers to the fundamental note of the unstopped, full string. For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ...


The strings of a guitar are normally tuned to fourths (excepting the G and B strings in standard tuning), as are the strings of the bass guitar and double bass. Violin, viola, and cello strings are tuned to fifths. However, non-standard tunings (called scordatura) exist to change the sound of the instrument or create other playing options. For other uses, see Guitar (disambiguation). ... The perfect fourth or diatessaron, abbreviated P4, is one of two musical intervals that span four diatonic scale degrees; the other being the augmented fourth, which is one semitone larger. ... A sunburst-colored Fender Precision Bass The electric bass guitar (or electric bass[1][2]; pronounced , as in base) is a bass stringed instrument played primarily with the fingers (either by plucking, slapping, popping, or tapping) or using a pick. ... Side and front views of a modern double bass with a French bow. ... For the Anne Rice novel, see Violin (novel). ... For other uses, see Viola (disambiguation). ... This article is about the stringed musical instrument. ... The perfect fifth or diapente is one of three musical intervals that span five diatonic scale degrees; the others being the diminished fifth, which is one semitone smaller, and the augmented fifth, which is one semitone larger. ... A scordatura (literally Italian for mistuning) is an alternate tuning used for the open strings of a string instrument. ...


To tune an instrument, usually only one reference pitch is given. This reference is used to tune one string, to which the other strings are tuned in the desired intervals. On a guitar, often the lowest string is tuned to an E. From this, each successive string can be tuned by fingering the fifth fret of an already tuned string and comparing it with the next higher string played open. This works with the exception of the G string, which must be stopped at the fourth fret to sound B against the open B string above.


This table lists open strings on some common string instruments and their standard tunings.

violin, mandolin G, D, A, E
viola, cello, tenor banjo, mandola, tenor guitar C, G, D, A
double bass, bass guitar* (B*,) E, A, D, G
guitar E, A, D, G, B, E
ukulele G, C, E, A (the G string is higher than the C and E, and two half steps below the A string)

For the Anne Rice novel, see Violin (novel). ... This article is about the musical instrument. ... For other uses, see Viola (disambiguation). ... This article is about the stringed musical instrument. ... The banjo is a string instrument, derived from banjar, an African string instrument. ... mandola A mandola (US and Canada) or tenor mandola (Europe, Ireland, and UK) is a stringed musical instrument. ... The tenor guitar is a slightly smaller, four-string version of the steel-string acoustic guitar or electric guitar. ... Side and front views of a modern double bass with a French bow. ... A sunburst-colored Fender Precision Bass The electric bass guitar (or electric bass[1][2]; pronounced , as in base) is a bass stringed instrument played primarily with the fingers (either by plucking, slapping, popping, or tapping) or using a pick. ... For other uses, see Guitar (disambiguation). ... The ukulele (from Hawaiian: , pronounced ), variantly spelled ukelele (particularly in the UK), or alternately abbreviated uke, is a chordophone classified as a plucked lute; it is a subset of the guitar family of instruments, generally with four strings or four courses of strings. ...

Altered tunings

Main article: scordatura

Unconventional tunings, or scordatura (It., from scordare, to mistune); were first used in the 16th century by Italian lutenists. It was primarily used to facilitate difficult passages, but was also used to alter timbral characteristics, reinforce tonalities through the use of open strings, and to extend the range of the instrument. A scordatura (literally Italian for mistuning) is an alternate tuning used for the open strings of a string instrument. ... A scordatura (literally Italian for mistuning) is an alternate tuning used for the open strings of a string instrument. ...


Violin scordatura was employed in the 17th and 18th centuries by Italian and German composers, namely, Biagio Marini, Antonio Vivaldi, I.H.F. von Biber - who in the Rosary Sonatas prescribes a great variety of scordaturas, including crossing the middle strings - Johann Pachelbel and J.S. Bach, whose Fifth Suite For Unaccompanied Cello calls for the lowering of the A string to G. In Mozart's Sinfonia Concertante in E-flat major (K. 364), all the strings of the solo viola are raised one half-step, ostensibly to give the instrument a brighter tone so as not to be overshadowed by the solo violin. The open D-string then sounds the tonic of the piece, Eflat. However, in modern performance it is often performed without scordatura. Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Vivaldi redirects here. ... Johann Pachelbel (pronounced , German IPA: , , or [1]) (August 28, 1653 – March 6, 1706) was a German Baroque composer, organist and teacher who brought the south German organ tradition to its peak. ... “Bach” redirects here. ... The first page from the manuscript by Anna Magdalena Bach of Suite No. ... “Mozart” redirects here. ... In the 1770s Mozart had been experimenting with the Sinfonia concertante genre, leading in 1779 to the Sinfonia Concertante for Violin, Viola and Orchestra K. 364, which can be considered his most successful realisation in this cross-over genre between Symphony and Concerto. ...


Scordatura for the violin was also used in the 19th and 20th centuries in works by Paganini, Schumann, Saint-Saëns and Bartók. In Saint-Saëns' "Danse Macabre", the high string of the violin is lower half a tone to the E♭ so as to have the most accented note of the main theme sound on an open string. In Bartók's Contrasts, the violin is tuned G♯-D-A-E♭ to facilitate the playing of tritones on open strings. Niccolò (or Nicolò) Paganini (October 27, 1782 – May 27, 1840) was an Italian violinist, violist, guitarist, and composer. ... For other persons named Robert Schumann, see Robert Schumann (disambiguation). ... Charles Camille Saint-Saëns () (9 October 1835 – 16 December 1921) was a French composer, organist, conductor, and pianist, known especially for his large-scale orchestral works The Carnival of the Animals, Danse Macabre, Samson et Dalila, and Symphony No. ... Bartok redirects here. ... Danse Macabre (first performed in 1875) is the name of opus 40 by French composer Camille Saint-Saëns. ...


American folk violinists of the Appalachians and Ozarks often employ alternate tunings for dance songs and ballads. The most commonly used tuning is A-E-A-E. The Appalachian Mountains are a system of North American mountains running from Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada to Alabama in the United States, although the northernmost mainland portion ends at the Gaspe Peninsula of Quebec. ... Ozark redirects here. ...


A musical instrument which has had its pitch deliberately lowered during tuning is colloquially said to be "down-tuned". Common examples include the electric guitar and electric bass in contemporary heavy metal music, whereby one or more strings are often tuned lower than concert pitch. This is not to be confused with electronically changing the fundamental frequency, which is referred to as pitch shifting. Heavy metals, in chemistry, are chemical elements of a particular range of atomic weights. ... In music, pitch is the perception of the frequency of a note. ... Vibration and standing waves in a string, The fundamental and the first 6 overtones The fundamental tone, often referred to simply as the fundamental and abbreviated fo, is the lowest frequency in a harmonic series. ... Time stretching is the process of changing the speed or duration of an audio signal without affecting its pitch. ...


Tuning systems

A tuning system is the system used to define which tones, or pitches, to use when playing music. In other words, it is the choice of number and spacing of frequency values which are used. A semitone (also known in the USA as a half step) is a musical interval. ... Pitch is the perceived fundamental frequency of a sound. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Frequency (disambiguation). ...


Due to the psychoacoustic interaction of tones and timbres, various tone combinations will sound more or less "natural" when used in combination with various timbres. For example, using harmonic timbres, Psychoacoustics is the study of subjective human perception of sounds. ... In music, timbre is the quality of a musical note which distinguishes different types of musical instrument. ... Pitched musical instruments are usually based on a harmonic oscillator such as a string or a column of air. ...

  • a tone caused by a vibration twice the speed of another (the ratio of 1:2) forms the natural sounding octave
  • a tone casued by a vibration three times the speed of another (the ratio of 1:3, or 2:3 when octave-reduced) forms the natural sounding perfect fifth.

More complex musical effects can be created through other relationships.[1] For other uses, see Octave (disambiguation). ... The perfect fifth or diapente is one of three musical intervals that span five diatonic scale degrees; the others being the diminished fifth, which is one semitone smaller, and the augmented fifth, which is one semitone larger. ...


Many cultures whose dominant instruments emit non-harmonic sounds use other tuning systems, in which other intervals sound more "natural."[2]


The creation of a tuning system is complicated because musicians want to make music with more than just a few differing tones. As the number of tones is increased, conflicts arise in how each tone combines with every other. Finding a successful combination of tunings has been the cause of debate, and has led to the creation of many different tuning systems across the world. Each tuning system has its own characteristics, strengths and weaknesses.


Using a tuning invariant isomorphic keyboard with a compatible synthesizer enables one to retain consistent fingering across many different tunings, facilitating their exploration.[3] Synth redirects here. ...


Theoretical comparison

There are many techniques for theoretical comparison of tunings, usually utilizing mathematical tools such as those of linear algebra, topology and group theory. Techniques of interest include: Linear algebra is the branch of mathematics concerned with the study of vectors, vector spaces (also called linear spaces), linear maps (also called linear transformations), and systems of linear equations. ... For other uses, see Topology (disambiguation). ... Group theory is that branch of mathematics concerned with the study of groups. ...

  • Comma, a measure of a tuning system's compromise between just intervals.
  • Modulatory space, geometrical analysis of transpositional possibilities.
  • Pitch space, geometrical analysis of tuning systems.
  • Regular temperament, a system's definition in terms of a small number of generating units.
  • Tonnetz, an arrangement of a tuning system as a lattice.

In music theory, a comma is a small or very small interval between two enharmonic notes tuned in different ways. ... In music, just intonation, also called rational intonation, is any musical tuning in which the frequencies of notes are related by ratios of whole numbers. ... Readers should be aware that the term modulatory space is not a standard music-theoretical term. ... In music pitch space is the modeling of pitch relationships, represented through mathematical models, most often multidimensional, describing how near or far pitches are from each other. ... Regular temperament is a system of musical tuning such that each frequency ratio is obtainable as a product of powers of a finite number of generators, or generating frequency ratios. ... The Tonnetz (German for tone-network) is a conceptual lattice diagram invented by Leonhard Euler in 1739 that shows a two-dimensional tonal pitch space created by the network of relationships between musical pitches in just intonation. ...

Systems for the twelve-note chromatic scale

It is impossible to tune the twelve-note chromatic scale so that all intervals are "perfect"; many different methods with their own various compromises have thus been put forward. The main ones are: The chromatic scale is a scale with twelve pitches, each a semitone or half step apart. ... In music theory, the term interval describes the difference in pitch between two notes. ...

, in which the ratios of the frequencies between all notes are based on whole numbers with relatively low prime factors, such as 3:2, 5:4, 7:4, or 64:45; or in which all pitches are based on the harmonic series (music), which are all whole number multiples of a single tone. Such a system may use two different ratios for what is the same interval in equal temperament depending on context; for instance, a major second may be either in the ratio 9:8 or 10:9. For this reason, just intonation may be less a suitable system for use on keyboard instruments or other instruments where the pitch of individual notes is not flexible. (On fretted instruments like guitars and lutes, multiple frets for one interval can be practical.)
, a type of just intonation in which the ratios of the frequencies between all notes are all multiples of 3:2. Also called "3-limit" because there are no prime factors other than 2 and 3. The Pythagorean system was further developed by Safi ad-Din al-Urmawi, who divided the octave into seventeen parts (limmas and commas) and used in the Turkish and Persian tone systems.[citation needed]
, a system of tuning which averages out pairs of ratios used for the same interval (such as 9:8 and 10:9), thus making it possible to tune keyboard instruments. Next to the twelve-equal temperament, which some would not regard as a form of meantone, the best known form of this temperament is quarter comma meantone, which tunes major thirds justly in the ratio of 5:4 and divides them into two whole tones of equal size. To do this, eleven perfect fifths in each octave are flattened by a quarter of a syntonic comma, with the remaining fifth being left very sharp (such an unacceptably out-of-tune fifth is known as a wolf interval). However, the fifth may be flattened to a greater or lesser degree than this and the tuning system will retain the essential qualities of meantone temperament; examples include the 31-equal fifth and Lucy tuning.
, any one of a number of systems where the ratios between intervals are unequal, but approximate to ratios used in just intonation. Unlike meantone temperament, the amount of divergence from just ratios varies according to the exact notes being tuned, so that C-E will probably be tuned closer to a 5:4 ratio than, say, D♭-F. Because of this, well temperaments have no wolf intervals. A well temperament system is usually named after whoever first came up with it.
(a special case of mean-tone temperament), in which adjacent notes of the scale are all separated by logarithmically equal distances (100 cents) - A harmonized C major scale in equal temperament (.ogg format, 96.9KB). This is the most common tuning system used in Western music, and is the standard system for tuning a piano. Since this scale divides an octave into twelve equal-ratio steps and an octave has a frequency ratio of two, the frequency ratio between adjacent notes is then the twelfth root of two, 21/12, or ~1.05946309...
  • Tempered timbres
, in which the partials of a given timbre are adjusted to align with a tempered tuning's tones. This can be seen as a generalization of the relationship between the Harmonic Series and Just Intonation to a number of different pseudo-tonal tunings and timbres (Sethares 2004). Tempered timbres are a key component of Dynamic Tonality.

Tuning systems that are not produced with exclusively just intervals are usually referred to as temperaments. In music, just intonation, also called rational intonation, is any musical tuning in which the frequencies of notes are related by ratios of whole numbers. ... The whole numbers are the nonnegative integers (0, 1, 2, 3, ...) The set of all whole numbers is represented by the symbol = {0, 1, 2, 3, ...} Algebraically, the elements of form a commutative monoid under addition (with identity element zero), and under multiplication (with identity element one). ... This article is about the concept in number theory. ... Pitched musical instruments are usually based on a harmonic oscillator such as a string or a column of air. ... Piano, a well-known instance of keyboard instruments A keyboard instrument is any musical instrument played using a musical keyboard. ... Pythagorean tuning is a system of musical tuning in which the frequency relationships of all intervals are based on the ratio 3:2. ... Turkish music includes the music of modern Turkey, together with related musics in neighbouring regions that once lay within the former Ottoman Empire, and closely related ethnic variants in Central Asia stretching as far as the Xinjiang Autonomous Region of China. ... Moosiqi Asil or Persian music is the traditional and indigenous music of Persia and Persian-speaking countries: musiqi, the science and art of music, and moosiqi, the sound and performance of music (Sakata 1983). ... Meantone temperament is a system of musical tuning. ... Piano, a well-known instance of keyboard instruments A keyboard instrument is any musical instrument played using a musical keyboard. ... Meantone temperament is a system of musical tuning. ... The syntonic comma, also known as the comma of Didymus or Ptolemaic comma, is a small interval between two musical notes, equal to the frequency ratio 81:80, or around 21. ... When the twelve notes within the octave are tuned using meantone temperament, one of the fifths will be much sharper than the rest. ... LucyTuning is a form of meantone temperament, in which the fifth is of size 600+300/π (= approximately 695. ... Regular temperament is a system of musical tuning such that each frequency ratio is obtainable as a product of powers of a finite number of generators, or generating frequency ratios. ... Well temperament (also circular or circulating temperament) is a type of tempered tuning described in twentieth-century music theory. ... An equal temperament is a musical temperament — that is, a system of tuning intended to approximate some form of just intonation — in which an interval, usually the octave, is divided into a series of equal steps (equal frequency ratios). ... -1... The cent is a logarithmic unit of measure used for musical intervals. ... Piano tuner “Piano tuner” redirects here. ... The Twelfth root of two is a quantity representing the frequency ratio between any two consecutive notes of a modern chromatic scale in equal temperament. ... In musical tuning, a temperament is a system of tuning which slightly compromises the pure intervals of just intonation in order to meet other requirements of the system. ...


Other scale systems

Slendro (called salendro by the Sundanese) is a pentatonic (five tone) scale, one of the two most common scales used in Indonesian gamelan music. ... A pentatonic scale is a musical scale with five pitches per octave as compared to the major scale which is made up of seven distinct notes. ... Pelog is one of the two essential scales of gamelan music native to Bali and Java, in Indonesia. ... The 43-tone scale is a just intonation scale with 43 pitches in each octave invented and used by Harry Partch. ... Harry Partch (June 24, 1901 – September 3, 1974) was an American composer. ... A composer is a person who writes music. ... In music, just intonation, also called rational intonation, is any musical tuning in which the frequencies of notes are related by ratios of whole numbers. ... The Bohlen-Pierce scale (BP scale) is a musical scale that offers an alternative to the octave-repeating scales typical in Western music. ... This page is about musical systems of tuning, for the musical process of tuning see tuning. ... Meantone temperament is a system of musical tuning. ... When a circles diameter is 1, its circumference is Ï€. Pi or Ï€ is the ratio of a circles circumference to its diameter in Euclidean geometry, approximately 3. ... Wendy Carlos (born Walter Carlos, November 14, 1939) is an American composer and electronic musician. ... A quarter tone is an interval half as wide (aurally, or logarithmically) as a semitone, which is half a whole tone. ... Mikhail Mishaqah (1800-1889) was the first theorist to propose a division of the octave into twenty-four equal tones (24-tone equal temperament, quarter tone scale), this being the current basis of the Arab tone system. ... Arabic music includes several genres and styles of music ranging from Arab classical to Arabic pop music and from secular to sacred music. ... In music a heptatonic scale is a scale (music) with seven (hepta) degrees. ... A minor second is the smallest of three commonly occuring musical intervals that span two diatonic scale degrees; the others being the major second and the augmented second, which are larger by one and two semitones respectively. ... A neutral second is a musical interval half-way between a minor second and a major second. ... A major second is one of three commonly occuring musical intervals that span two diatonic scale degrees; the others being the minor second, which is one semitone smaller, and the augmented second, which is one semitone larger. ... In music, a maqam [sic] (plural maqamat) is a technique of improvisation that defines the pitches, patterns, and development of a piece of music. ... Al Farabi (870-950) was born of a Turkish family and educated by a Christian physician in Baghdad, and was himself later considered a teacher on par with Aristotle. ... The 13th Sound, in the litteral meaning of the word, was that sound that broke the classic 12-tone scale, at one sixteenth of tone (those were the intervals I found in my [1895] experiment) between the pitches of G and A on the fourth violin string, and whose mathematical... In music, 19 equal temperament, called 19-tet, 19-edo, or 19-et, is the scale derived by dividing the octave into 19 equally large steps. ... In music, 22 equal temperament, called 22-tet, 22-edo, or 22-et, is the scale derived by dividing the octave into 22 equally large steps. ... In music, 31 equal temperament, called 31-tet, 31-edo, or 31-et, is the scale derived by dividing the octave into 31 equally large steps. ... In music, 53 equal temperament, called 53-TET, 53-EDO, or 53-ET, is the tempered scale derived by dividing the octave into fifty-three equally large steps. ... In music, 88 equal temperament is the scale derived by dividing the octave into 88 equally large steps. ... In music, schismatic temperament is the temperament which results from tempering the schisma of 32805:32768 to a unison. ... In music, miracle temperament is a regular temperament invented by George Secor which has as a generator an interval, called the secor, which serves as both the 15/14 and 16/15 semitones. ... Stretched tuning is a detail of musical tuning, applied to wire-stringed musical instruments and older, non-digital electric pianos (such as the Fender Rhodes piano and Wurlitzer electric piano) to accommodate the natural inharmonicity of their vibrating elements. ... Tine may be tine, a metal prong on a fork, or other similar implement Tine, a town in Sudan Tine, the biggest dairy producer in Norway Tines offical web page This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Pianoforte redirects here. ... An electric piano (e-piano) is an electric musical instrument whose popularity started in the late 1960s, was at its greatest during the 1970s and still is big today. ...

Comparisons and controversies among tunings

All musical tunings have advantages and disadvantages. Twelve tone equal temperament (12-TET) is the standard and most usual tuning system used in Western music today because it gives the advantage of modulation to any key without dramatically going out of tune, as all keys are equally and slightly out of tune. However, just intonation provides the advantage of being entirely in tune, with at least some, and possibly a great deal, loss of ease in modulation. The composer Terry Riley, said "Western music is fast because it's not in tune", meaning that its inherent beating forces motion. Twelve tone equal temperament also, currently, has an advantage over just intonation in that most musicians are trained in, and have instruments designed to play in equal temperament. Other tuning systems have other advantages and disadvantages and are chosen for various qualities. In music, modulation is most commonly the act or process of changing from one key (tonic, or tonal center) to another. ... Terry Riley – (Portrait by Betty Freeman) Terry Riley (born 24 June 1935) is an American composer associated with the minimalist school. ...


The octave (or even other intervals, such as the so-called tritave, or twelfth) can advantageously be divided into a number of equal steps different from twelve. Popular choices for such an equal temperament include 19, 22, 31, 53 and 72 parts to an octave, each of these and the many other choices possible have their own distinct characteristics. The Bohlen-Pierce scale (BP scale) is a musical scale that offers an alternative to the 12-tone equal temperament typical in western music. ... An equal temperament is a musical temperament — that is, a system of tuning intended to approximate some form of just intonation — in which an interval, usually the octave, is divided into a series of equal steps (equal frequency ratios). ... In music, 19 equal temperament, called 19-tet, 19-edo, or 19-et, is the scale derived by dividing the octave into 19 equally large steps. ... In music, 22 equal temperament, called 22-tet, 22-edo, or 22-et, is the scale derived by dividing the octave into 22 equally large steps. ... In music, 31 equal temperament, called 31-tet, 31-edo, or 31-et, is the scale derived by dividing the octave into 31 equally large steps. ... In music, 53 equal temperament, called 53-TET, 53-EDO, or 53-ET, is the tempered scale derived by dividing the octave into fifty-three equally large steps. ... In music, 72 equal temperament, called 72-tet, 72-edo, or 72-et, is the scale derived by dividing the octave into twelfth-tones, or in other words 72 equally large steps. ...


The two paragraphs above assume the use of harmonic timbres, in which the partials' placement follows a pattern of ratios of small whole numbers. Western music uses harmonic timbres almost exclusively, so their use is often assumed in discussions of tuning such as this. However, the timbres of the dominant instruments of some other cultures are non-harmonic, and sound most natural in tunings that do not follow ratios of small whole numbers (except perhaps the octave at 2:1). For instance, William Sethares shows that the tunings of Balinese gamelans are related to the inharmonic spectra or timbre of their metallophones and the harmonic spectra of stringed instruments such as the rebab, just as just intonation and twelve tone equal temperament are related to the spectra or timbre of harmonic instruments alone. This article is about the Indonesian island. ... Javanese gamelan ensamble with two female sinden (choral singer) during traditional Javanese wedding at Sasono Utomo, Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Jakarta, Indonesia A gamelan is a kind of musical ensemble of Indonesia typically featuring a variety of instruments such as metallophones, xylophones, drums, and gongs; bamboo flutes, bowed and plucked... In music, inharmonic refers to the degree to which the frequencies of the overtones of a fundamental differ from whole number multiples of the fundamentals frequency. ... Familiar concepts associated with a frequency are colors, musical notes, radio/TV channels, and even the regular rotation of the earth. ... In music, timbre, or sometimes timber, (from Fr. ... Generally speaking, a metallophone is any musical instrument consisting of tuned metal bars which are struck to make sound, usually with a mallet. ... This article is about the components of sound. ... For Afghan Rubab, see Rubab. ...


Some instruments, such as the violin, don't limit the musician to particular pitches, allowing to choose the tuning system "on the fly". Many performers on such instruments adjust the notes to be more in tune than the equal temperament system allows, perhaps even without realizing it. For the Anne Rice novel, see Violin (novel). ...


Like the violin and other fretless stringed instruments, the pedal steel guitar places absolute control of pitch into the hands of the player. Most steel guitarists tune their instrument to just intonation. The steel guitar is unique among western instruments in its ability to create complex chords in just intonation in any key. Smooth, beatless chords are part of the steel guitar's characteristic sound. Pedal steel guitar with two 10-string necks The pedal steel guitar is a type of electric guitar that uses a metal slide to stop the strings, rather than fingers on strings as with a conventional guitar. ...


Likewise, using a tuning invariant isomorphic keyboard to drive a Dynamic Tonality-compatible synthesizer, one can change the tuning "on the fly," adjusting the frequencies of the tuning's tones and of the timbres' partials to sound natural in any tuning across a wide tuning range. Synth redirects here. ...


See also

In 2006 luthier Yuri Landman built the Moodswinger, a 12 string overtone guitar for Aaron Hemphill of the noiseband Liars The 3rd bridge guitar is an electric prepared guitar with an additional 3rd bridge. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Ethnomusicology, formerly comparative musicology, is cultural musicology or the study of music in its cultural context. ... There are arguments that mathematics can be used to analyse and understand music, and at its core, to compose music itself. ... 19 scale piano Microtonal music is music using microtones — intervals of less than an equally spaced semitone, or as Charles Ives put it, the notes between the cracks of the piano. ... A Microtuner or microtonal tuner is an electronic device or software program designed to modify and test the tuning of musical instruments (in particular synthesizers) with microtonal precision, allowing for the design and construction of microtonal scales and just intonation scales, and for tuning intervals that differ (or not) from... Musical Instrument Digital Interface, or MIDI, is a system designed to transmit information between electronic musical instruments. ... Music theory is a set of systems for analyzing, classifying, and composing music and the elements of music. ... Sound waves Variations in air pressure against the ear drum, and the subsequent physical and neurological processing and interpretation, give rise to the experience called sound. Most sound that people recognize as musical is dominated by periodic or regular vibrations rather than non-periodic ones (called a definite pitch), and... Psychoacoustics is the study of subjective human perception of sounds. ... In music, standard tuning refers to the typical tuning of a string instrument. ... Xenharmonic music includes all tuning systems and music using those systems not using the common European twelve-tone equal temperament. ... A string is the fundamental object of study in a branch of theoretical physics called string theory. ...

References

Footnotes

  1. ^ W. A. Mathieu (1997) Harmonic Experience : Tonal Harmony from Its Natural Origins to Its Modern Expression. Inner Traditions
  2. ^ Sethares, W.A., 2004 Tuning, Timbre, Spectrum, Scale.
  3. ^ Milne, A., Sethares, W.A. and Plamondon, J., Invariant Fingerings Across a Tuning Continuum, Computer Music Journal, Winter 2007, Vol. 31, No. 4, Pages 15-32.

Notations

  1. J. Murray Barbour Tuning and Temperament: A Historical Survey ISBN 0-486-43406-0

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Pythagorean tuning (2790 words)
Pythagorean tuning is based on a stack of perfect fifths, each tuned in the ratio 3:2, the next simplest ratio after 2:1, which is the ratio of an octave.
In music theory, the circle of fifths (or cycle of fifths) is an imaginary geometrical space that depicts relationships among the 12 equal-tempered pitch classes comprising the familiar chromatic scale.
Pythagorean tuning is a system of musical tuning in which the frequency relationships of all intervals are based on on the ratio 3:2.
NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Minor third (1957 words)
In music or music theory a scale degree is an individual note of a scale, both its pitch and its diatonic function.
In music, a consonance (Latin consonare, sounding together) is a harmony, chord, or interval considered stable, as opposed to a dissonance, which is considered unstable.
It is thus either a quarter tone sharp from the major as is found in the quarter tone scale and Arab music and tuning, or a chromatic semitone larger, as found in twelve tone equal temperament, and thus enharmonically equivalent to a minor third.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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